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L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

SIR

TO

CONTRIBUTION

OF

HISTORY
THE

THE

THE
IN

PRESS
CENTURY

SEVENTEENTH

BY

KITCHIN

GEORGE
M.A.
LECTURER

(EDIN.),
IN

OF

1 1

(OXON.)

LITERATURE

ENGLISH

UNIVERSITY

With

B.LITT.

AT

THE

EDINBURGH

full-fiagePlates

r,

LONDON
KEGAN

PAUL,
BROADWAY

TRUBNER

TRENCH,
HOUSE,

68-74
1913

CARTER

"

LANE,

CO.,

LTD.

E.C.

INTRODUCTION

has

L'Estrange
that

notice

late

of

is

of

the

small

seventeenth

the

by

life

separate
Williams'

the

its

devoting

and

L'Estrange

out

in

the

of
at

not

popular,

length

him,
have
and

he

is

entered

the

the

of

tale

which

that

in

force.
and

L'Estrange

need

one

full

As

the

chiefly

classic

No

Blinde

Holy

Cheat

The

valued.
in

the

Even

the

Goth
and

age

man

who

his

titles

of

over

for

Milton,

dressed

Presbyterians,

Goths,
as

preceded

element

The

even

this,

which

have

of

are

the

if

that

however,

pored

native

for

Guides
for

the

learned,

they

be

is

sense,

of

fluency

strong

homespun.

he

writer

tradition

of

as

ever

merest

"

expect,

will

non-Attic,

all

to

least

at

the

that

according

occupies

truly

So

pamphlets,

learned

intensely

pointed

Earle

Professor

penumbra

and

in

be

late

type

No

class.

the

to

Cicero

Apostate

to

side

literature.

vicious

"

decidedly

to

been

other

place

English

uncultured

corrective

the

scholarly

almost

the

On

important

folios

salt

by the

journalism

in

largely

1912

September

more

had

have

we

B.

figure

"

curiosity.

cumbrous

certain

10th

pointed

central

the

J.

Mr.

Then

recently

Ptestoration

prose

of

type

has

his

of

art

history

shadow

of

works.

his

extremely

the

quite

Biography

Press,

as

Lee's

"

the

concerns

And

of

story

the

cavalier

Supplement

Printing

of

vided
pro-

Sidney

later.

or

history

piece.

Sir

National

of

sooner

distressed

journalistic

Times

the

on

the

to

Dictionary

the

those

than

After

public

approach

can

means

novelist.

inevitable

was

work

precisely

the

in

direct

more

popular

article

great

by

century

which

public

"

into

somewhat

emerged

years

must

Seneca
an

ordinary
extra-

Belaps'd
have

INTRODUCTION

vi
which

terseness

think

to

apt

too

are

we

of

late

as

acquisition of journalism.
But

few

distinction

seventeenth

virile.

have

minor

in

"the

that

the

of the

his

had

the

gotten.
for-

are

all

save

with

of

the
office

every

and

rapidly than
of

his

of

life!
It

has

fallacious

L'

in

and

historian

that
than

as

the

wit

He

In

he

sense

is

plan

The
some

deadly

became

his
causes

own.

As

so

longer discoverable.

the

mind

the

relations

of

this

book

to

is

generally a
history is unfriendly
stifles the imagination.
the victim

as

In

his

fit of

weight

often

happens, and

minds, the truth


historian

can

scribe,
and

his

pessimism

more

The

more

all

carry

excite men's

life.

and

further

hence, busy with

their lies would

"

one

public

imagines the

Bodley's library.

day
the

at

of

his fate

somewhere

fiftyyears
in

footnote

foretold

way
He

modern

the

intrigue,imprisonment,

went

the

been

sobriety of

in

pamphlets

lie assumed

no

The

research.

hundred

and

song

picturesque light, which

colour.

modern

of

picturesque figure

one.

interest

of

have

men

bitternesses

not.

was

however,

Estrange

enemies'

he

not,

romantic

thousand

his masters.

him

present

be

the

party.

some

scale,at the other, war,

instrument

mere

historically-minded.

which

misfortune

gift or

social

to

Ireland,"

of

lost to

are

the

still attract

story may

end

one

sophist.
popular sense.

corner

least

at

are

the

they championed

causes

Royal Society,cavalier

of

one

is virile.

"

of

the

north-east

music, the

to

kind

tricks
in

rhetoric

characters

entangling themselves

great quality is
the

of

products

special student.
But

He

these

of

staple

lacking in

said

The

the

"

late events

might

the

incult

rude

politicalworks.

his

are

Their

none
finesse,

almost

for

we

verbal

no

are

But

abuse

Their
is

They

wasted,

strife.

century

read

to

the

and

generallylacking in present-daywriting,they

is

There

patience

bitter, black, and

Gnarled,
which

the

relishingthe

of

capable

are

classical work

fine

have

who

those

between

will

native

of

even

with
in

the
portion
pro-

is found

generally

vii

INTRODUCTION

leave the matter

only present their contradictory stories and


to

But

conjecture.

modern

something

arises

there

motives,

which

on

mixed

lies and

of

medley

the

of

out

give

can

we

judgment.

That

traditional

half

than

more

indeed

It may

one.

of

history affords

if

of

reversal

genuine

the

the whole

on

doubted

be

examples

dozen

confessed, is

be

it must

judgment,

that verdict has been


long enough
popular verdict,when
the judgment
of
left unquestioned. In L'Estrange's case
what
is rare
in political
posteritywas singularlyclear, and
When
a
jury consisting of
cases
singularlyunanimous.
the

"

"

and

Macaulay

doubt
has

love

than

evidence,

attempts

or

facts, it will

the

region

regarded
of

as

crises

dozen

daring

and

of

his fate

the

critical
the

solitary skulker,

or

King's Lynn,

after

before

so

Council

the

flightonly

to

sauvc-qui-pcut. If
to

head

before

and

gave

deserting

Whiggish jeers,be

it

in
so

suffers,if that

life

entirelyin

he

too

the

lover
half-

often

vaunting,

much

his

this

mingling

flight. So

Perhaps

ever

was

and
in

But

after

known

was

of
to
a

it at

examination

precipitancy in

intelligentanticipation of the

an

can

his
the

foremost

1680.

hitherto

misfortune
after

and

documentary

curious

moment,

Kent,

in

amounts

the

had

He

more

facts and

the

fashion,

of

man

displayed a

he

L'Estrange's

course,

amenities.

and

in

rather

private

In

doubt

new

is,of

Tory

no

the

of

fame

That

friend, a

timidity.

at

appear

his

recovers.

pleasures

presents

reading

new

that

staunch

Life

It

verdict.

extreme

of

discussion

politicallife.

of

social

the

found

be

possible,than

were

this

as

are

judgment

of

broader

and
far

So

documents.

trend

this

new

literature

historical

in

the

of

revival

the

and

guilt.
the

question

to

present age

paradox

of

point of view
responsible for
favour

the

left for

been

verdict, little

its

on

defendant's

the

of

Fox, Hallam,

side,and

one

agreed

is

remain

to

seem

the

on

other

the

on

would

But

Johnson

and

Swift, Hume,

be

party

shown
a

field,his

affirmed.

On

that

reasonable

he

brought things

chance

of

success

still,despite
may
courage
the fuller story
the whole

INTRODUCTION

viii

tend

will

here

given

and

his courage

that

his

when

party

vigour

Oates, and

of Titus

noticeable

in the final prosecution

as

persecution

saying that

than

more

no

remark

we

more

earlier Restoration

the

is

printers,it

of obscure

if

always

were

ascendant,

in the

was

And

this.

establish

to

he

was

human.
his

It is not

here.

would

for

scarcely grant

character.
After

is the

of

the

of

nephew

John

lesser

of

His

public service.

perhaps

'

misery

in

blot

the worst

Care, Hunt,

the

Plotter
of

mere

intrigue

prison ought
his

on

to

Milton's

malice

personal
with

His

',Hickeringill,

young

have

no

in it

Tonge,

him,

moved

Having

name.

The

emotion.

generous
of

instruments,

Stationers,had

whose

creature

no

party

pitiable enough.

plotterswas

Phillips,Fergusson

the factious

than

and

cruel.

show.

history can

our

L'Estrange, however,

the

pursuit

meanly

habitually was,

any

scribes

Whig
in

as

of his

feature

Conspiracy, he participated in

complete

as

observable

most

be, and

House

Rye

It aroused

is

"

could

He

the

triumph

and

"

petty vengeance

fate

Tory
granting the whole
later Tories
reigns a positionwhich
and unappeasable thirst
his vindictive

Stuart

position in the

questioned

Even

humanity.

is his

It

that will be

his courage

loyaltyor

intention

of

relievingTonge's condition, he set himself with hints of


for party and personal purposes
the King's mercy,
to extort
an
that wretched
true or false,of the Whig leaders from
exposure,
youth.
But
of
there is no need to multiply instances in the case
who

one

wrote

No

Blinde

Guides

Richard

Baxter, pursued

Delaune

with

their

abuse

prison, and
printerswhich

poor

by Stuart tyranny.
Delaune
were

"

may

contumacious

of that age
As

have

to

can

his

we

Bagshawe, Jenkins, Crofton,

and

hardship

conducted

within

even

those

far

went

harried

who

against Milton,

the walls

pitifulharryings

beyond

the

even

limits

of

and
of
the

observed

Baxter, Bagshawe, Jenkins, Crofton, and


been

"

Bagshawe

firebrands,but
the

excuse

honesty

and

not

and

Crofton

even

rigours of

certainly

by the standards

his malice.

sinceritythere is

not

much

doubt.

ix

INTRODUCTION
in

generally charged against him


non-conformist
licensingthat he allowed
It

was

to

money's

sake.

modified

dissent

the ruin
is

venality

weigh

the

part of

the

of

fraud
with

associated

Burton

and

that

It

be

may

material
The
the

in the

given

Times

in

those

present writer

suggestion of

Oxford.
merits

the

To

the work

interest

the

of
of

his

unrivalled
author,

are

the

Raleigh and

Professor

Edinburgh, the author's


path, and his present chief,
somewhat

Mr

suggestions of
English

task.

laborious

literature

Nicol

D.

of

first
has

done

The

Smith,

at

Oxford, has

of

the

to

be

the

literary

inspire

ever

in

helpful

Reader

Goldsmiths'

also

to

as

Saintsbury
to

and

close

sympathetic

in

much

kind

his

period

Professor

guide

at

Whatever
to

and

constant

at

Raleigh

owing
of the

knowledge

while

L'Estrange

great.

much

as

where.

life of

is very

the

from

Sir Walter

and

debt

of

the

Firth

have

may

supervision and

industry

undertook

L'Estrange.

able

determine

to

portraitand

true

be

their

from

black

will

the notorious

free

lies the

reader

Times

the

fanciful.

and

Macaulay's

pages

former

then

English gentleman,

scarcely be

the

Professor

mere

not

in

somewhat

supplement

that

But

would

given

Hanse

Chas.

between

hoped

given

of

could

Graham

quality. Somewhere
that

him

of

disloyalty is

or

him.

high-minded

as

of
ing
follow-

years

in office.

gentleman

poor

picture

Printing Supplement,

incapable

for the

the whole, there

on

behaviour

'libels'

works

that

his

of

Librarius

And

ministry.

heavily against

very

or

catalogue in the

of his extortionate

on

books

is true,

charge

in that

appear

Altogether

name

the

far

of the Cabal

doubt

no

So

days

catalogue Mercurius

in the official

appear

the

in

gratefully

most

acknowledged.
Lastly

for

aid

his indebtedness
of

Scotland,

during

the

to
one

years

the

of
1909

more

material

Carnegie

whose
and

Trust

Research
1910.

kind
for

he
the

must

express

Universities

Scholarships he

held

CONTENTS

CHAPTER

EARLY

(introductory)

CAVALIER

DAYS

PAOE

Family

education

Early

"

and

the

Civil

War
for

the

into

Kent

The

"

fiasco

King's

of

Lynn

cavalier

A
"

Kentish

is followed

He
"

of

recapture

by Court-martial

Rising
into

hostilities

of

Importance

"

Proposals

"

Outbreak

"

L'Estrange

in

Visits
Act

Oblivion

of

Garden

of

rumours

doubtful

in

L'Estrange
numerous

Addresses

demand

and
and

the

first

III

CHAPTER

of

Situation

parties

"

Cavalier
Cheat

parties
clamour

"

He

is

Conference
Worcester

L'Estrange

L'Estrange's

"

for

the

Apology

Cavaliers
to

accused

Memento
"

The

of

the

attacks

Bagshawe
famous

"

Restoration

cavaliers
Vlctis

Vac

Act

Bagshawe
Crofton

33

offend

L'Estrange's

"

of

Oblivion

and
and

all

discouraged

"

Savoy

Bishop

the
the

"

Holy
of

Baxterians

"

Cordial

Howell's
"

Caveat

"

"

FRINTING

England

of

violating

"

Blinde

(1660-2)

Principle

Apologies

No

Stationers

the

'Ranting'

"

Interest
of

Presbyterian

"

"

Apology"
Corbet's

"

in

L'Estrange

of

SEDITIOUS

AND

Restoration

the

at

L'Estrange's

with

brush

Booth

G.

Sir

of

"

His

incendiary"

Milton

Attacks

suspicion

DIVINES

character

activity

"

Renewed

"

his

of

and

Rising

Monk

and

Chapman

Covent

Scandalous

"

Presbyterian

pamphleteer
"

Restoration

PURITAN

and

addresses
to

in

"

the

"

Royalist

as

Life
Hamon
View

Protector

under

"

Sir

of

Kent

to

England

to

Cromwell

with

the

Vindication

"

Death

"

of

the

PASSAGES

Returns

"

Royalist

Parliament

Livewell

"

of

Death

"

'manifestoes'
to

(inkles
Eve

request

Renewed

"

in

part

(1648-60)

calumny

Hesse

relations
in

L'Estrange

unfavourable

not

by
van

powers

ambiguous

demned
Con-

"

freedom

of

step

INTERREGNUM

followed

Cardinal

"

Musical

"

Is

"

of

court

Oxford

at

betrayed

First

"

Anglia

.....

