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PROF. MICHAEL TSAI

2011/9/22

Accounting all losses and gains from the transmitter, the
Therefore the word budget.

Generally,   =  .

There is a minimum required  ,
associated with the minimum required service quality.
How much you can spend on the channel loss?
Range

Energy

How much sensitivity do you need?

Cost

The link budget a central concept
POWER [dB]

This is a simple
version of the

PTX
Gain

L f ,TX Ga ,TX

Loss

Lp
Ga , RX L f , RX
C

CRITERION
TO MEET:
Required
C/N at
input

N
Noise reference level

Antenna Propagation
gain
loss

Transmitter
Transmit Feeder
power
loss

Antenna Noise
gain
Feeder
loss

Slides for Wireless Communications Edfors, Molisch, Tufvesson

power

dB in general
When we convert a measure X into decibel scale, we always divide by a
reference value Xref:

 

Independent of the
dimension of X (and

), this value is
always dimensionless.

 



|  
= 10 log

|  

Slides for Wireless Communications Edfors, Molisch, Tufvesson

Power
We usually measure power in Watt (W) and milliWatt [mW]
The corresponding dB notations are dB and dBm
Non-dB


Watt:



milliWatt:


RELATION:



= 10 log

dB






 |
= 10 log 
= 10 log
1|


|
= 10 log 
= 10 log
1|


|
= 10 log  + 30 = 
+ 30
0.001|





Slides for Wireless Communications Edfors, Molisch, Tufvesson

Example: Power
Sensitivity level of GSM RX: 6.3x10-14 W = -132 dBW or -102 dBm
Bluetooth TX: 10 mW = -20 dBW or 10 dBm
GSM mobile TX: 1 W = 0 dBW or 30 dBm
GSM base station TX: 40 W = 16 dBW or 46 dBm
Vacuum cleaner: 1600 W = 32 dBW or 62 dBm

ERP Effective

Car engine: 100 kW = 50 dBW or 80 dBm

TV transmitter (Hrby, SVT2): 1000 kW ERP = 60 dBW or 90 dBm ERP
Nuclear powerplant (Barsebck): 1200 MW = 91 dBW or 121 dBm

Amplification and attenuation

(Power) Attenuation:

(Power) Amplification:







= ! ! =




dimension-less and can be converted
directly to dB:



= 10 log%& !

1/#

Note: It doesnt
matter if the power
is in mW or W.
Same result!

 =





#=
#


dimension-less and can be converted
directly to dB:



= 10 log%& #

Ampl.
A

Cable

Ampl. Ampl.
B

4 dB
30 dB

Detector

10 dB 10 dB

The total amplification of the (simplified)

receiver chain (between A and B) is

Slides for Wireless Communications Edfors, Molisch, Tufvesson

Noise sources
The noise situation in a receiver depends on
several noise sources
Noise picked up
by the antenna

Wanted
signal

Analog
circuits
Thermal
noise

Detector

Output signal
with requirement
on quality

Slides for Wireless Communications Edfors, Molisch, Tufvesson

To simplify the situation, we replace all noise sources
with a single equivalent noise source.
Wanted
signal

How do we determine
N from the other
sources?

Noise free
N
C

Analog
circuits
Noise free

Detector

Same input quality, signal-to-noise

ratio, C/N in the whole chain.
Slides for Wireless Communications Edfors, Molisch, Tufvesson

Output signal
with requirement
on quality

The power spectral density of a noise source is usually given in one
of the following three ways:
This one is
1) Directly [W/Hz]:
Ns
sometimes
given i dB and
2) Noise temperature [Kelvin]:
Ts
called noise
figure.
3) Noise factor [1]:
Fs
The relation between the tree is

Ns = kTs = kFsT0
where k is Boltzmanns constant (1.38 ( 10)*+ W/Hz) and T0 is the,
so called, room temperature of 290 K (17-).
Slides for Wireless Communications Edfors, Molisch, Tufvesson

