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70 vizualizări43 paginiHardening concrete

Oct 07, 2015

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Hardening concrete

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70 vizualizări

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Hardening concrete

© All Rights Reserved

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7.1 Introduction

For quite a number of reasons, the behaviour of hardening concrete has gained more and more

interest in recent years. The most important reasons are:

Successful introduction of automation in the (concrete) building industry requires an accurate

understanding of the hardening process. Criteria, with which production and building

processes are controlled, are strength development and control or prevention of cracking.

More stringent quality and durability requirements are formulated, either in terms of the

maximum temperature and temperature differences in the hardening stage, or in terms of the

acceptability of the stresses or the magnitude of deformations. This represents micro- and/or

macro cracking.

Walls of liquid retaining structures, such as tunnels and basements are desired (preferred) to

remain crack free.

In order to benefit from the specific properties of high performance concretes, one has to be

convinced that these properties are obtained. This asks for an accurate control of the

hardening process.

The introduction of (rapid) personal computers made it possible to describe and calculate the

complex behaviour of hardening concrete more accurately. This fact generates a need for

more interest in the hardening stage and a move towards increasingly strictly formulated

requirements.

For all these cases, emphasis is on the hardening process and the associated phenomena such as

temperature, strength and stress development and finally, cracking. Besides the presence of

thermal stresses, the use of low water-cement ratio concretes substantially contributes to the

development of stresses due to autogenous shrinkage (see section 7.6.3.).

The mechanism responsible for the development of stresses and the formation of cracks in

hardening concrete is known qualitatively. Also in the field of the qualification of the behaviour

of hardening concrete, much is achieved. Nevertheless, there still exist a number of problems,

especially when it comes to the practical applications of the achieved understandings. It is a

highly complex problem, where we have to deal with the highly non-linear behaviour of the

material. Without the help of adequate numerical tools, quantification of this behaviour is

impossible.

Factors that play an important role for the quantification of the stress development and the

probability of cracking in early-age concrete are:

The development of the thermal properties

- heat conduction coefficient

- specific heat

- expansion coefficient

The hardening shrinkage

The development of mechanical properties

- compressive and tensile strength

- elastic modulus

Rheology properties

- creep

- relaxation

Mechanical boundary conditions (degree of restraint and deformations)

The factors mentioned, i.e. properties, show a time dependency. It is better to say that there exists

a relationship with the development (progress) of the hydration or hardening process. An accurate

description of the hydration process is therefore indispensable for achieving a consistent

description of the behaviour of hardening concrete.

The hardening process of concrete is the result of a chemical-physical reaction of cement and

water. This is an exothermic reaction, which is a reaction during which heat is liberated. Due to

this liberated heat, the temperature of the concrete rises (Fig. 7.1a) and the concrete expands. The

strain increment (T()) developed is:

(T ( )) = c T ( )

In which:

(7.1)

c

= expansion coefficient of concrete

T() = temperature increment at time t =

Besides the temperature induced strains, deformations due to swelling and/or hardening

shrinkage might also occur. This issue is discussed in more detail in section 7.6. The hardening

shrinkage, which is almost equal to the autogenous shrinkage aush (see section 7.6.4) plays an

important role for low water cement ratio concretes.

For the total deformation increment of concrete in the hardening stage at time t = it holds:

T + aush = c T ( ) + aush

(7.2)

(t ,=

) ( c T ( ) + aush ( )) Ec ( ) r ( )

(7.3)

where:

Ec() = elastic modulus of concrete at loading time t =

r()

= degree of restraint of the deformation at loading time (r = 0,0 .. 1,0)

temp. (C)

T(t)

T ( )

(T ( )) = c T ( )

To

aush

shrinkage

function of degree of hydratation

Ec

Ec ( )

(t , ) = [ (T ( )) + aush ( ) ] (t , ) Ec ( ) r ( )

r() = degree of restraint

()

(t,)

t <

compression

d. stress increment ( )

stress =

( )

time

tension

f

(t)

normal distribution

Fig. 7.1

The mechanism that leads to stress development and cracking in hardening concrete.

Due to the influence of relaxation, stresses are reduced in accordance with (Fig. 7.1d):

(t , ) = [ (T ( )) + aush ( )] (t , ) Ec ( ) r ( )

where:

(7.4)

(t,) = relaxation factor

Stress reduction due to relaxation is an important issue in hardening concrete. Relaxation factors

traditionally applied for the description of the stress development in hardened concrete are not

applicable. The relaxation behaviour of hardening concrete, therefore, requires due attention (see

section 7.8.2)

Summation of the stress increments (t,) results in the overall (tensile) stress ct(t) according

to:

i

ct (t ) = (t , i )

(7.5)

Cracking occurs whenever the tensile stresses ct(t) exceeds the actual tensile strength (Fig. 7.1e).

Expressed as a formula:

where:

P{Fcr}(t)

ct(t)

fct(t)

(7.6)

= tensile stress at time t (summation of the stress

increments (t,))

= tensile strength at time t

As mentioned before, the description of the hydration process is the basis for the description of

the behaviour of hardening concrete. The quantification of the hydration process is discussed in

more detail in the following sections.

7.3.1 Processes and mechanisms

One can imagine the hardening process very schematically as follows. As soon as cement and

water come into contact, a thin layer of reaction products forms at the surface of the cement

particles (Fig. 7.2). This is called a phase-boundary reaction. Initially, the reaction process is

retarded quite significantly due to the precipitation of the reaction products at the surface of the

cement particles. The period during which hardly any observable reaction activity is exhibited, is

called the dormant stage. The duration of this dormant stage is influenced substantially by means

of addition of reaction accelerators or retarders. The duration of the dormant stage ranges from

several hours up to more than twenty hours.

At the end of the dormant stage, the reaction process changes towards the acceleration period. In

a relatively short time, a substantial part of the cement reacts with water. Within this process, the

layer of hydration products around the cement particles becomes thicker and particles are in

contact with each other. After this stage, the process becomes diffusion controlled.

A microstructure develops, existing of unhydrated cement, hydration products (gel) and a

(capillary) pore system, partly filled with water. The gel consists of a solid material and water

filled gel pores. This gel water is physically bound to the surface of the gel particles. After a

certain period, the acceleration stage changes towards the ceasing stage.

1.0

Qmax

degree of hydration

0.5

heat-development Q ( )

degree of hydration

h ()

Q*max

h () =

Q ( )

Qmax

acceleration period

hydratationcurveh (t)

degree of reaction

de-celeration period

dormant stage

r () =

0

Fig. 7.2

h ( ):

r ( )

Q ( )

Q*max

time (t)

The ratio of the amount of cement converted into reaction products and the originally available

amount of cement is called the degree of hydration h (Fig. 7.3):

h =

originally available amount of cement Vce (0)

(7.7)

When it is assumed that the amount of liberated heat is proportional to the amount of cement that

has reacted, the degree of hydration can also be presented with the ratio:

h ( ) =

where: Q()

Qmax

Q( )

Qmax

(7.8)

= the amount of liberated heat at complete hydration of all available cement.

V

Vcw

Vg

h =

Vce (0)

Vce (0)

= air volume

Vcw

Vg

= gel volume

Vce

Vce

Fig. 7.3

Vl

The amount of heat developed at complete hydration depends on the type of cement. For Portland

cement in particular, the value of Qmax is between 350 and 500 J/g cement. A relatively high

C3A 1) and/or C3S2) content results in a high value of Qmax. A high amount of C2S3) provides a

lower and slower heat development.

Depending on the type of cement, a water-cement ratio (wcr) of about 0,4 is theoretically required

to obtain complete hydration of all the cement present. In practice however, a wcr of 0,4 does not

result in complete hydration. Fig. 7.4 provides an impression of the maximum degree of

hydration h,max expected in practice as a function of the wcr. For finer cements, higher values for

h,max can be achieved and for more coarse cements lower values for h,max will be reached than

the results presented in the figure suggest.

1.0

degree of hydration

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

Fig. 7.4

1)

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

wcr

wcr [1].

In the literature, the term degree of reaction r is sometimes used. The degree of reaction is

defined as the ratiot between the amount of heat liberated Q() and the (practical) maximum

liberated amount of heat Q*max (see also Fig. 7.2):

r ( ) =

Q( )

Q* max

(7.9)

For Q*max, the amount of heat liberated after 28 days of hardening can be used or, instead, the

value determined in an adiabatic hydration test after e.g. 7 days of hardening. After this period,

the hydration process almost ceases. As a result of this, the sum of the heat produced hardly

changes.