II

AND

exile

the

L'Estrange

"

L'Estrange

prison

East

"

detraction

by

CHAPTER

PROTECTORATE

Lynn
"

in

north

the

L'Estrange's

"

exile

in

"

and

Brash

L'Estrange's
with

Birkenhead

Caveat
"

67

Clarendon

xi

CONTENTS

xii

CHAPTER

IV
THE

OF

BLOODHOUND

THE

PRESS
PAGE

Press

The

A
Crown
views
of its functions
monopoly
Contemporary
of the
Rise
the
patentees Brief
imprimatur in England
wealth
of Press
period Commonlegislation Rigour of the Laudian
of

survey

"

"

"

"

The

'

Press

very

Fate

of

'

feminine

"

"

'

Confederates

'

the

PRESS

severities

Other

"

Stationers

the

news-mongering
Newsletter

the

the

Post

Office
"

"

"

rival

"

STATE

Mirabilis the

VI

War

Marvell's

"

tracts

Their

"

on

veiled

the

Advice

to

"

List

1669

of

lull"

libels and

his

Monopolists

"

and

L'Estrange and

King

Painter

The

Quo
1672-5

prosed

AND

Warranto,
"

Mearne

libels

on

the

Nlwre's

Church
of

Popish

"

the

Petition

fire

Catholic

Trade
"

Orucern

ad

Trap

"

"

and

Dutch

renewed

Persecution

"

fears

of the

conduct

"

"

"

in the

"

"

"

THE

"

Stationers

157

VII

(1672-7)

STATIONERS

1670"

Survey

Frank

of

LORDS'

"

the

Smith"

LIBEL

printing houses

Mearne

and

the

COMMITTEE

1672"

Inaction

Rehearsal

Trans-

L'Estrange's authority disappears with the fall of Arlington


Williamson
of his licensers,6th February 1674-75"
appoints him one
Oldenburg introduced, February 1675-6, as 'one
of my
deputies for
"

"

'"His
licensing
Misdemeanours

failure"
of

L'Estrange called

the

stationers

Renewed
attempted negotiations
history and honours
Accusation
"

"

126

Scotch
apologies The
plotters,
city L'Estrange recalled April 166S
comments
Inquest of the printers 1668 and
the Universities
King intervenes
Temporary

the

and

of

Poor

"

the

on

CHAPTER

L'ESTRANGE

HOUSES

Satires

"

Narratives

Fergusson, Forbes, Nesbit,


"

of

(1666-70)

growth

new

attacks

Contempt of the clergy


L'Estrange inactive 1666-8

The

"

Hickes

relinquished by
during the Plague

PRINTING

THE

signal for

"

Jas.

OF

jealousies Lampoons

with

Neivsbook

"

Conventicles

the

and

Dutch

Newsbook

the

Williamson

of

Intrigue
Plague and the

Press

with

dissatisfaction

CHAPTER

Annus

"

"

"

"

The

The

L'Estrange

Act

General

"

"

NEWSBOOK

"

"

serious

THE

AND

the
Act
Their
far-reaching effect
L'Estrange's (and other) criticisms
and
it
Considerations
Proposals Atkyn's attack
His view
of
of the Newsbook
L'Estrange's conduct

futility of
Attempts to modify
General

on

95

in

Novelties

"

of

Methods

"

propaganda

widespread

LEGISLATION

Act

"

"

CHAPTER

Press

"

and

"

"

New

views

Presbyterian

"

'

"

publication

secret

libels

of

"

The

narrative

"

"

Nature

"

Restoration

Areopagitica

"

Petition for Peace


part of revolt
The
federates'
'ConNedham,
Tytan, etc.
Chapman,
and
The
Smith
Year
Plaaux"Y.
of Prodigies
Trial
of the ' Confederates
Twynn's case
tional
excep'

"

and

'

foul

The
Republican
Regicide speeches

Smith's

Ordinances

and

Statutes

The

"

"

"

Origin

"

The

in

by

Williamson

surveyor

quarrel with

against

tho

in

frustrated
Mearne

Stationers

1676"
in

his

Mcarne's

"

"

Counter-

CONTENTS

xiii
PACE

against L'Estrange

complaints

His

"

and

tyranny

exactions

"

Thompson's
Prorogation libels and discovery by L'Estrange of Nat.
determined
brief
('onmiitteo
a
on
history
midnight printing Lords'
of its investigation" (Juan-elbetween
Stationers
and L'Estrange comes
"

to

190

height

VI11

CHAPTER
THE

The

POPISH

PLOT

'

'

Popish Plot by
frenzy Immediate

no

literature

of the

novel

means

effects

"

Plot

Press

L'Estrange

"

workings of the No-Popery


The
Popular manifestations

Previous

"

the

on

L'ESTKANGE

OF

FLIGHT

"

"

"

field

the

enters

His

"

veiled

attacks

His
Mrs
Cellier
and
Glamour
confederates
Castlemaine
Parliament
L'Estrange on 'Petitioning' Freeborn Englishman,
Further
Discovery, and Discovery upon
Discovery Harry Care and
on

Oates

for

"

"

"

"

"

"

Ben

Harris

the

Church

The

"

L'Estrange

and

Citt

"

Journals

Whig
by

accused

Trial

"

Bumpkin
Oates

Castlemaine

of

Tonge's

Young

"

before

Council

the

Position

"

Sham

Attacks

"

of

Plot

"

ment"Flight
Parlia-

in

222

CHAPTER
OBSERVATOR

THE
Exile

in

IX

AND

JOURNALS

WHIG

THE

by reviling Counterfeit
January 1681 for relief of tin'
Reaction
in favour
L' 'Est range's Sayings
Dissenters
of the
Church
The
ment"King's
ParliaOxford
provokes the first part of Dissenters'
Sayings
Observator
started
Declaration
(21st April 1681) to
Riclens
The
Whig
Comparison with Heraclitus
support Declaration"
Robert
Ben
Harris
and
F. Smith
journalists
Stephens, Messenger
of the
Press
and
addresses
Observator
Petitions
presented, August
1681
Death
of Stephen Colledge Trial of Shaftesbury
Loyal prentice
letter

Edinburgh, and
from
Edinburgh

the

Hague

Votes

"

Followed

"

"

10th

of

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

260

feasts

CHAPTER
PRESS

THE

HOUSE

RYE

THE

AND

(1682-4)
PLOT

Young Tonge
refugees
again
Trial
Habin
the
Informer
L'Estrange's Apology for the Protestants
'
Plot
Sheriffs'
for ridiculing the
and
Nat.
of Farwell
Thompson
The
and
Hunt
Rye House
Potyt
Conspiracy
elections, 1682
Plot
and
the
Forbes,
Fergusson, Collins, and
Dissenting Clergy
As
Ambitions
of the plotters L'Estrange's services
writer,
Nesbit
Bench
Charles
Hanse
and
the
His
and
allies
on
Magistrate
spy,
Katherino
Men/.ies
Aaron
Burton
Sam
and
Graham
Starkey and
from
communications
Various
Smith
L'Estrange to Jenkins
of Harry
and
Eastwood
Hartshorn
L'Estrange and the submission
The Newsletter
writers
Care
Dejection of the Whigs
Spies'letters

Effect

severities

of

Trials

"

Prance

"

"

Shaftesbury

and

Colledge

of

Dissenters

of

Persecution

"

French

"

"

"

"

'

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

289

examined

XI

CHAPTER
WHIG

THE

L'Estrange
"Seizure

in three
of

characters

Holloway"

"

Government

Last

(1684-9)

DEBACLE
spy

politicaltrials

on

the

of the

city" Some
reign" Their

letters

effect

CONTENTS

xiv

opinion

public

on
'

Plot

'

Plot

'

victims

Death

"

Charles

of

and

Oates

L'Estrange

"

since

Prance

1681

"

'

libel, 1684

for

Times

replies

"

Conformists

new

Hughes

Elections

attacks

for

"

Winchester

Church"

The

March
the

in

Revolution

family

1685

party

'

of

master

and

commitments

translation

of
'

tongue

Facetise

His

"

Seneca,

"

"

Educational

in

view

Tacitus

"

his

of

^Esop

his

Tributes

of
the

importance

Other

"

editions

and

of

"

the

"

etc.

Continued

"

Professor

style

'
"

of

war

declared

Post

"

Intruding

"

L'Estrange's

works

Erasmus

politics

performance

critics

His

"

L'Estrange

Eighteenth-century

Blair, Tytler,

Modern
"

The

views"

contemporaries

Johnson,

Thompson,

translations

his

of

"

years

Earlier

"

and

wretched

most

vogue

fellows

Cicero,

"

Plautus

"

Felton,

"

for

of

L'Estrange

"

closing

of

"

Josephus

elected

favour

life

Private
"

Unhappiness

Theory

"

English

the

Bona

and

-Terence

"

Trimmer

REVOLUTION

"

works

Revolution

"

XII

booksellers

the

translations

His

Quevedo

the
the

Symthies

L'Estrange
the

of

and

Proved

loses

and

History

Church

"

He

"

Oates

331

Various

"

on

"

the

the
their

Revolution

THE

dependent

King

L'Estrange

"

Observator

"

CHAPTER

The

of

the

"

position

"

in

Trimmers

Observator

Parliament,

new

His

the

the

on

Refugees

of

Trial

to

L'Estrange's

"

French

the

attacks

He

"

More

"

and

Church

The
"

credit
"

attacks

of

avenger

disillusionment

L'Estrange's
Observator

the

to

the

in
of

complains

He

"

Prance

Sancroft

share

Observator's

The

"

the

Failing

"

The

"

reaction

popularity
Earle

and
'

barbarism

"

end

367

APPENDICES

I.

LIST

OF

L'ESTRANGE'S

POLITICAL

WORKS

.411
.

II.

III.

CHIEF

THE

SOURCES

TIMES

AND

ENGLISH

INDEX

THE

OF

THE

PRINTING

IXTH

LITERA

TURE

419

LIFE

SUPPLEMENT,
VOL.

OF

THE

10TH

CAMBRIDGE

SEPTEMBER

HISTORY

1912,
OF

431

433

LIST

ILLUSTRATIONS

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

SIR

OF

Frontispiece

TITLE-PAGE

FACSIMILE,

Kneli.kr

by

Portrait

the

From

OF

NO

GUIDES

BLINDE

To
.

face

p.

64

FACSIMILE,

TITLE-PAGE

AND

OF

PROPOSALS

CONSIDERATIONS

IN

REGULATION

ORDER

THE

OF

TO

THE

130

PRESS
.

L'ESTRANGE

140

PASQUIL
....

OLD

180

HALL

STATIONERS'

....

ST

OLD

SELLING

HAUNT

OF

THE

192

BOOK

198

IN

OF

JUDGE

1G79

224

256

1679

MASQUERADE,

CARTOON,

NOVEMBER

17TH

PROCESSION,

POLITICAL

SEIZURE

BOOKSELLERS

THE

FRATERNITY

POPE-BURNING

POPERY

OF

HAUNT

BRIDGE,

LONDON

OLD

PAUL'S,

1680-1

258
....

368

JEFFRIES
....

XV

SIR

LESTRANGE

ROGER

CHAPTER

INTRODUCTORY

CAVALIER

EARLY

Sir

Roger

in

these

life
in

this

some

value.

large

person

the

in
to

the

affairs
of

his

He

time

is,

which

seventeenth
of

more

of

the

their

As

the

finds
a

cavalier

he
with

specially
his

large

editors,
field

of

has

is

the

and

fact

clung

to

movement

with

eighty.
interest

an

the

in

Press

career

we

separate

from

the

tracking

', he

touches

of
for

provides

down

the

learn

may

history

the

Gates

Titus

which

subject
English

modern
his

As

interest.
of

the

on

to

translator
he

historic

certain

recommended

famous

most

importance,

Company.

Evidenceships

Acton

anything

"

his

than

enough

well-nigh

stage

every

following

subject

with

every

to

of

sufficiently

sole

almost

in

from

actually

stubbornly

biography

this

By

difficult

posterity

twenty-three
at

of

occasion

part

of

age

century.
this

took

rank

Far

undertaking,

lived

men

second

interesting

His

present

identified

entrusted

man

the

Stationers'

As

'

when

moreover,

the

the

His

is

private
of

history.

neither

was

troubling

trace

the

circumstance

in

nor

to

affairs.

public

by

biography.

for

last, he

from

is

life,

of

man

any

this

intimate

pretext

the

of

proposed

private

any

L'Estrange

the

century

to

public

an

sole

in

Roger

warrant

approaching

that

historian,

For

in himself

scarcely

is

it

career

monopolised

was

age

left

than

more

discomfiting

that,

has

pages,

almost

and

whose

L'Estrakge,

DAYS

day,

and

student

one

of

and
Lord

historians.
who

still

literature

enquiry.
1

the

SIR

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

the

Roger L'Estrange was


L'Estrange of Hunstanton
as

and

know,

we

where

he

which

he

usual

the

at

age
Sussex

entered

Sir

of

son

He

Hall, Norfolk.

1616, educated

June

25th

the

on

third

Hamon
born

was

far
so
privately at home
proceeded to Cambridge,
College l. The learning

Sidney
display in his later years affords traces
of a less regular schooling,and in some
liberal,
respects more
obtained
the
be
at
than
was
ordinary grammar
perhaps to
have
nourished
As
schools
of the day2.
men
ness
greatmany
loved

Plutarch,

on

and

Bacon

to

so

L'Estrange drew

young

wisdom

from

/Esop.

