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Link Budget

PROF. MICHAEL TSAI


2011/9/22

What is link budget?


Accounting all losses and gains from the transmitter, the
medium, to the receiver.
Therefore the word budget.

Generally,   =  .


There is a minimum required  ,
associated with the minimum required service quality.
How much you can spend on the channel loss?
Range

How much transmission power do you need?


Energy

How much sensitivity do you need?


Cost

SINGLE LINK
The link budget a central concept
POWER [dB]

This is a simple
version of the
link budget.

PTX
Gain

L f ,TX Ga ,TX

Loss

Lp
Ga , RX L f , RX
C

CRITERION
TO MEET:
Required
C/N at
receiver
input

N
Noise reference level

Antenna Propagation
gain
loss

Transmitter
Transmit Feeder
power
loss

Antenna Noise
gain
Receiver
Feeder
loss

Slides for Wireless Communications Edfors, Molisch, Tufvesson

Received
power

dB in general
When we convert a measure X into decibel scale, we always divide by a
reference value Xref:

 

Independent of the
dimension of X (and

), this value is
always dimensionless.

 

The corresponding dB value is calculated as:



|  
= 10 log

|  

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Power
We usually measure power in Watt (W) and milliWatt [mW]
The corresponding dB notations are dB and dBm
Non-dB


Watt:



milliWatt:


RELATION:



= 10 log

dB






 |
= 10 log 
= 10 log
1|


|
= 10 log 
= 10 log
1|


|
= 10 log  + 30 = 
+ 30
0.001|





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Example: Power
Sensitivity level of GSM RX: 6.3x10-14 W = -132 dBW or -102 dBm
Bluetooth TX: 10 mW = -20 dBW or 10 dBm
GSM mobile TX: 1 W = 0 dBW or 30 dBm
GSM base station TX: 40 W = 16 dBW or 46 dBm
Vacuum cleaner: 1600 W = 32 dBW or 62 dBm

ERP Effective
Radiated Power

Car engine: 100 kW = 50 dBW or 80 dBm


TV transmitter (Hrby, SVT2): 1000 kW ERP = 60 dBW or 90 dBm ERP
Nuclear powerplant (Barsebck): 1200 MW = 91 dBW or 121 dBm

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Amplification and attenuation


(Power) Attenuation:

(Power) Amplification:







= ! ! =




The amplification is already


dimension-less and can be converted
directly to dB:



= 10 log%& !

1/#

Note: It doesnt
matter if the power
is in mW or W.
Same result!

 =





#=
#


The attenuation is already


dimension-less and can be converted
directly to dB:



Slides for Wireless Communications Edfors, Molisch, Tufvesson

= 10 log%& #

Example: Amplification and attenuation

Ampl.
A

Cable

Ampl. Ampl.
B

4 dB
30 dB

Detector

10 dB 10 dB

The total amplification of the (simplified)


receiver chain (between A and B) is

GA, B |dB = 30 4 +10 +10 = 46

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Noise sources
The noise situation in a receiver depends on
several noise sources
Noise picked up
by the antenna

Wanted
signal

Analog
circuits
Thermal
noise

Detector

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Output signal
with requirement
on quality

Man-made noise

Copyright: IEEE

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Receiver noise: Equivalent noise source


To simplify the situation, we replace all noise sources
with a single equivalent noise source.
Wanted
signal

How do we determine
N from the other
sources?

Noise free
N
C

Analog
circuits
Noise free

Detector

Same input quality, signal-to-noise


ratio, C/N in the whole chain.
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Output signal
with requirement
on quality

Receiver noise: Noise sources (1)


The power spectral density of a noise source is usually given in one
of the following three ways:
This one is
1) Directly [W/Hz]:
Ns
sometimes
given i dB and
2) Noise temperature [Kelvin]:
Ts
called noise
figure.
3) Noise factor [1]:
Fs
The relation between the tree is

Ns = kTs = kFsT0
where k is Boltzmanns constant (1.38 ( 10)*+ W/Hz) and T0 is the,
so called, room temperature of 290 K (17-).
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Receiver noise: Noise sources (2)


Antenna example

Na
Model
Noise temperature
of antenna 1600 K

Noise free
antenna

Power spectral density of antenna noise is


0/ = 1.38 ( 10)*+ ( 1600 = 2.21 ( 10)*& 3/45 = 196.6 783/45

and its noise factor/noise figure is

./ = 1600 / 290 = 5.52 = 7.42 dB


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Receiver noise: System noise

Nsys
System
component

Model

System
component

Noise factor F
Noise free
Due to a definition of noise factor (in this case) as the ratio of noise
powers on the output versus on the input, when a resistor in room
temperature (T0=290 K) generates the input noise, the PSD of the
equivalent noise source (placed at the input) becomes

Nsys = k ( F 1)T0 W/Hz

Dont use dB value!

