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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Inginerie, Nr.

2/2010

MONITORIZAREA FUNCIONRII

MONITORING THE OPERATION OF

ECHIPAMENTELOR ELECTRICE PRIN

ELECTRIC EQUIPMENTS THROUGH

TERMOGRAFIE

THERMOGRAPHY

Prof.univ.dr.ing. Luminia Georgeta


POPESCU
Universitatea Constantin Brncui din
Trgu Jiu

Prof. Ph.D Luminia Georgeta POPESCU


Constantin Brncui University of
Trgu Jiu

Dr. ing. Cristinel POPESCU


Universitatea Constantin Brncui din
Trgu Jiu

Ph.D Eng. Cristinel POPESCU


Constantin Brncui University of
Trgu Jiu

Ing. Alina DINC


Universitatea Constantin Brncui din
Trgu Jiu

Eng. Alina DINC


Constantin Brncui University of
Trgu Jiu

Rezumat:
n timpul funcionrii, cile de curent ale
aparatelor electrice sunt parcurse de curentul nominal.
Acestea, conin rezistenele electrice ale conductoarelor,
rezistenele de contact, i deci, prin trecerea curentului
electric au loc pierderi de putere electric RI2 care se
transform n cldur i determin nclzirea aparatelor
electrice. Aadar, nclzirea aparatelor este un regim
normal de funcionare, valorile pe care temparatura unui
echipament electric le poate atinge n timpul funcionrii
fiind prescrise de standarde. n aceast lucrare ne
propunem s studiem nclzirea unui contactor electric
pentru diferite regimuri de funcionare prin intermediul
expertizrii termografice.

Abstract:
During operation, the paths of current of electric
devices are crossed by the rated current. They include
the wasteful resistances of conductors, contact
resistances ad therefore, the passing of the electric
current results in losses of power RI2 which
transform into heat and cause the heating of electric
devices. Therefore, devices heating is a normal
operation regime, the values that can be reached by
an electric device during operation being prescribed
by standards. In this paper we want to study the
heating of an electric contactor for various operation
regimes through thermographic expertise.

Cuvinte cheie:
electrice, termografie

Key
words:
thermography

monitorizare,

echipamente

1. Introducere. nclzirea echipamentelor


electrice

monitoring,

equipments,

1. Introduction. Electric equipment


heating

n timpul funcionrii, cile de curent


ale aparatelor electrice sunt parcurse de
curentul nominal. Aceste ci, conin
rezistenele electrice ale conductoarelor,
rezistenele de contact, i deci, prin trecerea
curentului electric au loc pierderi de putere
electric RI2 care se transform n cldur i

During operation, the paths of current


of electric devices are crossed by the rated
current. They include the wasteful
resistances of conductors, contact resistances
ad therefore, the passing of the electric
current results in losses of power RI2 which

Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Engineering Series, Issue 2/2010

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Inginerie, Nr. 2/2010

transform into heat and cause the heating of


electric devices. Therefore, devices heating
is a normal operation regime, the values that
can be reached by an electric device during
operation being prescribed by standards.
Because electric equipments consist
of a large number of thermally stressed
elements, temperatures calculation on the
entire
equipment
is
complicated.
Consequently, the temperature is generally
established
experimentally,
and
the
calculation determines only the temperatures
of the components.
The temperature limits are given by
standards both for the rated current and for
the short-circuit current which generally
appears after the operation of the devices in
conventional duration regime.
The allowed temperatures for
conductors and devices are the maximal
temperatures for which safe and long-term
operation is guaranteed, without altering
their electric and mechanic characteristics.
Excessive heating is dangerous for
contact connections because their mechanic
characteristics are altered. They also cause
intense oxidation of contacts which results in
the increase of their passing resistances and
to a higher increase of the temperature
which causes their destruction. Researches
have indicated that an intense oxidation
occurs if the temperature exceeds 70...75 oC
and this is why regulations provid a limit
temperature for contacts of 75 oC.

determin nclzirea aparatelor electrice.


Aadar, nclzirea aparatelor este un regim
normal de funcionare, valorile pe care
temparatura unui echipament electric le poate
atinge n timpul funcionrii fiind prescrise de
standarde.
Deoarece echipamentele electrice sunt
formate dintr-un numr mare de elemente,
solicitate termic direct, calculul temperaturilor
pe ansamblul echipamentului este complicat.
Ca urmare, temperatura echipamentului se
stabilete, n general, experimental, iar prin
calcul se determin numai temperaturile
elementelor componente.
Limitele de temperatur sunt date n
standarde att pentru curentul nominal, ct i
pentru curentul de scurtcircuit, care apare, n
general, dup funcionarea aparatelor n regim
nominal de durat.
Temperaturile
admisibile
pentru
conductoare i aparate sunt temperaturile
maxime pentru care se garanteaz funcionarea
sigur i de lung durat a acestora, fr
modificarea proprietilor lor electrice i
mecanice.
nclzirea excesiv este periculoas
pentru legturile de contact ntruct
proprietile lor mecanice se modific. De
asemenea, aceasta provoac oxidarea intens a
contactelor, ceea ce duce la mrirea
rezistenelor lor de trecere rezultnd deci o
cretere i mai mare a temperaturii, conducnd
aadar la distrugerea lor. Cercetrile au artat
c o oxidare foarte intens are loc dac
temperatura trece de 70...75 oC i de aceea
normele prevd o temperatur limit pentru
contacte de 75 oC.