Music

have

to

seems

studies3, and

entered

early
life passion an
to
become
a
life singularlygiven to faction

destined

was

"

in

agreeablecircumstance

his

largely into

violence.

and

We

have

his

of

home

daughter

life

and

his

of

trace

no

know

we

Anglia,

exactions

of

Nicholas

son

with

anecdotes
The
the

indebted

also

was

tales
the

in

some

which

popular derivation

for

in

appear

woman

the

relates

to

notes

eldest

Her

several

his

the

on

of

collection

the
of

MSS.6.

Harleian

boasted

family

her

to

provided

which

piquant if pathetic
Parliamentary Commissioners5.

innocent

more

has

pen
War

and

mother,

Stubbes, Esq.,was

Her
whimsical
and
wit.
of courage
historian
of that part of the Civil
East

His

scarcely more.

of Richard

co-heir

Cambridge4,

at

career

respectable antiquity,for though

of the

name

Extraneus

"

"

applied

as

in the year
born.
Besides
in which
the
Cromwell
Protector
Opened
was
Thomas
L'Estrange, other
distinguished graduates of this College were
and
Several
See
Fuller, Bishop Wilson, of Sodor
etc.
Man,
weighty Quaeries
'whether
in Dialogue
concerning aeraclitus and the Observator
Quaerie 9
Coll.
Camb.
Sed.
have
into
the
world
by sending the Observator
yet fully
for 0. Cromwell, who
atoned
his education
Seth
had
there'.
Dr
Ward, born
after
the year
also
Wood
of
this
was
L'Estrange, 1617,
College.
(Clarke, Lifr
and
26) notices that he had been a student
at Cambridge.
Times,iii.,
'
He
is a great scholar,being taught
by his father'.
L'Estrange a Papist,
February 1682.
3
At Hunstanton
of Roger le Strange, son
have been the teacher
Jenkins must
Hamon'.
of Sir
Autobiog. of Eon, Roger North, ed. Jessopp (1890), p. 78,
editor's note.
Amusician
eminent
a
Jenkins
is described
'that
as
by North
i

and

"

"

'

of his time

master
4

Beyond

Cambridge
he

''

Mr

,;

Several

only

that

two

Alfred

""r

'

story
to

to the

from

W.

East
brother

my
are

to

be

J. Thomas

Observator,i.,

"

receive

Church

Kingston,

three

ed.
Traditions,

Ibid,

refused

reconciled

was

'.

absurd

an

the

13

'a

of

"

because

Sacrament

young
told

(as he

fellow
his

of

master)

of Rome'.

Anglia
Roger

found

in

(1839).

and
'

are

the

the Civil
also

Camden

to

War
be

(1897), pp. 293-5.


found

there, but

selection, q.v.,

of these

Anecdotes

and

gift of

the

disappear

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

SIR

houses

numerous

before

London

in

seventeenth

the

all

"

which

of

century.

Elizabeth's

so
reign,when
many
honour
in
the
European wars, a Roger
Englishmen sought
and
the
of the Emperor
esteem
friendship
L'Estrange won
Maximilian
II.,and the family preserved with natural pride

the

In

earlier

the

patent which

and

conferred

virum

part

pension of

300

nobilitate

et

to the favour

crowns

Bogerium Strangium

on

clarum

of Elizabeth,

vehcmcnter

quern

amamus

Jiabemus.

charumque

Irish

the

When

though

we

do

reward

of

Irish

of

in

out

in 1586

knighted

was

read

not

broke

troubles

L'Estrange

Nicholas

him

recommended

genere

of

for
of

grants

any

the

signal service,

land, the

usual

service.

Thus, despite

bad

start, the

L'Estrangesappear

whole, and increasinglyin later times, a family much


established

to the

reign

same

their

and

Anglia,Cheshire,

gentry of East

with

intermarrying

powers,

on

the

attached

the

numerous

of

kinsmen

own

similar

for arms,
principles,eminent
or
scholarship,or merely for antiquity,and continuing that
local service which, despite detraction
strain of loyalty and
and suspicion,
undoubtedly signalisedtheir conduct throughout

Shropshire,families

of

England's greatest crisis


the

Hunstanton,
a

point

aroused

for

the

which
is

sea

have

into the German

The

oblong

square
rivulet,walled

each

Over

as

'.

an

this

house

front

side

to preserve

is

of enthusiasm.

of time

the

ornament,

as

considerable

looks

itself is

runs

but

Sea, which

'

builders, it

of various

before

on

serving not only


the house.

Ocean

work

touch

headland

miles, the
The

North

at

high (where still


of St Edmund)
against
force and
fury that it

gained by length
two

situation

feet

such

with

comes

of land, about

situated.

lofty cliff,100
the ancient chapel

of

the

to

its

raging

supposed to

tract
out

the

ruins

family, has
in

Wash

merges
the phlegmatic Blomefield

Remarkable
stand

of this

home

the

where

Civil Wars.

the

"

'

consists

pretty

it clean
a

bridge leading

or

the

of

stream

and

moat
to

straight
pleasantly
an
or

regular,

guard to
gatehouse,

each
side, were
wings and buildings on
erected by Sir Roger L'Estrangein the reign of Henry VII.
l.
The L'Estranges had reason
to be gratefulto the Stuarts.
bestowed
I. went
One
of the earliest baronetcies
to
by James
a
L'Estrange of Hunstanton, while again in 1629 Charles I.

which, with

the

'

Memento,

1662.

CAVALIER

EARLY

father of Nicholas
of

Sheriff

Norfolk,

activity in the
Knight service.
It was
as
High
his

Roger was
capacity in which
of

Sheriff

his

of

of

fines

for

author.

our

for many
have
we

and

collection

brother

Nicholas, elder

similarly honoured
The

DAYS

High
glimpses of
years

Composition

county that

Sir

of

Hamon

levy against the Scots in 1639.


Roger
then
three, had
probably just finished at
was
twenty
ating
accompanied his father in that humiliCambridge, and now
of the Bishops
by the name
expedition which
goes
the Norfolk

attended

War

1.

but

the

know

We

the

nothing of

of father

movements

which

bitterness

or

son,

tinges the remarks

extraordinary
the subject of the Scots and this little war,
on
he saw
this occasion.
for by what
be accounted
on
may
Mr
Kingston, in the work
alreadyreferred to, talking of
three
the younger
at King's Lynn
L'Estrange'sappearance
2. Beyond
an
career
already romantic
years later,hints at
of the latter

'

'

the

of enemies

rumours

we

the

solitaryexpedition to
romantic, was
probably as

find

nothing of this,except
Scotland, which, far from beingcavalier
outing as ever
sorry an
can

experienced.
The

of the house

fortunes

is bound
This

those of the

with

up

lies

town

L'Estrangein the Civil Wars


royal borough of King's Lynn.

of

fourteen

some

miles

from

Hunstanton.

will explain the imporposition on the Wash


tance
attached
to it by the Parliamentaryleaders.
Carlyle's
its

glance at

of
description
is not

and

from

gangrene

the

Humble

aid

Apology

in the

strong language

of
Co

of the

the state

to

the

to

across

to

cavaliers

Clarendon,3rd

December

heart

of the

describe
its walls.

within

fomented

the land, it looked

invited
1

were

owing

"

'

as

too

which

troubles
sea

it

Fens
Boston
of

"

the

tion'4,
Associa-

Open

difficult of
and

to

the

access

Skegness, and

Lincolnshire
1661, p.

of

series

and

the

4.

Anglia, p. 184.
s
1680 {Ear. Misc., vol. vi.)" E. 1962-5.
See The Loyal Observator,
he vapours
of his forty years' service
to the Crown, what
Nbbbs.
You see how
he
what
thousand
he had, how
of honour
scars
commands
pounds
expended,
many
the gentleman
must
brother
scandal
note
he received.
was
a
You
(the
younger
have
far from
of him), and
of a worthy family who
so
long been ashamed
being
that
able to contribute
to the royal cause,
during his youth Phil. Porter's plough
2

East

"

his best

was
"

maintenance.

Ralph." Thia
at

wounded

whole

"

nothing

armies

to

his
towns

the
personal gallantry; perhaps he rescued
as
mountebanks, drew teeth with a touch,

of rebels like Almanzor.

is none
of his talents.
He
No, no.
'.
sword, but it is only for ornament
Letters and Speechesof Cromwell
(1850),i.,227.

y,,/,hs.

"

with

is

Edgehill,stormed

standard

Valour

marches

indeed

equipped

SIR

attention

of

divided

by

capable

of

from

Newcastle

the Ouse

strong

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

the

the

from

defence.

north.

The

families

Town,

Old

exposed

more

The

New

Lynn, was
hood,
neighbourpredominantly

in the

bound

together by social ties, were


Crowland
in
loyal. In its vacillatingfortunes it resembled
Lincoln
Puritan
surrounded
town
a
by a cavalier gentry.
While
its ordinarymagistrates were
enflamed
with
zeal for
overawed
Parliament, they were
by the zealous royalism of
"

the

neighbouring landed

not

few

At

staunch

whom

families,among

there

were

Catholics.

the

held for Parliament.


beginning of the war
Lynn was
To provide for its defence
brass cannons
were
brought
from London, its walls were
strengthened,and the services of
Christian, an engineer of some
skill,requisitionedto direct

the work.
At

the

example of
Cromwell
far
not
distant, Capt. Slaney exercised
in the market-place, much
to
Parliamentary volunteers
aided
disgust of the gentry alluded to. In this he was
the

two

Toll

stout

and

time,

same

Puritan

following

for

members

Percival, who,

the

by

the

the

Col.
the
the

by

Messrs

borough,

general example

of

the

down
to assist the
Commons, came
magistrates in holding
the stronghold for Parliament.
The
two
godly ministers of
the place,Arrowsmith
and
Thoroughgood whose quality is
vouched
for by the fact that they both
found
a
place in the
Westminster
leant their by no means
Assembly of Divines
do their duty.
to
despicable aid in incitingthe townsfolk
a
was
Mayor Gurlin
strong anti-Parliamentarian, in which
persuasion he was
opposed by his fellow-counsellors,among
whom
most
May and Hudson
were
prominent.
It is not to be supposed that the neighbouring loyalists
looked on these preparations with
indifference,or that they
within
were
powerless to raise up a party for the King, even
the
walls
of
Dame
Alice's
Lynn and in the Council.
book
shows
a
perfect correspondence between
Lynn and
of the
and
the
Hunstanton,
frequent expenses
disguises
adopted by the knight in entering the town
are
carefully
"

"

noted,

besides
Sir

more

Hanion

ominous

storing of

and

his

three

This
What
is for July 1643, a month
before
the coup.
and
for
Mr
service,munitions,
disguises
L'Estrange to
spy
considerable
have been expended before
amount
must
Lynn

barrels
sons,

with

'

p. 274.

avoid
was

of
Sir

powder1.
gun-

Chas.

and
messenger
the troopers ',a

seized.

Kingston,

OAVALIEB

EARLY

Catholic

the

without

should

This

make

turn

with

came

of

south

which

Lincoln

into

spread

the northern
tenure
as
uneasy
described
by Vicars as ' a
"

both

land

by

and

country

The

movement

much

on

the

Dunkirk

too

water

was

"

the

to

taken, and

'

of

the

Association,
and

advance

to

and

Norfolk

drain

thus

despite
elements

relief of the

the

to

hold,
strong-

of

Cambridge

it

with

the

of

extension

an

ment
Parlia-

Lincoln

King's party in South


became
possibleas made it imperative for Cromwell
the local and
shortsighted obstinacy of the other
such

same

Crowland

parts of Norfolk.
scurvy

the

eastern

whole

the

held

was

the

on

London.

even

affairs

when

1643

Camden

terrorised

and

Wash

the

of

in

turn

of

spring

Viscount

powerful party

the

and

Wark,

possibleand profitable.

attack

the

Association

the

of

only

de

Grey

llobt.

awaited

successful

magnificent forays
border

and

within,

Pastons, formed

of the

family

and

which

Allington,Sir

Lord

Mordaunt,

DAYS

mentary
Parlia-

forces.

opportunity which they


taken
slow to seize.
or
not
betrayed by a
were
Lynn was
and
clergy at least
party within her walls, her magistrates
the more
refractory imprisoned by order of Sir Hamon
the
command
for
assumed
the
who
King1. This
now
almost
followed
immediately
happened in August and was
the
and
at Crowland
of Cromwell's
success
by the news
in the affair at Gainsborough
of the Cavaliers
brilliant rout
This gave

the

faction

Lynn

the

"

"

which

historians

war.

Three

Sir

paid

take

weeks

the

recapture

Hamon

to

of the

one

the

own

purse

"

the

could

interval

with

town

critical in the

most

Parliament

passed before
of Lynn, and

store

of his

out

be

to

take
underused

by
largely
already

was

ammunition,
drain

serious

treasury 2.
ships in the harbour, mounted

on

an

embarrassed
The

regarded as
that
to

Warwick

the

important

an

with
of

scene

But

the

Old
The

scarcely held seriously.


of the
the centre
Square became
was

alms-houses

against

"

the

defence.
i

the

afterwards
old

knight

Besides

the

Barrington

MSS.

See the

accounts

"

were

ship

culverins, were

despite the

defence

of

fleet

Parliamentary

the

war.

item

with

Town

was

on

beyond
Hall

Town

and

of much

pulled

Sir

cannon,

{Egertm, 2647,
already referred

vexatious

down

to

action

assist

Hamon

f. 1!
to ;

Market
Certain

royalist defence.

cause

news

his way
the Ouse

Kingston, p. 294.

the

boasted,

according

and

muskets,

one

account1, 40

500

barrels

Lynn

That

election

to

sea-town

it

was

Vicars,

Earl

army

in those

for

the

in

impregnable

most

months

in these

West

being

'

the

came

up,
be

can

sea

of the

the dread

besieged and
from
might come

Manchester
from

'

besiegers
Capt.
by sea.