For a certain mixture, i.e. a mixture with a certain wcr, an unambiguous linear relationship

between the degree of reaction and the degree of hydration exists:

r ( ) =

Qmax

h ( )

Q* max

(7.10)

Based on Fig. 7.4, it is seen that, for most commonly used concrete mixtures in practice with

wcrs ranging between 0,40 and 0,55, a degree of reaction of 100% corresponds with a degree of

hydration between 0,7 and 0,8. For low water-cement ratio mixtures, like high strength concrete

(wcr 0,3), the degree of hydration is limited to about 0,5 0,6. The high strength of these

concretes is therefore not a result of the high degree of hydration, but is the result of a high

packing density of the particles.

7.4.1 Adiabatic temperature rise

In case all heat liberated is used for heating the concrete itself, it is called an adiabatic process.

The temperature follows a so-called adiabatic temperature rise. This adiabatic temperature rise is

calculated from:

Ta (t ) =

where:

T(t)

C

c

cc

h (t ) C Qmax

c cc

= cement content of the concrete

= specific mass of the concrete

= specific heat of the concrete

(7.11)

[C]

[kg/m3]

[kg/m3]

[kJ/kg.C]

To illustrate this, Table 7.1 provides an example of an adiabatic temperature rise in a normal

strength concrete mixture.

temperature [C]

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

Tadi

T0

Fig. 7.5

degree of hydration

h (adi)

time

The heat capacity c cc [kJ/m3 C] of hardening concrete is, strictly speaking, not a constant value,

but is a function of the degree of hydration. If, to avoid complexities, the heat capacity were a

constant (which, for most practical applications, is acceptable) a linear relation exists between the

adiabatic temperature rise and the degree of hydration. This implies that both have the same

course in time (Fig. 7.5). For this particular case, the adiabatic temperature rise is often used to

determine the degree of reaction, using a so-called adiabatic calorimeter.

Table 7.1 Example of adiabatic temperature rise calculation

Input parameters:

Heat capacity:

Max. degree of hydration:

Max heat production:

Cement content:

Question:

h = 0,8

Qmax = 450 kJ/kg

C = 350 kg/m3

Ta = 0,8 . 350 . 450 / 2500 = 50,4 C

The heat transfer to the surroundings prevented, the temperature of a concrete cast at 15 C would

rise up to about 65 C!

The adiabatic hydration curve, or simply speaking the adiabatic curve, is an important input

parameter for computer software to calculate the temperature development in hardening concrete

structures. More and more (besides the traditional mix characteristics as slump and flow), a

concrete producer might also be asked to provide an adiabatic curve of a concrete mixture. One

should be aware that the shape of the experimentally determined adiabatic curve always depends

on the initial (casting) temperature of the mixture!

The shape of the adiabatic curve also depends on the following set of factors:

Chemical composition of the cement

Particle size distribution of the cement (Blaine)

Water-cement ratio

Cement content

Temperature

Availability of agents (accelerators, retarders)

In Fig. 7.6, for three different concrete mixtures, the adiabatic heat development is presented as a

function of time. It concerns a normal strength concrete (C = 350 kg/m3 Portland cement), a high

strength concrete (C = 475 kg/m3) and a Granulate concrete (C = 150 kg/m3 blast furnace slag

cement CEM III/B). The latter two adiabatic curves provide a clear impression of the range of

adiabatic temperature rises to be expected.

Fig. 7.7 provides three adiabatic curves for Portland fly ash cement for three different casting

temperatures. What is striking is that a lower casting temperature initially shows a lower heat

development, but in the longer run shows an increase of the heat production. The cause of this

phenomenon is the influence of the hardening temperature on the structure of the hydration

products formed [2].

80

temperature [C]

b

concrete characteristics

60

a. C25/C35

b. C85

c. granulate concrete

40

c

20

0

Fig. 7.6

24

48

72

96

120

144

168

time [hours]

50

TA 51

TA 52

40

TA 53

30

20

T0=30

20 10

10

0

0

Fig. 7.7

1 2345

12

24

36 48

72

96

120

168

time [hours]

In case of practical circumstances (depending on the dimensions of a structure and/or the

presence of cooling pipes), heat is transferred to the surroundings with elapse of time. The

hydration process then no longer is adiabatic. The temperature of the concrete decreases and the

hydration process will retard. A hardening process that initially is adiabatic and shows indications

of retardation is a semi-adiabatic process. In Fig. 7.8, both the development of an adiabatic and a

semi-adiabatic hydration process are schematically presented. The semi-adiabatic process takes

place at the indicated semi-adiabatic temperature development Tp(t).

temperature ( C)

h (t)

0.5

Tsemi adi

degree of hydratation

h (t)

1.0

adiabatic curve

time

Fig. 7.8

The course of a semi-adiabatic hydration process, also called the process curve, is determined by

the temperature Tp(t) at which the reaction process takes place. Oppositely, the temperature on its

turn depends, among other things, on the amount of heat produced per unit of time. Thus, the

temperature development and the heat development are coupled quantities.

10

The mutual dependency between the rate of hydration and the concrete temperature implies that

the calculations of both the temperature development and the hardening process are to be carried

out using a step-wise calculation procedure in which the effect of the actual temperature and the

rate of reaction are modelled explicitly.

concrete structure

For determining the development of the hydration process (i.e. the degree of hydration) and the

temperature development in a hardening concrete structure, use is made of the differential

equation of Fourier including a heat source. For a one-dimensional heat flow, it holds:

1

T

2T

q ( x, t )

= ac 2 +

c . cc c

t

x

(7.12)

ac =

where:

ac

c

cc

c

T(x,t)

qc(x,t)

x

t

c

c . cc

= heat conduction coefficient

= specific heat of the concrete

= specific mass of the concrete

= temperature of the concrete

= heat source

= coordinate

= time

(7.13)

[m2/h]

[W/m.K]

[kJ/kg.K]

[kg/m3]

[K]

[kJ/m3.h]

[m]

[h]

With qc(x,t) = Qc(x,t) / t and the transition towards a finite difference approach, the differential

equation is expressed as:

Qc ( x, t )

T

2T

1

+

= ac

2

c . cc

t

t

(x)

(7.14)

where Qc(x,t) [kJ/m3] is the heat development within a time step t. The temperature at time

t+t is found by adding the temperature rise caused by the heat liberation Qc(x,t) to the

temperature T(t). This temperature rise is calculated by dividing the amount of heat Qc(x,t)

liberated within a time step t by the heat capacity c.cc.

For this particular case, the heat increment Qp(x,t), in which the index p implies the process,

can be determined according to (see Fig. 7.9):

(7.15)

11

f ( h; j , Tp; j ) = e

R

Ta; j Tp; j

(7.16)

where:

EA(Tp)

R

Qa;j+1

Qp;j+1

Ta;j

Tp;j

[J/mol]

= universal gas constant

[8,31 J/mol.K]

= heat development in time step tj+1 in the adiabatic process

= heat development in time step tj+1 in the semi-adiabatic process

= temperature in K at an adiabatic process at time tj

= temperature in K where the process actually happens at time tj

The quantity f(h;j,Tp;j) relates the rate at which the hydration process takes place to the rate at

which the process would take place if the conditions were adiabatical (see Fig. 7.9).

Qmax

Q (t)

temperature (C)

t j+1

Qa;j+1

Ta;j

Tp;j

Qp;j+1

Qa;j

Qp;j

T0

tj

tj+1

t j+1

Fig. 7.9

time

The reliability of the calculated temperature development and rate of reaction strongly depend on

the activation energy EA adopted. This quantity accounts for the temperature sensitivity of the

hydration process. A high activation energy implies a high temperature sensitivity.

The activation energy is not a constant, but depends on the chemical composition of the cement,

the degree of hydration and the temperature range considered [2]. An indication for the range of

the activation energy is in Fig. 7.10. For many practical cases, the following values for the

activation energy can be used [3]:

For T 20 C:

For T < 20 C:

EA = 33.5 kJ/mol

EA = 33.5 + 1.47(20-T) kJ/mol

12

Krel

b

EA =50 kJ/mol

EA =35 kJ/mol

EA =30 kJ/mol

a. Danish cement

b. Swedish cements

0.5

0

0

273

Fig. 7.10

EA =45 kJ/mol

10

20

293

30

40

50

60

70 C

313

K

333

temperature

Temperature function Krel = f(h,T) for different values of the apparent activation

energy EA.

