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77 vizualizări89 paginiNotes on Nuclear Physics

Oct 06, 2015

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Notes on Nuclear Physics

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77 vizualizări

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Notes on Nuclear Physics

© All Rights Reserved

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Lets estimate the Nuclear Radius bv by considering Rutherfords -scattering.

An -particle trajectory can be specified by its impact parameter as shown in

figure.

b<R=> Scattering is from inner region of the nucleus

b=R=> Head-on collision

Consider a small angle scattering i.e. ~0.

The electrostatic repulsion close to target nucleus is given by

F=

1 ( 2e ) (Ze)

(1)

4 o

b2

The force acts for a small interval of time in the vicinity of impact parameter b,

hence

t=

b

v

P=Ft=

1 2 Z e2

1 2 Z e2 b

t=

(2)

4 o b2

4 o b2 v

()

Hisham Shah

tan =

P

(3)

P

tan =

sin

( 4)

cos

=

P

(5)

P

collecting". Ernest Rutherford (who went

on to win a Nobel Prize for Chemistry)

P

1 2 Z e2 b 1

1 2 Z e2 b 1

1 2 Z e2 1

=

=

=

(6)

P 4 o b2 v P 4 o b 2 v m v 4 o m v 2 b

()

()

()

b=

1 2 Z e2 1

(7)

4 o m v2

Equation (6) is a good estimate between impact parameter and the deflection

angle . Using for gold (Z=79) as the target, we have for Z=79

m=6x10-27kg (mass of alpha particle)

v 107m/s for alpha particle

e=1.6x10-19C

=1 radian

14

Then the equation gives R 10 m(8) .

Hisham Shah

Compare this with the atomic radius 10-10 m; nuclear radius is smaller by a

factor of the order of 104. The gravitational force inside the nucleus is very much

smaller (by the order of 10 36) as compared to the Coulombs force between

protons inside the nucleus (with the dimensions of 10-14 meters). This gives rise

to the big questions as to how the protons in nucleus stay together in the

presence of Coulombs repulsion as compared to rather naive gravitational

attraction.

This gives rise to the introduction of another force; we call it the nuclear force

or nuclear interaction between protons and neutrons i.e. between nucleons to

overcome the Coulomb repulsion between the closely-packed protons. Since the

attractive force due to these nuclear interactions is confined in the region with

dimensions as small as 10-14 meters and does not affect the region larger than

these dimensions i.e. the extra nuclear atomic structure, this is why it is

commonly known as short range force. The size of this region is studied with

very high-energy particles obtained by using accelerators. When such particles

are sent through thin foils, the analysis of the distribution of the scattering

angles leads to estimate the radius of the nucleus. The radius R of the nucleus

is proportional to the cube root of the mass number of the scattering nuclei i.e.

R=R o A 1/3 = R A1 /3 (9)

Hisham Shah

Just like Rutherfords scattering of -particles from gold foil which gives the idea

of so-called Nuclear radius, an experiment was performed by Hofstadter and

his colleagues in 1956 to measure the nuclear radius. Electrons were chosen as

bombarding particles because of their electromagnetic interaction in the

coulombs field by protons. The elastically scattered electrons are observed by a

detector as a function of angle as shown in figure.

c c 197

= = =

(10)

p E 197 200

Remember

Were used for different thin

target of different A

number.

=e /c=1/ 137

and

13

c /197 10

cm

At present, electrons of energy 20,000 MeV (20 GeV) are used for high energy

accelerators like SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Centre) with =10-15 cm

i.e.

A more accurate method of analysis consist of trying out many expressions for

the charge density P(r) and comparing the result thus obtained to

experimental results. The form of P(r) is retained which represents the best

analogue to the experimental data on experimental angular distribution.

The analysis thus carried out on different forms of charge density for large

number of variety of Nuclei leads us to adopt:

P ( r )=

Po

1+ exp

r Ro

0.228 a

(11)

Hisham Shah

With

R0=r 0 A

1 /3

13

a=2.210

cm=2.2 F

Walt Disney

Hahn and others (1956) evaluated the scattering for the trapezoidal density and

for density:

2

P ( r )=P0 [1+ e

r Ro

2

a

](13)

P=Po e

r

2

( ar ) e (14)

P=Po 1+

(for C12

(15)

for He4.

H. Fregeau (1956) used for C12; assuming a central core in the nucleus: the

following for

r2

P=Po 1+ 2 e

r

2

(16)

; with

4

3

volume of nucleus is

4

4 3

3

R = r o A . So the number of nucleons per cubic

3

3

centimetre is:

n=

A

4 3

r A

3 o

3

4 ( 1.21 013 )

1038 nucleons

(17)

c m3

greater. This corresponds to density of approximately 2*1014g/cm3 Nuclear

Density.

Hisham Shah

In Nuclear Physics, it is the mass of Nucleus itself which is usually of primary

interest. The Nuclear mass MN is given by:

M N =M [ Z m o B e ( z ) ] (1)

where m

Thomas-Fermi model as:

Be ( Z )=15.37 z

7/ 3

eV ( 2)

mass spectroscopy. This technique is capable of measuring masses upto an

accuracy of one part in 107.

In order to determine the mass M of an ion of charge Ze, it is enough to

measure the ratio Ze/m. This is done by the use of electric and magnetic fields.

A magnetic field exerts a force on an ion of charge Ze moving with a velocity V

given by (in e.s.u. units)

Ze

)(3)

F b = ( V x B

c

Where B is the magnetic induction & c is the velocity of light. If the same

particle is injected in an electric field E, it experiences the electric force given by

E=(Ze) E (4)

F

If we have electric and magnetic field perpendicular to each other & the velocity

of the particle i.e. a right handed perpendicular system (E, B, V) in such a way

that

Hisham Shah

||

V E

= (5)

c B

Then the particle moves in a straight line, since the magnetic and electric forces

compensate each other. In a magnetic field, the path of the particle is deflected

continuously giving rise to the circular orbits. Here one can measure the radius

r described by the particle by equating magnetic force to the centrifugal force

i.e.

mv 2

Ze

mv

Ze

P Ze

=B

v=

=B

= =

B (6)

r

c

r

c

r

c

( )

( )

( )

The momentum P and the velocity v yields the mass

||

m=

P

v

m=

with

P

(7)

c

v

= , = 1 2 (8)

c

masses of radioactive isotopes and identification of these isotopes. The quantity

directly measured is the mass difference between two ions of approximately the

same Ze /m .

Don't let me catch anyone talking about the Universe in my department. Ernest Rutherford

Multiverse gets grief, but Rutherford banned the word "universe" in his lab, and Comte insisted we

stick to the Solar System!

Neutrons and protons are nuclear constituents. Theoretically one way to reject

the idea of existence of electrons in nucleus is by using Uncertainty Principle.

The uncertainty in the position of electrons is x, let it be the order of nuclear

size 10-14 m. This will permit electron to stay inside the nucleus with

corresponding Uncertainty in momentum P which is given by;

Hisham Shah

h 6.621034 J . s

20

1

=

=6.6210 kg .ms

14

x

10 m

Then using the relativistic relation between total energy E and total momentum

P,

2

2 2

20 2

E = p c + m o c = ( 6.6210

) . ( 310 8) + m2o c 2

Using 1eV=1.6*10-19 J

1MeV= 1.6*10-13 J

and moc2=0.511 MeV

The equation gives us

energies of the order of a few MeV. Hence it is concluded that electrons cant

exist

as

sitting

entity

inside

the

nucleus.

In -decay process, it is created momentarily and is emitted. So in -decay, the

electrons are created spontaneously and are emitted momentarily just like

photons from the excited atoms or -ray from excited nucleus.

Mass of Proton and Neutron: One atomic mass unit (1 amu) is defined as

1/12 of the mass of the carbon atom (C12), whose mass is taken as 12.00000000

a.m.u. In terms of mass unit kg, 1 amu is

27

1 a .m .u .=1.66053110

kg

m p=1.00727663 amu

>m p=1.671027 kg

and

mn=1.0086654 amu

>mn=1.67481027 kg

>mn=939.55 MeV

If we ask, for instance, whether the position of the electron remains the same, we must say 'no'; if

we ask whether the electron's position changes with time, we must say 'no'; if we ask whether the

electron is at rest, we must say 'no'; if we ask whether it is in motion, we must say 'no'.

Robert Oppenheimer

Hisham Shah

A model of the atomic nucleus in which nucleons are considered as analogues to

the molecules of the liquid drop. The interaction among which maintain the

droplet shape (spherical) by surface tension. This model was called liquid drop

model. This model of nucleus was proposed by Bohr in 1937 due to the fact that

there are similarities in the properties of nucleus and liquid drop. These

similarities are given as follows.

1. The liquid drop is spherical in shape due to surface tension. Same is the

case for nucleus which is also assumed to be spherical in shape due to

presence of nuclear forces among them.

2. The decay of the nucleus by emitting of a particle (or nucleon) is similar to

the evaporation of molecule from the surface of liquid drop.

3. When a liquid drop is allowed to oscillate, it breaks up into two small

droplets. Same is the case for nucleus which breaks into two comparable

nuclei in nuclear fission process.

4. The molecules of the liquid drop interact through a short range and same

is the case for nucleons which atoms interact through a short range

distance and hence forces present among them are called short range

forces.

5. The condensation process in the drops of liquid is analogous to the

formation of compounds nucleus and absorption of bombarding part. The

liquid drop model is useful for explaining the various phenomena like

formation of compound nucleus.

MAGNETIC MOMENT: A single odd on due to its spin also contributes 1-Bohr

magneton moment to nucleus. Since the nuclear moments are very much

smaller than this ratio, the small magnetic moments of atomic nuclei cannot

understand em were its constituents. As the em have large magnetic moments

due to their smaller mass, then the magnetic moments of proton i.e.

e N

; me<<mp,n

Binding Energy B of the nucleus is the energy required to break it up into free

neutrons & protons or The amount of energy liberated at the time of formation

of

a

nucleus

is

called

Binding

Energy.

Experimentally it has been observed that the nucleon separation energies are

approximately constant at about 8 MeV. So for complex nuclei, the Binding

energy is about 8MeV times the number of nucleons, or

Hisham Shah

10

B

8 MeV (1)

A

When nuclear masses are measured, it is formed that they are less than the

sum of the masses of neutrons and protons of which they are composed. This is

explained on the basis of Theory of Relativity that the mass of system bound by

an energy B is less than the mass of its constituents by B/c 2. A nucleus contains

Z number of protons and N number of neutrons. The total mass of these

constituents is then (ZMp + NMn). If the observed (or measured) mass of a

particular nucleus is , say M, then according to Theory of Relativity, the Binding

Energy is

B=[ ( Z M p + N M n )M ] c 2 (2)

The term

[ ( Z M p + N M n )M ]

Knowing the masses in terms of the atomic masses and remembering that 1

a.m.u = 931.5 MeV; one can easily calculate the Binding Energy of a given

nucleus of the measured mass M is obtainable with sufficient accuracy.

The following figure indicates the way in which the Binding Energy per nucleon

B/A varies as a function of mass number A. It reaches a peak or maximum at

about A=60, the gradually decrease. This gradual decrease in B/A implies that it

approximately remains constant.

Looking at the above graph, one can say that

1. B/A is approximately constant, i.e. B/A is approximately independent of

the overall size of a nucleus i.e B/A doesnt depend on A.

2. B/A falls off at small values of A, because very light Nuclei have a larger

fraction of their nucleons residing on the surface rather than inside. This

Hisham Shah

11

compared to nucleons residing in the interior.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

It is analogous to the Liquid Drop for which the surface molecules are less

bounded as compared to molecules interior of the liquid drop. The above

figure illustrates it.

B/A falls off at the large values of A. This is clearly Coulomb effect; due to

every pair of protons. This repulsion increases as Zz.

B/A has maximum value around A=60, so we can increase the binding

energy by breaking heavy nuclei into smaller parts or by fusing light

nuclei together. So the decrease in M will correspond to the conversion of

mass into energy. This leads to fission and fusion.

The peak is at Fe [A=54-60]; this explains the large abundance of Fe in

nature.

From the plot, it is obvious that the binding energy is strong for a group of

four particles. The first ever such unit is -particle (2 protons + 2

neutrons). The peak is at 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 indicate the same effect.

This effect is due to pairing force which exists between pairs of neutrons

and pairs of protons.

The discontinuities at neutron or proton number values 2, 4, 8, 20, 50, 82

and 126; indicate that at these values of neutrons or protons numbers,

the binding energy is found to be unusually large. Large binding energy

indicates high stability. The high stability indicates the high abundance of

the isotopes with these protons and isotones (same neutron number).

Weizsachers mass formula for the nucleus came in 1935. He showed that his

mass formula based on liquid drop model explains the basic understanding of

the

nuclear

binding

energies.

A liquid drop has volume energy and surface energy. There are many

contributions towards the binding energies as follows.

Hisham Shah

12

Starting with the simple fact that when a liquid drop evaporates completely, the

energy required for this evaporation is the product of the latent heat of

vaporization and the mass of the droplet. This heat energy is utilized to

overcome all the bonds of the liquid drop, B. i.e. it is equal to the binding energy

of the droplet. We write,

B V =Q V M m A (1)

Where

BV = Energy required, or total energy

QV = Heat of vaporization

Mm = Mass of molecule

A = Number of molecules

Since QV and Mm are constants, hence

BV

A

B V =( constt ) A

or

BV

=constant ; i.e.