Newcastle
with

skirmishing around

was

parts 3.

of the

relief

Poe, who

wrote

Essex

some

troops
that

Parliament,

to

prevented they

'if

hold

can't

out

days although they have 40 pieces of ordnance


from their ships 4.
get more
with
of August, Manchester
third
week
the
3,000

than

more

indeed
Its recovery
importance as a critical bye-

adventure.

'

northern

hope

that

relief

an

noble

before

in

pages

by natural situation and a maritime


brave shipharbour
which
having in it a most
that time
a
mighty and only interruption of the
of Manchester's
opposing of Newcastle's Popish

at

The

several

consumed

lost,and

been

the

on

following, Rush-

December

in

much

as

had

place ',writes
or

that

Government,

several towns

was

of

account

Parliament

for

'

siege,while

weeks'

six

Whitlocke

worth, Vicars, and


had

these

in

weeks

length capitulatedafter a
of Roger's attempt
failure
exhaustive

its recovery,
months
of August

'

raised

for

loyal
passed, the Oxford
defence.
the
Aulicus, anxiously praised
at
the
town
brave
of delight when
song
the

As

September.
journal,Mercurius

and

Vicars

it attracted

the attention

by

both

importance by

of first

as

dispositionsmade

the

by

ordnance, 1,200

of

pieces

gunpowder.

of

regarded

was

is shown

sides
and

to

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

SIR

'

and

can

In

and

horse

levies

bad

Essex

the

place, while

the

sea.

the

earlier

of

many
Cromwell

"

"

share

in

quoted
('apt. Poe" Barrington MS.
much
'marvels
1643
August
very
the
Town
is, and
people that are
"

that

recusants

all these

in

Association
God

losses

Not

in ike Mount,

to its

the

down

sat

parts',

that

by

Mr

are

'no

of

how

the
forces

from

confined

was

great
chief
more

to

storming
of

matter

Kingston {Egerton,2647,

considering
in it being

there

before

blockade

the

action

the

of

f.

138),

consequence

malignants
raised by

and
the

'.

irning Bush
'"'

Hobart

completed

Warwick

Cromwell's

and

however

them

stages, and after taking part in the


the
Old
rest
Town6,
being merely a

of the

19th

foot

1,500

strength.

Consumed.
p. 413.
See

p.

Barrington MS., quoted


Mercurius
; 15th

Aulicus

September,

Mercurius

Aulicus

476, Tuesday, 29th

has

similar

confident

ences
refer-

August.

above.

3rd
September,
Old Lynn
p. 514
"

48S
p.
is taken.

"

Manchester

sustains

many

EARLY

waiting, he
his

hurried

the

drain

Crowland

taken

had

King's party

their

off to

anxious

more

9
scene

victories in Lincolnshire, where

recent

and

DAYS

CAVALIER

Parliament

the

on

South

and

Lincoln,

much

hands,

of the

advantage

the

distraction
seize

to

west,

in

wholly

more

Mercwrius

of

satisfaction

the

to

of

more

Lynn

once

now

once

the

in

that

"

Aulicus.
'

Shortly after, also nearly

] 643

', says Vicars

the

about

14th

September

of

Norfolk, which

intelligenceto London
of Lynn-Regis, in the county
strong town
had
been
besieged for about the space of

month

noble

and

having

been

the

that

brave

and
of

and

the

by

Manchester,
by land, and

1,

'

and
much

infested

utterly hopeless
Newcastle, and

and

on),

then

every
way
of the Town

Vicar's

both

by

from

ordnance

our

valiant

as

surrounded

by

and

sea

old

of

E.

Lynn

by
impious Popish Earl
at last brought into much
danger
last
terrible
and
at
a
fearing now
(which, indeed, was
firmly resolved

they therefore

and

quarter

virtuous

as

of relief

distress

storming

certain

came

that

resolved

surrender

to

fair

upon

satisfaction'.
50

piece

taken, is

ordnance

of

rather

and

issue

20

barrels

of

with

gunpowder
500

Capt. Poe's
take
it that
we
an
barrels, etc., unless
extraordinary
had
used
been
amount
which
seems
unlikely, for there
The
been
storm.
have
no
was
excess
destroyed,all or
may
most
coming out of the pocket of the Squire of Hunstanton.
at

"

The
means

on
a

of

terms

surrender, which

Vicars

hints at, and

the

ing
interestby which they were
are
vexatiously evaded
and typical of what
like cases
happened in a hundred
both
sides.
They also explain the impoverishment of

noble

than

house

pitched

Manchester
march

and
battles

had

illustrate
are

the

local

feuds

special scourge
Sir

permitted

Vicars

the

Hamon
fair

and

which
of
his

and

more

civil

war.

forces

to

disperse
self
they saw
Young Roger reported himwith many
others at Newark-,
and ultimately drifted to
Oxford
the delusive
scheme
on
we
are
presently to describe.
The old knight retired to Hunstanton
and in Mr
Kingston's
out,

themselves

words

1
a

map
-

p. 4.

'

God
of

as

where

in the

Mount,

Lynn

and

June
Observator,

on

terms,

to

fit.

tried hard

says,

not

to offend

Parliament

See Charles
p. 412.
list of mayors.

1684,

vol. ii. No.

Parkin's

80, and

'.

We

shall find

History of Lynn

Humble

Apology

to

(1762), for

Clarendon,

he

that

modest
that

did

Lady

of

entertainment

late

so

some

as

the

meanwhile

in the

1648

by a very
escaped loyalistprisonersin

Parliament

offend

But
year \
Alice show

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

SIR

10

of
process
how
hard it

when

was

Parliament

so

himself

his estate

1643

and

and

openly
others

among

"

for

warrant

the

'

to

for

'

purge
of 2nd May

order

Association

sufficient

was

book

Alice's

other
on

find

we

heavy

Thos.

'

paid

Hamon

Sir

for his estates

but

Hunstanton,

',which

Skotts

for the

money

to

Association,
Fairfax, for the Eastern
for all garrisons', for the reducing of Newark
',

Sir

the rate

'

against
'

chattels

Dame

In

and

seizinghouses, goods, and

Eastern

'

levies

done,

The

the

on,

spoliation,but there were


any
which
came
particularlysevere

almost

irregular assessments
unpurged cavaliers.
'

had

offence.

went

offended

once

Hamon

of that
for

had

man

Sir

as

"

in

malignants

rich

wealth

also how

maintaining the war, but


impoverishment of royalistestates
for

of the Association

the

only the regular draining of

not

of the

books

account

Kingstead,and

Heacham,

at

for

only

not

Sedgeford.
When

added

magistrates
been

obliged

understand
And

House

came

enemies

when

appeared
solemn

up
the

of

has

it

repudiate
generals in the
to

Collections

~,

Sir
1648.
Report, p. 103, 9th October
chief
(whom he has not made
Toby Pedder
cerning
conand
ingratitude) has given information
soldiers
of the King's
shown
by him to some

that

him
with malice
to repay
clandestine
favours

at Heacham
party lately landed
Historical
Collections, p.
-

the

claimed,

they

her

by

and

11th

to

some

to

claimants

preserved in Husband's

been

'

satisfaction

into

son's
of the

order

scruple

not

can

his

and

an

very

damages

the

siege, we

his

1643

the

did

entered

7 th Appendix
H.M.C.,
L'Estrange understands

constable

December

Parliament

order

the

worthy

from

Sir Hamon

whom

"

invades

setting

engagements

field. The

that

9th

on

assessors

that

their wives

imprison during

to

down

as

and

"

the

special damages

for

bitterness

the

mind.

Hamon

Lynn,

of

claims

the

came

and

for the borough

members
had

of

these

to

'.

396,

well -affected

9th

of

1643.

December

King's

Lynn:

order

An

'Forasmuch

for
the

as

giving
E.

of

King's Lynn remitted


the town,
their offence in reference
while
he lay before
and
bis array
to himself
well-affected
to
but touched
the
done
the
no
by
Malignants
private injuries
upon
it is ordered
that
Col.
of K.
Percivall,and
Walton, Governor
L., Master
and
done
have
Master
been
hath
what
Toll, M.P.'s, shall examine
damage
that
have
it
to
those
to
and
much
their
of
estates
assign
sequestrate so
power
been
damnified
'It
'. Worse
1651.
still is the direct
repudiation of November
Manchester

in his articles

of

agreement

with

the

town

of

...

does
were

not
ever

after
in
search
appear
confirmed
'. H.M.C.,

the

7th

Parlt.

Records

of

App.

to 11th

1643-9

Rept.,

that

p. 101.

these

articles

had

Crowland

fallen

King's party, and

the

to

left

having

Manchester,

later

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

SIR

12

discontented

Lynn with some


joined Cromwell

four

Col.

Walton

in

and

ill

Essex

paid

days

charge

of

levies,

sharp engagements which


desperately obdurate
regained Lincoln, but left Crowland
in Lincoln
The
hands.
were
in cavalier
prisoners taken
certain
taken
to Lynn, thus
Capt.
a
creating a hope which
communicated
Thos.
Leoman
to
L'Estrange at
young
in that

in

had

he

Oxford, where

series of

drifted

approached

taken

the

Covenant,

which

did

little credit

suggested by Vicars,
from
the beginning 3.
Besides

have

various
left to

was

the

by

half

fact

make

his

that

have

we

his

after,is shown

and

then

against

set

to

story

own

we

singularlyRoger

How

affair.

only

Court-Martial,

the

in at

defence

own

hostile

dozen

handed
of this

accounts

project

cunning of either, unless, as


traitor
covenanting captain was

the

evidence

the

with

the

to

is

hero

our

previously

had

who

Leoman,

circumstances

these

volunteer

as

l.

Major Cartwright'stroop
In

Newark

from

accounts.

which
incapable of being
was
piece of evidence
4
his precious commission
contorted
was
signed by apostate
result
of
L'Estrange'simportunacy
Digby ',for the King, the
The

one

'

at Oxford.

As

his

Leoman,

to

Lords'

The

other

the

to

especiallythose

circumstances,

enemies

divided

were

relating

the

between

desire

Journals, vii.,119".
'

Court-Martial

certificate

'

demanded

by
and

approaching L'Estrange at Oxford,


an
Roger's affair at Lynn
important point.
8 Hardly
likely in the absence of personal
he did not
know
of Leoman's
own
explanation
Leoman

the

Lords
the

makes

says

nothing of
entirely

seduction

"

malice

fall of Crowland

the
of

in the

commission,

his

first week

determined

of December

Leoman

and

play

to

far

so

taken

having

"

the

week

as

or

Roger's

know.

we

Covenant

the

so

traitor, seems

after
far

"

the

that
date

likelier.

is but too evident.


gulled by a dull roundhead
J E. 21
(31),quoted in full ; Kingston's East Anglia, p. 184 ; Rushworth, 1692
the
28th
Rex"
After
November
preamble
Dated
lb'44, Charles
ed., vi.,804.
'
Suffolk
Norfolk
and
well-affected
of
of
to
our
our
subjects
referring
country
Town
and particularlyof our
of
Roger
our
Lynn ',and
trusty and well-beloved
That

the

'

'

cavalier

was

'

L'Estrange

'

the

of the

terms

Commission

run

"

through withal, he, the said


place.
L'Estrange, shall have the government
shall be made
of the said place
unto
the inhabitants
what engagement
i[2) That
of
to
that
other
of
or
contributing
service,by
capable
effectually
any
person
way
in His
not
reward, either in employment
Majesty's Navy or Forts, or money
service
of "5,000, the
exceeding the sum
being performed shall be punctually
made
unto
them.
good
be
receive what
assistance
(3) That they shall in this work
given them
may
(1)

That

in

case

that

attempt

ir

from

any

of

our

nearest

garrisons.

should

be

gone
of the

EARLY
to make

and

render

to

from

the

'

him

base,
'

good King
gull of

the veriest

was

figure in

chief

the

as

the

fiasco

one

who

false

by
'

November

'About

DAYS

CAVALIER

brace

13

ridiculous

extorted

meddler,

commission

In

pretences.

1644', says

he

case

any
of blackguards '.

hostile account1, 'the

one

Lynn being in the rebels' hands, the gentleman you


of interest there (when indeed
of, pretending abundance
from His Majesty
had none
at all),
procured a commission
reduce
of
it, graciously promising him the government

Town
wot

he
to

of

the Town,
he

if he

should

could

promise

not

brained

undertaker

it, but

by sending

that

had

taken

payment of all rewards


The
hairexceeding "5,000, "c.
it,and

affect

think

could
for

of

and

Covenant

the

way
of

Leoman

Capt.

one

other

no

reduce

to

Lynn

(one

zealot

known

for

3 miles
2 or
off
cause), to a papist'shouse
him
the business, shows
and
out
discreetlyblunders
very
his commission, promises him
"1,000 and other preferments
the King did
if he would
betray the Town 2, adding that
half his crown
at
value the surprising of that town
", a
tool he
likely tale. Leoman, perceiving what a weak
very
had
to
to deal with
seems
comply ; but the same
night
Col.
Walton
and
to
meets
promise)
(according
acquaints
with
him
carried
but
town-taker
next
our
skulking
day,
he
also frankly
a
habit, to whom
corporal in seaman's
the

rebels'

"

showed

his

the meantime

In

'

commission.

habited

like

seamen

'

the

promises

the

Town

relieve

made

that

was

L'Estrange's
shall forthwith

to

house, and

the

gallant undertaker,

our

person

his

and

mission
com-

stantially
additions, subgiven in Rushworth4, adds to

that

as

within

certain

days after certain


Majesty would send

reduced, his

that

notice

10

sufficient

1683 [Har. Mi$c, vol. vi.).