A quantitatively comparable result as achieved with formula (7.16) is obtained with the relation:

Ta Tp

f ( h , Tp ) = g

10

(7.17)

where g is a temperature sensitivity factor. This expression is comparable to the one used for

the activation energy EA. The g-value depends on the temperature, the degree of hydration and

the chemical composition of the cement. With g-values between 1,6 and 2,2, in general good

results are obtained.

To solve the differential equation of Fourier with a heat source, solution procedures described in

chapter 2 are used. The temperature rise due to heat liberation in a certain time step and at a

certain location is accounted for in each time step. The result of a temperature calculation in

hardening concrete is given in table 7.2.

13

The output of a temperature calculation as described previously is twofold.

Calculated are:

The temperature T(x,t)

h(x,t+1)

T(x,t+1)

h(x,t)

T(x,t)

temperature T(x,t)

degree of hydratation

h(x,t)

The degree of hydration is the most important parameter for the description of the material

properties. These concern the thermal, physical and mechanical properties.

The accuracy of the temperature calculation depends, at given thermal boundary conditions,

on the accuracy when describing the temperature sensitivity of the reaction process and the

development of the thermal properties.

development

With the presence of for example a formwork or an insulating layer with a thickness di and a

heat-conduction coefficient i, the resulting heat transfer coefficient res is found by:

i

1

1

d

=

+ i

res m 1 i

(7.18)

where m is the heat-conduction coefficient of, e.g., the formwork material and the surroundings,

i.e. air.

When wind blows along the hardened concrete surface, additional cooling takes place. An

indication of the effect of the transfer coefficient, i.e. the wind speed, on the temperature

development in a hardening concrete element can be deduced from Fig. 7.11a-b. A 1 m thick

concrete plate is cast on a soil foundation. The plates topside is assumed to be exposed to the

surrounding air. The plate is constructed from high strength concrete, 475 kg/m3 cement (50%

Portland cement and 50% Blast furnace slag cement), 25 kg/m3 silica fume and cast at a

temperature of 20 C.

14

70

temperature ( C)

(W/m2 K)

5

15

25

middle

60

1.0

(W/m2 K)

5

15

25

0.8

50

0.6

40

0.4

0.2

30

top side

7 days

20

0

24

48

72

96

time (hours)

Fig. 7.11

0

20

30

3 days

40

1 day

50

60

70

temperature ( C)

hardening concrete plate made of high strength concrete.

The temperature development is calculated for transfer coefficients of about 5, 15 and 25 W/m2K,

associated with wind speeds of 0, 2 and 5 m/s. Fig. 7.11a gives the temperature development for

different transfer coefficients in time, for both the centre and the top side of the concrete plate.

Fig. 7.11b provides the temperature development over the thickness of the concrete plate at three

different ages, i.e. 1, 3 and 7 days. In order to show the effect of the thermal boundary conditions

most explicitly, a high cement content mixture is investigated.

It is quite clear that the presence of a surface wind results in a significant increase of the

temperature differences in a concrete cross-section. As a result of the temperature decrease at the

surface, the hardening process evolves more slowly. The elastic modulus also develops more

slowly. This is a positive by-effect since it results in a more moderate development of the thermal

stresses in this surface zone. Thanks to the moderate development of the stresses, stress relaxation

is more effective. Quantification of the different influences on the stress development requires the

use of advanced numerical programs.

15

80

surface temperature ( C)

with solar radiation, no formwork

with solar radiation, removal of

formwork after 48 hours

60

40

20

no solar radiation, no formwork

no solar radiation, removal of

formwork after 48 hours

0

0

Fig. 7.12

20

40

60

80

100

120

time (hours)

cast in high strength concrete [27].

During the first stage of hardening, also when formwork is present, solar radiation might

influence the hydration process of concrete significantly. The additional input of heat namely

stimulates the reaction process and leads to an additional temperature increase of 10 C or even

more. Fig. 7.12 provides an example of the influence of solar radiation of the maximum

temperature in a 0,16 m thick concrete wall cast in high strength concrete. Due to the effect of

solar radiation, the temperature rise is about 10C higher than without the influence of solar

radiation. As a result of this, the temperature drop will also be 10 C larger. This might result in a

substantial increase of the probability of cracking.

In the differential equation of Fourier, the temperature leveling coefficient ac is determined

according to (formula (7.13)):

ac =

c

c . cc

It represents the rate at which the heat transport takes place. During hardening, the structure of the

concrete will change, and, as a result, also the heat conduction coefficient c and the specific heat

cc .

In the literature, contradictory data is given on the change of the heat conduction coefficient c

with elapse of the hydration process. It seems that with an ongoing degree of hydration, a slight

increase of about 10 % looks reasonable.

For the specific heat cc at increasing degree of hydration, a slight decrease is observed.

16

A slight increase of the heat conduction coefficient and a reduction of the specific heat results in

an almost constant value of the temperature leveling coefficient ac. For practical applications it is,

therefore, often allowed to adopt a constant value for the thermal properties of concrete. For

fundamental research, however, the changes in the heat diffusion coefficient during progress of

the hydration process should be accounted for.

The hardening process of concrete goes along with deformational changes. These changes can be

attributed to different causes such as:

Thermal changes

Plastic shrinkage

Chemical shrinkage

Autogenous shrinkage

Expansion of reaction products

Expansion due to moisture adsorption (submerged hardening)

Restraining the expansion caused by the expanding reaction products in the early age of

hardening and the moisture adsorption, results in relatively low compressive stresses. Since the

stiffness of the concrete is still very small at that time, the compressive stresses will also be quite

low. In this report, these stresses will not be considered. Special types of cement have been

developed of which swelling is a main characteristic. An example is the American type K cement.

Swell cements, as well as the phenomenon of swelling, as holds for normal cements, will not be

considered.

As for hardened concrete, the expansion coefficient of hardening concrete is a function of the

expansion coefficients of the mix constituents. Since the cubic expansion coefficient of water is

much larger than the coefficient for concrete (about 5 times), the deformations in the early age of

hardening mainly depend on the presence of water. In this stage of hardening, the stiffness of the

concrete is still very low. The resulting stresses will therefore also be very low. In addition to this,

there is also a substantial stress relaxation. It seems therefore allowed for practical purposes, to

adopt a constant value for the expansion coefficient. Other indicative values of the linear

expansion coefficient are in section 2.5.

17

r.v.

(%

) 10

70 80 90 0

n

co

e te

cr

m

te

pe

t

ra

( C

5 0 60

e

ur

) 40

35

40

30

30

25

20

10

40

35

40

km

/h

)

25

30

20

sp

ee

d(

15

wi

nd

5 10

20

30

air temperature ( C)

10

5

1

0

Fig. 7.13

stress N/mm2

stress N/mm2

fct1

fct

fct2

capillary

capillary

crack development

no cracking

time

Fig. 7.14

time

18

Inside the freshly cast concrete, the heaviest parts of the mixture tend to move downwards under

the influence of the gravitational forces. As a result, water moves upwards. Especially for floor

slabs, a thin water layer is often present on top of the concrete surface directly after casting. This

phenomenon is the more pronounced when the concrete is vibrated after casting. Depending on

the surrounding conditions (wind, temperature), this water layer evaporates more or less rapid.

Fig. 7.13 gives an indication of the rate of evaporation as a function of a number of relevant

influential factors.

In case of a high evaporation rate, the thin water layer might disappear completely and plastic

shrinkage is very likely to occur. The background of this phenomenon is the presence of an

under-pressure in the fresh concrete. Imagine young concrete as being a system of a high number

of water-filled pores. Initially, in the water-saturated system, a hydrostatic pressure is present.

When the surface water evaporates, hollow menisci develop in the pores, similar to the one in the

well know experiment with Torricellis tube. If this test is performed by inserting a tube into a

closed water-filled box, an under-pressure develops inside this box. Quite similar, an underpressure develops in the young, still plastic, concrete. This under-pressure results in tensile

stresses in the hardening mass. If these tensile stresses exceed the actual concrete tensile strength,

cracking appears (Fig. 7.14). In floor slabs with a thickness of 400 mm, cracks might easily

develop over full slab thickness (through cracks).

Note: Plastic shrinkage is not to be confused with drying shrinkage.

Preventing measures

A simple and often used measure to avoid plastic cracking is keeping the concrete wet during

hardening. This is achieved by supplying water on top of the concretes surface or by preventing

moisture loss (evaporation). For this purpose, the concrete surface can be covered with a carpet,

plastic cover or a foil layer, or by applying a curing compound (curing compound: a hydrophobic

liquid to be sprayed on top of the concretes surface directly after casting to act as a vapor-loss

preventing layer through which the water in the concrete can not escape).