Equivalent noise temperature

Slides for Wireless Communications Edfors, Molisch, Tufvesson

Receiver noise: Sev. noise sources (1)


A simple example

Ta
System 1

System 2

F2

F1

Na = kTa
N1 = k ( F1 1)T0

Noise
free

Na N1

N2 = k ( F2 1)T0

N2
System 1
Noise
free

System 2
Noise
free

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Receiver noise: Sev. noise sources (2)


After extraction of the noise sources from each component, we need to
move them to one point.
When doing this, we must compensate for amplification and attenuation!

Amplifier:

NG
G

Attenuator:

N/L
1/L

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1/L

The isotropic antenna


The isotropic antenna radiates
equally in all directions

Elevation pattern

Radiation
pattern is
spherical

Azimuth pattern

This is a theoretical
antenna that cannot
be built.

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The dipole antenna


Elevation pattern

/ 2 -dipole

Feed

/2

This antenna does not


radiate straight up or
down. Therefore, more
energy is available in
other directions.
THIS IS THE PRINCIPLE
BEHIND WHAT IS CALLED
ANTENNA GAIN.

A dipole can be of any length,


but the antenna patterns shown
are only for the /2-dipole.
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Azimuth pattern

Antenna pattern of isotropic


antenna.

Antenna gain (principle)


Antenna gain is a relative measure.
We will use the isotropic antenna as the reference.
Radiation pattern
Isotropic and dipole,
with equal input
power!

Isotropic, with increased


input power.

The amount of increase


in input power to the
isotropic antenna, to
obtain the same maximum
radiation is called the
antenna gain!

Antenna gain of the /2 dipole is 2.15 dB.

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A note on antenna gain

Sometimes the notation dBi is used for antenna gain (instead of dB).
The i indicates that it is the gain relative to the
isotropic antenna (which we will use in this course).

Another measure of antenna gain frequently encountered


is dBd, which is relative to the /2 dipole.

G |dBi = G |dBd +2.15

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Be careful! Sometimes
it is not clear if the
antenna gain is given
in dBi or dBd.

EIRP: Effective Isotropic Radiated Power


EIRP = Transmit power (fed to the antenna) + antenna gain
9:;



= <=



 !<=



Answers the questions:


How much transmit power would we need
to feed an isotropic antenna to obtain the
same maximum on the radiated power?
How strong is our radiation in the maximal direction of the antenna?
This is the more important
one, since a limit on EIRP
is a limit on the radiation in
the maximal direction.

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EIRP and the link budget


POWER [dB]

EIRP
GTX |dB

Loss

Gain

PTX |dB

9:;



= <=



 !<=



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Path loss

TX

RX

?= = <= !?= !<=

Received power [log scale]

1/7 *
1/7 >

?= = <= !?= !<=

Distance, d

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@
4B7

@
4B7C
/D

7C
/D
7

>

Fading margin

1.
2.
3.
4.

Fading  channel loss is time-variant (stochastic process)


Sometimes received power could be smaller than desired
Add some extra transmission power to decrease that probability
The extra transmission power  Fading margin

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Required C/N another central concept


Quality IN
(C/N)

Quality OUT
DETECTOR

DETECTOR CHARACTERISTIC
Quality OUT

The detector characteristic


is different for different
system design choices.

REQUIRED QUALITY OUT:

Quality IN
(C/N)

Audio SNR
Perceptive audio quality
Bit-error rate
Packet-error rate
etc.

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Example:
Mobile radio system
Consider a mobile radio system at 900-MHz carrier frequency,
and with 25-kHz bandwidth.
It is affected only by thermal noise (temperature of the environment
E
= 300F).
Antenna gains at the TX and RX sides are 8 dB and -2 dB, respectively.
Losses in cables, combiners, etc. at the TX are 2 dB.
The noise figure of the RX is 7 dB.
The 3-dB bandwidth of the signal is 25 kHz.
The required operating SNR is 18 dB and the desired range of
coverage is 2 km.
The breakpoint is at 10-m distance; beyond that point, the path loss
exponent is 3.8.
The fading margin is 10 dB.

What is the minimum TX Power?


Textbook p42 (example 3.2)

Noise and interference limited links


NOISE LIMITED

TX

INTERFERENCE LIMITED

RX

TX

RX

TX

Power

Power

Min C/I
Min C/N
N

N
Distance
Max distance

Copyright: Ericsson

Distance
Max distance

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What is required distance between BSs?

Copyright: Ericsson

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