Tlie Loyal Obsercator,printed by W.
Hammond,
Burning Bush Not Consumed, pp. 78-80. Probably a gloss on the last promise

in

on

same
'

is, with

which

account,
the

taken

five soldiers

and

3.

Vicars'

:'

Lynn

the

who

from

came

disguisedcorporal seizes
his
both
tamely surrenders

then

Stubbing

Lieutenant

commission
send

'

thither

When

such

said

considerable

shall

Town
power

as

be

reduced

shall

bo

we

sufficient to

and

We

'.
them
preserve
need
scarcely refer to

our
a

in Lynn

whilst

on

Harry

Care's

visit to his mistress.

slander

to the

etl'ect that

Roger

was

Ohsn-vatur, i.,61.

taken
to London
that
The
latter adds
Roger was
Rushworth, vi., 804-8.
and
House
of
the
the
door
of
mitted
comto
Commons,
December, 'brought
this Ordinance
to the Provost-Marshall, and
(reference to Court-Martial)
concerning him '.

19th

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

SIR

14

that those
to their relief,and
power
the command
of Lord
Goring '.

his defence

In

of

not

was

Roger

the

brace

of villains

himself

as, if we

'

in

the

"40

was

There

of the
the other
Hagar
though one of the garrison,represented
trust Vicars
living
here, a poor man
he
that
and
alehouse,
kept an
Lynn

for

worse

the

Roundheads'.
details

circumstantial

other

are

"

'

may
in

End

Fisher's

"

under

be

strong point that Leoman

that

and

enemy;
'

it

made

should

forces

and

Vicars

in

of
lonely house
the
five disguised soldiers1
'apparelled like ship -broken
boldly getting
who, banging to the door, and somewhat
men,
said house, being so ordered
within
the courtyard of the
as
they were
by the Governor, who, as soon
up to the door
of the house
of the house, the gentlewoman
came
running
7 poor
6 or
there
to Mr
were
Strange and told him
up
S. presently sent
soldiers
from
come
Lynn begging. Mr
and
be gone,
to
them
down
them
a
shillingand wished
the
bar
down
to
Mrs
Paston
went
door, which
Capt.
the said corporal then
Leoman
present
seeing winked
upon
he
done
which
Mr
a
hold
to lay
S.,
instantly
stamp
on
gave
he had
what
knew
the lieutenant
with
his foot by which
Mr
S. seeing he was
betrayed, conveyed
to do, whereupon
Leoman
his commission
to
(out of the frying-pan
Capt.
the lieutenant, not
then
into the fire),
taking notice of the
set
known
to
of the Capt. as
him, or on
purpose
person

Rushworth,

to

that

as

tell ; then
he
have
any, etc. '.

to

arrival

demanded

and

Commonwealth

the

first attack

S. did

ensnare

of

required

at

Mr

S.

his

the

as

an

enemy
which
he

name,

he

business, but

his

to

the

refused

denied

to

points in dispute in the various stories are so trilling


the case
so
complete, that the judge-advocate at the
the
on
produced no witnesses, relying for a conviction

The
and
trial

cavalier's
This
and

whilst

of such
which
which

by Court-Martial

the

Court

had,

no

opened
So
was

the

doubt,

met

by

the

the

of

by Parliament,

ordinary
by certain

defined

spies
"

powers
articles

circumstance

loop hole to the distressed


for the authority of the Court
to
production of the Parliamentary

smallest

his demand

ordered

was

was
courts, its commission
direct
mention
made
no

cavalier.

try him

story.

own

trial

Vicars, ibid.

EARLY
order

His

l.

contention

Some

The

he

of

gallant but

in

the

the

starred
been

the

28th

hated

his
the

later narratives.

own

26th
to

because

it

the

John

date

Corbet, who

the

Court

of

was

been

having

his

ill-

meanwhile

having

"

Mills, and

that

friendly.

was

Sir

perceived

was

from
exactly a month
the Judge-Advocate

"

when

December,

his defence.
prepare
complains that the trial was

day

Court

from

Dr

in

time

some

he

same

commission

changed

the

for

breath

of the

majority
On

the

same

futile defence.

appear
trial was

asked

he

concluded

not
a

of

day

declares

Yet

15

precedents, his absurd


within
the enemy's lines,

taken

not

was

DAYS

honourable

to

contradictions

first

he

appeal

that

items

were

CAVALIER

friendly,to
augmented
a
hearing,
in guilty.

refused
packed '-,Roger's elaborate defence was
and at 11 o'clock
at night the Court
brought him
He
death
condemned
to
the date
fixed
was
by hanging
the Hothams
suffered
being 2nd January, the day on which
and the authority of the Court
expired.
In regard to this trial it should
that the
be observed
Court
not
Martial
an
was
ordinary Court
3, but specially
with
fixed articles
deal
to
with
appointed by Parliament
batch
of exceptional treasons
which
a
were
symptomatic
or

"

of

the

doubts
of

outstanding

Orrler

21st

and

King

the

to

the

to

of

of the

Town

of

the

Law

Lynn

father

Hothams,

and

to

taken

with

King

Mr

'that

to

the

most

the
Court
Martial,
Roger L'Estrauge be
be speedilyproceeded with according

107".:

being

for

The

year.

communicated

Martial

Law,

this

commission

from

the

and

endeavouring accordingly
that the commission
for haste was
to do it '. The
reason
expired on 2nd January.
See his Appeal from the ' tort-Martial
to ParUamt
nt, 7th April 1647, E. 385 (21).
We
proceed only upon his own
confession, and there being
Jvdgi -Advocat
witnesses
he hath
as
set it forth.
The
no
against him, we take the ease
man
gentleof the Court, for they
might have saved a labour and not limited the power
betwixt
the enemy
and
us'.
proceed upon a Law common
and
Committee
sentenced
1 was
(in effect)tried by one
'. Truth
by another
and
to ParKamu
nt.
Loi/a/ty,
p. 38, and Appeal from tht Court-Martial
3
Husband's
after
conferences
between
Collections,p. 29.
Appointed
many
for

delivery

for

Martial

of
of

December,

Journals, vii.,

Commission

course

that

was

19th

Lords'

December,

referred

these

House,

of

uncertainties

to

'

"

'

the

of this year,
16th
August
therefore, expired, as Mills

Houses

Tts powers,
was

of

when

wrong
second

The

whom

L'Kst

be

must

in his

enemy,

As

in

the

to
one

Court

Apology (1660) he

trial),and
and

of

none

and
officers,

friends

Court-Martial
my

said

certainly did.

range's

(to whom

he

so

I leave

articles

of

Court,

twelve

Sir

their
of

for

run

January.

commission
the

Nat.

four

months.

L'Estrange
touched

him.

commissioners, three
a
Among
quorum.

Brent, formed
Sir Edward
Northumberland,
Baynton
of tho
appealed as to the truth of his account
Corbet.

his

as

name

in

to
2nd

on

were

Sir John

Sir John
Evelyn
Martial).
Lords' Journals, vi.,1 1 9"
.

the
the

its commission

explained,

the

fair

House

'I

never

as

I found

it'

to

have

seems

believed

Sir John

(Appeal from
been

Corbet
Court-

friendly

SIR

16

who

sou,

in

party
the

had

ROGER

L'Estrange'sfortune

not

House

the

intervene

between

L'Estrange to

make

to

find

to

strong
judgment and
a

scaffold.
It

of Robt.
of

natural

was

but

case,

he

for

Martial

in mind

executed

in the

too, had

scattered

around,
in

the

and

George Teage

attempts

There

later

and

the
the

of

to

had

seduce

men

Guildhall

at

from

that

as

the

been

of

in

part of

lurking

other

party.

Alexander
The

1643

August

Digby

same

the

Sir

Bristol.

on

the

played

that

sentence

which

betray Plymouth.

to

by

commissions

There

examples

attempt

Court

those

1643

attempt

an

of

about, and
were

for

of his

most

parallel in

spring of

one

piece.

the

exact

an

Gloucester

at

Yeoman,
Leoman

had

probably

Yeoman,

Court

of

L'ESTRANGE

Carew

setting up
the

was

the

result

in
Parliament
feeling aroused
angry
which
frequency of these Royal Commissions

we

admit

bribes

with

the

Judge-Advocate

be

to

the

by

wholesale

must
to

treachery \
There

besides

were,

establishingthe
the

House,

one

special
recent

as

that

'

whatsover

of the

to

army

the

of

18th

Martial, several
18th
October, and

as

clearest

the

London

Oxford

from

come

the

or

Lord-General

the

apprehended

and

spies

as

the

or

of

of

Earl

Houses

to

reason

no

much

was

who

doubt

resented

happened

wholesale

his word

of

to

by
be

in

Town,'

resignations. Their

"

of

be

proceeded

war'.

his summary
of Parliament

members

to

ment,
Parlia-

shall

Essex,

that

"

part

Earl

of

able
we

"

'

the

any

the

intelligencers,and

rules

of

one

against according to
The
extraordinary thing is that L'Estrange was
raise any
He says
and
sympathy with his case.
the

of

parts adjacent, or

the command
under
part of the army
the warrant
of both
Essex, etc.,without
of

orders

possiblemanner

any

or

August

in

shall

person

King's

order

Court

laid down

April which

10th

the

that

action

the
was

to

have

treatment

and

officers

latter threatened
doubtless

dictated

Vicars, ibid.,p. 78

'

About
the ISth of this month
:
(December) we received
of divers
for the
knowledge
plots and treacherous
designs of the enemy
and
are
strongholds.' The places enumerated
betraying of several towns
Stafford,
most
Dover
Castle, Abington ('wherein Major-General Brown
bravely befooled
base
of Oxonian
wit and
that furious
spark and glittering glow-worm
treachery
these
about
the
'all
Aylesbury,
Plymouth,
Digby'),
Reading,
same
apostate
and
time'.
For
the
of Abington
case
from
Digby's attempt to seduce Brown
his loyalty, see
side
in Mercurius
Anlieus
vi., 808, and the other
Rushworth,
No
mention
for 30th December
of L'Estrange's case
is made
in
1644, p. 1322.
i

certain

Mercurial

Au/icus.

CAVALIER

EARLY
case

part of the

which

his

the hour

as

retired

his

to

hopes
the

to

death

who

article which

betraya

to

he

threw

he

too

Lords

the

are

his

many

This

Lynn.

on

was

judges when

they

Rupert

final

last

the

on

The

night

same

similar

appeal

day

which

he

of December.

of Essex.

to the Earl

Oxon,

1st

January

1644.

of my

occasion

sendingunto you at this


Mr
Roger L'Estrange,his being
Report of one
London
at
to death
a
charge of havinw
upon
for
the
somewhat
to
Ins
reducing Lynn

Lord,

is the

condemned
undertaken

"

If the

Majesty'sobedience.
treachery as having

been

found

engaged anywise

bloody examples

I should

if not

But

interfere.

not

be

person

be

should

begun

guilty of
on

"

very
this

at

of Lords

of J/""
H.M.C., App. to 6th Kept. Calendar
ii.,80, for L'Estrange's version.
Observator,

your

be

"

any

side,
sorry
season

38c/,39a.

pp.

also
-

The

Hothams

despatch could
then

there

Oxon, 1st January, must

'

any

to

to the enemy
;
who
refer to him

that

"

the

sent

which, dated
for
late 2, but

Prince

My

condemns

town

can

among

to

to

demned
con-

'.

is in brief

at Oxford

answer

come

is

'He

him.

King

addressed

budget

intercession1,he

of his commission.

paper

hear

the

shall

In his

that

states

precedents for his attempt

not

time

letters.

remarkable

letter of

King's party

defence, which

of the

plea,the

8a

pleaded

sentence, he

King.

this article

how

printed copy

honourable

have

the

which

attempts

of the

been

3. His

To

and

the

under

death
understand

2. A

copy
would

certain

accompanying

one

any

received

Roger

Essex

petitionto Essex

ever

that

possiblyalso

"

cannot

ail'air,
by local
himself

condemned

write

to

lay with

now

to

'

in the

the

on

1. A

has

reprisalsand

family,and

the

when

was

prison

former

enclosed

he

17

youth.

Late

His

of

moved

ancient

an

that circumstance

by
"

respect for

and

ties

dread

by a natural
high persons who

in the first

DAYS

no

time

not

for

reach
the

at 9

executed

were

Essex

which

conference

scarcely likelyto act alone


(vi.,808).however, mentions

in

the

the

the

on

till late
known

timely

on

the

must

morning of 2nd January. Rupert's


night of 1st January."There was
taken
have
place, and Essex was

temper
appearance

ot

the
of

Commons.

Rushworth

trumpeter from
B

Oxford.