Antenna example

Na
Model
Noise temperature
of antenna 1600 K

Noise free
antenna

Power spectral density of antenna noise is

0/ = 1.38 ( 10)*+ ( 1600 = 2.21 ( 10)*& 3/45 = 196.6 783/45

./ = 1600 / 290 = 5.52 = 7.42 dB

Slides for Wireless Communications Edfors, Molisch, Tufvesson

Nsys
System
component

Model

System
component

Noise factor F
Noise free
Due to a definition of noise factor (in this case) as the ratio of noise
powers on the output versus on the input, when a resistor in room
temperature (T0=290 K) generates the input noise, the PSD of the
equivalent noise source (placed at the input) becomes

A simple example

Ta
System 1

System 2

F2

F1

Na = kTa
N1 = k ( F1 1)T0

Noise
free

Na N1

N2 = k ( F2 1)T0

N2
System 1
Noise
free

System 2
Noise
free

Receiver noise: Sev. noise sources (2)

After extraction of the noise sources from each component, we need to
move them to one point.
When doing this, we must compensate for amplification and attenuation!

Amplifier:

NG
G

Attenuator:

N/L
1/L

1/L

The isotropic antenna

equally in all directions

Elevation pattern

pattern is
spherical

Azimuth pattern

This is a theoretical
antenna that cannot
be built.

The dipole antenna

Elevation pattern

/ 2 -dipole

Feed

/2

This antenna does not

down. Therefore, more
energy is available in
other directions.
THIS IS THE PRINCIPLE
BEHIND WHAT IS CALLED
ANTENNA GAIN.

A dipole can be of any length,

but the antenna patterns shown
are only for the /2-dipole.
Slides for Wireless Communications Edfors, Molisch, Tufvesson

Azimuth pattern

antenna.

Antenna gain (principle)

Antenna gain is a relative measure.
We will use the isotropic antenna as the reference.
Isotropic and dipole,
with equal input
power!

input power.

The amount of increase

in input power to the
isotropic antenna, to
obtain the same maximum
antenna gain!

A note on antenna gain

Sometimes the notation dBi is used for antenna gain (instead of dB).
The i indicates that it is the gain relative to the
isotropic antenna (which we will use in this course).

Another measure of antenna gain frequently encountered

is dBd, which is relative to the /2 dipole.

Slides for Wireless Communications Edfors, Molisch, Tufvesson

Be careful! Sometimes
it is not clear if the
antenna gain is given
in dBi or dBd.

EIRP = Transmit power (fed to the antenna) + antenna gain
9:;



= <=



!<=



How much transmit power would we need
to feed an isotropic antenna to obtain the
same maximum on the radiated power?
How strong is our radiation in the maximal direction of the antenna?
This is the more important
one, since a limit on EIRP
is a limit on the radiation in
the maximal direction.

POWER [dB]

EIRP
GTX |dB

Loss

Gain

PTX |dB

9:;



= <=



!<=



Path loss

TX

RX

1/7 *
1/7 >

Distance, d

@
4B7

@
4B7C
/D

7C
/D
7

>

1.
2.
3.
4.

Fading  channel loss is time-variant (stochastic process)

Sometimes received power could be smaller than desired
Add some extra transmission power to decrease that probability
The extra transmission power  Fading margin

Required C/N another central concept

Quality IN
(C/N)

Quality OUT
DETECTOR

DETECTOR CHARACTERISTIC
Quality OUT

The detector characteristic

is different for different
system design choices.

REQUIRED QUALITY OUT:

Quality IN
(C/N)

Audio SNR
Perceptive audio quality
Bit-error rate
Packet-error rate
etc.

Slides for Wireless Communications Edfors, Molisch, Tufvesson

Example:
Consider a mobile radio system at 900-MHz carrier frequency,
and with 25-kHz bandwidth.
It is affected only by thermal noise (temperature of the environment
E
= 300F).
Antenna gains at the TX and RX sides are 8 dB and -2 dB, respectively.
Losses in cables, combiners, etc. at the TX are 2 dB.
The noise figure of the RX is 7 dB.
The 3-dB bandwidth of the signal is 25 kHz.
The required operating SNR is 18 dB and the desired range of
coverage is 2 km.
The breakpoint is at 10-m distance; beyond that point, the path loss
exponent is 3.8.
The fading margin is 10 dB.

What is the minimum TX Power?

Textbook p42 (example 3.2)

NOISE LIMITED

TX

INTERFERENCE LIMITED

RX

TX

RX

TX

Power

Power

Min C/I
Min C/N
N

N
Distance
Max distance