2. The thermal condition of a path of


current. Heating equation. Cooling
equation
Many of the practical cases of
thermal conditions can be reduced to the
regime of the right conductor with constant
section. For this, we start from the equation:

2 lp
J2
=
2
+
(1)
t c x
cA
c
If we consider a constant section
conductor and a big length, we can neglect
the variation of the temperature along the

2. Regimul termic al unei ci de curent.


Ecuaia nclzirii. Ecuaia rcirii
Multe din cazurile practice de regimuri
termice pot fi reduse la regimul conductorului
drept cu seciunea constant. Pentru aceasta, se
pleac de la ecuaia:

2 lp
J2
=
2
+
(1)
t c x
cA
c

Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Engineering Series, Issue 2/2010

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Inginerie, Nr. 2/2010

axis (after ox axis), that is:

=0,
x
relation (1) becoming:
lp
J2
d
=
+
(2)
dt
cA
c
d lp
J2
+

=0
(3)
dt c A
c
In order to solve this equation, we
notice that in stationary regime we reach

= max , and
= 0 (in other words for
x
t , the temperature does not alter in
time). Taking this into consideration:

Dac se consider un conductor de


seciune constant i lungime foarte mare, se
poate neglija variaia temperaturii n lungul
axei (dup axa ox), adic:

=0,
x
relaia (1) devenind:
lp
d
J2
=
+
(2)
dt
cA
c
J2
d lp
+

=0
(3)
dt c A
c
Pentru rezolvarea acestei ecuaii, se
observ c n regim staionar se ajunge la

= 0 (cu alte cuvinte pentru


= max , iar
x
t , temperatura nu se modific n timp).
Avnd n vedere toate acestea, rezult:
= max =
lp
cA

mprind

J2 A
lp
relaia

= max =

Dividing relation (4) to

(4)
la get:

(4)

obinem:
c A d
J2 A
+
=0
lp dt
lp
+

(5)

c A d
= max
lp dt
lp
d
=
dt
max c A

J2 A
lp

(4)
lp
cA

c A d
J2 A
+
=0
lp dt
lp
+

c A d
= max
lp dt

lp
d
=
dt
max c A

we

(5)

(6)

cA
In relation (6) we note: = l p

(6)

thermal time constant, resulting:


cA
d
dt
=
lp
max
constanta de timp termic, rezultnd:
t dt

d
d
dt
0 = 0 max
=
max
t dt

d
t

0 = 0 max

= max 1 e
(6)


Relation (6) is called heating

= max 1 e
(6)
equation
.

Observation. If conductor heating


n relaia (6) se noteaz: =

Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Engineering Series, Issue 2/2010

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Inginerie, Nr. 2/2010

Relaia (6) poart numele de ecuaia


nclzirii.
Observaie.
Dac
nclzirea
conductorului nu ncepe de la temperatura
mediului ambiant, integrala trebuie calculat

does not start from the environmental


temperature, the integral has to be

calculated as follows:

, where 0 is the

initial temperature of the conductor which


astfel:
, unde 0 este temperatura iniial corresponds to the time when heating
0
begins.
a conductorului corespunztoare momentului
In order to determine the cooling
n care ncepe nclzirea.
equation, the current which passes through
Pentru a stabili ecuaia rcirii, se the conductor is interrupted (I= 0 => J = 0),
ntrerupe curentul care circul prin conductor therefore relation (2) results in:
(I= 0 => J = 0), astfel c din relaia (2) se
lp
d

=
(7)
obine:

dt
cA
lp
d

or
(7)
=
=
dt
cA

d
dt
=

sau

d
dt
t
=
d
t

t dt
=

ln

max
0
max
0

t
d

dt
t

t
= 0 ln =
max

max
0

(8)

=
e

max

= max
(8)
Relation (8) is the cooling equation for a
Relaia (8) reprezint ecuaia rcirii constant section conductor.
pentru un conductor de seciune constant

[oC]
max

nclzire
rcire

t[s]

Fig. 2. Diagramele corespunztoare nclzirii, respectiv rcirii unui conductor de seciune constant /
Heating, respectively cooling related diagrams of a constant section conductor

3. Studiu de caz. Studiul comportrii unui


contactor electromagnetic la nclzire

3. Case study. Behaviour study for an


electromagnetic contactor during heating

n continuare vom studia evoluia


temperaturii prin cile de curent ale unui
contactor trifazat tip RG 125, cu datele
nominale: Un=500 V, In=125 A, Pn=30 kW,
Ub=220 V (fig. 3). Monitorizarea nclzirii sa realizat cu o camer de termoviziune Flir
Systems, tip T 200, din gama MediumPro.

