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Open drain output in TIVA c :

General purpose input/output (GPIO) pins on microcontrollers

have various modes for both input and output. Input modes
may include pull-up or pull-down resistors, hysteresis, or some
combination. Output modes can be push-pull, high-drive or
An external resistor is connected in series between the pin and
an external power supply to drive larger output signals in
open-drain mode. The external power supply (VDDEXT) should
be limited to 5.5 V. Reliability issues result if voltages higher
than 5.5 V are applied to a GPIO pin during any transient
condition. Supply sequencing and transient voltages pose too
much risk, so the safest solution is to limit the external supply
to 5.5 V. There is a weak internal pull-down connected to the
GPIO pins. The external pull-up resistor must be sized correctly
to achieve the expected swing at the output pin. The value of
the external pull-up resistor (RPU) can be calculated using the
following expression knowing the value of the weak pull-down
current (ILEAKpd) in open-drain mode.
Where,RPU = External pull-up resistor
VDDEXT = External supply limited to 5.5 V
VOUT = Voltage at the GPIO pin
ILEAKpd = Open-drain, output driver weak-pull down current source, 30 A
(nominal value), ILEAKpd (15 A,60 A) for all PVT conditions.

GPIOs can be connected to a 5-V external voltage source with an

external pull-up resistor when they are configured as open drain


Open Drain is a type of programmable output port

configuration with push pull,input only, and quasi-bidirectional
configurations. Open-collector/open-drain is a circuit technique
which allows multiple devices to communicate bidirectionally
on a single wire. This is basically a mode which provides just a
pull down operation.An open collector/open drain is a common
type of output found on many integrated circuits (IC). Instead
of outputting a signal of a specific voltage or current, the
output signal is applied to the base of an internal NPN
transistor whose collector is externalized (open) on a pin of the
IC. The emitter of the transistor is connected internally to the
ground pin. If the output device is a MOSFET the output is
called open drain and it functions in a similar way

Open-drain devices sink (flow) current in their low voltage
active (logic 0) state, or are high impedance (no current flows)
in their high voltage non-active (logic 1) state. These devices
usually operate with an external pull-up resistor that holds the
signal line high until a device on the wire sinks enough current
to pull the line low. Many devices can be attached to the signal
wire. If all devices attached to the wire are in their non-active
state, the pull-up will hold the wire at a high voltage. If one or

more devices are in the active state, the signal wire voltage
will be low.
An open-collector/open-drain signal wire can also be bidirectional. Bi-directional means that a device can both output
and input a signal on the wire at the same time. In addition to
controlling the state of its pin that is connected to the signal
wire (active, or non-active), a device can also sense the
voltage level of the signal wire. Although the output of a opencollecter/open-drain device may be in the non-active (high)
state, the wire attached to the device may be in the active
(low) state, due to activity of another device attached to the
The bi-directional nature of an open-collector/open-drain
device is what makes this circuit so important in
interconnecting many devices on a common line. The I2C Bus
and SMBus uses this technique for connecting up to 127


1. The control line and output (collector/drain) can use difference
voltage level.
2. Increase the output pin power.


1 ) It is employed into output port of controllers to reduce the output

circuitry. If output port is set into open-drain mode then we dont
require any circuit to pull down the output value of the pin.The
open-drain output configuration turns off all pull-ups and only drives
the pull-down transistor of the port pin when the port latch contains
logic 0. To be used as a logic output, a port configured in this
manner must have an external pull-up, typically a resistor tied to
VDD. The pull down for this mode is the same as for the quasibidirectional mode. To use an analogue input pin as a highimpedance digital input while a comparator is enabled
2) I2C and SPI protocols use open drain as the physical
implementation.At the physical layer, both SCL and SDA lines are
open-drain I/Os with pull-up resistors. Pulling such a line to ground is