A

expect this for any system in which the range of interactions between particles

is small compared with the dimensions of the system. So for the Volume term,

we can write:

Volume term Bv =C v A

Where Cv is a constant corresponding to QvMm.

2. Surface Term:

The surface molecules in a liquid drop are not as tightly bound as the molecules

inside of the liquid drop. For light nuclei, the number of nucleons residing on the

surface is quite large and that is why we see a sharp drop in B/A curve. From

this, we say that the surface term Bs is proportional to surface area:

2

B S 4 R (3)

Where R is nuclear radius. The negative sign indicates that BS decreases the

total binding energy:

Since:

So

R=R o A

1/3

1.07 A

1/ 3

Fermi

B S 4 R 2 ( 4 ) (1.07 )2 ( A )2 /3 or

BS =C S A

2/ 3

( 4)

Hisham Shah

13

A rough estimate to Cv and Cs can be made as follows:

A single nucleon occupies space inside the nucleus and is given by,

4

R3

Total volume of the nucleus 3

=

(5)

Mass number

A

The thickness t of the nuclear surface region is then

1

4

R3 3

3

t=

(6)

A

( )

2

4R t

4

=3

4

3

3

R

3

A

1/3

( )

4

R3

3

A

3 tA

>

=3

R

R

( )

2 /3

(7)

1

3

A=3

1

3

( )A

2 /3

=4.8 A

2/ 3

(8)

The nucleons dont get attracted from all sides and approximately 1/4 th space of

surface nucleon would have no neighbours. This enables us to have a quick

estimate of Bs i.e.

( 14 ) C ( 4.8 A

Bs=

2/ 3

) (9)

>C S A 2 /3=

( 14 )C (4.8 A

V

2/3

C S 1.2 CV CV C S (10)

Hisham Shah

14

numerically Bc, the amount of work done is needed to bring protons together

against

the

Coulomb

repulsion.

We consider the nucleus as a uniformly charged sphere of radius R with a

constant charge density, say up to radius R and zero outside i.e. when r>R

(r )=

; constt r<R

= 0 ; r>R

=

Ze

4

3

R

3

(11)

The amount of work done required to bring charged shell of radius r with

charge density is then

dW =

1

4 3

r 4 r 2 dr

4 o r 3

1

4 3 Ze

Ze

1 3 Z2e2 4

r .

4 r 2 .

dr =

r dr (12)

4 o r 3

4

4

4 o R6

R3

R3

3

3

3 2 2

Z e

1 3Z e R

5

W =BC =

=

(13)

4 o R 6 5 4 o R

2

3 2

e

5

(Bc ) proton =

(14)

4 o R

Since there are Z protons, therefore the true Coulomb term is given by:

( )]

3 2 2

3 2

3

Z e

e

Z ( Z1 ) e 2

5

5

5

Bc=

Z

=

(15)

4 o R

4 o R

4 oR

Hisham Shah

15

Putting

R=R o

1

3

1

3

A =( 1.3 A ) Fermi

BC ( 0.6 MeV ) Z ( Z1 ) A

1

3

gives;

(16) i.e.

BC C C Z ( Z1 ) A

1

3

(17)

4. Assymetry Term, Ba:

This is the term depending on the neutron excess given by N-Z. We consider a

medium or heavy nucleus of mass number A and charge number Z, then

M =Z M P + N M nB=Z M P + ( AZ ) M nB (19) Here M & B are measured in same

units.

Using all the previously calculated terms, we can write then;

M = A M nZ ( M nM P )C V A+C S A 2 /3 +C C

Z ( Z1)

(20)

A1 /3

In equation (20) there are two Z dependent terms both opposite in sign.

Differentiating equation (20) w.r.t. Z and putting

dM

=0

dZ

for which M is minimum. This gives the maximum stability of M at that value of

Z. For example putting A=235 gives the minimum value of M at greatest

stability at Z=3 (which is not acceptable Ze is absurd). It means we are still

missing some term in equation (20) which is stable if Z=112 for A=235 =>

dM/dZ=0.

In comparison with the liquid drop and the nucleus, we have not taken into

consideration the quantization of energy states (as nucleus is small ~ 10 -14m)

dimensions quantum system with bound energy states).

Look at the figure below. If we put Z protons & N neutrons into a nucleus, we

first fill up the lowest Z energy levels. By Paulis Exclusion Principle, the excess

neutrons (N-Z) must go to unoccupied quantum states, as the first Z quantum

states are filled with protons & neutrons. Those N-Z neutrons will occupy high

quantum states & will be just less tightly bound, than the preoccupied deep

lying energy levels. This is shown schematically as follows:

Hisham Shah

16

The neutron asymmetry gives rise to the disruptive term in nuclear binding

energy expression & this is known as asymmetry term Ba.

Asymmetry Term Ba: The number of excess neutrons is N-Z & the neutron

excess per nucleon is

N Z

. The total deficit in nuclear binding energy is

A

( N Z )2

( A2 Z )2

Ba=C a

=C a

(21)

A

A

; N=A-Z

Ca is known as the asymmetry coefficient & its empirically evaluated value as:

C a=19.8 MeV (22 a)

Then the binding energy equation becomes

M = A M nZ ( M nM P )C V A+C S A

2 /3

Z ( Z1)

( A2 Z )2

+C C

+C a

(22b)

A

A1 /3

Now setting dM/dZ=0 & then for A=235, Z=112, which is quite reasonable. This

transition from ordinary liquid drop model to inclusion of quantum effects makes

the situation much better to understand.

Now if we see B/A vs A curve, it shows several kinks & this indicates evidence

for favoured pairing. (Also, whenever N or Z becomes equal to 2, 4, 8, 20, 50, 82

and 126, the corresponding nuclides have large binding energies). We did not

account for this fact in the liquid drop model; & shell effects. This is partly

corrected by adding a pairing term Bp to the binding energy. From the table of

stable nuclides we see the following:

A

Even

Even

Even

Number of

Stable Nuclides

165

Hisham Shah

17

Odd

Odd

Even

Even

Odd

Odd

Odd

Even

Odd

55

50

4

We see that even-even nuclei are the most abundant & hence the most stable.

Odd-odd are the least stable. Odd-even have intermediate stability. The pairing

effect was satisfied by Fermi and is represented as

B P=C P A

3 /4

(23)

A

Even

Odd

Even

Z

Even

Odd

Odd

Cp

-33.5MeV

0

+33.5 MeV

> M ( Z , A )= A M nZ ( M nM P )C V A+C S A 2 /3 +C C

M

( nM P )B

M ( Z , A ) =A M nZ

Z (Z1)

( A2 Z )2

+C

+C p A3 / 4 (24)

a

1 /3

A

A

Cc=0.6 MeV

Cv=14 MeV ;

Cs=13 MeV ;

Ca=19 MeV ;

Cp=Pairing Term

Surface Term Coefficient

Asymmetric term Coefficient

Coefficient as given in above table.

11

Na23,

13

Al27.

dM

( A . Z )=0, then we get

dZ

M nM p +4 C a +

Cc

A

=2 Z

1 /3

Cc

A

+

1/ 3

4 Ca

(25)

A

From Classical Mechanics, it is an established fact that the angular momentum

of an Isolated system is conserved and from ordinary Classical Physics If no

Hisham Shah

18

torques are acting on a system, the total angular momentum of the system is

conserved.

Nucleus is an isolated system as there are no external torques acting on it.

Hence its angular momentum is a constant quantity. If l is the total orbital

angular momentum quantum number, then the eigen values of the square of

the angular momentum operator 2 are

given

l ( l+1 )

. Quantum mechanically, we

write:

^L2 lm =l ( l+1 ) 2 lm (1)

Where 2 is the operator for the square of

the angular momentum & lm is the

eigenfunction. The z-component z of the

total angular momentum is then

Lz lm =m lm (2)

The magnitude of the total angular momentum is

thus quantized & is restricted to:

The z-component of as given by equation (2) has the values

l m li .e . m=0, 1, 2 (4 )

There are (2l+1) values of m for a given l & (2l+1) is known as degree of

degeneracy of the orbital angular momentum state.

The total angular momentum of the nucleus is then the sum of orbital & spin

angular momentum as the intrinsic spin is taken into account. Then the angular

momentum is:

J =

L S (5)

L + S when

L is S

L S when L is antiparallel S

Hisham Shah

19

Since S=1/2; J can take not only integral but half integral values also:

1 3

5

J =0, , 1, ,2, (7)

2 2

2

Nuclear experiments have shown that:

1. Nuclei with even mass number A have zero or integral spin.

2. Nuclei with odd mass number A have half integral spin.

3. In particular, even-even nuclei have zero spin.

For a particle with spin S (S=1/2 for nucleus) the quantum number is either half

integral or integral depending on the nature of the particle. The quantum

number Ms describes the orientation of S with respect to some chosen axis (say

z-axis). For a given value of S, there are 2S+1 orientation. Stern-Gerlach and

Hyperfine Atomic Spectroscopic types of experiments are used to determine the

atomic angular momentum.

1

1

For S= ; ms=

2

2

1

2 S+1=2 +1=2 (8)

2

For nuclear particles, the spin S can be found because there are 2S+1 possible

orientation. So we can determine the number of possible orientations. Let us

now consider electromagnetic moments associated with nuclei and nucleons.

Insanity is doing the same thing, over and over again, and expecting different results.

Rita Mae Brown

Magnetic Dipole Moment: A current carrying loop enclosing an area A and

current I has a magnetic moment in a current carrying loop is given by:

=i A(9)

Hisham Shah

20

a loop carrying current I, then

e

e

eV

i= =

=

( 10)

T 2 r 2 r

V

A= r 2 (11)

> =

eV

e

2

r = Vr (12)

2 r

2

classically =

or

e

e

( mvr )=

L (13)

2m

2m

Where L is the orbital angular momentum quantum number. From (13), we can

say that the angular momentum L gives rise to a magnetic dipole moment for

a charge particle. Generally we write:

=

e

gL (14)

2m

We also write (14) as:

=

e gL 0 gL

=

(15)

2m

0=

eh

2 mp

In atomic physics for 1

B =

e

2 mo is the called the

Bohr Magneton.

So,

B =

e

23 Joule

=0 . 927 10

(16)

2 mo

W

m2

Hisham Shah

21

e e /2 mo 0 . 927 10

=

=

2 mp m p /mo

1836

23

0=

=5.051027

Joule

(17)

W

m2

The nuclear magneton is about 2000 times smaller than the Bohr Magneton.

The g- factor measures the deviation of the actual magnetic moment from the

simple value

e

2 mp

Proton magnetic movement was measured using the NMR techniques and its

value is

proton =2.79276 N (18)

The measured value of the neutron magnetic movement is

neutron =1. 191315 N (19)

ELECTRIC MOMENTS

In course of electromagnetism, it is usually shown that any charge distribution

produces an electric potential V at a distance R (say in the Z direction), such

potential V can be expanded as:

dV +

1

1

zdV + 3 ( 3 z 2r 2 ) dV +...

2

R

R

1

1

V (r)=

4 0

Where P is the charge density. The integral is over the region containing the

charge distribution.

Equation (1) is a convergent series and as R increase, only the first two or three

terms are important. The integral of 2 nd term is called the dipole movement and

the third term is called the quadruple movement.

From quantum mechanical consideration it turns out that a nucleus must have a

zero electric dipole movement; so the lowest order contribution to V due to a

point charge arises from the quadruple movement.

Hisham Shah

22

The four-charge (quadrupole) system has net charge and dipole movement zero

and so the entire field is produced by the electric quadrupole movement. See

the following figure.

has a quadrupole movement; however, its dipole movement is zero.

The charge density at a point

r =(x , y , z)

is given by

( Ze ) (r )

where Ze is the

1

3 cos 2

( r ) d 3 r (2)

( 3 Z 2r 2 ) ( r ) d 3 r=Ze r 2

Q=Ze

For spherically symmetric

For a prolate nucleus the charge is concentrated along the z-axis and so Q is

positive. Q is negative for an oblate nucleus.

Q has dimensions of area and is given in

2

26

F (fermi =10

m2 or in Barns ( 1024 c m2 ) or

cm ) .

Hisham Shah

23

it acquires an energy that depends on the orientation of the nucleus with

respect to the field gradient. This interaction enables us to determine the

quadrupole movement Q. For example, the quadrupole movement of deuteron

is

Q=0.282 f m 2 (4)

The measurement of quadruple moment also makes it possible to determine the

nuclear deformation. The nuclear deformation is related to the quadruple

moment by

4

1

Q= Z R2o 1+ + (5)

5

2

Where Z is the charge number and R0 is the nuclear radius.

STATISTICS

Nuclear particles (nucleons) either potions or neutrons are a set of identical

particles. The probability distribution; quantum mechanically given by

||

x1

are the

x2

are the

2

| ( x1 , x2 )| =| ( x 2 , x 1 )| (6)

> ( x 1 , x 2) = ( x 2 , x 1 ) (7)

The sign we choose depends on the type of particle we are considering. For

electrons, protons etc. we must choose the negative sign, and the eigenfunction

for the two electrons is antisymmetric for an exchange of coordinates. Such

particles are said to satisfy Fermi-Dirac statistics and are called Fermions. On

the other hand, for photons, we must choose the position sign so that the

eigenfunction of the two photons is symmetric for an exchange of coordinates.