SIR

18

hath
hitherto
been
quarter which
l. For
his Majesty's part in this unhappy war

observed

fair

that

to

contrary

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

on

particular conclusion

heartily

than

man

no

'

hung
and

December2,

31st

the

life

his

Meanwhile

more

prays

Lordship'sservant,

Your

"

which

of

the

on

here

RUPERT

'.

petitionto the Lords


see
something of

we

of
the

in
the
the
of
Hothams3
case
struggle which
Hill
2nd
on
terminated
fatally at Tower
January and in
at last successful.
was
L'Estrange's case
natural
the more
The
Commons
was
as
were
rigorous,
of
the
31st
the
their
usual
had
and
morning
adopted
on
plan of deferring all private business for ten days.
Upon my Appeal \ says L'Estrange4, the Lords ordered
a
reprieve and that the judge-advocate (Dr Mills) should
bring up my charge to that House ; Mills appeared, but
himself
of time
to the charge of want
excused
to draw
as
be ready in two
it should
But
it up.
days. What
(says
of the Lords) is the gentleman condemned
to die and
one
You
don't intend
his charge not yet drawn
to execute
up ?
?
him
in the interim
My Lord
(says Mills) the warrant

violent

'

'

(says

noble

till further

of both

Houses.

with

and

How

to-morrow.

when

Lord)

this

House

obtained

for 10
the

First

Lords

would

Commons

join

not

no

reprieved
order

an

without
a

him

from

consent

conference

that

not

with

private business should


was
hampered both ways
and secondly the
save
me,

them

; but

reprieved

was

this

the first mention


upon
had
interposed that the House

could

alone

struggle),I

violent

So

days.

do

you

it ; but

the Commons
of my
name,
that morning passed a vote, that

"

has

ado

much

be moved

dare

My Lord (says he) I have


that no reprieveshall be allowed
Hereupon the Lords demanded

order

Commons

the

execution

for his

is out

for

14

however

days

(after a
and

from

Rupert', says Sir Sidney Lee (art. L'Estrange, Diet, of Nat. Biog.)
Essex
informed
that he
templated
conquoting Boyer, Annals, iii.,242, 'is said to have
if
executed
'.
No
doubt
the
in
were
L'Estrange
reprisals
passage
'

Prince

Rupert's letter quoted above

responsible for the rumour.


excused
by his condition, at 27 ' adjudged to
death
the
most
die
Lordships' feet (he) most
ignominious
; prostrating at their
he
be cut off in the prime
that
not
their
Lordships'
humbly implores
mercy
may
Lords' Journals,
of his youth, but live to do God and his country service hereafter'.
vii.,188a.
2

:l

The

There

of the
4

The

terms

elder

had

of

been

Hotham.

the

Petition

trouble
See

was

are

between

the. Houses

over

Oldmixon, i.,270.
Court-Martial (1647), and

See Appeal from the


Appeal was reprintedin Truth

and

Loyalty

the

reprievefor

Humble

Vindicated

Apology

(1662),p.

fourteen

days

to Clarendon.

38.

ROGER

SIR

20

the

On
that
he

he

whole

to die

he

disparagement
the

view

devoted

embittered

that

was

already
being passed

had

taken

was

his

would
as

traitor,and

the

life 1.

long

This

that
whose

to

party

be

to

seem

clearly

was

Clarendon2.

of

What

judgment
spy if not
treated
by

as

leniently

rather

was

modern

deserved

L'ESTRANGE

the

L'Estrange
that

perhaps rightly
he lay in Newgate, the
hint
false '. He
L'Estrange was

and

the

when

even

round

and

Covenant

"

"

'

of the

pay

The

enemy.

Rising brought this to a head, and his subsequent


lent much
circumstance
to
history during the Protectorate
how
the story, but
anybody, except from
malice, could
libel in the four
of his sojourn in
invent
such
a
years
Newgate passes comprehension.
he
Four
its dreariness
lay in Newgate. From
years
the truest
Cavalier
chains
and
to
arose
strain, the Hymn
would
one
on
naturally and
even
Confinement, which
into
admit
collection
of
Cavalier
severe
literarygrounds
any
excite
flames
3.
which
can
loyal
songs
Howell
after
advised
when
the disappointed
Years
with
themselves
Cavaliers to content
a
good conscience ',
that
they had enjoyed that
Roger rather sadly remarked
Kentish

'

'

'

boon

for
So

the

twenty

years.
13th February 1644-5

earlyas
for

Lords

petition

the

on

fatal

of
for

security of

the

stand
with
may
result.
Again

'

affords', and

the

24th

benefits

Julv

of

for

He

had

'

person
1645

better

parole

of

Lords, but

the

sympathetically by

his

irrecoverable

and

desire

of health.

score

'an

and much
him
streightenedin
upon
'
the Lords
for such accommodation
as

indispositionof health
prison '. An order of

symptoms

the

liberty on

prisoner petitioned

our

the

was

'having

only

all

the

consumption ', his


air than
Newgate
the city were
met

the

Commons

were

obdurate.
1

from

escape

England

the

gallows

a
:;

speech
hanged, etc.'.

See p. 21.
A
Hymn

to

in the

viii.

he

had

Confinement

(o
.

which

the

names

Appendix.

of

The

Pa-collections

of

Imprisoned
a

Cavalier

'

is added

i,

Mitford's

'

and

LiteraryLife (1859),p.

All

poem

in

men

i., 270.

deserved

He

man's

any

honest

Oldmixon,

{Ibid.,i.,612)

Sir Roger L'Estrange when


sidijcii Lit /In- fa ma*
Oliver's usurpation, London, printed in the year
also

possiblywas

afterwards.

executed'.

been

of Lords

House

Never

2SL

sec.

deplored

often

so

afterwards

wished

Lucas'

Lord
to bo

bk.

Macray's Clarendon,

See

of all

on

tJie

So
men

same

Newgate in the days of


it bears
1705, price 6V.
Loyalty Confined. See Miss
276.
For its authenticitysee
m

EARLY

Thirty long
sheets

some

Martini

lay

for next

and

the

This

"

the

so-called

Newgate,

with

'

made
Clarendon

L'Estrange

Second

when

more

rebuke
remembered

they

had
'

done

the

cruel

proceeded

not

end

in

he

and

affections

received

had

war

was

the

remark2

cruelly as

as

there

whom

this

the

of

that

no

wise
more

than

they might

that
have

3.

This

rather

correct,

version

tame

it took

as

reaction

to

place

the

in

Royalist

of

Roger'sliberation

the

of

moment

of

the

of

the

side, when

weakness

Government,

Cavalier

plots5,

and

expecting

Presbyterians and
and

very

of

moment

to
permitted almost
monopolise the
apprentices to demonstrate
against
was

cruelly said

till the

old

his

usuage

Eanke

'

privityof his
straightfor the scene
writing long after rather

retained

which

risings

War,

the

'he

ripening

Roger slippedout of
istically
keeper and characterof the greatest danger.

Civil

'was

that

Corbet

things were

of local

Court-

had
have
may
of his captivity,

conditions

kept in prison
then
set
at
liberty as one
and
danger',
mingles with

and

of

finding
printed

ing
contain-

pages,
Sir John

document

"

then

of ten

replies

mollify the

to

and

put togetherand
Appeal from the

tract

"

21

Newgate

An

that is in 1648
year
for that futile series

all round

in

entitled

Parliament1

effect

DAYS

liberation,he

prisoner's protests.

sufficient

names

he

he

Commission

the

to

which
the

to

his

months

for his

movement

no

CAVALIER

of

loyal
Press,

the

the

little

probably

strong popular
were
pens
bands
of

and

It

Government.

vacillation

and

is

dreading
City4,

the

on

part

defection

the

embarrassed

assured

of

their

by
own

policy.
7th

April 1647, E. 385 (21). 'After


thirty months'
patience,at least one
petitions (but for breathing room) not so few letters of thanks
to your
members
(only for saying 'tis hard). After all this and more
I am
told my
is
case
different
from
other
men's.
Am
I then
becalmed
in Newgate
.'
Since
that I
have
awaited
promised hearing and can
now
my
expect no longer, being at this
instant
almost
reduced
to my
first principles by a consumptive, hectic
temper '.
also a (printed) letter
to a member
of Parliament
to
1646, praying him
S. Sh. 669 f. 9 (64).
Roger L'Estrange for release.
present a petition from
'-' Clarendon
would
not remember
hero very kindly as the man
who
stirred
our
his
Restoration
by
writingsall that was
np
embarrassing to the Government, in
i

hundred

the

attitude
;;

of the disappointed Cavaliers.


ffistoryofiheRebellion (1826),vi.,26.
'The
Houses
fear
if the Army
them,

Papt rs,
1

25tb

Ibid,
Kentish

May

'The

against
the

1648.

great

Cavaliers
men.

No.

bug-beanwhich

should

be

away*.

Clarendon

2790.
sent

Plol
thorn

lati i

di covered'.

swarming

into

Hence

Kent,

to

the
the

tion
Proclama-

annoyance

of

SIR

22

The

obvious

simultaneous

revolts

as

popular will.
organised and their
Cavalier

of

make

to

London

altered

had

leaders

leadership

solitaryand
But
though they

bias

when

did

and

the

certainly illloyal interest,

were

suit

to

perforce

they

tumults

represented that and


unorganised outbursts

Clarendon

reasons

the

the

them

helped

minds.

For

of

Kent

in

rising

premature

their

up

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

the

sort

attempt some
The
story of

to

appear.

Riot

Canterbury

the

leading

up

have
and
been
June
1648
too
May
l
need
historian
to
exhaustively related by the modern
events,
anything here but the barest outline of the main
with
of L'Estrange's eccentric
a
more
particular account
the

to

part in the
And
his

of

events

movement.

conduct

here.
appear
L'Estrange',he says2,'was

'Mr
and

luxuriant, and

very

observed

by

(of Squire

Hales

of all that

large and

the

of

that

company
Tunstall, in

at

been
he

had

need

more

the

of

grandfather's to be heir
certainly nothing would
or

both, and
of

his

him

therefore
when

parts, and

all

the

which

the

might
were

him,
of

almost

Gardiner

his

with
us

his

at

the

arms,

the

have

his
that

father
grandof

instrument

towards

march

should

head

the

led

be

by

Northern
he

might,
London,

Parliament

to

great share

in

King"'.

account

to believe

that

into
in

be

City and

the
he

the

and
us

entered

of
and

willing to

be

that

than

put himself

should

restoring the

Absalom
warns

both

Parliament

the

to be

countrymen

whereby

lead

to

were

kingdom

of

connection

the

than

would

Scots

induce

honour
In

the

body

would

join with

the

carriage had

his

estate

great

King.

grandfather

his

acceptable to

more

him

advised

country, which

; that

with

be

gloriousto him,

more

own

that

to

the

for

favour

King's

house

affections

the

that

Kent)

the

to

came

"

did

wit

good

enterprisingnature.

an

good

of

man

populous country were


tell
Mr
that though
Hales
began to
in his heart
wish
the King well, yet
such
in his conjunction with
the

He

of

account

best

may

fancy

He

portraitureand

first of all Clarendon's

which
that

Hales

and

which

L'Estrange

affair,Professor
L'Estrange-Hales part can

Achitophel
the

follows,and

of

the

Gardiner, History,
xiii.,381-7.
History of Rebellion,vi.,27.

'

to

reading, first

one

is made

mention

though

episodein the full story l. The tendency


was
magnify his share in the adventure

an

that

so

23
'

only have been


of L'Estrange
natural,

DAYS

CAVALIER

EARLY

of

the

description(wherein

his

Earl

Norwich, the whole

of

from
the
collapse with his withdrawal
of Clarendon
scene),and then the not very friendlyaccount
and
which
omits
altogether the Canterbury disturbance
would
the Tale of Kent
Rochester
seem
scarcelymentioned
his rash intrusive
be entirelya tale of L'Estrange and
to
scheme

to

seems

"

action.
On

the later Kentish

hand

the other

pamphlets

teem

so

cernible
unlucky adventurer, that little is diswhich
for the cloud
of suspicion and
contumely
Roger played.
helps also to exaggerate the part which
with

abuse

the

of

"

this

due

when

But

object

of

universal

local leaders.
as

being
In

in

His

first

affair
and
of

penning

body

be

it must

was

confined

that

his

certain

early and
the closest scrutiny

detractions.

declarations

the

his

that

observed

part

earlier

contents,
dis-

him

the

led

vaingloriousrhetoric

in

into

the

of

organising the

to

extreme

was

deserves

that

appear
himself

thrust

did

against many

place

it will

councils

the

in

account

own

singledefence

the

the

execration

position

commanding

is made

deduction

before

to

siderable
con-

any

field.

Roger calls this babel (for it


the riots
not
fined
conproved but a gloriousconfusion)', was
the Christmas
celebrations which
to Canterbury
over
of these
the chief fomentors
offended
the precisians. Whilst
months
disturbances
for over
two
lodged in Maidstone
were
been
to have
an
understanding that no
gaol, there seems
in
take
formal
May,
place. But
prosecutions would
of Oyer and
down
Parliament
sent
a
special Commission
and
Terminer
to Canterbury for the purpose,
special efforts
made
to pack the jury
were
none
pickt but well affected
Nevertheless, the
to Parliament',
says the prolix Carter'2.
with
jury insisted on returning ignoramus, and not content
the
11th
the
help
this, on
May, met together, and with
which
of
the
terms
of others framed
memorable
a
petition,
The

beginning

of

what

'

"

"

'

"

make

it clear

He

Collection
-

is not

even

that

sheriff's choice

the

mentioned

in the

Newsletters of

of

the

well-affected

men

Clarendon

Stale

Papers

(Nos. 2790-2804).

Mathew.

Carter's

Most

Trie

and

Exact

Expedition of Kent, Essex, and

Relation

of

that

as

Colchester,printed in

I
the

as

year

1650.

fortunate
Un-

SIR

21

Parliament

to

either

was

singularlyunanimous
endorsed

with

held

be

at

notice

by the 29th,
It
that

the

the

This

great meeting

of the

the

on

30th

were

petition
shire to

published widely,

was

forwarded

be

to

country

Rochester

to

invited.

after

was,

of masters.

change

of

Blackheath

the

singularlycareless,or

for

which
subscriptions,

and

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

the

petitionwas

wholly
but

committee-men,

the

explained by

event,

rush

the

of

matter

grievance against

Cavaliers

of

of Kent

men

the

into

appointed
dis-

changed the interest '.