The volume of the hydration products (the gel) is smaller than the product of both the individual

reacting components cement and water. This volume reduction is denoted as chemical shrinkage

(in German: Chemisches Schrumpfen). Chemical shrinkage represents itself mainly by the

formation of capillary pores in the cement stone and hardly as an outer deformational change.

Therefore, negligible or no stresses are generated on a macro-scale level.

Chemical shrinkage corresponds to about 25% of the volume of the chemically bound water of a

hydration reaction. The chemically bound water corresponds to about 25% of the weight of the

reacted cement. If no additional water comes from the surroundings, the volume reduction

induced capillary spaces are filled with water vapor or air.

19

With progress of the hydration process, the water available reacts slowly. This process results in

emptying the pore system. At first, water from the largest pores in the system reacts, followed

by water from the smaller ones. One can also say that the water withdraws itself into the smaller

pores. This is like a drying process, where no exchange of moisture takes place with the

surroundings. In the English literature, this process is denoted self desiccation. For low water

cement ratios (wcr < 0.5 [13]), this self drying results in volume reduction. In the German

literature, it is called Chemisches Schwinden. In contrast with chemical shrinkage, from now

on, we will denote it as autogenous shrinkage.

The German differentiation between Chemisches Schrumpfen and Chemisches Schwinden makes clear that we deal

with two different phenomena. However, the term Chemisches Schwinden suggests somehow that we deal with a

chemically-based shrinkage process, whereas it should be considered much more as a process with a physical i.e.

thermo-dynamical origin. On the other hand, it is a fact that autogenous shrinkage is connected with chemical

shrinkage. However, on a macro-scale level, effects are often combined and denoted hardening shrinkage. This

combination is assumed to represent autogenous shrinkage. For the sake of convenience, the external deformations

from chemical shrinkage are then neglected.

Table 7.3

Complete hydration of cement theoretically requires a water cement ratio of 0,4. At hydration of

X grams of cement, 0,15 X grams of water are physically bound and 0,25 X grams are bound

chemically. 0,25 X gram water has a volume of 0,25 X cm3. The volume reduction of the

hydration products with respect to the volume of the individual components is:

V = 0,25 0,25 X cm3 = 0,0625 X cm3

Expressed in volumetric percentages of completely hydrated cement, in which no free water is

available anymore, for the porosity P op the hardened cement it holds:

P

=

V

100%

=

X wcf X

+

ce

w

0, 0625 X

100%

= 8, 6%

X 0, 4 X

+

3,1 1, 0

where ce and w are the specific mass of cement and water, respectively.

Autogenous shrinkage manifests itself mainly for water-cement ratios below 0,4. For a cement

paste with a wcr of 0,4, Grube [13] measured an autogenous shrinkage of about 0,710-3 after 28

days of hardening. For normal strength concrete, autogenous shrinkage is about 1/6 of the

shrinkage of cement paste. In this case, aush = 0,1210-3. This is about the cracking strain of

concrete!

Large autogenous shrinkage occurs in high strength concrete. In Fig. 7.15, values of the

autogenous shrinkage of cement paste and concrete are given for different values of the wcr. In

Fig. 7.16, the autogenous shrinkage is a function of the degree of hydration. There is a strong

correlation between the autogenous shrinkage and the degree of hydration at low wcrs.

20

0

wcr-SF-SP1

0.40- 0- 0

1000

0.30- 0- 0

0.23- 0- 0.6

2000

expansion

(x10-6)

autogenous shrinkage (x10-6)

1000

500

days

21 28 42 70 100

wcr- SF- ad

0.20-10-0.75

0.30-10-0.40

0.30- 0- 0.40

0.50- 0- 0.14

0.23-10- 0.6

3000

legend

SF = silica fume

SP = super plasticizer

0.17-10- 2.0

4000

Fig. 7.15

1 2 4 7

21 42 100

days

Autogenous shrinkage of cement paste (left) and concrete (right) for different wcrs

[24]. (Note: be aware of the differences in scale).

-0.25

-0.20

-0.15

-0.10

-0.05

0

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

degrees of hydration

Fig. 7.16 Autogenous shrinkage of high strength concrete as a function of the degree of hydration

[4]. Note: For any concrete mixture, the autogenous shrinkage might differ

substantially.

Grube [13] remarks that autogenous shrinkage, i.e. shrinkage due to self-drying, also has a

positive effect, in particular when the frost resistance and heat loading are concerned. In those

cases, the self-drying introduces pore spaces that either act as an additional expansion capacity in

case of ice formation or store the expanding water vapor.

21

7.7.1 Compressive strength

For the description of the compressive strength of concrete, use can be made of the following

concepts:

1. The maturity concept

2. The degree of hydration concept

3. Codes and Standards (e.g. CEB/FIP MC90)

The maturity concept is often used in practice. The degree of hydration concept is a more recent

development, at least as far as the application in practice is concerned. Some codes give

guidelines for including the effect of temperature on the strength development. Mostly, these

guidelines are conceptual. For a description of the strength development in the very early age of

hardening, these guidelines are often inadequate.

The principle

The maturity concept gives a relation between the compressive strength fc and the maturity M.

The concept maturity as such is ambiguous. One has to check for each case which specific

method to use. In the original definition of Saul et al. [5], the maturity M [C.h] is the product of

the temperature and the hardening period (Fig. 7.17a):

t

M = (T (t ) + Tr )dt [C.h]

(7.19)

where T(t) is the concrete temperature at time t and Tr is the reference temperature. For the

reference temperature, Saul adopted a value Tr= -10C. For the maturity as considered, there is a

linear relationship between the strength and the logarithm of the maturity (Fig. 7.17b).

temperature ( C)

fc cm

t

T (t)

T

0

-10

time

Fig. 7.17

n (maturity) (C.h)

b. Strength as a function of the logarithm of maturity

22

In order to be able to work with the maturity concept in practice, the relationship between the

concrete used and its strength must be determined on beforehand. To do so, the compressive

strength should be determined on cubic specimens that harden at a constant temperature, i.e. the

control temperature. This provides the so-called calibration curve (Fig. 7.17b). The control

temperature is mostly 20C.

Weighted maturity

Different researchers have found that the linear relationship, as proposed by Saul, does not hold

for any arbitrary type of concrete. This has resulted in the introduction of several modifications to

the original concept, e.g. Bergstrm [6], Plowman [7], Papadakis [8], Bresson [9] and Carino

[10]. A number of these modified methods is known as weighted maturity methods (in Dutch:

gewogen rijpheid). A Dutch alternative for the weighted maturity method was developed at

40

temperature ( C)

30

20

10

0

-10

0

Fig. 7.18

n

n

n

n

nnnn-

1.5

1

0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

20

40

time of hardening (hours)

Graph with n-values used to calculate the weighted maturity Mw according to the

CEMIJ-method [11].

Table 7.4 C-values for Dutch cements (method CEMIJ) (e.g. [11]).

Cement type

Notation

Strength

Characteristics

C-value

Blast furnace slag

cement

Blast furnace slag

cement Blast furnace

slag cement Blast

furnace slag cement

Portland cement

Portland cement

Portland cement

CEM III/B

CEM III/B

CEM III/B

CEM III/B

42,5

42,5

42,5

42,5

CEM I

CEM I

CEM I

CEM II- B-V

LH HS

LH HS plus

LH HS

Old cement

notation

1,65

1,65

1,50

1,45

A

B

A

B

32,5

42,5

52,5

1,30

1,30

1,30

A

B

C

32,5

1,30

cement

the Cement plant IJmuiden (CEMIJ) and is known as the method De Vree (see [11]).

According to the CEMIJ-method, the weighted maturity Mw is directly determined using an

expression that replaces the calculation time intensive integral from equation (7.19) (see Fig.

7.18):

23

M w = On .C n [C.h]

(7.20)

where On is an integral surface increment [C.h] to which a value n is linked. The n is the power

of the C-value in the calculation of the weighted maturity. In table 7.4, different indicative Cvalues are given. By using these so-called weight values in the calculation, there is a linear

relationship between the (weighted) maturity and the strength.

Application in practice

The maturity method (CEMIJ-method) is described very accurately in CUR-recommendation 9

[12]. The potential of the method comes from its easy application. After having determined the

calibration curve, the temperature is measured, followed by a calculation of the (weighted)

maturity and, finally, the strength. The strength follows from the calibration curve. For a more

extensive description of the maturity method, reference is made to the literature [11,12,14].