We will study next the evolution of


the temperature through the paths of current
for a RG 125 three-phase contactor, with the
rated data: Un=500 V, In=125 A, Pn=30 kW,
Ub=220 V (fig. 3). Heating monitoring was
made with a Flir Systems thermo-vision
camera, type T 200, range MediumPro.

Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Engineering Series, Issue 2/2010

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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Inginerie, Nr. 2/2010

Fig. 2. Contactor trifazat supus analizei / Analyzed three-phase contactor

Pentru nceput, prin intermediul trusei


de curent TC 1200, am introdus n cile de
curent ale contactorului un curent de 125 A
(curentul nominal al contactorului). Aadar,
pornind din stare rece (se consider stare rece
temperatura mediului ambiant), contactorul a
fost alimentat timp de 72 s la un curent de
125 A.
n fig. 3 se prezint termograma celor
trei faze ale contactorului la momentul t = 0
iar n fig. 4 se prezint termograma celor trei
faze ale contactorului la momentul t = 72 s.

For starting, with the help of TC 1200


current box, we introduced a 125 A current
into the contactor paths of current (rated
current of the contactor). Therefore, starting
from cold state (cold state is the
environmental temperature), the contactor
was supplied to a current of 125 A for 72 s.
Fig. 3 presents the thermogram of the
three phases of the contactor at time t = 0 and
fig. 4 presents the thermogram of the three
phases of the contactor at time t = 72 s.

47.1 C
45

40

35

Date
Filename
Max Temperature
Min Temperature
Image Time
R Max. Temperature
S Max. Temperature
T Max. Temperature

5/11/2010
IR_1848.jpg
48.9 C
22.5 C
4:37:11 PM
48.9 C
41.4 C
45.8 C

30

T
25
22.3

Fig. 3. Termograma celor trei faze de curent ale contactorului la momentul t = 0 / Thermogram of the
three current phases of the contactor at time t = 0

n conformitate cu notaiile de pe
According to the notations of the
figur, de la nceput se identific pe faza R o figure, since the beginning we identify on
Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Engineering Series, Issue 2/2010

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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Inginerie, Nr. 2/2010

zon cu nclzire mai mare (zona colorat cu


alb) i, de asemenea, pe faza T sunt puncte n
care temperatura crete mult, pe termogram
identificndu-se zone difuze colorate n alb
fapt ce semnific existena unui defect (n
condiii normale de funcionare i fr defecte
- ex. presiune insuficient pe contacte -,
culoarea ar trebui s fie aceeai pe toate cele
trei faze, adic temperatura ar trebui s fie
aproximativ aceeai deoarece materialul din
care sunt alctuite este acelai, curentul prin
cele trei faze este acelai, fazele fiind
nseriate).

phase R a higher heating area (white area)


and also on phase T there are points in which
the temperature increases a lot, on the
thermogram appeared diffuse areas coloured
in white, which means the existence of a fault
(in normal conditions of operation without
any faults - e.g., insufficient pressure on
contacts -, the colour should be the same on
all the three phases, meaning the temperature
should be approximately the same because
the material they are made of is the same, the
current through the three phases is the same).

127.8 C
120

100

80

60

Date
Filename
Max Temperature
Min Temperature
Image Time
R Max. Temperature
S Max. Temperature
T Max. Temperature

5/11/2010
IR_1853.jpg
128.3 C
22.0 C
4:38:23 PM
128.3 C
84.3 C
123.6 C

T
40

21.9

Fig. 4. Termogramele celor trei ci de curent ale contactorului la momentul t =72s / The thermograms
of the three paths of currents of the contactor at time t =72s

Pe termograma din fig. 4 se observ


creterea excesiv a temperaturii n punctele
de conexiune de pe faza R (128,3 0C),
respectiv T (123,6 0C), n timp ce pe faza S,
temperatura este de 84,3 0C.
Plecnd din aceast stare, se
majoreaz curentul la 1,2x125 A, acesta
parcurgnd cile de curent timp de 39 s,
obinndu-se rezultatele din fig. 5.

On the thermogram from fig. 4 we


notice an excessive growth of temperature in
the connection points from phase R (128,3
0
C), respectively T (123,6 0C), while on phase
S, the temperature is of 84,3 0C.
Starting from this state, the current
increases to 1,2x125 A, passing through the
paths of current for 39 s, and achieving the
results from fig. 5.

Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Engineering Series, Issue 2/2010

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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Inginerie, Nr. 2/2010

222.9 C
200

150

100

50
20.8

Date
Filename
Max Temperature
Min Temperature
Image Time
R Max. Temperature
S Max. Temperature
T Max. Temperature

5/11/2010
IR_1859.jpg
222.1 C
21.9 C
4:40:08 PM
222.1 C
119.7 C
168.5 C

Fig. 5. Evoluia temperaturii prin cile de curent pentru un curent de 1,2xIn / Temperature evolution
through the paths of current for a current of 1,2xIn

n continuare, se ntrerupe curentul


timp de 4 min. Plecnd dintr-o alt stare
cald, (pentru c n acest timp calea de curent
nu s-a rcit complet), se majoreaz curentul la
2xIn (250 A), rezultnd pentru pentru cele
trei faze, evoluiile din fig. 6.

Next, the current is interrupted for 4


min. Starting from a warm state (because the
path of current has not cooled completely),
the current increases to 2xIn (250 A),
resulting the evolutions from fig. 6 for the
three phases.
339.4 C
300

200

T
100

Date
Filename
Max Temperature
Min Temperature
Image Time
Ar1 Max. Temperature
Ar2 Max. Temperature
Ar3 Max. Temperature

5/11/2010
IR_1866.jpg
339.4 C
22.3 C
4:45:10 PM
339.4 C
199.7 C
220.8 C

20.3

Fig. 6. Evoluia temperaturii prin cile de curent petru un curent de 2xIn / Temperature evolution
through the paths of current for a current of 2xIn

Avnd temperaturile pe cele trei faze,


With the temperatures for the three
pentru intervalul de timp supus observaiei, phases, for the analyzed period, the curves
from fig. 7 can be made.
se traseaz curbele din fig.7.

Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Engineering Series, Issue 2/2010

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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Inginerie, Nr. 2/2010

Calea de curent a
contactorului aferenta
fazei R
Calea de curent a
contactorului aferenta
fazei S

0
54

9
47

3
46

6
44

6
42

3
16

9
14

8
13

48

Calea de curent a
contactorului aferenta
fazei T

16

400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0

Fig. 7. Evoluia temperaturii pe cele trei faze ale contactorului, pe intervalul de timp considerat. /
Temperature evolution on the three phases of the contactor, for the analyzed period of time.

Concluzii:
Conclusions:
1. Indiferent de valoarea curentului, se constat o 1.
Irrespective of the current value, we notice
cretere considerabil a temperaturii pe fazele
a significant increase of temperature R and T
R i T, ceea ce ne permite s tragem concluzia
phases, which allows us to draw the
conclusion that these connections contacts
c aceste conexiuni contacte nu sunt
are not steady enough, so a low pressure
suficient de ferme, astfel c o presiune sczut
causes an imperfect contact, which is an
pe determin un contact imperfect, fapt ce
additional source of heat. Consequently,
reprezint o surs suplimentar de cldur.
although we have not noticed malfunctions in
Prin urmare, dei n exploatare nu s-au
operation, from this monitoring we notice
constatat disfuncionaliti, totui, n urma
faults of the connection/junction points which
acestei monitorizri se constat defecte ale
can result into more serious faults.
punctelor de legtur/mbinare, ce pot
2.
The temperature limit that a path of current
degenera n defecte mai grave.
reaches depend both on its initial temperature
2. Limita de temperatur pe care o atinge o cale
and to the value of the current. Therefore,
de curent depinde att de temperatura iniial a
starting from a cold state, in 72 s, the
acesteia, dar i valoarea curentului. Astfel
temperature of the path of current increases by
plecnd din stare rece, n 72 de s, temperatura
80 0C, starting from warm state, for a current
cii de curent crete cu 80 0C, plecnd din
stare cald, la curent mai mare cu 20%,
bigger with 20%, the temperature increases in
temperatura crete n 40 s cu 74 0C, iar plecnd
40 s by 74 0C, and starting from warm state
din stare cald, dar cu un curent mai mare cu
but with a current bigger by 100%, the
100%, temperatura crete n 72 s cu 233 0C.
temperature increases in 72 s by 233 0C.
Bibliografie:
1. Popescu Luminia Georgeta, Echipamente
electrice, Editura Universitaria Craiova,
ISBN 973-8043-104-3, 2002,
2. Chiu Ion .a., Echipamente electrice,
Editura AGIR, 2008
3. www.termoviziune.com

Bibliography:
1. Popescu Luminia Georgeta, Electric
Equipment, Universitaria Press Craiova,
ISBN 973-8043-104-3, 2002,
2. Chiu Ion .a., Electric Equipment, AGIR
Press, 2008
3. www.termoviziune.com

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