Photons are said to satisfy Bose-Einstein statistics and are called bosons.

For two fermions, the antisymmetric state function is,

Hisham Shah

24

( x1 , x2 )=

1

[ ( x ) ( x ) ( x1 ) ( x 2 ) ] (8)

2 1 2

If two fermions in the given equation are in the same quantum state, the RHS of

equation (8) vanishes, and the state function becomes equal to zero. Thus

(where & indicate quantum states) and no two protons can be in

the same quantum state. This is Paulis exclusion principle for particles with halfintegral spin.

Classical idea: Classically parity means the reflection symmetry. Consider the

following picture in which reflection of two words TOMATO and EGGS is shown

The word TOMATO looks the same while EGGS look inverted under the

reflection property. Consider another physical example when a string is struck at

the origin, it will assume a shape as shown in fig (a).

If we invert the x-axis i.e. put a mirror on O perpendicular to the x-axis, there is

no change the shape of the sign of amplitude, this is called the Even Parity.

When the same string is struck away from the centre, the string assumes the

shape as shown by fig: (b) If we invert the x-axis i.e. see the mirror image while

putting the mirror perpendicular to x-axis, we see a dotted line which is an antisymmetric image of the wave function. This is termed as the Odd Parity State of

the wavefunction.

Quantum mechanically, We define the parity of the wave function to be even

or odd (+1 or -1) depending on whether the wave function does not change sign

upon space inversion. i.e.

Hisham Shah

25

( x , y , z ) (x , y ,z)

The physical description of the quantum system particularly the probability of

finding the particle at a position and with spin orientation given by the

coordination (x, y, z, s) (s-for spin) is proportional to the square of the absolute

value of the wave function

|| = =

). The probability of finding the particle or the system of particles can not

coordinates (x, y, z, s) as in coordinates (-x, -y, -z, s). When reflection of the particles

at the origin does not change the sign of the wave function , the motion of the

particle is said to have even parity. When reflection changes the sign of the

spatial part of the wavefunction , the wavefunction is said to have odd parity.

Thus

(x , y ,z , s )= ( x , y , z , s ) : Even Parity

(x , y ,z , s )= ( x , y , z , s ) :Odd Parity

The parity of nucleons in a potential is fixed by its orbital angular momentum. If

L denotes the orbital angular momentum quantum number, the parity of the

l

quantum state of the particles is determined by =(1 ) , so that for even L

For a system of particles (nucleons in the nucleus) the total wave function is

approximately the product of the wave function of all the individual particles i.e.

= 1 2 3 n

or a linear combination of such product. For such a system, the

parity is then denoted by

(1 ) li

where

li

1, 2. 3

motion of the particles in same sort of potential. So the system will have even

parity if

li

li

even number of odd parity particles and any number of even parity particles will

have odd parity.

Hisham Shah

26

Notation: Usually we denote the state with ) sign as superscript on the total

angular momentum quantum number I or J i.e.

I J

donated by .

Change of parity:

Parity is conserved in interactions

between nucleons. The parity of a

Wilhelm Roentgen (1845-1923) was a German

system e.g. a nucleus can only

physicist who detected and produced X-rays in

changed by the capture of photons or 1895 which facilitated countless human beings.

particles having odd total parity, or by After this revolutionary discovery, he became the

the emission of photons or particles first person to receive the Nobel Prize in Physics

having odd total parity. Usually in in 1901. Dr Roentgen refused to patent his

literature, yes denotes that parity has discovery so that the entire humanity could

benefit from it.

changed

during

some

nuclear

interaction and no denotes that the

parity did not change during the interaction i.e. initial and final nuclei have the

same (no) parity or different (yes) parity. The intrinsic parity of electron is

defined arbitrarily as even the intrinsic parity of protons and neutron, and

neutrinos is also even. The parity of particles and antiparticles is opposite to

each the other.

"Our story is the story of the universe. Every piece of every one, of everything you love and

everything you hate, of the thing you hold most precious, was assembled by the forces of the nature

in the first few minutes of the life of the universe, transformed in the hearts of the stars, or creates in

their fiery deaths. And when you die, those pieces will be returned to the universe in endless cycle of

death and rebirth. What a wonderful thing it is to be a part of that universe. What a story, what a

majestic story."

Brian Cox

RADIOACTIVITY

Historical Background

In 1895, Roentgen discovered X-rays. The French scientist Henry Becquerel got

interested in Roentgens work about the same year. Becquerel was of the

opinion that the production of x-rays was always accompanied by fluorescence

from the material of the X-rays tube (glass). He thought that X-rays existed

whenever there was fluorescence. To investigate this problem, Becquerel took

uranium sulphate, which fluoresces (glows) under the action of sunlight. He

found that fluorescent uranium sulphate did give out rays, which affected the

photographic plate packed in the dark thick black paper. Becquerel concluded

that the fluorescent salt (uranium sulphate) had given rise to X-rays which

penetrated the black paper and affected the photographic plate.

Hisham Shah

27

But sooner he noticed that he was mistaken. During one such experiment in

1896, the sky was happened to be overcast and uranium salt was hardly

fluorescent. On developing the photographic plate, Becquerel was surprised to

see a dark spot on it, as before. He had obviously stumbled on new kind of Xrays which could penetrate the thick dark black wrapping paper and affect the

photographic plate. Soon after that it was established that any salt of uranium

emitted these rays and initially they were named as Becquerel rays. These rays

were emitted in a spontaneous manner.

Is uranium the only substance emitting Becquerel rays? Marie Curie found out

that pitchblende, the ore from which uranium is extracted, emits Becquerel rays

with much stronger intensity than what its uranium content would. After a long

and laborious process of chemical separation, Marie Curie and her husband

Pierre Curie discovered two new elements, polonium& radium, which emitted

Becquerel rays. They gave the name radioactive to all these substances of

emitting Becquerel rays and the phenomenon itself came to be known as

radioactivity , The discovery of radium brought another great revolution in

studying the radioactivity. Radium was about a million time more radioactive

than uranium.

RADIOACTIVITY

It is a process in which a radioactive substance emits three types of radiations

i.e. , , .

In 1899, Rutherford showed that radiations emitted from radioactive elements

are of two types, which he called -rays & -rays, which are different in their

penetrating power. In 1909, Villard discovered a third type of radiations which

cannot be deflected in the magnetic field and called it -rays.

But when you talk about destruction, dont you know that you can count me out . . . in.

John Lennon

1. By calorimetric experiment, Curie estimated that one gram of radium

librates about 140 calories in one hour. Though small, this energy is

released continuously over a long period of time.

2. Radioactive rays ionize the surrounding air and affect the photographic

plates.

3. Fluorescence is produced in substances like zinc sulphide ZnS.

4. Rutherford (1909) found that a beam of radioactive rays from radium

samples split into these components in strong electric or magnetic field

they were named as , , & -rays.

Hisham Shah

28

A. Rutherford found that rays were the nuclei of helium atom. From the rays emitted from radon and analysed by spectroscopic method,

Rutherford saw the following.

86

218

Rn222

2 He + 84Po (1)

The element on the left side was named as the parent & a birth of new

element (Po218) as the daughter nuclei. During such a radioactive

transformation, the mass number and the charge number are conserved.

Radioactivity is a nuclear phenomena i.e. the radioactive rays come out of

the nucleus. Other examples are:

234

U 238

2 He + 90 Th

222 (2)

Ra226

2 He + 86 Rn

Po218 2 He4 + 82

Pb214

92

88

84

carry definite energy & cause ionization in air. They have a finite range in

the material they travel.

B. -rays are identical with electrons. A -particle has a mass ~1/1836 the

mass of proton. For example; -decay is given by the following examples

234

Th234

e

91 Pa +

210

210

Bi 84 Po + e (3)

14

14

e

6C 7 N +

90

83

-particles (or rays) travel with the velocities almost to the velocity of light

i.e. VB0.99c with c=3*108 m/s.

Beta particles are emitted with energy spectrum between zero & certain

maximum. The maximum is known as end point energy.

C. The -rays are electromagnetic in nature. Their wavelength is smaller

than X-rays and hence they are more energetic than X-rays (almost 100

times more than X-rays). Their wavelength is between 1.7*10-8cm to 4*106

cm.

Due to their large energies, they can knockout electrons not only from

outer orbits but from inner orbits of the atom too.

The -rays are neutral particles. Therefore they are neither deflected by

electric field, nor by magnetic field. -rays cant produce the direct

ionization in gases but can produce indirect ionization due to photoelectric

Hisham Shah

29

effect. -rays when coming out from nucleus, its mass number A and

charge number Z remains same, but only excited in nucleus i.e.

zX A [ z X A ] +

Consider at time t=0 that the radioactive sample contains No nuclei. The

number of nuclei of a given radioactive sample disintegrating per seconds is

called the activity of that sample i.e.

dN /dT =Rate of decrease of nuclei with time= Activity at time ' t ' (1)

Activity at any time t is directly proportional to the number of the present

nuclei a time t i.e.

dN /dT N ( t )

dN /dT = N (t )(2)

Where >0 is known as decay constant which depends on the nature of the

radioactive element. The negative sign shows that the rate of disintegration

decreases with the passage of time.

dN

dt

=

(3)

N (t)

So is defined as fractional change in N(t) per unit time; sometimes also known

as Probability of Decay per unit interval of time. Integrating equation (2) gives,

N

= dt (4)

dN

N N

0

lnN|No = t

N ( t )=N o et (5)

So the equations give the radioactive decay law. The law of radioactive decay is

exponential in character. If

t= , then

1

e t=e = =0 . Hence

N ( t )=N o et =N o0=0 . It means that for large time, the radioactive element

becomes stable.

Hisham Shah

30

HALF LIFE

The interval of time during which half of a given sample of radioactive

substance decays or The time during which number of radioactive nuclei N

becomes half of initial value is called half life of that element.

Let T1/2 denotes such time, and then from (5), putting

T

No

No e

2

1 T

> =e

2

> ln

1

2

1

2

N ( t=T 1 /2 ) =

No

2

gives;

or

or

( 12 )= T

1

2

> ln ( 1 )ln ( 2 )= T 1

> ln ( 2 ) = T 1

>T 1 =

2

ln ( 2 ) 0.693

=

( 6)

T = =

(7)

Total number of nucleithat sample

or

tdN

=

No

(8)

dN

No

Using

dN

= N

dt

or

dN = Ndt = N o et dt (9)

Hisham Shah

31

( N o ) e t dt

= 0

(10)

( N o ) e

dt

tet dt

= o

dt (11) Evaluation

of integrals give,

t e

| |

()

d t

d

d et

d 1

1

t

dt = e dt =

e dt=

=

= 2

d 0

d o d

0 d

| |

e t

1

dt =

=

0

1

2

1

= = (12)

1

Equation (12) shows that the decay constant is the reciprocal of the average

or mean life time of an element where or <T>=1/

UNITS OF ACTIVITY

The unit of activity most commonly used is the Curie. It is based on the rate of

decay of one gram of radium (Ra 226). There are about 3.7*1010 disintegrations

per seconds per gram of radium. This standard is called One Curie. So,

OneCurie =3.710 10 disintegrations per second (13)

Hisham Shah

32

1 milli Curie = 1mCi = 10-3 Curie = 10-3 Ci

1 micro Curie = 1 Ci = 10-6 Curie = 10-6 Ci

One other unit of activity is Rutherford

1 Rutherford = 1 Rd = 106 disintegrations/sec

1mRd = 10-3 Rd

1 Rd = 10-6 Rd

N (14)

|dNdt |= N= 0.693

T

Activity=

years.

88

out a patent on the techniques to extract

radium because they believed that,

Physicists always publish their research

completely. If our discovery has a

commercial future, that is an accident by

which we must not profit.

N=1 g

. mol

( 2261 ggrams

)(6.02310

23

atoms

=2.6610 21 nuclei

g . mol

0.693

0.693

1

11

1

=

sec 1.35510 sec

T

1622365246060

the activity of Gold 79Au200 with T1/2=48 minutes.

Given weight is 3x10-9 kg

N=( 3109103 ) g .

g .mol

.6 .021023

200

0.693 0.693

1

4

1

=

sec 2.40610 sec

T1

4860

2

Hisham Shah

33

For radio nuclides with more than one mode of decay (two or more), then more

than one disintegration constants are involved. If the radionuclide decays say by

& -decay, then for the given N, such nuclei;

( dNdt )

N

dN

dt

=

N

( )

(1)

For example: Bi222 decays by alpha emission to Th208 with 34% of the

disintegration and to Po212 for the remaining 66%. The Half Life is 60.5 minutes

for the decay; then

=0.66 ; =0.34

t

t

(0.693)

4

=

=0.66= =1.2610

t

3630

(0.693)

=

=0.34= =0.65

t

3630

CHAIN DISINTEGRATIONS

We consider species 1 decay into species with disintegration constant ; let the

species decay into species 3 with disintegration constant . Let N 1(t) and N2(t)

be the number of species present at time t. For N1:

1 t

N 1 ( t )=N 1 e

O

(1)

The net rate at which N2 changes is the difference between the rate at which it

is produced

( ddtN )

1

d N2 d N1

=

2 N 2= 1 N 1 O e t 2 N 2 (2)

dt

dt

1

Solving (2)

d N2

+ 2 N 2=1 N 1o e t

dt

1

Hisham Shah

34

I . F=e

>e t

2

2 dt

=e

2 t

dN 2

) t

+ 2 e t N 2 (t )= 1 N 1 o e (

dt

1

d t

e N 2(t) ) = 1 N 1 o e( ) t

(

dt

2

( 1 2) t

e t N 2 ( t )= N 1o e

2

2 t

> N 2 ( t ) e = 1 N 1 o

> N 2 ( t ) =

dt

e ( )t

+C

( 12 )

1

1 N 1 o ( t )

e

+C e t (3)

12

1

0=

1 N 1 o

N

+C= C= 1 1 o

12

1 2

N 2 ( t )=

1 N 1 o t t

( e e ) (4)

1 2

1

1 2

N 2 ( t )=N 1 o e t (5)

2

We should not get afraid of failing; we should embrace failure with open arms.