Remarks:

1. The term maturity is sometimes used to indicate the degree of hydration [15]. By doing so, things become

obscured. The maturity is a parameter with dimension [C.h], whereas the degree of hydration is a dimensionless

quantity that ranges from 0 to 1,0, or 0 to 100% respectively.

2. Instead of using the measured temperature to determine the maturity, the calculated temperature can also be used.

In this way, one can simulate all kinds of boundary conditions in the design stage of a project. The results might

be a basis for the choice of a concrete mixture, casting procedure or time of removal of the formwork.

In the CEB/FIP MC90 [31] (the basis for EN 1992-1-1), the strength development is written as:

f cm (t ) = cc f cm

(7.21)

where:

cc (t ) = e

where: fcm(t)

fcm

cc(t)

t

t1

s

28

s 1

t / t1

0,5

(7.22)

[N/mm2]

= mean compressive cylinder strength after 28 days

[N/mm2]

= coefficient, depending on the age t

= age of concrete [d] (if necessary corrected for the hardening temperature acc. to

formula (7.23))

= 1 (with regard to dimensions)

[d]

= cement depending coefficient

0,20 : for rapid hardening cement

0,25 : for normal hardening cement

0,38 : for slowly hardening cement

These formulae are valid within the temperature range -20C to + 40C. For temperatures within

the range from 0C to 80C, a maturity method is given. This method proposes an equivalent time

(in Dutch: equivalente tijd) according to:

24

t (T ) = ti e

4000

13, 65

273+T ( ti ) / T0

(7.23)

i =1

where:

t(T)

T(ti)

ti

T0

= temperature within time increment ti

= time increment

= 1 (to have consistency of dimensions)

[d]

[C]

[d]

[C]

7.7.1.3a

view

At increasing degree of hydration, cement particles are gradually more intense and firmly

connected to one another. Therefore, the degree of hydration is an important parameter with

respect to the strength development of concrete. In a large number of examinations on this topic,

a clear relationship existed between the degree of hydration and the strength development of

concrete. Fig. 7.19 shows some results of Fagerlund [16]. The figure illustrates that, after having

reached the critical degree of hydration 0, the strength increases almost linearly with the progress

of the degree of hydration. The critical degree of hydration 0 turns out to be a function of the

wcr. This was to be expected. After all, for a higher wcr, the degree of hydration must be higher

before the hydrating cement particles are able to bridge the inter-particle distance and are in

contact with each other, which results in strength and stiffness development.

100

wcr = 0.3

wcr = 0.4

80

wcr = 0.5

60

wcr = 0.6

40

20

0

0

Fig. 7.19

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

degree of hydration

projects. Strictly speaking, the relationship is modeled even more accurately when using a 3rd or

4th degree polynomial that crosses the origin and crosses the horizontal axis at 90 degrees. For

practical purposes, the linear relationship, where the strength development commences after

having passed a so-called critical degree of hydration, is sufficiently accurate.

25

7.7.3.1b

Practical applications The UCON-system

Application of the degree of hydration concept to determine the strength development, presupposes that the degree of hydration as well as the relationship between the degree of hydration

and the compressive strength are known. The degree of hydration is relatively easily determined

with the help of special purpose software. The input required for a calculation consists of:

1. The adiabatic hydration curve of the concrete mixture;

2. The concrete temperature during hardening.

That the degree of hydration can be determined using these two input data can easily be seen if

the algorithm, which has been discussed earlier in section 7.4.4 for the determination of the

temperature development, is considered. The calculation algorithm is explained with the help of

Fig. 7.9. In Fig. 7.20, figure 7.9 is shown again, almost without any changes. When explaining

Fig. 7.9, it was stated that the heat increment Qp;j+1 within time step tj+1, can be calculated if

the calculated temperature from the previous time step Tp;j is known. Instead of this calculated

temperature, the measured concrete temperature can be used too. Based on this measured

temperature and the adiabatic hydration curve, exactly the same calculation can be conduced as

described in section 7.4.4. The result of the calculation is the degree of hydration as it develops at

the prevailing temperature conditions within the concrete!

Qmax

Q (t)

1.

temperature (C)

t j+1

2.

Qa;j+1

Ta;j

Tp;j

3.

Qp;j+1

Qa;j

(input: from adiabatic test)

Measured temperature on the

construction site

Calculated degree of hydration

Qp;j

2

T0

tj

tj+1

t j+1

Fig. 7.20

time

Calculation procedure for the determination of the degree of hydration h(t) from the

adiabatic hydration curve and the measured concrete temperature Tp(t).

The software for calculating the degree of hydration from the adiabatic hydration curve and the

measured temperature is part of the UCON-system (Universal Concrete Curing CONtrol system)

developed at the TU Delft [25,29]. Fig. 7.21 presents the UCON-system schematically. The

adiabatic hydration curve is determined experimentally (or numerically [28]) and is imported in

the computer. At pre-assigned locations within the structure, temperature measurements are

performed. Their results are stored in the computer. Based on the imported data, the degree of

hydration is determined for all these locations. For a known and a priori data base stored

relationship between the degree of hydration and the strength, the strength in these particular

locations is determined.

The relationship between the compressive strength and the degree of hydration is determined

quite easily, using results from compressive strength tests on concrete cubes hardened in

26

compliance with a known predefined curing temperature. With assistance of the UCON-system,

the degree of hydration that corresponds with the temperature profile is determined. By

measuring the compressive strength at different times, i.e. different degrees of hydration, the

relation between the degree of hydration and the compressive strength is determined for a specific

concrete.

If the relation between the degree of hydration and the strength is not determined in advance, use

is made of a graph as shown in Fig. 7.19 or by consulting other relations for similar concrete

mixtures from the literature.

It is noted that the relation between the compressive strength and the degree of hydration for high

strength concrete as proposed by Fagerlund, shows and underestimation of the compressive

strength [17]. The reason for this is most likely the effect of silica fume in the concrete. This

aspect was at that time not considered by Fagerlund.

controller

thermocouple

24 72 168 672

concrete

strength

adiabatic bath

computer

adiabatic curve

digital

thermometer

information

temperature

concrete

structure

thermocouples

Fig. 7.21

Relation strength/degree of hydration (fc/h) acquired priory (from database).

Calculating degree of hydration from adiabatic curve and measured temperature.

Strength obtained from the mixtures fc/h-relation.

27

90

concrete temperature ( C)

80

0.60

adiabatic curve

0.50

70

60

0.40

50

0.30

40

measured temperature

in center of cube 150x150x150 mm

30

20

Fig. 7.22

0.20

0.10

10

0

0

degree of hydration ( h)

10

20

30

40

50

60

time (hours)

0

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

time (hours)

conditions. Calculation conducted with the UCON-system [29]. Input: measured

adiabatic curve and temperature in cube during hardening.

Fig. 7.22 shows the result of a degree of hydration calculation with the UCON-system. It

concerns a high strength concrete project. The concrete has hardened under isothermal conditions

(process temperature Tp(t)). The adiabatic hydration curve is determined experimentally.

Just as the compressive strength, the tensile strength is a function of the degree of hydration. Also

for this, a (bi-)linear relationship is found. Fig. 7.23 shows an example.

In practice, similar as to hardened concrete, the tensile strength of hardening concrete is

calculated using its compressive strength. In many cases, the relation used for hardened concrete

turns out to be sufficiently accurate for hardening concrete.

4

wcr

++

+

+

0.4

0.5

0.6

Fig. 7.23

+

0

20

40

60

80

degree of hydration (%)

Tensile strength as a function of the degree of hydration for different wcrs. Blast

furnace slag cement CEM II. Cement content: 350 kg/m3 [19].

28

In the CEB-FIP MC90 [31] the development of the elastic modulus in time is presented as:

Ec (t ) = E (t ) Ec

(7.24)

E (t ) = [ cc (t )] 0,5

(7.25)

where:

where:

Ec(t)

Ec

E(t)

cc(t)

= elastic modulus after 28 days of hardening

= coefficient, depending on the age t

(age of the concrete, eventually corrected for the hardening

temperature according to formula (7.23))

= coefficient according to formula (7.22)

Quite often, the elastic modulus is determined using existing relations between the elastic

modulus and the compressive strength, e.g. VBC (NEN 6720), CEB-FIP Model Code 1990 and

EN 1992-1-1. In the Model Code, it holds:

Ec (t ) = 9500 [f ck (t ) + 8]

1/ 3

(7.26)

where fck(t) is the characteristic concrete compressive strength (prism strength) at time t.