decoded as a logical zero, while releasing the line and letting it flow
is a logical one. Actually, a device on a IC bus only drives zeros.
At electrical level, there is actually no conflict at all if multiple
devices try to put any logic level on the IC bus lines simultaneously.
If one of the drivers tries to write a logical zero and the other a
logical one, then the open-drain and pull-up structure ensures that
there will be no shortcut and the bus will actually see a logical zero
transiting on the bus. In other words, in any conflict, a logic zero
always wins.However, there are situations where an IC slave is not
able to co-operate with the clock speed given by the master and
needs to slow down a little. This is done by a mechanism referred to
as clock stretching and is made possible by the particular opendrain / pull-up structure of a IC bus line.

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Interface :

attaching off-the-shelf
electrical hardware to etextiles:
(a) the design of fabric PCBs or
iron-on circuits to attach
electronics directly to a fabric substrate;
(b) the use of electronic sequins to create wearable displays and
other Artefacts
(c) the use of socket buttons to facilitate connecting pluggable
devices to textiles


Fabric PCBs are subject to abuses that traditional PCBs are not
the twisting, folding and stretching of cloth and solder joints
inevitably break under this strain. To resolve this issue, each
solder joint needs to be covered with an inflexible coating
before the fabric PCB can be worn or washed. Handcut traces
(and laser-cut ones) can function as lovely decorative
elements in e-textiles.
Fabric PCBs are flexible, washable (hopefully) and sewable,
even with sewing machines. The method we used is basically
following the fabric PCB from Leah Buechley. You need a laser
cutter to do this method, since the cut pieces are quite small
and needs to be accurate. It will be quite difficult to cut this by


1) Creating your circuit drawing .
2) Constructing a fabric PCB.
a) Iron a sheet of Heat-n-Bond onto a sheet of conductive
b) Place the fabric into the laser cutter, paper side up
c) Carefully focus the laser cutter. Note: appropriate focusing
is especially important for these delicate PCBs.
d) Laser-etch the circuit.

e) Laser cut the backing fabric.

f) Peel the paper off of the circuit only where you want it to
adhere to the backing fabric.
g) Iron the circuit onto the backing fabric
h) Peel the excess conductive fabric away from the backing
fabric, leaving the circuit behind
1) Military and defense: Electronic textiles are in research to
have strong and efficient soldiers which include the
development of integrated sensor arrays and several other
embedded sensing technologies which can be integrated into
the soldiers vehicles, clothing, backpacks or tents.
Biofeedback can track a soldiers vital signs to enhance
endurance and overall health, such as socks with pressure
sensors that alert you to put your feet up to lower blood
pressure. Environmental sensing can detect enemies or
potential biochemical threats, such as a woven conductive
fabric with embedded button-size microphones that detect the
sound of remote objects such as approaching vehicles.Another
active research area involves smart, dynamic, responsive, or
interactive camouflage: uniforms that possess chameleon-like
qualities and can change color when a soldier moves from a
desert environment to an urban one.
2) Telemedicine and sports health : There have been
strong estimations for the growth of telemedicine, but the
production of smart garment medical devices to supplant
these predictions is developing much slowly than would be
expected. Multi-sensor garments which have been underway
for several years are now becoming commercially available.
a) The heart rate monitor.
b) Multi-sensor physiological monitoring
c) Owlet baby monitor
d) Stretch sense sensors
3) Fashion: A number of designers are continuing to make their
mark within wearable technology fashion, using LED light and
color to enhance garments for many stage performances and
high profile events and occasions. The special effects for these
performances are becoming increasingly advanced as the LED
lights are being programmed with increasing

sophistication.LED fashion garments which have now become

commercially available and also other applications of smart
textiles within fashion lines are being designed which
incorporate inbuilt solar panels for charging technology on-thego.
table delivered from[1]

figure 2 application in fashion delivered from[2]

[3] Leah Buechley Michael Eisenberg, Fabric PCBs, electronic
sequins, and socket buttons: techniques for e-textile craft.