Its only through failure that we learn. Here are some my favourite quotes on

failure.

Ive missed more than 9,000 shots in my career. Ive lost almost 300 games. 26 times Ive been trusted to

take the game's winning shot and missed. Ive failed over and over and over again in my life and that's why I

succeed.

Michael Jordan, NBA Hall of Famer.

Hisham Shah

35

"When everything seems to be going against you, remember that the airplane takes off against the wind, not

with it."

Henry Ford, Ford Motors.

If you can't fly then run, if you can't run then walk, if you can't walk then crawl, but whatever you do you

have to keep moving forward.

Martin Luther King, Jr.

Dont be embarrassed by your failures, learn from them and start again. Richard Branson, Virgin.

"I have not failed. Ive just found 10,000 ways that wont work."

Thomas Edison

If youre not embarrassed by first version of your product, youve launched too late. Reid Hoffman

You have to be willing to be misunderstood if youre going to innovate.

Winston Churchill

TRANSIENT EQUILIBRIUM

It can also happen that for

1 2

to the time during which we observe the sample. Then we cant assume

1t

to be constant but can leave this factor as function of time t. This is called

N2

Transient Equilibrium. Here

varies with time but exhibits the period of 1.

Example: The decay of (3.64) day Ra224 from the 54.5s Tn220. Starting with pure

Ra224 sample the activity due to Tn220 would increase for several minutes & then

would decrease steadily within 3.64 days period.

SECULAR EQUILIBRIUM

This is another limiting case of equation-(4). If species 1 is very long lived or

t

1 2

, then for the long enough time ( t , we can neglect e

& then

1

1 t

N 2=

1 N 1 o e

(6)

21

; for large t

If period of 1 is not only much larger than that of 2 but also is large compared

with the time during which we make one observation, then

change appreciably during the experiment &

N2

1 t

will not

N 2 ( ) =

1

N (7)

2 1

Hisham Shah

36

constant rate or by the decay of its long lived parent. In either event after passing

N 2 will approach its equilibrium value at which its decay

through few half life of 2,

rate

Secular Equilibrium Idea for U240 Pb208

U 240

N 1 N 2 N 3 such that

N p 240

1 N 1= 2 N 2= 3 N 3

A c 228

Th

228

Ra

224

Em

220

Bi

Po

216

212

Pb

212

212

Po

Pb

208

ALPHA DECAY

In -decay, a helium nucleus emitted from the radioactive nuclide and its atomic

weight decreases by four units, but atomic number decrease by one unit.

Note: Whether equilibrium is secular or transient

depends on the duration of our observation of

sample.

nuclide

z X A is given by

Hisham Shah

37

A 4

X z2 X + 2 He +Q (1)

Q

Where

decay process.

The -disintegration energy

the energy of recoiled (daughter) nucleus, then

Q =E + E (2)

In terms of mass difference, we write

A 4

Q =[ M z X A (M z2

X +m 2 He 4 ) ]931.5 MeV (3)

Following is the -decay scheme for radioactive nucleus ZXA. The mass &

velocity of daughter nucleus are (M ,V ) while that of -particle is (m , v)

1

1

Q = m v 2+ M V 2 ( 4)

2

2

m

0=mvMV (5)

( 12 m v )=M ( 12 M V ) (7)

2

1

1

> m2 v 2= M 2 V 2 (6)

2

2

m E =M E (8)

M = A4 a .m .u .

m 4 a . m. u.

4 E =( A4 ) E E =

4 E

( 9)

A4

So

Hisham Shah

38

Q =E + E

E +

4 E

4

A

= 1+

E=

E (10)

A4

A4 A4

) (

E =

4

Q (1 ) Q (11)

( A4

A )

A

is constant

It was shown by Rosenblum (1930) by a 180 o magnetic spectrograph, that infact

the energies of -particles were not monoenergetic.

1. The accurate measurement of -particles energies made it possible to

determine the energies which differ only by small amounts & then led to

the discovery that some radionuclides actually emit the spectrum of particles.

2. The knowledge of the energies of the components of -particle spectra

makes it possible to determine energy levels with confidence.

3. The methods for determining the energies of -particles are also used for

protons and deuterons (velocity of -particles).

When charged particle moves in a magnetic field, its orbit is a circle whose

radius is determined by:

Hq v=

M v2

(12)

r

are mass and charge of the charged particle & H is the strength of

magnetic field and r is the radius of the orbit. From Equation (12), then we

have,

v=

q

H r (13)

M

The velocity can be determined if the strength of the magnetic field is known;

and if the radius of the orbit is measured; since the value of

q

M

for -particle

is known as

Hisham Shah

39

( Mq )

=4850 a . m. u . (14)

particle

The -particles emitted from a radioactive sources pass through a narrow slit. A

magnetic field of known strength acting in a direction perpendicular to the plane

of diagram is applied. The fields bend the -particles through the angle of 180 O.

The chamber slit helps to reduce the scattering of -particles from top, bottom

and walls of the chamber. Particles with the same velocity have a circular path

of the same radius r. This instrument is called magnetic spectrograph.

cm & H=1100 G measured the velocity of -particles as

non-relativistic velocity.

The emission of -particle is a result of energy transition between two definite

nuclear energy states. The initial state is that of parent nucleus & the final state

is that of daughter nucleus.

Following the decay scheme of Th228, which emits fine groups of -particles with

energies 5.42 MeV, 5.34 MeV, 5.21 MeV, 5.17 MeV, 5.14 MeV along the cascade

of -rays as shown.

Hisham Shah

40

"In the beginning, the universe was created. This made a lot of people very angry and has been

widely regarded as a bad move."

Douglas Adams

Main assumption of the theory is that it takes -particle to be formed in the

nucleus and get out. So the interaction is between the -particle and daughter

nucleus. We have to consider in what potential well the -particle lies.

Alpha decay is a barrier penetration problem. Thus potential energy is given by:

V ( R )=

( Ze ) (2 e)

(1)

R

The maximum energy for Rutherford scattering should be the potential energy:

V ( R )=

( Ze )( 2 e )

(2)

R

12

For R=10

10

cm ; Z=92; e=4.810

e. s.u

292( 4.81010 )

V ( R )=

30 MeV (3)

10121.6106

Hisham Shah

41

separation from daughter nucleus. From the viewpoint of this consideration, we

conclude that -decay is a wave mechanical problem.

Although only nucleons exist in the nucleus, we can think of two protons and

two neutrons coming together and forming an -particle within the nucleus.

There will be a constant interchange of energy between -particle & the rest of

the nucleus. These forces on -particle are

1. Repulsive force due to protons

2. Strong attractive nuclear forces

The net effect of these will be that -particle has a negative potential energy U o

for r<R. R is the nuclear radius & r is the distance between centres of particle and the nucleus. For r>R, only the Coulombs repulsive forces act on the

-particle and the potential energy is given by:

P . E .=

( Z2 ) ( Z ) e2

(4)

r

This region is called Potential barrier. In the region R < r < R, the potential

E

energy is more than -disintegration energy

. Classically -particle cannot

penetrate in this region.

When

E >V ( r )

particle. For U238, the height of the barrier B is about 30 MeV where E is about

4.1 MeV. So -emission under these circumstances has to be wave-mechanical

phenomena called the Barrier Penetration Problem.

Hisham Shah

42

Example: 83Bi212 has half life of 60.5 minutes by emitting 5 groups of particles with energies:

E 1=6.08 MeV

I.

II.

E 2=6.04 MeV

E 3=5.76 MeV

E 4 =5.62 MeV

E 5=5.60 MeV

Sketch the level scheme and identify the daughter nucleus.

E =

A

Q = Q =(

E

( A4

)

A

A4 )

A

6.08=6.20 MeV

( A4

) E =( 212

208 )

Q 1=

A

6.04=6.16 MeV

( A4

) E =( 212

208 )

Q 2=

A

5.76=5.87 MeV

( A4

) E =( 212

208 )

Q 3=

Q 4=

A

5.62=5.73 MeV

( A4

) E =( 212

208 )

4

A

5.60=5.71 MeV

( A4

) E =( 212

208 )

Q 5=

208

4

B i 212

83 T e 81 + H e 2 +Q

81

Te208.

"I think it's important to question your sanity because at the point which you stop questioning your

sanity, you're probably insane."

Elon Musk

Example 2: Show that

94

232

4

Pu 236

94 U 92 + H e2 +Q

Hisham Shah

43

236

232

[ ( 236.04607 )(232.03717+4.00260) ]931.5 MeV

>Q =5.87 MeV

Since Q is positive, therefore

94

BETA DECAY

If an atom undergoes -particle decay, its atomic weight decreases by only a

very small fraction of a unit. But its atomic number increases by one unit and in

a -decay, a negative electron is emitted. -decay is represented as follows

A

X A z +1

X + +Q (1)

positron is ejected from nucleus or an orbital electron is swallowed up by

nucleus. This is known as Electron capture. This was discovered by Yukawa and

Sakata.

The question arises as How to account for the emission of electrons from the

nucleus when we say that there are only neutrons and protons within the

nucleus.

A well suggested solution is to imagine that the electrons are created

spontaneously and we emitted momentarily; just like photons from excited

atoms.

Thus -decay corresponds to the effects of following processes taking place

within the nucleus.

electron emission

+ positron emission

Since neutrons are little heavier than protons, the first process i.e

n p+ e

can actually take place spontaneously outside the nucleus. We may say that

neutrons and protons are two different states of single particle called nucleon

with the electron playing role like photon.

Hisham Shah

44

"There are two possible outcomes: if the result confirms the hypothesis, then you've made a

measurement. If the result is contrary to the hypothesis, then you've made a discovery."

Enrico Fermi

Disintegration Energies:

1) Consider an atom of mass mz & a free electron both at rest. The total

energy of the system is

m

( z c2 +m c 2) . If electron emission occurs the

atomic number changes to (Z+1) and the original free electron drifts

towards the positive ion so created & combines with it filling up its outer

shell.

The total energy of the system is then

expressions, we get:

m

( zm z+1 )c 2 (4)

Q =

2) Again consider an atom at rest of mass m z. Its rest mass energy is mzc2. If

positron (+) emission occurs, a negatron (-) can be removed (with no

mz 1

energy expenditure) from the atom

. The total energy of the system

is

+

(5)

2

2

2

m z c =m z1 c +2 mc +Q

Q

3) For the electron capture then, the nucleus m z with rest energy mzc2

Hisham Shah

45

(7)

m z c =m z1 c 2 +Q e

2

=m z c2mz1 c 2 (8)

Q e

The masses of radionuclides are usually not known however, so that we

must apply the equations indirectly. In electron emission, we find in so

doing that Q is just equal to the maximum energy of the -spectrum i.e.

Q=E (9)

The velocity or momentum of -particles can be measured by means of

deflection of the path of the particles in the magnetic field.

The instrument which is often used is the semi-circular or 180O focusing

magnetic spectrograph similar to that used for alpha particles.

The designing of two instruments is different because of the different properties

of the and -particles. For example the

q

m ratio for an electron is much

greater than that of -particles and so much smaller magnetic field will be used

to deflect the -particles. A field of about 1,000 gauss is used

velocities or

momenta of -particles emitted from the source are measured. Once these

quantities are measured, it is easy to calculate the energy of the -particles.

In early experiments, it was found that the -particles may have velocities of

about 0.99c.

In general, the energies of the -particles (both positive and negative) are

smaller than those of the -particles emitted by radioactive nuclides. Most of

the -particles have energies less than 4 MeV, while energies of -particles are

greater than 4 MeV.

At the same kinetic energy -particles because of their small mass travel with

high velocity, this velocity is much greater than that of -particles.

Hisham Shah

46

governing equation in the magnetic spectrograph is:

mv 2

=evH ( 10 )

r

> v=

erH

(11)

m

m=

We have

>V =

mo

; where =V/c

1 2

erH

2

1 (12)

mo

T =m c2 mo c 2=

T =mo c 2

mo c 2

v

c2

m o c2

1

1 (13)

1 2

In equation (12) & (13) mo is the rest mass of -particles while e is the charge

of electrons (-). From equation (12), then

Hr=

mo v

1/ 2

( 1 2 ) (14)

e

1 /2

mo v

m c v

v2

v2

Hr=

1 2

= o . 1 2

e

e c

c

c

1/2

( )

v

v2

=1704.5 1 2

c

c

1/ 2

( )

(15)

T =mo c 2

[ ]

1

v2

1 2

c

1 (16)

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47

T =0.511

[ ]

1

v2

1 2

c

1 (17)

Equation (15) and (16) give the velocities & energies in terms of v/c.