It is now
L'Estrange, fresh from Newgate, enters.
He
made
straight for the village of Tunstall, where he fell
whose
mind
he
the
in with
youthful Squire Hales, over
exercised
was
an
Young as Hales
extraordinary influence.
he had already,with the conhe was
in 1648
nivance
twenty-two
Kentish
of his grandfather,assisted in the abortive
'

area

that

"

"

of

disturbance

1643, and

their share

for

affair both

in that

custody1. The grandfather, although


and
Member
of Parliament
Parliamentary Deputy for Kent,
with such duplicitythat L'Estrange,
behaved
that occasion
on
possibly right in representing
as
reported by Clarendon, was
committed

were

the

to

his

to

that

youth

old

would

man

intervention

successful

effecting

the

to

now,

be

glad as

as

the

secure

of

not

by

estate

Restoration.

Roger's action, beginning at Tunstall as a base of operations,


the
between
limited
the
to
Parliamentary
was
fortnight
the
the
order of
16th May to
deputy-lieutenant'sto suppress
when
Fairfax
the
the
Petition, and
night of 1st June
occupied Maidstone.
he arrived
Kent
When
was
seething with discontent,
that
the
order requiring the
of Parliament
the message
suppression of the Petition should be read in all churches
to a
crisis; but especiallyin the
having brought matters
country parts merely formless, though vehement, agitationwas
of the

gentleman
He

rebellion.

Hales
1

22nd

2,who

to

Hasted, Historyof

Kent
chosen

or

before

is not

there

Esquire
Longtailes and

was

was

Hales
Essex

some

clear.

at

Tunstall, the

Kent, Roger

aided

was

seems

Hales

Manor

of East

Whether

appearance
upon

the

From

observable.

by

have

the

generalissimo

contest,

win

was
i

generous

organise
of

his manage-

04.
iii.,

meeting
rivalry for

at the

some

should

to

enthusiasm

entirelyunder

been

(1782),ii.,577
There

set himself

rendezvous

lie

goneral

...

at Rochester
the

on

'At

the
first

post.
they pitched

at last

to pluck)'. See
good feathers
(a bird that hath
1648
(Bodleian, Wood, 502, 23).
Calves, 14th June

Kentish

ment, and
the

DAYS

CAVALIER

EARLY

Clarendon,

devoted, says

25

much

as

"80,000

as

to

cause.

irony, little to that


the people prone
to
much
talk of a petition,and
purpose,
of those
inclinations
(for
promote it,but as to the conduct
much
No
of
could
seek.
I
to
discover)
quality
ought
person
it. No correspondence to strengthen it,nor
to avow
(as yet)
of
the
it ; and
for
agreed upon
any commissioners
manage
than
this disorder the deputy-lieutenants understood
more
enough, who fell in immediately with their troops to suppress
and
of violence
it and
bold and
that with
public menaces
were
they far from
severity against the Petitioners, nor
eminent
of them.
seizing the most
but
with
in discourse
a
Opposition they met
none,
1

1 found

Roger 1,with

',says

broad

'

'

universal

execration

redeem

their liberties

another

medium

strike

This

expectation.
invited

into

me

In

other

show

we

strike

to

the

and

'

to

But

for asking.

on

of your

state

should

who

mutual

when
affairs,

you

2.

to

infer

first

blow.

are

resolve

great question and

engagement

words,

L'Estranye

the

was

an

be had

thought

the

was

and

slaves

ever

be

to

now

was

for

if they might

first blow

the

be

to

that

the

choice

on

authorities

other

But

fell

pupil to
take an
open hand, and that the credit of effective persuasion
due to the Earl
'acted heroic gallantry
of Thanet, who
was
and
Holfield
and
at Ashford,
Charing, secured 1,000 men
far
of the Rising to Squire Hales, who
giving an account
he
when
more
gallantly proceeded than he began, so now
had
made
fair and
a
hopeful beginning and had assured
from
his purse, made
a
slovenly exit
very large assistance
he

that

from

the

not

was

of honour,

scene

hanging of apostatism.
for

by

by

his

Earl

lied
'

to

to

them

t'artsr's

the

'he would

that

that

much

bevond
he

when

the

sought

was

of

his

peer

the

E.

of

'

in
not

the
cross

menaces

referred
Sir

by
Anthony
to

statement

of

the

of Rochester

street

(vi.,28-9)give?;a specimen of his oratory" 'Mr


his own,
and
stylo very much
being not very
over
prevailed

more

True

'

public

to

Kent.

In

in

understood] the
"

himself

counsel

is discovered

Ibid.,Clarendon

spoke

take

of

nature

Vindication

so

obscures

his

:;.

L'Estrange

In

persuade

incited
he had
neighbouring gentlemen, whom
forwardness, and invited by persuations, the noble

Pembroke

Weldon

and

first to

his

was

The

the

even

ana

Exact

them'.

Relation.

Seep.

81.

r/Kstrange
clear

to

lie

26

SIR

save

soul

one

of

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

that

the Petition',and

subscribed

the

proposal

of the
gentle
hang
petitionersin every parish1.
been
The signal of revolt seems
to have
given generally
that
the
It
that
21st.
on
so
on
happened
day the Kentish
committee-men
were
sittingat Sittingbourne,two miles from
Tunstall
2. Roger and
his merry
on
men
swooped down
and took the place. Here his lenient treatment
of one
them
of the captured committee-men
first gave rise to the murmurs
that 'L'Estrange was
some
false,'and lost his little company
six or seven
At
the same
time he penned the first of
men.
afterwards
series of rhetorical declarations,which
a
brought
alderman

him

much
A

detraction

move

and

numbered

now

would

look

amateur

which

as

the

answer

previous day

the

Petition

Blackheath,
One

the

and

the

south

Sandwich,

to

where

the

deliveringinvitations
diversion
feature

The
20th

from

invitations

the

Their

Previous

30th

by

to

sea-board,

rising.
of

the

for

assigned

Cols.

They

hundred
:i

horse.

Vindication
Freeholders

and
4

Clarendon

and

como

of

local
in

rendezvous

at

their

tasks4.

and

body

mutinous

Halton

made

for

that

part of these

sailors resulted
the most

proved
bands

Exact

Relation,and

from

Maidstone,

Clarendon
under

Sir

in

the

on

well-timed
the
for

State Papers, No.


Michael

in

dangerous

Rochester

to
"

True

had

strict

apostasy of Capt. Keeme

their

Carter's

mentioned

Hamond

another

and

the

great meeting

on

under

fortunate

return

they

violent

proceedings of

day already

leaders

Dover

the

to

the

"

local

of the

that

'

answer

effected
was
object having been
to hearten
the rebels especiallyin their hold on
of the Medway,
which
L'Estrange'saction had
seriouslythreatened.
"

to

Faversham

to

Rochester, where

at

"

on

large contingent

marched

foot.

rather

finally fixed

was

"

and

of their

third

interpreted by
leadership and co-operation on

22nd

the
entered

was
engagement
gentry, at which

of

the

due

was

"

day

when

23rd

wrecked.

rising was

their

the

was

repudiation of

the

But

themselves'

to

horse

400

despatched
join with them.

Canterbury to

two

on

second

had

Roger

to

Maidstone

on

after the

defection

move

Rochester

3.

made

was

despite the
they
men,
this

of

Livesey,

valley
a

time

2790.
with

one

Ibid.
to

of

Kent.

the

The

Declaration

Count)/ of Kent.

State Papers, 29th

and

Resolution of the Knights, Gentry,

(Wood, 502 (13)).


May 1648, No. 2791.

28

ROGER

SIR

minds

the

of

uncertain

seduced

being

already heard
that

Be

the

on

all sides K
the

that

cry

came

after

just

up

Parliament

were

false

was

reinforcement

of

complaints

L'Estrange

and

encouragement,

which

Rochester

gentry against the

it may,

as

whose

countrymen,

by

tenfold

received

L'ESTRANGE

the

from

agreement

was

for

the discovery
But
repudiating its terms.
still stronger
that the enemy
now
was
posted in Maidstone
hundred
for prudence, and
made
in the event
by one
men,
L'Estrange was justified. For the country rose rapidly,and
on
were
occupied
Friday, 26th May, Deptford and Dartford
the day the truce
for the King, and
on
expired six ships

signed,was

in

the
some

gave

vult

quos

declared

for

recruits,and

East

Downs

Jupiter,hos

the

of

influx

huge

Sandwich3.

couched
with

the

The

in

so

the

fatal

from

epistolary
while

and

27th,

addressed

he

movement,

committee

of

news

Halton

Roger's
the

the

Derby House,
die
grandiloquent language of the
'

hands

our

'.The

the

and

On

eleventh

at

'

of

frothy murmur
sceptical correspondent
1

that

to the

Fairfax

before

day

perdere

neutralised

partly by

Hammond

in

man

most

swords

But

till the

countrymen,

here

declaration

in

our

of

was

great

petition or

leader

again requisitioned.

still

was

the

of

return

It

facilitywas
he

of

insurgents,caused

triumphant

of all.

most

demented.

distrust

and

Rochester

interest.

same

Kent

counsels, the lack

Divided

hour2,

the

had

type 4.

started

Heath,

for Hounslow

'

giddy multitude
29th
May.
early as
the

is the

Clan

description

ndon

State

by

used

Papers,

No.

2792.
2

There

was

no

invaded

was

lack
of military talent, for, on
the news
added
embarrassment.
Loyalist captains an

yet

many
notice
of

of

'

pamphlet,

Lords

Most

Kentish

The

of

art

war

arrived

were

into

expecting to be courted
back
again whence
they

them

returned

2796.

of

the

say

the

Kentish

the

into

the

men

Fayre?"

are

small

no

business

very

well

p. 740).
Sir Robert

State

officered

'"What

'though
numbers,

being

not

Clarendon

came'.

Fayre (Bodleian,Malone,

in

country

Rising,Kent
For,

"

of skill in the

persons

No.

by

'.
men

taken

/'-',
See

the

of note

have
"Sir, we
Tracey, Sir Gemaliel
Sir
.J
Sir Wm.
Hales,
as.
Godfrey,
Dudley,
Many, Sir
Col.
John
Hardresse, Col. Washington,
L'Estrange, Col.
Dorrell, Sir Richard
The
Kentish
'were
men
annoyed at having any
Hacker, Col. Culpepper"'.
which
been
small
hath
no
amongst them
strangers to come
prejudice in their
Clarendon
State
5th
affairs'.
No.
2801.
June,
Papers,
have

at

now

ye

Sir John

Calendar

"*

Quoted

Clarendon
were

them

remember

Sir

Many,

of Clarendon
in

the

there
the

to
was

know
no

Trios.

State

Declaration
that

(vi.,38) says

puzzled
'

the

who
such

prominence

Papers,i., 424.
of

when
he

was,

the

Several

Parliament
and

that

etc.
Proceedings,
saw

the

(p. 27 note).
L'Estrange's warrants, they

members
'

for

Kent

a singular thing
gentleman in that county
his late appeal, etc.
given to his trial,
"

assured
when

we

CAVALIER

EARLY

29

Petitioners

referred the

Commons

the

and

DAYS
to

the

General

l.

midnight of the 29th,


Essex
still planning with
when
the delegates from
were
This
action 2.
leaders for a concerted
the Kochester
grain
turned
the
balance
had
'.
of paper ',says an eye-witness,
quite
ordered
Dartford
to retire
The
of Deptford and
were
men
communication

This

received

was

at

'

'

L'Estrange, who

Eochester.

on

doubtless

was

midnight council, either on his own


more
probably at their invitation as in
penned a letter to Fairfax breathing the
which
exasperated the fury and revenge

at

present

or
responsibility,
the other
petition,
warlike
same
spirit

this

the

of

'

army
upon
could complain
who
the county '. The truth is that the men,
of the wavering type noted
of these defiant letters,were
by

Barkstead
'

The

still continue

enemy
be

to

this

communication

his

in

10,000

day to Fairfax.
selves
They give them-

same

Dartford.

at

strong, but the


that
countrymen

lessen

countrymen

do
home
These
are
come
day.
extremely cry out against the gentlemen that did engage
is
themselves
as
utterly undone, which
them, looking upon
the only cause
to keep
of their coming clown, hoping thus
every

their

necks

Another

House

of

set

he

day

same

he

halter'3.

of the

out

penned

ill-timed,but
the

hating

Kent,
to

13th

revolters.

fact

June

'

Letter

Lord-General's

invitation

not

was

Presbyterians,though
Independents, dared not trust
the merchants

State

Clarendon

and

their

open

the

that

of the

Their

throw

to

The

Derby

at

people of London,

to the

Mayor,

Loyalists,while

to the

Vi,n/

Th*

the

for

domination

themselves

2S00, 3rd

for the

declare

Lord

the

committee

the

to

hot address

very

invitingthem, through
gates and

letter

the

wrote

the

On

enraged L'Estrange.

recreants

answer

in Answer

Papers, 29th May,


receive

they should

was

to

tht

and

Message of

the

bankers

Nos.

it from

2791

and

Fairfax

Kentishmen,

'.

dated

1648.
for irresolution,but all belaboured
the
the gentlemen of Kent
the
wretched
A
See
the
Halesiadot,
Message
from
poem,
countrymen.
poor
Fores
of the Kentish
(Wood, 502 (44)). The hero (Hales)
Norman*
to tht General
30th

Blaekheath,
3

Some

May

blamed

speaks after
flight:"

the

loss

'

'Tis true

By
Who

Lest

See Gardiner's

the

Maidstone, and

of

the

we

would

by

have

remissness

their

lost
of

long

no

absence

History,xiii., 385.

two

poet

of

our

unnianaged
time

Martial

they should

is

apparently

not

towns
clowns
order

lose

keep
sheep '.

aware

of

his

The

conservative

of

of

dread

like

had

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

SIR

30

dislocation

the

of

forces

In

earned

and

trade

were

commerce

Commonwealth.

the

of

now

side

the

on

resistingour

credit1.

pamphleteer's

hatred.
life-long

The reprobate
a
eloquence,London
and
spiritof that apostate city gusts nothing but murther
of
rebellion'.
Thirty years later part of the indictment
L'Estrange before Charles's Council, which forced him into
similar attack on the City for new
a
exile,was
causes, which
old.

still the

were

replywas

Fairfax's
condition

'

treat

'

He

'

indeed

as

L'Estrangewho

of

tribute

the

was

soldier's letter.

fight than

to

'

in

was

he

better

is better at it ',

fought,but always

never

treated.
the day
Tuesday the 30th
second
a
meeting was
assembly
On

held

"

400

the

yet
elements, they had
in the
resulted
occupation
of the
treason
ships in the
coast.