For a more advanced discussion on this issue, use can be made of the theory in which concrete is

a multi-phase material existing of aggregates and cement paste. In this case, the cement paste is a

two-phase system containing un-hydrated cement and hydration products. The resulting elastic

modulus is expressed as a function of the degree of hydration [19].

50000

wcr

40000

0.4

+ +

0.5

30000

0.6

20000

10000

0

0

Fig. 7.24

20

40

60

80

degree of hydration (%)

Course of the elastic modulus as a function of the degree of hydration for the

different wcrs. Cement content 350 kg/m3, Blast furnace slag cement CEM II [19].

29

For the relation between the elastic modulus of concrete Ec and the degree of hydration h, Gutsch

proposes [18]:

Ec ( h ) = E0

where:

E0

0

h 0

1 0

(7.27)

= critical degree of hydration

Fig. 7.24 provides an example of the calculated course of the elastic modulus as a function of the

degree of hydration for different wcrs.

7.8.1 Stress calculation superposition method

If temperature induced deformations are restrained fully or partly, stresses arise. For the

calculation of these stresses, the superposition principle is assumed to hold. The superposition

principle is shown schematically in Fig. 7.25. The stress at time ti is found by summarizing the

resulting stress increments (j,ti) (j = 1...i). For the stress increments induced by an imposed

thermal deformation, it holds (see also section 7.2):

(ti , j ) = r (ti , j ) c ( h ) T ( j ) Ec ( j )

with:

(ti,j,)

j

r

(ti,j,)

c(h)

T(j)

Ec(j)

(7.28)

= time of application of the stress increment

= degree of restraint: r = 0 .. 1,0

= relaxation factor

= expansion coefficient of concrete, possibly as a function of the degree

of hydration

= temperature increment during time step j

= elastic modulus (average value during time step j)

30

compression

tension

age

(t) = E

relaxation

Fig. 7.25

The resulting stress at time t is found by adding the stress increments as discussed earlier in

section 7.2.

7.8.2 Relaxation

Relaxation has a considerable influence on the stress development. Exact information about this

issue is however very scarce. Some programs take into account the effect of relaxation by

reducing the elastic modulus by 50% during a predefined period. Due to the lack of information,

relaxation is sometimes completely neglected. A relaxation formula that gives acceptably

accurate results for the stresses in hardening concrete holds [26]:

(t , ) = e

with:

n

h

wcr

( t )

(t )

h 1 + 1,34 ( wcr )1,65 d ( t )n h

h ( )

h ( )

(7.29)

= constant, depending on the type of cement

slow hardening cement: d = 0,3

rapid hardening cement: d = 0,4

= factor. For compression: n = 0,3; for tension: n = 0,6

(Note: recent research shows better results with n = 0,3 for both compression

and tension)

= degree of hydration

= water cement ratio

With the quotient c/h, the effect of ongoing hydration during the period (t-), is taken into

account in the relaxation formula. If hydration stops (which is when c/h = 1), formula (7.29)

reduces to:

(t , ) = e

(7.30)

31

or:

(t , ) = e a

( t )n

(7.31)

or:

(t , ) = e (t , )

where:

(t,)

a

(7.32)

= the ageing factor

Fig. 7.26 gives an impression of the relaxation factor (t,) as a function of time. In this figure,

also the course of the degree of hydration is presented. It can be observed clearly that stresses that

develop during the early acceleration stage of the hydration process almost completely vanish.

A disadvantage of the superposition method is the fact that is requires substantial memory

allocation and calculation time. For a one-dimensional problem, the current pcs work out well,

but for the calculation of three-dimensional stress fields, different relaxation formulas

1.0

relaxation factor

(t,)

relaxation curves calculated

with formula (7.29)

0.8

0.6

48 h

0.4

34 h

degree of hydrationh (t)

0.2

24 h

19 h

0

0

Fig. 7.26

40

80

120

160

200

time (hours)

Relaxation curves (t,) for young concrete, calculated with formula (7.29).

should be adopted (rate type). By doing so, substantial computation time reductions can be

reached at the cost of the availability of the stress history that the hardening concrete

experiences. Many multi-dimensional practical problems can be reduced to a one-dimensional

problem and can then be solved using the superposition method.

32

An important parameter associated with the calculation of stresses is the degree of restraint of the

deformations r, simply called the degree of restraint. The magnitude is determined from

surface centre

Fig. 7.27

stress (N/mm2 )

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

-1

-2

-3

-4

-5

0

20

40

r = 1.0

r = 0.5

r = 0.25

r=0

increasing degree

of restrained

60

80

100

time (hours)

temperature conditions. Degree of restraint: 0, 25, 50 and 100% [20].

full restraint of the deformation:

r = 1,0

free deformations:

r = 0,0

In Fig. 7.27, the course of the numerically determined stresses in a hardening concrete wall is

shown. The developed thermal length changes were restrained for 0, 25, 50 and 100%

respectively. The stresses increase with increasing degree of restraint.

Although the definition of the degree of restraint is very transparent, wrong conclusions are

derived from it quite easily. The impression might be that a high degree of restraint always results

in high stresses anywhere in the structure. The geometrical and mechanical boundary conditions

of a structure can, however, be such that at some locations in the structure stresses might be larger

or even change sign the more the structure can deform. This situation is illustrated by means of a

classical case, namely the wall cast on an already hardened floor slab. The dimensions of the wall

and the floor slab are in Fig. 7.28. The wall is from a normal type of concrete. Two cases are

investigated:

Case A:

Case B:

Both longitudinal and bending deformations (curvature) of the wall are not restrained

(rl = 0,0; r = 0,0)

Longitudinal deformations are not restrained (rl = 0,0), but the bending deformations

of the structure are restrained completely (r = 1,0)

33

6.0

5.0

r1 = 0.0

r = 0.0

+

4.0

5.00m

r1 = 0.0

r = 1.0

case A: rl = 0 ; r = 0

3.0

2.0

0.70m

case B: rl = 0 ; r = 1,0

Fig. 7.28

1.0

0.80m

0

-2

-1

0

1

stress (MPa)

4.10m

Calculated stresses (after 5 days; cooling stage) over the height of wall-slab structure,

for different values of the degree of restraint for the length (rl) and bending

(r)deformations.

The result of the stress calculations is in Fig. 7.28b. There, the stresses are over the height of the

wall after 5 days of hardening. It becomes clear that for case A, where the wall is free to deform

(rl = 0,0), i.e. not restrained in any way, the stresses just above the connection with the floor slab

are larger than in case B, where the wall is fully restrained (r = 1,0). At the top of the wall, case

A shows compression whereas for case B, the wall as a whole is in tension.

What happens here is that the course of the deformation of an individual fiber (micro-level) is

completely different from the course expected when considering the assumed degree of restraint.

The degree of restraint is a parameter that defines the deformational capabilities of a structure as a

whole, not the course of deformation of any individual fiber. The deformation of an individual

fiber is the net result of the imposed (thermal) strain at fiber level plus the strain that comes from

the deformation of the structure as a whole!

Another complication when regarding the issue of the degree of restraint is that the level of

restraint of the deformations changes during the progress of the hydration process. The

deformation of a wall, cast on a rigid foundation slab, is initially restrained completely at the

connection with the slab (the stiffness of the wall is still negligible with respect to the slab: r =

1,0). After a certain time, depending on the stiffness ratio between the wall and the foundation

slab, a part of the imposed deformations results in a deformation of the structure as a whole. Only

this part results in stresses. Finally, the magnitude of the effective imposed strain at fiber level is

determined by the equilibrium conditions and the deformation compatibility conditions in a

cross-section!

34

A wall, cast on an already hardened concrete floor slab that does not bend, will, at the interface

with the slab, experience a degree of restraint of 90 to 100%. More to the top of the wall, this

degree of restraint decreases. If the wall height is more than half the wall length, the degree of

restraint at the top is almost 0%. Fig. 7.29 shows such a wall schematically.

L

tensile trajectories

almost free

crack directions

r ~

~1.0

45

Fig. 7.29

45

Deformations of a wall cast on an already hardened floor slab. Indicated are the

degree of restraint, the direction of the tensile trajectories and the direction of the

cracks.

Table 7.5 presents the degree of restraint of walls as a function of the length/height ratio. The

values in the table are indicative values to obtain a first estimation of the degree of restraint of the

deformation at the topside of the wall. At the connection interface with the slab, the degree of

restraint is about 100%, also for short walls (see Fig. 7.29).

In the British Standard 8007-1987: Design of concrete structures for retaining aqueous liquids

[33], some indicative figures are presented for different types of structures. They also give values

for the degree of restraint. These are represented by the figures 7.30a-d (EN 1992-3).