Continuous -Spectrum & the End Point Energies:As discussed earlier on page 5-6 with a very good reasoning (using Uncertainty

Principle) that the electrons do not reside inside the nucleus and it must be

formed at the time of its emission by -decay process. Unlike the alpha particle

spectrum (line spectrum), the -rays spectrum happened to be a continuous

spectrum. This gave rise to the serious difficulties in understanding of the decay. The main problem is that just like the -decay; -decay is an energy

transition between two definite energy states. The + emitter ZXA emits a particle to form the daughter nucleus

z1

Y . So monoenergetic

are

emitted in -decay do not have the same kinetic energies.

"Science seems to be at war with itself. Naive realism leads to physics, and physics, if true, shows

naive realism to be false. Therefore naive realism, if true, is false; therefore it is false."

Bertrand Russell, An Inquiry into Meaning and Truth.

The continuous spectrum of -particles energies for RaE is shown in following

figure

Hisham Shah

48

In this case no line spectrum is found. The maximum energy is when 1.17 MeV.

When line spectrum is present, the lines appear as distinct peaks

Energy continuous -spectrum has a definite maximum, the height and position

of which depends on the nucleus emitting the particles. There is also a definite

upper limit of energy for the particles emitted by the nucleus. This is known as

end point energy, and is different for different nuclei.

Shapes of curves at lower energies are not known with certainty because it is

hard to make accurate measurements on the low energy particles.

Those properties for continuous -spectrum are for both natural and artificial emitters. These - may be electrons & positrons.

One other noticeable aspect of the -spectrum is that most of the electrons

(corresponding to the peak of the curves) are emitted with only about

1

rd

3

of

the Maximum Energy (or End Point Energy). The question is where does the

missing

2

rd

3

way to account for this missing energy was that it was carried by gamma rays.

Hisham Shah

49

However, careful measurements with sensitive calorimeters did not confirm any

such Hypothesis. Clearly the theory needs to be reconsidered for gamma

emission hypothesis.

From the previous discussion, the two main points are

1. Particles do not reside inside the nucleus as an entity. It is just a result

of some interactions which take place inside the nucleus.

2. Energy non-conservation as seen by the -spectrum

Another serious difficulty presented by the -spectrum is that it appears to

violate not only the Conservation of Energy but also the Conservation of Angular

Momentum.

Earlier, we assumed that -emission is a result of the following interactions.

n p+ p n+ p+ e n (18)

The role of -particles is just like that of photons in the atomic structure.

Consider the simplest -process:

(19)

n p+ e

The initial angular momentum is just that of associated with the spin of neutron

equal to /2. The proton and electron have spin

1

2 . So for angular momenta,

we have

n p+ e

Hisham Shah

50

( 12 )+( 12 ) :1

1

1

( )+ (

:1

2

2 )

(20)

1

1

( )+ (

:0

2

2 )

1

1

(

+ ( ) :0

)

2

2

So the spin on the right hand side of (20) be either 1 or 0; indicating that the

spin is not conserved.

Consider another example:- Tritium (1H3) is a -emitter. The decay is given as:

0 (21)

H 2 He4+ 1

e

3

The charge and mass number are conserved. However, angular momentum of

1

H is

1

2

and that of 2He3 is 0 or 1 from their spins. Since both He 3 & electrons

are fermions and sum of their spins is either 0 or 1. Moreover, (He 3+e) is a

Boson system whereas 1H3 is a Fermion system.

In both cases, given by (20) & (21), there might also be a contribution due to

orbital angular momentum on the right side of (20) & (21). Thus the final

angular momentum should be integrated & therefore cannot be equal to initial

angular momentum which is

process: i.e.

=n

p+ e .

out of these troubles. He postulated that a new particle Neutrino is created &

emitted during each -process. He assumed it having rest mass almost equal to

zero, a spin of and zero charge. Such a particle would not interact strongly

with matter & is very hard to detect.

The energy is shared between the electron & the neutrino. So the neutrino have

energy spectrum simply related to the electron spectrum. After the introduction

of Neutrinos, the -decay is then written as:

Hisham Shah

51

++

p n+

(22)

+

n p+

Where

all the disintegration energy except for the recoil and the X-ray energy, both of

which are small. The neutrino spectrum is thus monoenergetic.

It has been observed experimentally that the neutrinos show hardness like

Sv

v

screws. A neutrino has its spin

anti-parallel to its momentum

while

the anti-neutrino has spin

words,

S v

, In other

DETECTION OF NEUTRINO

Due to zero charge and zero rest mass, it is extremely difficult to detect the

neutrino. The -decay is a three body problem. The Conservation of Momentum

thus requires that after the emission of a -particle & neutrinos, the daughter

nucleus recoils in a direction not exactly opposite to the emitted -particle. If

Hisham Shah

52

one can detect this recoil of the daughter nucleus, then it will prove an indirect

evidence of the existence of neutrinos.

Above figure indicates that the recoil of the daughter & the momentum triangle

for the -particle, the daughter nucleus & the neutrino. A rough estimate of the

recoil energy is made as follows.

Let the neutrino carries all the energy in the -decay, then its momentum is

Pv ( max )=

E v (max)

(23)

c

Ev (max)

Where

Pv (max )=

. So

1.812

=PN (by conservation of momentum)

c

E N=

PN

; M =mass of N 14

7

2M

E N=

( 1.812 )2 Me V 2 /c 2

=0.000125 MeV =125106 MeV =125 eV

2

( 26087.73 ) MeV /c

Hisham Shah

53

This shows that even for a very light nucleus, the recoil energy is 125 eV,

proving that its experimental measurements on the recoil nucleus are very

difficult.

The recoil experiments have been performed on many -emitters like n, He 6,

Be7, Ne19, Al35.

For He6, the recoil nucleus has been observed in the low pressure cloud

chamber. The cloud chamber photograph shows that the daughter nucleus does

not recoil in just the opposite direction of the -particle, but one thing that it

proves is that -decay is a three body problem and thus indicates the existence

of neutrino.

In 1953, Cowan and Reines observed the direct interaction of free neutrinos,

which proved the real physical presence of neutrinos. The basic principle was

the same as:

n1o p11 + e01 + (25)

In the neighbourhood of the Nuclear Reactor, there is always present a large

amount of neutrinos giving rise to large flux (~10 13/cm2/s) of antineutrinos. They

used the antineutrinos from the reaction (25) & bombarded them on protons

provided by water in large plastic tank. The reaction produced is thus:

+ (26)

+ p11 n 10+

The positron (+) in (26) interacts with the electron resulting in a pair of -rays

(pair annihilation) emitted in opposite direction.

Hisham Shah

54

Each of these -rays carry energy equal to the electron rest mass (0.511 MeV).

These -rays are detected by Liquid Scintillators given by (1) & (2). The

neutrons diffuse in water (dissolved with CdCl 2) and after many collisions with

protons slows down to thermal energies & get captured by Cd nucleus. This

capture of the neutrons take place much later than the emission of annihilation

of -rays. The neutron pulse due to capture of -rays and the annihilation of ray pulses were observed on the oscilloscope & were photographed each time

the sequence of annihilation -rays pulse and the neutron pulse was displayed.

They were able to record 30 events per hour.

Cowan and Reines performed the same experiment in 1957 with improved

equipment and thus proved the real physical existence of the neutrinos.

Example 1: Calculate the energy of -rays emitted in the -decay of Al28

(Emax=2.86 MeV)

Hisham Shah

55

Solution:

28

28

A l Si +

>Q=( 27.98190827.976927 )931.5 MeV =4.64 MeV

E =4.642.86=1.78 MeV

Example 2:

X e 131

54 +

131

C s 55 + e

The total energy released in the process = 355 KeV and the Binding energy of

electron is 35 KeV

> E =35535=320 KeV =0.32 MeV

What is Science? Science is a way to teach how something gets to be known, what is not known, to

what extent things are known (for nothing is known absolutely), how to handle doubt and

uncertainty, what the rules of evidence are, how to think about things so that judgments can be made,

how to distinguish truth from fraud, and from show.

Richard Feynman

The nitrogen in our DNA, the calcium in our teeth, the iron in our blood, the carbon in our apple

pies were made in the interiors of collapsing stars. We are made of starstuff.

Carl Sagan

NUCLEAR REACTIONS

In 1919, Rutherford found that when nitrogen is bombarded with -particles

from Polonium, protons are produced and these protons are capable of

penetrating about 28 cm of air. This was first nuclear reaction performed in

laboratory and this gave birth to the phenomena of transmutation of non

radioactive nuclei. This is sometimes termed as artificial radioactivity.

The apparatus used by Rutherford is seen schematically as follows:

Hisham Shah

56

The chamber was filled with nitrogen & alpha particles from Po 212 source were

made to incident on nitrogen nuclei. A thin sheet of silver foil is placed on one

side of gas chamber to absorb -particles. A ZnS plate is placed outside this

opening and a microscope M could observe the scintillation produced on this

screen. Scintillations were observed when the chamber was filled with nitrogen.

Rutherford concluded that the scintillations were produced by particles which

were ejected from nitrogen nuclei as a result of -particle bombardment. These

particles were later on identified as protons having range of the order of 50 cm

in air.

14

17

N 7 + H e2 O8 + H 1

In 1930, Bothe and Becker showed that Beryllium bombarded by energetic particles from Po212 source gave rise to another penetrating radiation, which was

later on identified as neutrons by Chadwick in 1932.

In 1934, Curies bombarded light elements by -particles. They found that

bombarded substances continued to emit radiations even after the source had

been removed. These emitted radiations were later on identified as positrons.

All these experiments & their analysis led to the opening of a new field of

nuclear reactions in nuclear physics. A typical nuclear reaction is written as

a+ X Y +b(1)

Where

a Projectileincident particle

X =Target Nucleus

X ( a , b ) Y (2)

So one can write the experiment by Rutherford as

4

17

1

N 14

7 + H e2 O 8 + H 1(3)

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57

1

H e24+B e 94 C 12

6 + n0(4 )

++ (5)

1

13

H e + B e N 13

7 + n0 decays C 6 +

4

2

10

5

Proton (1H1)

4

H e2 + X z C z+2

A +4

A+ 3

Y z +1 + H 1 +Q

14

13

1

H e24+B e 10

5 N 7 C 6 +H 1 +Q

23

22

1

H e24+F 17

9 N a11 N e 10 + H 1 +Q

2. a = Alpha; b = Neutron

A+ 4

18

17

1

H e24+ N 14

7 F9 F 9 +n0 +Q

13

1

H e24+ B e 94 C 6 C 12

6 +n 0+Q

A +4

H e24+ X Az Y z +2 Y zA+2+4 +

4. a Proton; b Alpha

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58

A+1

3

H 11+ X Az C z+1 Y Az1

+ H e 42 +Q

10

H 11+ B e 94 B5 Li 73 + H e24 +Q

5. a Proton; b Deutron

A+1

H 11+ X Az C z+1 Y Az +1 + H 21 +Q

10

H 11+ B e 94 B5 B e 84 + H 21 +Q

A+ 1

H 11+ Li 73 Be4 B e 84 +

H 21+ X Az C Az+1+2 X Az +1 +H 11 +Q

H 21+ Li 62 Be4 H e 42 + H e 42 +Q

H 21+ Li 62 B e84 Li 73+ H 11+Q

8. a 1H2; b=0n1

Hisham Shah

59

H 1+ Li 3 Be4 L i 3 + H 1

A

+ X Az X z X Az 1+ n10

+H 21 H 1 H 11 +n10

10.

a 0n1 ; b (2He4)

A+ 1

A3

n10 + X zA X z X z2

+ H e24+ Q

n10 + L i63 Li 73 H 31 + H e 42 +Q

11.

a 0n1 ; b 1H1

A+ 1

A

n10 + X zA X z X z1

+ H 11 +Q

15

14

1

n10 + N 14

7 N 7 C6 H 1 +Q

12.

a 0n1 ; b

A+ 1

n10 + X zA X z X zA+1 +

66

66

n10 +C u 65

29 C u29 C u 29 +

Hisham Shah

60

In 1900, the British physicist Lord Kelvin is said to have pronounced: "There is nothing new to be

discovered in physics now. All that remains is more and more precise measurement." Within three

decades, quantum mechanics and Einstein's theory of relativity had revolutionized the field. Today,

no physicist would dare assert that our physical knowledge of the universe is near completion. To the

contrary, each new discovery seems to unlock a Pandora's box of even bigger, even deeper physics

questions.

The measurements in nuclear reactions can be made on the following

quantities.

1. Charge, mass number, masses & energies of the projectile a, target X &

the emitted particle b. Applying the Conservation Laws to these physical

(residual nucleus).

2. One can measure the angle between the trajectories of a & b.

4. The Threshold Energy: This is the smallest value of incident energy at

which the reaction will be possible to initiate.

excited state, their energies and angular correlation with the trajectories

of b can be measured.

Hisham Shah

61

The classification of nuclear reactions is made on the basis of projectile a,

particle & the emitted or detected particle b. We classify these as:

1. Scattering: In the scattering reaction, the projectile & the emitted particle

are same. The scattering is elastic if the residual nucleus is left in a

ground state; whereas it is inelastic if the residual nucleus is left in the

excited state, which comes to ground state by the emission of -ray

photon. When the incident particle emerges out of the target nucleus

w/out having energy & momentum is called Elastic Scattering reaction.

The chemical reaction is given by a+ X X + a & its inverse is called

inelastic scattering reaction i.e.

a+ X X +b .

2. Pickup Reactions: When the incident projectile gains nucleons from the

target nucleus, the nuclear reaction is called Pickup reaction e.g.

18

15

3

H 21+ O16

8 F 9 O8 + H 1

Hisham Shah

62

nucleus: e.g.

20

18

2

H e24+O16

8 N e10 F 9 H 1

(1H2 is born when 2He4 left one proton & one neutron inside the

nucleus or two nucleons got stripped off from 2He4).

O16

leave the target nucleus without distributing the other nucleons. These

types of reactions are referred to as Direct Reactions

5. Compound Nuclear Reactions: When the projectile & target form a

compound Nucleus, having lifetime of the order of 10 -16 sec. The

compound nucleus can decay in a number of ways or channels, so the

compound nucleus is formed which is unstable and thus broken into

fragments with the release of energy is called Compound Nuclear

Reactions or Transmutation Reaction i.e.

a+ X [ X ] y + b+Q

REACTIONS

say that

Z=constant

all

2. Mass Number: The total number of nucleons entering & leaving the

reaction is constant i.e.

A=constant

all

momentum is conserved in every type of nuclear reaction.

If the target particle X is initially at rest (LAB system), linear momentum

brought into the reaction by the projectile is distributed among the

reaction products. In the centre of mass system, the total linear

momentum is zero at all time.

4. Angular Momentum: The total angular momentum is a constant of motion.

5. Mass-Energy: In nuclear reactions, neither kinetic energy not rest mass is

conserved by itself but their total is always conserved.

The amount of energy Q liberated in any reaction is always equal to the

reduction in the total rest mass energy of all the constituents of the

reaction. The equivalence is:

Hisham Shah

63

1 a.m.u = 931.5 MeV

6. Statistics: For odd

reactions.

7. Isobaric Spin: As far as the nuclear forces are believed to be truly charged

independent it is expected theoretically that total isobaric spin is

conserved in any nuclear reaction in a manner analogous to the

conservation of total angular momentum.

8. Parity: In every type of nuclear reaction, the parity is conserved.

The most prominent physical characteristics which are not conserved in nuclear

reactions are the magnetic dipole moments & the electric quadruple moments

of the reacting nuclei. These moments depend on the internal distribution of

masses charges and currents within the nuclei involved & are not subject to

conservation laws.

Consider a nuclear reaction:

Y +b (1)

a+ X

Since the total mass and energy is conserved; we have

E

( a+ ma c )+ M x c =( E y + M y c2 )+ ( Eb + mb c 2 ) (2)

Where:

Ea Kinetic Energy of the Projectile ' a '

E x Kinetic Energy of target X .

Similarly for

.

M x c 2 Rest mass energy of target X

Eb , mb c2E y M y c 2 .

Hisham Shah

64

E x =0

and we

Q=( E y + Eb ) Ea (3)

Equation gives the change in total kinetic energy in a nuclear reaction; causing

the

nuclear

disintegration.

From equation (2) then on re-arranging:

E

2

y

+

E

(

b )E a= [ ( M x + ma ) ( M y + mb ) ] c (4)

A reaction is exoergic if Q is positive & the nuclear reaction is endoergic if Q is

negative.

So Q is positive if the masses of the incident particle and target nucleons are

greater than the masses of the product particle and product nuclei. Or the

energy of the product particle & nuclei are greater than the incident particle

provided that the target is assumed to be at rest and Q is negative and vice

versa.

Consider the following schematic diagram of the two body nuclear reaction in

LAB coordinate system and with the given prescribed data:

We have:

M1 Mass of Projectile

M2 Mass of target

M3 = Mass of emitted particle

M4 = Mass of residual nucleus

E1 Energy of Projectile

E2= 0 (target is at rest in LAB coordinate system)

E3 = Energy of emitted particle

E4 = Recoil Energy of M4

Hisham Shah

65

Q=( E 3+ E4 ) E1 ( 5 )

For exoergic reactions: Q>0

> ( E 3+ E 4 ) E1 >0

> ( E 3+ E 4 ) E1 <0

Linear Momentum:

P 1+

O=

P3 +

P4 (8)

This is a vector equation. In components form, we can decompose eq (8) into

two following equations: Using

P= 2 ME= 2 EM =M 2 V 2 givesthen

0= 2 M 3 E 3 sin 2 M 4 E 4 sin (10)

(Horizontal component of P)

(Vertical component of P)

E3 of M3 at an angle . So that (E 1, M1) & (E3, M3, ) are known (measured)

quantities, from (9) and (10), we have;

2 M 4 E4 cos= 2 M 1 E1 2 M 3 E 3 cos (11)

Squaring and adding (11) and (12) gives

2 M 4 E 4=2 M 1 E1 4 M 1 M 3 E1 E 3 cos +2 M 3 E3

M1

M3

M 1 M 3 E 1 E 3 cos (13)

E1 +

E 32

M4

M4

M4

( ) ( )

E4 =

Q=( E 3+ E4 ) E1

Hisham Shah

66

Q=

[( ) ( )

Q=

[( ) ( )

M1

M

M 1 M 3 E1 E3 cos + E E

E1 + 3 E3 2

3

1

M4

M4

M4

M1

M

M 1 M 3 E 1 E3 cos+ E (14 )

1 E1 + 3 +1 E 32

3

M4

M4

M4

For a special case when the emitted particle or product particle come out at

angle 90o to the collimated beam of the projectile, we have

Q=

M

M1

1 E 1+ 3 +1 E3 .

M4

M4

) (

This equation can be used to derive many useful results and conclusions in

many different ways. The cases of interest are:

is fixed:

One can look at the variation of E3 w.r.t. E1 for the fixed . We can write

the Q value equation as:

i.

E3 1+

M3

M 1 M 3 E1 E3 cosE 1 M 1 Q=0 (15 )

2

1

M4

M4

M4

a= 1+

Let

b=2

M3

M4

M 1 M3 E1 cos

M4

c= 1

M1

M4

(16)

This is quadratic in

E3

, then

b b 2+ 4 a (C E1 +Q)

(18)

E3 =

2a

Hisham Shah

67

E3 =

M 1 M 3 E 1 cos

M4

4 M 1 M 3 E1

M

2

4

cos 2 + 4

2 1+

E3 =

M 1 M 3 E1 cos

M 3+ M 4

u=

Let

M 1 M 3 E1

( M3 + M 4 )

M3

M4

cos +

M 3+ M 4

M4

) [(

M 4M 1

E1+ Q

M4

M 4 Q+ E 1 (M 4M 1 )

(19)

M 3+ M 4

M 1 M 3 E1 cos

M 3+ M 4

(20)

M 4 Q+ E1 (M 4 M 1)

v=

( M3 + M 4 )

E3=u u 2+ v (21)

From eq (21), those reactions are possible for which

E3

u u2 +v> 0 , then

u+ u2 + v> 0

2

u u + v> 0(22)

Case 1 in eq (22) is definitely positive. From case 2, then

u u2 + v> 0=u> u 2+ v >u2 >u2 +v = v <0

M 4 Q+ E1 ( M 4 M 1)

<0

M 3+ M 4

This is valid for two reasons:

i.

ii.

Either Q < 0

(Endoergic Reactions)

M4 - M1 < 0 i.e. a reaction induced by a heavy ion M1 > M4

Hence the physical factors which are responsible for making a particular angle

of emission of M3 energetically possible are the negative values of Q and a

Hisham Shah

68

observation such that cos is negative.

Usually M1 << M4, thus the value of V is positive for all bombarding particle

energies.

Thus E3 to be single valued Q > 0 and M 4 > M1, Ey depends on Q and will be

smallest in backward direction =180o.

i.

E1 0

One good example of the thermal energy neutrons reactions. In this low

E1

energy range, we have then for

u=

M 1 M 3 E 1 cos (24 a)

M 3+ M 4

v=

And

Then because

E 3=

M 4 Q+ E1 (M 4 M 1)

M 4Q

( 24 b)

M3 + M 4

M 3+ M 4

E3=u u 2+ v= E3 =v

M4Q

=constant (25)

M 3 +M 4

Q=( E 3+ E4 ) E1

For

E1 0

Q=E 3+ E 4 (26)

From the Conservation of Linear Momentum equations for

E1 0

, we have

and

2 M 3 E 3 sin= 2 M 4 E 4 sin

Hisham Shah

69

Dividing by gives

tan + tan =0 (27)

tan ( + ) =

tan +tan

1tan tan

tan ( + ) =0

>+=180o (28)

So M3 and M4 are emitted in the Forward direction with respect to incident M 1

direction. Also a reaction is impossible for those values of for which cos =1 .

ii.

Endoergic Reaction:

E1 >0

so eq

E3=u u 2+ v

Q=( E 3+ E4 ) E1

incident particle is greater than the energy of the emitter and residue nucleus,

and E3 is imaginaty, means that these reactions are not possible. So the

smartest value of incident particle energy E1 at which the reaction can take

place is called threshold energy. The reaction first becomes possible when E1 is

u2 +v =0.

E1=Q

M3 + M 4

M M

M 3 + M 4 M 1 1 3 sin 2

M4

Hence,

( M 3+ M 4)

( E1 )th=Q M + M M

3

4

1

Using approximation

]

M 1 Q/ c 2 , we have

Eth =Q

M1 + M 2

M2

)

Hisham Shah

70

Thus we see that the threshold or the reaction particle first appear in Q=0

direction with K.E.

2

E3=u =( E1 )th

M1M3

M 4+ M 3

appear at angle Q>0.

NUCLEAR FISSION

The process in which a heavy nucleus like 92U235 is to be broken under the

bombardment of slow neutron is called nuclear fission.

Nuclear fission reaction is one of special type of nuclear reaction where a

relatively heavy nucleus splits into two fragments, for example:

U 235 + n10 U 236 A+ B+Q

Where A and B are radioactive nuclei of mass number between 70-170 and

energy released per fission reaction is 150 MeV. This is very large energy

released

in

comparison

with

other

nuclear

reactions.

The phenomenon can be understood by considering semi-empirical binding

energy formula. The binding energy per nucleon (B/A) is a function of mass

number A (as shown) can explain the energy release in fission.

If we consider the case of

nucleus with A=240, with

BE1800 MeV into two

nuclei

with

total

BE2*120*7.52040 MeV.

The BE difference give

resultant energy of 240

MeV.

In

order

to

counterbalance the excess

of

neutrons

than

the

protons, we observe that

excess of neutron number

in the fission fragments

causes

emission.

Therefore

the

fission

fragments will be emitter

to become stable through a chain reaction.

Hisham Shah

71

98

98

98

41 Nb 42 Mo n

U 235 +n 10 U 236 40Zr136

0

136

136

52Te 53 I 54 Xe +2

92

54

140

140

140

140

140

a. Uranium bombarded by neutrons breaks up as follows

92

235

U +n T e 52+ Z r 40

144

90

56 Ba + 36 Kr +2 n0

corresponds to energy greater than 75 MeV. The range is short as the

fragments are heavy but ionization is large because of huge energy loss

(depositions) per unit path length.

c. Fragments are highly radioactive because the excess of neutron leads to a

chain reaction.

d. A few fast neutrons and high energy -rays are emitted simultaneously

with the fission fragments. If extra neutrons are available and are

redirected to uranium fuel, a chain reaction can be started.

Fission reaction was 1st recognized by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman (1836),

when Uranium was bombarded with neutrons in addition to fusion a 23 minutes

-activity was also induced. The amount of this activity was not probable due to

the rare 0.7% isotope of U235 but was due to the abundant isotope U 238. The 23minutes -decay was followed by 2.3 day activity and a chain was eventually

shown.

U 238 + n U 239 +

U 239 N p239 + + (23 min)

N p 239 P u239 + + (2.3 days)

Neptunium and Plutonium were new transuranic nuclides.

Types of Fission:

a. Thermal Fission: Thermal neutrons add negligible energy to the fissionable

nucleus, the fission of the nuclei in which compound nucleus of even-even

structures take place even with thermal neutrons. Fission of U 235 and Pu239

by thermal neutrons is most important.

Hisham Shah

72

b. Fast Fission: Other isotope of Uranium & other elements which for

compound nucleus of even-odd structure enters into (n,f) reaction with

fast neutrons (1 MeV). Example is U239, Pa231 etc.

c. Charge Particle Fission: Element with Z 10 show fission process with

protons, deuterons and -particles and even high energy charged particle

induces fission in the element of the middle of the periodic table as well.

d. Photo Fission: High energy photons also induce fission in heavier elements

A=5.1 MeV -ray also produce fission with U238.

Books are the carriers of civilization. Without books, history is silent, literature dumb, science

crippled, thought and speculation at a standstill. Without books, the development of civilization

would have been impossible. They are engines of change (as the poet said), windows on the world

and lighthouses erected in the sea of time. They are companions, teachers, magicians, bankers of the

treasures of the mind. Books are humanity in print."