Table 7.5

Degree of restraint as a function of the length/height ratio (L/H) of the wall (after

[21]) (Note: values for a low L/H-ratio are only valid for the degree of restraint at the

top of the wall)

>8

Degree of restraint

0,1

0,6

1,0

35

...

c. Wall fixed at two sides

Fig. 7.30

Degree of restraint r for walls and slabs at different boundary conditions (after BS

8007-1987 [33] & EN 1992-3; no relaxation included). (Note: The effective degree of

restraint also depends on the amount of reinforcement applied!).

When calculating the probability of cracking, it is often assumed that the strength and stress can

be described using a normal distribution function. This is schematically shown in Fig. 7.31. The

calculated values of the strength and stress are considered to be the average values of the

quantities concerned. For the standard deviations of the tensile strength and the tensile stress,

values of 0,5 N/mm2 and 0,6 N/mm2 , respectively, can be used. These are conservative values,

36

compression

especially with regard to the standard deviation of the tensile strength!. (see also section 7.8.4.2.).

If the strength and the stress have a normal distribution function, the difference between them, i.e.

z = fct ct, is also normally distributed. The likelihood that at a certain time z is smaller than

zero, which implies that cracking appears, is determined with help of basic statistics (see also the

example in table 7.6).

stress =

()

tension

time

normal distribution

Fig. 7.31

Development of the tensile strength and stress in time (schematically). Strength and

stress are considered to be normally distributed quantities.

Table 7.6

Standard deviation tensile strength

Tensile stress (average value)

Standard deviation tensile stress

s(fct) = 0,3 MPa (10% of the tensile strength)

ct = 2,6 MPa

s(ct) = 0,26 MPa (10% of the tensile stress)

Tensile strength and tensile stress normally distributed. For the difference u(z) = fctm - ct it

holds:

u(z) = fctm - ct = 3,0 2,6 = 0,4 MPa

s(z) = [s2(fct) + s2(ct)]0,5 = 0,396 MPa

Ratio u(z)/s(z) = 0,4 / 0,396 = 1,007

With help of the table for standard normally distribution functions, the probability of cracking is

[30]:

Cracking probability p{Fcr} = 15,8%

Figure 7.32 gives the result of a calculation on the probability of cracking according to the

procedure as described before. The development of the probability of cracking in time is given for

walls that have different thickness. They are cast on an already hardened floor slab. Deformations

are restrained by the floor slab. The wall-slab structure can bend freely (r = 0). The cracking

probability is determined in the most critical cross-section, which in this case is about 0,5 m

above the wall-slab connection. Based on the imposed boundary conditions, the 1,0 m thick wall

almost certainly cracks. The 0,5 m thick wall has a cracking probability of more than 50%. As a

result of the bending of the wall, compressive stresses appear at the top of the wall. The reduction

37

of the probability of cracking after having reached a maximum value comes from the gradual

decrease of the temperature differences in the cross-section.

100

symmetrical axis

centre, d=0.5m

centre, d=1m

80

surface, d=0.5m

surface, d=1m

3m

60

40

surface

centre

20

1m

centre, d=0.25m

3m

Fig. 7.32

0

0

20

40

60

80

100

time (hours)

time. Portland cement CEM I 52,5 R. Casting temperature 15C. Temperature of

floor slab 10C. r = 0 [20].

For judging the probability of cracking, different criteria are adopted:

a. Stress criterion

b. Strain criterion

c. Temperature criterion

7.8.4.2a Stress criterion

For judging the probability of cracking in young concrete, one often wants to know how a

calculated cracking probability relates to the classical safety factor . Here, the safety factor is

defined as the ratio between the lower-bound characteristic values of the tensile strength and the

higher-bound characteristic tensile stress ( = fctk;0,05 / ctk;0,95). For the relation between the

cracking probability and the safety factor, use is made of experimental research results from TU

Delft.

38

-2

stress (N/mm2 )

cement kg/m 3

wcr 0.5

-1

0

PC-A

HOC-A

1 PC:

0.9 f ctmspl

2

HOC: 0.9 f ctmspl

3

0

Fig. 7.33

24

48

72

96

120

time (hours)

of restraint rl = 1,0 [32].

Experimental results

Tests carried out on concrete hardened under semi-adiabatic conditions and experiencing a partly

of full degree of restraint, has shown that cracking occurs at a stress level equal to (on average)

0,85 fctm 2) (see Fig. 7.33). For this tensile stress, the probability of cracking should be 50%. If

both the strength and stress have a standard deviation of 10% of their average values, a cracking

probability of 50% is associated with a stress level equal to 0,85 times the average axial (short

time) tensile strength. This can only be the result if we take into account a reduction factor for

tensile strength of 100 85 = 15%. This reduction of the tensile strength is the result of the fact

that the stresses develop slowly and that, therefore, the long term-effect (reduction) on the tensile

strength must be taken into account.

Cracking probability and safety factors

Given the fact that in many cases hardening concrete cracks at a stress level which is on average

15% below the average axial short term-tensile strength, the following argumentation can be

followed. Assume that for a particular case the tensile strength is 3 N/mm2. In table 7.7, the

probability of cracking is found for a reduction of the tensile strength of 0% and 15%,

respectively. The cracking probability is calculated at values for the average tensile stress ctm of

0,5 fctm ; 0,6 fctm ; 0,7 fctm and 0,85 fctm. Standard deviations of 10% of the average tensile strength

and tensile stress are assumed. For no reduction of the tensile strength, it is observed that at a

stress level ctm = 0,85 fctm , the probability of cracking is 15,8%, whereas the safety factor is

already below the value 1, namely = 0,83. In order to be sure to achieve a safety factor above

1,0, the stress should not exceed 0,7 fctm. For this particular case it holds that = 1,03.

In reality, as has been observed in tests, a reduction of the tensile strength of 15% is to be taken

into account. When assuming a tensile strength 0,85 fctm, at an average tensile stress level ctm =

0,85 fctm, the probability of cracking is 50%. The accompanying safety factor then is = 0,72. At

a tensile stress level of 0,7 fctm, the probability of cracking is 7% and the safety factor against

cracking is still below 1,0, namely 0,88. In this example, the turning point at which the safety

factor reaches a value of more than 1,0 is ctm 0,6 fctm. The probability of cracking then is about

1%. If stresses over 0,5 fctm are not allowed to occur, the safety against cracking is 1,22 at a

cracking probability of 0,02%.

) fctm = average axial tensile strength. It holds that: 0,85 fctm = 0,85 * 0,9 fctmspl = 0,76 fctmspl (see also section 4.3.6.2)

39

Table 7.7

Probability of cracking and corresponding safety factors for different values of the

effective tensile strength.

Quantities

Values

w.r.t tensile

strength

Short term

tensile

strength

Reduced

short term

tensile

strength*)

Stress at cracking

0,5 fctm

0,6 fctm

0,7 fctm

0,85 fctm

Average value

N/mm2

3,0

1,5

1,8

2,1

2,6

Standard deviation

N/mm2

0,3

0,15

0,18

0,21

0,26

Characteristic value

N/mm2

2,51

1,75

2,1

2,44

3,03

Prob. of cracking

[%]

--

0,03%

0,7%

15,8%

---

1,4

1,2

1,03

0,83

Average value

N/mm

2,6

1,5

1,8

2,1

2,6

Standard deviation

N/mm2

0,26*)

0,15

0,18

0,21

0,26

Characteristic value

N/mm2

2,14

1,75

2,1

2,44

3,03

Prob. of cracking

[%]

0,02%

0,6%

7%

50%

---

1,22

1,02

0,88

0,71

*) Tensile strength with a reduction of 15% in relation to the short-term tensile strength fctm = 3,0 N/mm

1.

Note

If the analysis concerns concretes with a very low water cement ratio (for example high strength concretes with a

wcr < 0,35), not only the calculation of the tensile stresses due to temperature effects, but also the effect of

hardening shrinkage should be considered (see section 7.6.4).

2.

For the values of the probability of cracking and the safety factors as calculated, it is assumed that the stresses are

determined at correct thermal and mechanical boundary conditions. Significant deviations of the boundary

conditions, i.e. unexpected variations of the surrounding temperature, high wind speeds etc., are not included. To

gain insight into the effects of these types of variations on the probability of cracking, additional sensitivity

analyses must be performed.

When summarising the results, it can be stated that tensile stresses during hardening limited to about 50% to 60% of

fctm, result in a safety against cracking higher than 1,0. The probability of cracking then is negligible. If tensile stresses

up to 70% of fctm are accepted, cracking is very likely to occur.