Barbara

Tuchman

Nuclear fission reaction is a special class of nuclear reaction, which has

importance both in relevance to the defence and energy production

technologies. In order to understand phenomenon involved in nuclear reaction,

one need to know the details involved in fission process.

We know that -mostly- fissionable nucleus gives two fission fragments which

decay by -emission to a stable end product. The mass distribution of the fission

products is shown most conventionally in the form of a fission yield curve, in

which the percentage yield (in large scale) of the different products is plotted

against mass number.

The yield is defined as

Y ( A )=

Total number of fission

Y ( A )=

NA

.100

N0

fragments as below.

It is clear from the figure that the most probable values for mass numbers of the

two fission fragments are 95 & 139.

Hisham Shah

73

A117

which

corresponds

to

symmetrical fission (equal masses).

This just cant be understood on the

basis of a liquid drop model of nucleus.

The asymmetrical mass distribution of

the fission fragments involves the shell

structure of nuclei, as expressed in the

existence of magic numbers.

Notice that for A95 & 139, the

corresponding atomic numbers are

Z42 & 57. On the other hand for

A117

(minimum

yield),

the

corresponding Z50 which corresponds

to a magic number Z50 (strong BE).

Symmetric fission is more probable

with increasing the neutron energy and

single peak appears for high energy neutrons. The mass distribution of the

fission fragments can also be obtained from the distribution of their Kinetic

Energies. The nucleus undergoing fission can be considered at rest initially and

if the emitted neutrons are neglected then the conservation of momentum gives

E1 M 2

M1V1=M2V2 and E 2 = M 1

B. Neutron Emission

Accurate knowledge of neutron emitted in nuclear reaction is one of the

important factors to be considered. There are two types of neutrons; prompt

neutrons & delay neutrons. Most of the neutrons are emitted with possibly 10 -13

sec and are called prompt neutrons. A smaller number of neutrons is also

emitted with the time of several seconds or more than a minute after the

fission. These neutrons are called delay neutrons.

For sufficiently large piece of fissionable substance, the neutrons emitted are

reabsorbed by other nuclei and produce new processes which in turn produce

other neutrons. Some of the nuclei goes to the excitation due to absorption of

these neutrons & emits gamma rays, rather than fission. The ratio of the

radiations captured & fission cross-section is given by i.e.

and the

Hisham Shah

74

given by

fission is

V ave

1+

( 1+ )1

C. Spontaneous Fission

Most of the heavy nuclides undergo spontaneous fission reaction rather than

emitting alpha particles & can be predicted by the empirical mass formula.

Consider a special case of symmetric and neglecting the pairing term in the

semi-empirical mass formula, the Q-value of the fission reaction can be written

as

A /2

2

Ef = z M A 2 ( z

/2 M ) c ( A )

( A2 Z )

Z2

+ aa

1 /3

A

A

M ( Z , A ) =Z m p+ ( AZ ) M nav A +a s A2 /3 + ac

{(

Ef = a s A2 /32

( ) )}

1

A

2

Ef =3.42 A 2/ 3+ 0.22

2 /3

{(

+ ac

z/2

1

Z

2

( )

( )

2

Z2

A1 /3

1

A

2

1 /3

)}]

Z

MeV

1/ 3

A

This equation shows the interdependence of the Coulombs and surface energy

in such a way that change in one and that in other tends to cancel one other

partially.

Thus for spontaneous fission

2 /3

3.42 A +0.22

Ef 0

Z2

0

A 1/ 3

Hisham Shah

75

2

>3.42+0.22

Z

0

A

>0.22

>

Z

3.42

A

Z2

15

A

Z2

15

A

which

gives the possibility for A 85 . However the fission with slow neutrons is still

not possible in number of heavier nuclei. To explain this discrepancy, Bohr &

Wheeler considered the Coulombs Potential Barrier of the two fragments at the

instant of the separation. The existence of this barrier prevents immediate

breaking of these two. If the height of the potential is E b, we can say that the

Ef > Eb

nucleus will be unstable and break apart into its two fragments if

. The

barrier height Eb is,

2

1

Z e2

2

Eb =

=

4 o (2 R)

( )

Eb Ef =

Z e

32 o R o

=

1/ 3

( 12 A )

0.15 Z

MeV

1/ 3

A

0.15 Z 2

Z2

Z2

2 /3

2 /3

3.42

A

+0.22

=3.42

A

0.07

A1 /3

A 1/3

A1 /3

3.42 A 2/ 30.07

It is clear that

Eb Ef > 0

Z2

Z2

0=

49

A

A 1/ 3

Z2

50 corresponds to the

A

nuclide (A>250) would be unstable to exist

for more than 10-12 sec. Computing the

values of Ef & Eb for symmetric fission and

Eb E f

plotted as shown. The graph shows that

Ef > Eb

for nuclei

Hisham Shah

76

with A>250. This indicate that we dont expect nuclei with A>250 to be found in

nature. The graph also shows that fission becomes exoergic in neighbourhood of

A 85 in agreement of earlier results.

"He begins working calculus problems in his head as soon as he awakens. He did calculus while

driving in his car, while sitting in the living room, and while lying in bed at night."

Mary Louise Bell, divorce complaint.

The process of Nuclear Fission can be explained on the basis of liquid drop

model, where the nucleus is treated like a drop of liquid. The incident neutron

combines with the nucleus and forms a

highly excited compound nucleus. Its extra

energy is partly the kinetic energy of the

neutron but largely added binding energy of

the incident neutron. This energy gives a

series of oscillations to the drop, which tends

to distort its spherical shape and become

ellipsoidal. The surface tension forces ends

to make the drop return to its original

spherical shape, while the excitation energy

tends to distort the shape still further. If the

excitation energy is sufficiently large, the

drop will attain the shape of dumb-bell as shown in figure.

If the oscillations are so violent, the stage fourth reaches critical stage, and

then the fission stage is not avoidable. Thus there is a threshold or critical

energy required to produce stage four after which the nucleus cant return to

stage 1st. If the distortion is not too large, the nucleus may return back to its

spherical shape by emitting the excitation energy as -rays. We thus have

radioactive captured process than the fission reaction.

The potential energy of the drop in different stages can be plotted as function of

degrees of deformation from the spherical symmetry. It is plotted against r,

where r being the separation of centres of two fission fragments. The curve is

supposed to be divided into three regions as shown in figure.

Hisham Shah

77

separated and their potential energy is

simply their Coulombs energy, resulting

from mutual repulsion of the two positively

charged nuclear fragments. If the distance

is 2R, the drop just touch each other,

Energy E at this point is less than the

corresponding

Coulombs

energy

by

amount of CD. This amount is equal to the

potential of the surface force which is just

active at this point. As we pass through

Region-II, we reach the critical distance r c

where potential energy curve has a

maximum value Eb. This corresponds to the barrier height and explains why

E >0

fission doesnt take place spontaneously in all cases where f

. An additional

energy

Ea E bE f

before the potential barrier is surmounted and fission reaction takes place. In

the Region-III, the short range nuclear forces are dominant and nuclear fission is

not sure.

The first theoretical attempt to explain nuclear fission was made by Bohr and

Wheeler in 1939. They applied simple form of analysis (Legendre Polynomial

Expansion) to express the radius r making angle with maximum deformation.

r=R 1+ l Pl ( cos )

l=0

R [ 1+ 2 P 2 ( cos ) + 3 P3 ( cos )+ ] ( A )

Here R is radius of the spherical nucleus and r is radius of the deformed

nucleus. The coefficient 2, 3 are the deformation parameters. Here 0=1=0,

as the centre of mass of the drop is assumed to remain unchanged. The surface

energy of the drop is

Es =4 r 2 T

Hisham Shah

78

2

o

r=R A

2/ 3

[ (

3

1+ 2 cos 2 +

2

2

> E s=4 R20 A2 /3 T 1+ 22+

5

Esphere

=4 R 2 T =4 R20 A2 /3 T

s

E s=E sE sphere

=4 R 20 A 2/ 3 T

s

[ ]

2 2

2 2

2 + =E sphere

s

5

5 2

Esphere

=

s

3 Z2 e2

5 4 0 r

and hence

2 2

Ec =

3

Ec = .

5

3

Ec = .

5

3 Z e

5 4 o r .

Z 2 e2

1

3

1

4 o A 3 R o 1+ 2 cos 2 +

2

2

[ (

Z 2 e2

1

3

4 o A Ro

[ (

1+ 2

1

Ec =E sphere

1 22 +

c

5

)]

3

1

cos2 +

2

2

)]

c

1 2

+

5 2

1

E= E s+ Ec = 22 [ 2 E sphere

Esphere

]

s

c

5

Hisham Shah

79

sphere

2 Es

If it is positive i.e.

sphere

>Ec

4 R20 A 2 /3 t<

1

E=veE s< E sphere

.

2 c

3 Z 2 e2

Z2

>45

40 o A 1/3 Ro A

Esphere

/2 E sphere

c

s

is known as fissionability parameter represented by

The ratio of

symbol .

Thus when

equating the critical or threshold energy E th to the total energy of variation E.

The

sphere

Es

semi-empirical

sphere

=520 MeV Ec

4 R T =13 MeV ,

data

1

7 .

The

hence

energy

that

U238,

for

has

to

be

imported to the nucleus in order to reach this critical shape, the threshold

energy is given by

2

This energy can be calculated by neglecting the second order change in energy

due to the neck joining of the two fragments.

Eth =2 ( 4 R o ) T

Eth

4 R 2o T A 2/ 3

1 2 /3

A

2

2

3 1

Ze

5 2

( Ze )2

3

2 2/ 3

4 R o A T +

.

1 1/3 5 4 o R A 1/ 3

4 o Ro A

2

2.

( )

( )

=f ( )=0.2600.215

work done against the surface tension in separating the two drops. For

1 ,a

small deformation from the spherical shape cause the drop to reach the critical

shape and separate.

Hisham Shah

80

If the critical energy is compared with the excitation energy, it becomes possible

Ee

to predict fission probability. The excitation energy

can be estimated by

using differences in binding energy.

Ee =B ( A +1, Z )B ( A , Z )=z M A + M nz M A+1

The values of the excitation energy calculated in this way are compared with the

corresponding values of the critical energies for different cases. It has been

observed foe Uranium-238. A critical deformation energy of 6.5 MeV is

necessary for fission, but it requires only 5.9 when it take up neutron of zero K.E.

Thus no fission is possible with thermal neutron (E~0.03 MeV). If neutron having

kinetic energy of 0.6 MeV, fission becomes possible. Expression indicates that

energy above 1 MeV is needed for fission in Uranium-238. The fission crosssection in even rapidly with neutron energy of U238 but decreases for U235. In the

case of U235, the excitation energy or the energy available by the capture of slow

neutron is greater than the threshold and unstable U 235 to become fissionable.

The reason that why for U235 and U238are fissionable different condition is in

pairing term of semi-empirical mass formula. This contribute about 0.5 MeV

extra for U238 and zero for U235 and similarly zero for U239 but is again 0 for U238.

Thus the odd-even effect is mainly the excuse for the different fission reaction in

the isotopes of the same element (lie Uranium), for different neutron energies.

In general, for various types of nuclei, after the neutrons capture, the nuclei

undergo fission with larger energies if either it contains even protons and odd

neutrons or both with odd numbers. The fission with fast neutrons will occur

with odd-even or even-odd in the some mass region of the nuclei (isotopes etc).

Quantum Effects:

The values of the excitation energy, threshold energy etc. calculated on the

above theory (Bohr and Wheeler) does not match with the experiments. The

disagreement of the theory may be due to some quantum mechanical effect.

1. Fission may occur before the threshold due to some finite probability as a

result of Quantum Tunneling effect.

2. The vibration of the drop in the distorted mode will have zero point

energy.

Using quantum tunnelling, the fission barrier penetration probability can be

expressed as

[

P e

2

(2 M ( V E ))1/2 dr

a

Hisham Shah

81

Where M is reduced mass of the two fragments, (V-E) is the negative kinetic

energy in barrier with width b. We assume that the potential barrier has a

parabolic form i.e.

1

V = K ( rR )2

2

fragments and R is the separation at the top of barrier. The width of the barrier

1

b is given by ( for R= 2 b

1

1

1

E= K b b b= 2 E/ K

2

2

2

[ ( )( ) ]

P exp

M

K

[( )

exp

For

1/2

b

1 /2

( 2 ME )

2

P exp100

Frankel & Metropolis obtained the life time of the spontaneous fission using

barrier penetration as

21

t=1 0

7.85 E th

10

sec

2

21

t =10

10

753.75

( ZA ) sec

Eth =19.0=0.3

( )

Z

A

experiments.

Hisham Shah

82

everyone, not just a few scientists. Then we shall all, philosophers, scientists, and just ordinary people,

be able to take part in the discussion of the question of why it is that we and the universe exist. If we find

the answer to that, it would be the ultimate triumph of human reason - for then we would know the mind

of God.

Stephen Hawking, A Brief History of Time

"I would like nuclear fusion to become a practical power source. It would provide an inexhaustible

supply of energy, without pollution or global warming."

Stephen Hawking

Thermonuclear fusion reactions offer an inexhaustible source of energy for the future. In this

process, two light nuclei combine to form a heavier one, the total final mass being slightly less than

total initial mass. The mass difference m appears as energy E. According to Einsteins famous

equation E=mc2. It is believed that such a source of energy will provide easy, cheap and relatively

radiative free route of energy for our future needs. There are two possible ways to obtain fusion.

Beam Target Mechanism: The energetic light nuclei beam may be directed towards stationary light

nuclei in solid or gaseous form. The beam & target nuclei undergo fusion reactions and this process

is called Beam Target Mechanism. However, the technique do not work, because most of deuterons

lose energy by scattering before undergoing a fusion reaction.

THERMONUCLEAR FUSION IN STARS AND SUN

Hisham Shah

83

The sun produces energy almost by hydrogen burning with Helium as an end point products of the

mass and sun. To get hydrogen burning started must have come from the conservation of

gravitational energy. We can estimate the gravitational energy released in the contraction of a

diffused cloud of gas to a body of the size of the sun.

Suppose the initial cloud of gas to have had the mass of sun and to have been spread over a volume

of the sun to be approximately constant density rho, then

R

Ereal = F grad dr =

0

G M1M2

dr

R

R0

( v )( A )

G

4

16 2 G

16 2 G 5 2

Ereal =G

dr = R 3 ( 4 R2 ) 2 dr=

R 4 dr=

R

R

R0 3

3

15

0

0

16 2 G 2

16 2 G 5 2

4

R

dr=

R

3

15

0

Ereal =

As

2

16 2 G R 50 M 20

3 G M0

=

15

16 2 6 5 R

R

9

R=71010 cm

Since the energy of a mass of a gas at temperature T is RT per mole, one mole of ionized hydrogen

gas is approximately equal to grams. If the sun is pure atomic hydrogen, then it contains

2*10^33 moles, and at temperature T, the thermal energy will be Eth 2*10^33 RT.

If all the gravitational energy released in the contraction of the sun to present, size was converted to

heat, then the temperature is given by,

210 48=210 33 RT=T =179 K

In the central region, the temperature and the pressure of the star will be at maximum and because of

the continual loss of the radiation from the surface, a temperature gradient will exist in the star and

the energy which is generated in the core will transport outward and become degraded until it is

radiated from surface. The surface temperature of the sun is 6000 K, and so the mean temperature

gradient is 1 K per 100 meters. If the temperature of 10^7 K in the interior of the sun was insufficient

to drive the thermonuclear process at a rate capable of sustaining the sun in equilibrium, then the sun

would contract releasing more gravitational energy and hence raising the interior temperature until

Hisham Shah

84

the hydrogen burning went far enough to prevent further collapse. We must conclude that a

temperature of 10^7 K is sufficient to generate thermonuclear power at a rate that will balance

energy loss.

NUCLEAR FUSION

In contrast to fission reaction, nuclear fusion is a process where light nuclei fuse together and form a

relatively heavier nucleus. The mass difference of the reacting and product nucleus and particle goes

to the energy carried by the products. The general form of the reaction is

X +Y Z +a+Q(energy released , carried by Z A)

The energy release per fusion reaction is actually less than the fission reaction but the energy releases

in this case is large in comparison with fission reaction per mass of the fuel. In simple words, in

order to obtain the same amount of energy as released by one gram of fissionable material, we need

fuel less than one gram. In this way, we prefer fusion reaction than fission. Another important

advantage of fusion is that the fuel is cheap, easy to obtain and have large abundance. The reason

that nuclear fusion reaction in certain nuclei is possible can be explained using binding energy curve.

The BE/nucleon in the lower mass number A (nuclei) favour nuclear fusion than nuclear fission in

having mass number.

SOURCE OF ENERGY IN STARS AND SUN

It has been observed that the sun (our home star) emits

continuously electromagnetic radiation at rate of about 10^26

The energy released in

joule. The second astronomical and geological data provide

fusion of lighter nuclei into

evidence that sun has been emitting this much energy for

heavier nuclei is called

several billion years. Chemical reactions can not be a source of

this much energy, because even if the sun is supposed to thermonuclear fusion.

consist of pure carbon, its complete combustion would supply energy to mantain the radiations only

for few thousand years. The question is how can the sun have maintained this much energy output so

long and what is the source of all stellar energy? Helmholtz (1853) suggested that source of energy in

sunmmight be due to the gravitational contraction and conversion of gravitational energy into heat

energy. This conversion of energy is similar to the production of electricity from falling water.

However it was shown later on that if the contraction take place, the supply of energy from the sun

could not be more than 1% of the total output needed and the life of the sun must be too short. With

discovery of radioactivity at the end of 19th century, it was suggested that radioactivity is contributing

the energy of the sum of annihilation of the +ve and ve changes are the most valid source. In the

core of the sun, thermonuclear reactions occur which are responsible for about 90% of the suns

energy similarly all other stars are examples of plasma state.

Bethe in 1939 suggested that the production of stellar energy is caused by thermonuclear reaction in

which helium nuclei are synthesized by four hydrogen nuclei (i.e. proton). Recent results show that

sun temperature corresponds to the proton-proton chain. In carbon-nitrogen chain, cyclic carbon act

as a short catalyst in facilitating four hydrogen combined to form helium nucleus. The reactions are,

Hisham Shah

85

13

6

C12+ 1 H 1 (7 N 13

) 7 N + ( 1.94 MeV ) ; ( 10 years )

13

13

7 N ( 6C ) +

14

5

C13+ 1 H 1 (7 N 14

) 7 N + ( Q=7.55 MeV ) ; ( 210 years )

15

7

H 1+7 N14 (8O 15

) 8O + ( Q=7.15 MeV ) ; ( 310 years )

15

15

8O 7 N +

12

4

4

H 1 +7 N15 8O16

6C + 2 He + ( Q=4.96 MeV ) ; ( 10 years )

1

4 1 H 2 He +2

It must be noted that this chain reaction can be started either with carbon or nitrogen since each is

reproduced in the reaction.

The four protons are associated with four electrons to maintain electrical neutralit, where two are

required in helium...and rest of two combine readily with protons emitted in the form of gamma rays.

In P-P chain, two protons first fuse together to produce deutronic (1H4). These reactions can be

represented as

++ ( Q=0.42 MeV ) ; ( 7107 years )

1 1

2

1 H + 1H 1 H +

He 3 +2 He3 2He4 + 1 H 1 + 1 H 1+

1

4 1 H 2 He +2

The proton emitted are annihilated with free electron forming gamma rays.

Hisham Shah

86

H. Bondi and S.S. Salpeter (1952) developed experimental relation for the rate at which energy is

liberated in each of the above equations. The P-P chain reaction varies slowly with temperature,

roughly T^4 and is more important at lower temperatures. The carbon-nitrogen cycle dominates at

high temperature in the vicinity of about 18*10^6 K.

The rate of energy generation in the sun is the same both for P-P and C-N but P-P dominates (96%)

because interior temperature of the suns core is 1.5*10^6 K.

CONTROLLED THERMONUCLEAR FUSION

Controlled thermonuclear fusion is assumed to be inexhaustible source of energy for the future. It is

believed that such a source will provide energy cheap and relatively radiative free route of energy for

our future needs. The most promising method to achieve controlled fusion is to heat the fuel to a

sufficient high temperature so that thermal velocities of the nuclei are high enough to produce the

required reactions, such a sssss is referred to Thermonuclear Fusion reactions. The few reactions of

particular interests are

3 1

D + 1 D 2 He 0n ( Q=2.73 MeV )

D2 + 1 D2 1T 3 + p ( Q=4.03 MeV )

lighter nuclei into heavier nuclei is

called

thermonuclear

fusion.

Controlled thermo- nuclear reactors

or thermonuclear powerplants are the

primary source of energy for future.

The temperature required to start the

fusion reaction can be obtained by

bombarding the protons with high

energy particle and with high energy

laser beam.

D + 1T 2 He+ 0n 1

has

large cross-section even at relatively low (~10^4 KeV) temperature and has large Q value as

compared to

D2 + 1 D2 reactions .

For those reactions most of experimental test reactor programs are based on D-T fuel and probably

the first prototype commercial reactor will utilize D-T fuel. To achieve Thermonuclear Fusion

energy, one needs to solve two problems.

1. To produce and heat the fuel (plasma of the fuel) to thermonuclear fusion temperature.

2. To confine it for long enough time in suitable arrangements to produce more fusion energy

than expended in heating the fuel.

Hisham Shah

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P output

=

Pinput

When =1, we say that the power consumed to heat and confined are equal and is called break-even

condition. For commercial reactor, we would require about > 10. The value of = 1 is critical

value and after > 1, we will have a self-sustained fusion reaction. The output power fusion power

(output of the reactor) is (for D-T case).

=nD n T

.....................

n D , nT

Where

v> DT

is D-T fusion reaction cross-section average over Maxwells velocity distribution.

The input power is related to the internal (thermal) energy (of the fuel plasma) i.e.

E

n D nT <

For

3 KT

n

2 E . Hence

v> DT Q DT

3 KT

2 nD

2 E

( )

=1

n=2n D =2 nT

n E=

12 KT

v> Q

1014 sec

DT

c m3 for

The relation

is called Lawson criterion which relates the density of the fuel to the

Hisham Shah

88

14

n E 1016 sec /c m3 for DDreaction

Once the fuel attain the temperature, the density etc and confinement time above these values the

reaction by products (say alpha particles and neutrons in case of DT) deposits their energy of MeV

level within the fuel plasma and self sustained reaction start-up. The condition where the fusion

reaction ignites the plasma further to react is known as ignition temperature. Once we reach to

ignition temperature, we in principle, dont need any further heating. The ignition temperature for

D-T and D-D reactions are

T I ( DT ) 4 KeV

T I ( DD ) 36 KeV

In order to achieve the goal of controlled fusion one need heat, confine the hot dense plasma of the

usual deuterium-tritium or deuterium-deutrium gas. There are two common and popular approaches

i.e. Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), and Magnetic Confinement Fusion being pursued for

controlled thermonuclear reactions to take place. There are two approaches based on non-thermal

process called Cold Fusion e.g. muon-catalysized and fusion through electrolysis, both are less

popular.

In pinch device, the plasma formation is smaller as like an ordinary light blue, but high density of the

fuel is filled in the cylindrical class tube and is discharged by passing a current of kilo to mega

ampere level within short time. The first power discharge generates strong magnetic field on the

surface of the cylindrical plasma column. If the current flows in Z direction, a magnetic field in Fr =J z B

direction is produced. The plasma is then compressed due to Lorentz force

. Such a type

of compression by self generated magnetic field is known as pinch-device. The few common type

pinch devices used for controlled fusion are z-pinch (current flow in z-direction), -pinch (current

flows in -direction) and plasma focus etc. Hot and dense plasma formation have been observed in

all these devices.

In magnetic mirror, the fusion fuel plasma is usually confined in a bottle shaped magnetic field. The

system consist of straight tube with magnetic coils wounded around it in such a way as to provide a

field that is considerably stronger at the ends than in the middle. The ion moves in spiral orbits with

radius of curvature

(r = mveB )

certain conditions reflect back when move in the region of strong magnetic field. This arrangement

for longer time without loss of particles. In closed end devices like toroidal (TOKAMAK) and

twisted toroidal (stellerator), the plasma confined so that the particles loss problems associated with

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89

the opened device could be overcome. In tokamak, a popular one, the magnetic field with the line of

force parallel to the circumference of the ring-type tube is produced by winding a coil of wire around

thr tube passing electric current through it. In order to avoid certain problems, additional coils are

usually placed at the centre which gives an additional magnetic field. To date, Tokamak is the most

successful and has reached the limits of break-even condition on big machines like JET (Joint

European Torus, in UK) and TFTR (Princeton, USA). Scientific community hopes that availability of

commercial fusion reactor will be possible within one or two decades. In this regard, conceptual

design of ITER (International Test Experimental Reactor) is in completion and will be available for

operation upto 2010, probably.

INERTIAL CONFINEMENT FUSION

In inertial confinement fusion (ICF) approach, the objective is to compress and heat a pullet (a solid

spherical ball shaped fuel of fusion) by focusing of implos... (inward compression due to pressure of

oblating material) carried by some drivers e.g. Laser or particle beams as shown.

When light fall on the surface of the fuel pellet, the... oblates and generates pressure inward radially

(rocket like ach... due to Newtons third law). The rest of the fuel is compressed due to this pressure

and becomes very hot (strong shock-wave propagation). The strong shockwave generated by the

ablation pressure converges at the centre resulting dense and hot plasma a centre of pellet as shown

in stage 3. The dense hot deuterium-tritium fuel burn due to fusion reaction and in result, alpha

particle deposit their energy within the fuel pellet heating further it and heat propagates outward as

shown in stage 4. The whole process takes few nanoseconds and therefore......................................

Historically, this method was find among all the pursued due to the fact that electrically charged

plasma particles (D-T ions and electrons) treats along a line of magnetic field or spiral around in a

cork-screw fashion. In this approach, the D-T fuel plasma ions are trapped in a suitable shape in a

magnetic field, away from the wall of the container, for sufficiently long time. During this time of

plasma confinement the high temperature and density has to be built up so that sufficient reaction can

take place. There are two types of machines i.e. open and closed type, each one has their merits

and demerits. The requirement of temperature density and confinement time have, so far, been met

separately in different devices but at one simultaneously. The few famous type of arrangements are

as shown

Hisham Shah

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