For the prediction of cracking of hardening concrete, the literature quite often prefers a strain

criterion rather than a stress criterion. The idea behind this consideration is that the fact that the

deformational behaviour of hardening concrete differs quite substantially from hardened concrete:

the strain capacity is much higher for young concrete than for hardened concrete. Although this is

correct, it does not make the strain criterion more suitable than a stress criterion, certainly not if it

concerns numerical simulations on the hardening behaviour of concrete. After all, in these types

of simulations, the constitutive material behaviour (stress-strain relation) is used explicitly by an

iterative calculation procedure. The way to express the results, either as stresses or as strains,

makes no difference since these two quantities are the results of one calculation. Whether

cracking appears has to be verified using either an actual strength or on an actual strain capacity.

When considering the situation common in building practice, a stress criterion is more likely to

use. Extensive research in Germany has confirmed the reliability of the results from the stress

criterion [22].

40

With the aim to avoid thermal cracks in hardening concrete, the current building practice uses

different temperature criteria. A rule of thumb gives a relation between the probability of

cracking and the temperature difference. In order to avoid cracking due to eigen stresses, the

temperature difference inside a cross-section should not exceed app. 20C. Temperature

differences between structural parts cast on a rigid base and the base itself should not exceed app.

15C. For the Danish Stre Belt project, very strict temperature criteria were applied, namely

12C and 8C, respectively.

Extensive calculations using the simulation program TEMPSPAN, were carried out on a number

of practical cases. It appeared that the temperature criterion covers a quite substantial part of

the work field. However, in a number of cases these criteria are very conservative whereas also

situations occur for which they are not sufficiently strict [20,23].

For the eigen stresses (see chapter 2) in particular, the 20C criterion is sufficient as long as

the wall thickness is not over 1,0 m [20]. For higher wall thicknesses, problems might arise.

Whether cracking occurs depends on the age at which the temperature differences develop

and why they develop. A cold wind passing alongside a relatively warm wall from which the

formwork is removed, makes it relatively sensitive to cracking.

For a wall cast on a hardened foundation, the order of magnitude of the degree of restraint is

of dominant importance with regard to cracking. The magnitude of this degree of restraint

depends on the actual location in the structure (see also [20,34]).

The conclusion to be drawn from these studies is that temperatures and temperature differences

in a number, but certainly not all, cases can be considered as providing a reliable cracking

criterion.

For a reliable judgment of the probability of cracking, the stress criterion is to be preferred over

the temperature criterion. The stress criterion, however, requires a stress calculation with the help

of suitable advanced software tools. This will not be profitable under all circumstances. If the

execution of this type of complex calculations for achieving insight into the probability of

cracking should be avoided, the temperature criterion can be applied as a fall back option. The

following judging levels based on the Swedish concept are used:

Level 1. Temperature criterion

It is easy to handle but is the least reliable. In order to avoid disappointments, these criteria are

very conservative. For projects in which concretes with a high autogenous shrinkage are used, it

is advised not to use the temperature criteria.

Level 2: Dimension graphics and design curves

With the use of simulation models, graphs and design curves can be constructed that represent the

behaviour and characteristics of common structures. In these graphs/design curves, the influence

of the different parameters on the stress development is visible. These types of graphs and design

curves can be an important instrument for judging the structural behaviour and the probability of

cracking. They are only used by experienced and skilled engineers. In Sweden, these instruments

are already available for general use.

41

The most reliable judgment on the probability of cracking is obtained by using the results from

advanced simulation software. Thermal and mechanical boundary conditions as well as the

hardening shrinkage are taken into account accurately, whereas the most advanced creep and

relaxation formulas can also be applied. For complex projects with tight limits regarding the

probability of cracking, the use of advanced simulation software for judging the structural

behaviour during hardening has become common practice already.

7.9 References

1. Mills, R.H. 1966. Factors influencing cessation of hydration in water-cured cement pastes,

ACI-SP, pp. 406-424.

2. Breugel, K. van, 1991. Simulation of hydration and formation of structure in hardening

cement-based materials. PhD-thesis TU-Delft, 295 p.

3. Laube, M. 1991. Werkstoffmodell zur Berechnung von Temperaturspannungen in massigen

Betonbauteilen im jungem Alter. PhD-thesis, Braunschweig.

4. Koenders, E.A.B., e.a. 1995. HSB-kantoor te Brade. Stevin report, TU-Delft, 109 p.

5. Saul, A.G.A., 1951, Principles underlying the steam curing of concrete at atmospheric

pressure. Magazine of Concrete Research, No. 6.

6. Bergstrm, S.G., 1953. Curing temperature, age and strength of concrete. Mag. of Concr.

Res., pp. 61-66.

7. Plowman, J.M., 1956. Maturity and strength of concrete. Magazine of Concrete Research,

pp. 13-22.

8. Papadakis, M., Bresson, J., Contribution letude de facteur de maturit des liant

hydrauliques ; Application l industrie du bton manufactur. CERIB-publications

Technique, No. 8.

9. Bresson, J., 1980. Prevision des resistances: facteur de maturit et temps equivalent.

Annales, No. 387, pp. 106-110.

10. Carino, N.J. e.a., 1983. Temperature effects on strength-maturity relations of mortar. ACIJournal, No. 80-17, pp. 177-182.

11. Gewogen rijpheid, 1984. Betoniek 6/20.

12. CUR-aanbeveling 9: Bepaling van de sterkteontwikkeling van jong beton op basis van de

gewogen rijpheid. Gouda, 1987, 7 p.

13. Grube, H. 1990 Ursachen des Schwindens van Beton und Auswirkungen auf Betonbauteile,

Habilitationsschrift, Darmstadt, 81 pp.

14. Dekker, I., 1995. Research into validity-sphere of maturity-method de Vree. Ijmuiden,

50p.

15. Hansen, T.C., 1970. Physical composition of hardened Portland cement paste. ACI-Journal,

pp. 404-407.

16. Fagerlund, G., 1987. Relations between the strength and degree of hydration and porosity of

cement paste, cement mortar, and concrete. Research report.

17. Toepasbaarheid van beton met hoge sterkte in de 2e Stichtse Brug. Onderzoek in opdracht

van RWS. TU-Delft, 1996.

18. Gutsch, A., Rostsy, F.S., 1994. Young concrete under high tensile stresses Creep,

Relaxation and Cracking. Proc. RILEM Symp. Thermal Cracking in Concrete at Early

Ages, Munich, pp. 111-118.

19. Lokhorst, S.J. et al. 1996. Ontwikkeling van de mechanische eigenschappen: sterkte en

stijfheid. In: Het grijze gebied van het jonge beton. Artikel series in CEMENT 1995/1996.

20. Eberhardt, M., 1993. Rissgefahr in jungem beton, Delft/Darmstadt.

42

102p.

22. Rostsy, F.S., 1994. Determination and modelling of mechanical properties. Proc. RILEM

Symposium Thermal Cracking in Concrete at Early Ages, Munich, General report, pp. 3145.

23. Traute, M., 1994. Reissneigung des hochfesten Betons im jungen Alter. Delft/Darmstadt,

161 p.

24. Tazawa, E., 1992. Autogenous shrinkage caused by self-desiccation in cementitious

material. Proc. 9th Int. Congress on the Chemistry of Cement, Vol. IV, pp. 712-718.

25. Beek, A. van., 1995. UCON-programma. Manual. TU-Delft.

26. Breugel, K. van., 1980. Relaxation of young concrete, TU-Delft, Stevin report.

27. Koenders E.A.B., e.a., 1995, HSB-Kantoor te Breda Vergelijking meting en berekening.

TU-Delft.

28. HYMOSTRUC manual. Delfttech b.v. Delft.

29. Beek, A. van, 1995. Sterktebepaling van jong beton. MSc-thesis, TU-Delft. 95 p.

30. Soest, J. van. Elementaire statistiek, DUP, Delft, 1972, 134 p.

31. CEB-FIP Model Code 1990, CEB-Bulletin No. 203, July 1991.

32. Lokhorst, S.J., 2001: Deformational behaviour of concrete influenced by hydration related

changes of the microstructure. Report 25.5-99-05, TU Delft.

33. Design of concrete structures for retaining aqueous liquids. BD-Code of practice BS 8007,

1987, 27 p.

34. Wessels, J., 1995. Temperatuureffecten in gefaseerd gestorte betonconstructies ten gevolge

van het hydratatieproces. MSc-thesis, TU-Delft.

43

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