Now

realitythe

Fates

the

on

But

in

It

is true
thus

and

they

general.

Norwich

But

knight, Holland,
The

country.

while

the

his

owed

to

Fairfax

way

Heath.

the

one

carpet-

commission.

large

at

the

resume

was

under

in

the

council

outflankingthem

of

by

Maidstone.

Meopham, Mailing,
returned
the
officers who
to Rochester
Among
L'Estrange's pupil in arms,
night of the 30th was
of

of the

the

than

quartered

and

day
dashed
by

swept

seizure

first time

little better

was

and

strongly against them.


were
beyond dispute,

the

returned

leaders

Rochester,

at

war

for

he

crowded

men

more

was

night

rain

courage

and

credentials

whom

to

that

army
The

Downs

united

were

Aylesford

dispositionswhich
valley, the
Medway

the

10,000

Norwich's

Lord

of

were

Heath,

the

made

the

forts

and

With

attended.

had

men

wind

Blackheath

Burham

at

between

Medway,

former

the

On

Rochester.
some

of

side

left

the

on

for the

fixed

"

the

on

Hales.

stay, however, but, regarding the rebellion as


consummated, held himself released from the oath he

did

He
now
1

The

Houses

not

attitude
of

of

London

Independents,

it

was

dubious.

the

and

Parliament,

Tower

confidently said

was

that

/'apers, No.

Whilst
was

the

the trainbands
guarded
reluctantly relinquished by

citizen

soldiers

would

not

the
the

march

declare
2791), and, on the other hand, would
for
victory (Jbid., 1st June, No. 2797). On
insurgents
their
the
to release
31st May
City petitioned Parliament
imprisoned aldermen
recall Fairfax
and
(Ibid.) The scepticalwriter of the Newsletter (Ibid.,No. 2792)
in London
because yesterday the Kentish
retreated
talks of ' great exultation
men
London
from
prentices were
Many
engaged (Ibid.,No. 2801).
Deptford'.
Altogether ' how the City stands affected in this conjuncture will require some
on

.^/ii/

Kent(Clarendon
the

logique to

on

tell you

'

news

"

of

(Ibid.).

their

first

L'Estrange and

when

taken

had

the

21st,
organised !.

of

morning
was

time

this

enemy,

to

the

"

his

Heath
the

on

town

Surely
the

All

on

when

accounts

be audited

would

arrears

Fairfax

and

Norwich

King's Lynn.
the historic ground

leader

never

their

of

Penenden
his

made

attack

June.

1st

on

last

one

of

game

Maidstone,

beyond

ment
move-

"

an

posted

were

men

till the

'

old

the eventful

on

home

indite

to

promising that

enemy's army
and
paid'

set out

epistle to
the troops under
Fairfax
surely
hinted
It was
to me
by divers
Invitation
and
Proposition to the

to

reprehensiblecourse
write something of

he

return

to

remained

Roger, however,
the

not

31

DAYS

CAVALIER

EARLY

behaved

go

more

the

most

that

show

to

with

pusillanimity.
he

did

to

was

and Rochester
2.
hovering betwixt Maidstone
into the
almost
L'Estrange by this time had subsided
positionof a privatevolunteer, and deferringto the 'jealously
he
of strangers' wisely relinquishedany
general command
the
On
had
1st
have
during the previous week3.
may
the enemy

watch

he

June,

shrunk

had

with
army.

got with
committee

'

to

this time

By

reasonably
he

that

not

was

lenient

more

The

'the

to

family.

At

Canterbury

might

man

storms

equal

to the

of

He

he

stone)
(to Maidreturned
Mr

see

there

in

Hales

to

and
pass

vain

go to
returned

which

it 4.

his

without

defection, perhaps,

grandfather,
True

implored the

the fate of Kent

charge '. Carter's

to

'

for

his

command

resolved

desired

read

of

to

him

saw

ascribed

threats'

We

over

lost.

was

(History,vi, 41)

Clarendon

rode

his

'

his

thither

went

'. Here
difficulty
give another push

some

how

"

entrenched.

enemy

Maidstone

him

Sandwich
the

the

us

myself)

deliberate.

to

told

chief

'

of

or

(in

found

Rochester

to

'

"

but

and

'7

says,

and

Relation

'the

more

conscience

(seep. 25)

takes

the

contested

far

into

view.

affair

started

late

in the

afternoon

of

Friday

and

was

See
wet.
to be
Kentish Longtailesand
happened
t
very
I.
T.
letter
the
and
(E.
signed
-145,42).
According to the Newsletter,
Calves,
six to eight
lost from
Statt Papers, 5th June, Fairfax
No. 2801, Clarendon
the town
and
hundred
was
In the
gained by the treachery of the citizens.
men,

night,

the

which

'

action

it
the

was

auxiliaries

fight

observed

was

Gardiner's

crossing at
by H. E.

that
served

the

inhabitants

well,

and

were

the

favourable

Kentishmen

to

the

Parliament

but

slackly '. The


(1885), ii., 146).
(Memoirs of Col. Hutchinson,
bloody, however.
is somewhat
excellent
marred
account
by ignorance of Fairfax's
miles
See art.
from
Maidstone).
Farleigh Bridge (two and a quarter
Maiden
ment,
acknowledgeRev., vii.,533) with Gardiner's
(Eng. 11 a.
very

p. 536.
3

knew
*

Vindication to Kent.
Clarendon, vi.,38, 41 : 'Mr L'Estrange,whom
', ' Mr L'Estrange, who had lost his credit with the people '.
Ibid.

nobody

32

SIR

oracle.

an

and

Thus
is

repaired again

amidst

escaped

ended

the

there

little

is

still

doubt

qui pent2

sauve

source

the

on

twelve

the

be

it

is

the
of

night

to

obstructed

night

was

deserted
One

that

before

to

countrymen
flight.
When

with

remembered
his

all

far

goes

beyond

3.

the

returning

the

ing
succeed-

in

about

his

raising
of

lingered

in

inciting

epistles

10,000

letter,

any

the

foremost

rhetoric,
of

broken.

way

defiant
and

violence

any

L'Estrange,

almost

was

which

foremost

the

night

bragging

been

Roger

the

of

the

view

the

was

after

Maidstone
The

menaces

that

of

Col.

purse

'

settled4
their

answer

towards

army
he
as

was

intention

in

one

with

his

misfortune

had

so

From

say.
home

"

the

anticipating

to

For

Heath

L'Estrange

recruit

the

main

revolt,

Penenden

went
to

'.

Although
Roger
blaming Norwich,

for

difficult

first,and

that

Kent

blamed

boat,

Calais

Whether

Hales

the

deny

cannot

at

return.

Fairfax

Kent

conduct

the

marching down
Fairley Bridge easily got over
in

of

30th

their

writers

with
'

hired

reach

Kent

latter

the

days' campaign,
But
that
day.

next

Lord

is

that

his

and

followers.

not,

or

learn

we

Archer

his
"

of

other

that

Hales

more

tale

than

utterly disheartened
and

of shot

famous

and

Sandwich,

to

shower

scrupulous

more

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

in

were

but

after

in

itself

seems

good

one5.

now
2

to

Clarendon
become
'

By

Kent,
3

silent

think

dispersed

State
Kentish

his

of
to

15th
Carter's

their
June
True

Papers,
men,

and

their

sudden

No.
fire

2804, 8th

counsel

particular
safety,
several
refuges and
1648.
(Wood,
502).
and

Exact

of

and

'

June

is vanished

into

their
in

sanctuaries

"Sir,

Smoak

the
"

breasts,

own

less
'.

of

men

Kent

are

'.
every
hours

than

24

Letter

from

man

began
became

gentleman

of

Relation.

20th
June
'All
is subdued
in Kent'.
:
Clarendon, i., 428.
4 Macray's
It was
rather
after
than
before
the
the
violent
to prove
attempted
event, that
5
'
the
interest
without
from
the
Royalists had
a
war
changed
plain committee
least
in the
Stuart
to a move
premeditated
design against Parliament',
game.
censured
to
L'Estrange's epistles, especially that
as
Fairfax, were
committing
the
redress
rebellion
when
of
to
all they desired.
a
was
petitioners
grievances
concluded
of a high letter
to be written
to His
Many
Excellency (The L'Estrange
others
did
their
of as
not
not
Epistle), which
suiting with
distracted,
approve
confused
condition
and
of
cutting oil' all overtures
pacification and
treaty.
Others
liked
the
declared
not
into
'. In
these
war
a
peremptory
engagement
the
of L'Estrange.
reflections
be found
origin of the maledictions
may
'

II

CHAPTER

1648-60

the

With

false

how

safe

a
'

of

and

newsletters,
false
'

the

and

business
the

cast

of

the

the

his

London

the

Scots

faction

was

and

speech
being,

It

was

in

first

at

it

crossed

Kent

the

as

had
before

for

advance.

Jermyn
favourable

by

inflammatory

into

critical

him

and

more

revolt

the

by

Lord

the
a

was

Holland

signal

take

stage

premature
and

carried

the

of

generalissimo

"

the

of

regard

to

the

the

the

at

in

having

who

'

interloper

to

to

2,

says

readiness,

opposed

reported

'

Ye
That

L'Estrange,

Hu

alone

not

was

alluded

that

circumstances

these

Wordsworth

already

of

leaders.

local

poem

letters,

revilings

before

of

helped

was

as

the

contumely

miscarriage

hand

given

Cavalier,

from

', he

inclined

had

likely

rash

with

from
at

brought

services

state

bitterly

withdrew
"

in

manifesto

him

with

his

their

forced

scarce

but

main

was

Hamilton

the

of

view

which

though

of

meddlesome

and

Cavaliers

Clarendon

vanguard

party

him

had

under

disgust

stuffed

the

found
me'.

Queen

who

man

back

looked

post

the

of

of

curious

'.

upon

taken

view

court

then

sheets

dissolution

the

is

little

no

scarcely

printed

L'Estran"je

Upon
sea

for

him,

to

it

saw

we

as

proved

It

'.

Kent1
"

with

retreat

Liberty

reproach

'the

Roger

"

continental

'

unconquered

'

stick

names

Vanguard

and

of

conquest

PASSAGES

INTERREGNUM

AND

PROTECTORATE

to,

Hah

for

an

riados,
Impreze

Kentishmen

Apology,

celebrating

in

June

the

on

were

epic
your
never

of

Roger

betook
Kent.

'unconquered'
the

Kentish

parcels
beaten

himself
"e

atiair.

set

yet'.

1660

33

the

SIR

34
to

second

calculated

which

silence

similar

under

This

party

sort

of

composition

Had

he

of the

eve

had

fortunes

observed

Restoration
stood

perhaps

its

ambitious

Magna

motto

est

for the
already partly used
Rising. In the preface he complains, I have
the patient subject of your (Kent's) injurious

have

'

6 months

clamours

the

his

know,

we

whole.

as

last

genius than

as

cause.

on

provocation, his

of the

account

been

him

his

far

so

the

Royalist

pamphlet with
et prozvalebit,
we

Veritas

suited

is,

and

became

his

with

higher

kind
the

help

to

better

Kent

to

this

in

effort

L'ESTRANGE

much

Vindication

The

the

which

weapon
sword.

the

ROGER

and

eternities

had

the

been

to

same

would

me,

intemperance within
your
find
but
to
circle,
name
brought upon a foreign
proper
my
infamy transplanted, pacquets stuffed with your
stage, my
invectives
and
to
scandals, and letters despatched express
immortal
malice
that ignoble public. Your
too
to these
be pardoned if I render a sane
indignitieslet me
accompt.
have

but

you

bounded

your

...

know

hate

you

ingratitude,
The
charges
as

viz., his

me

the

the

as

of

reproach

he

had

defection

your
have

rebut

to

after

of

living monument

your

'.

inconstancy
been
already noticed,

Maidstone

and

his

invective

manifestoes.
The

Vindication

object, and

above

whom

with

and

Flanders.
of

He

and

letter

exile

of
the

all

excellent

house

and

if

"

he

presented

phrase employed
keep alive the
loyal flames

"

'

'

to

single

tedious

years
hearts
of

the

in

exiles'-.
to the

As

from

was

fact

compelled

from

his

of

general effect

the

clear

conduct

that
time

of the

in the

whilst
to

It
1

'

Under

Preface
2

to

time

to

whose

roof

is

more

have

but

you

hear

of

our

impossible and

master's

he

to
Hyde
change

will

as

so

Mr
of

it

benefits

many

L'Estrange
religion,you
for

the

Continent

many,

readily die

defence

occasional

for

the

on

the

to

return

received

formerly

(1662), pt. i.
Papers, ii.,212.

State

reports

nothing

that

clear, however,

so

sufficiently
forty years he

next

at

Memento

Clarendon

whatever

that

is not

it is

Vindication

King's Lynn, Kent,


references, drops out altogether.

'

from

judge
during the
can

we

to

in
copy
inmate

welcome

its

Chancellor,

the

been

have

to

now
l

satisfied

results

achieved

have

to

seems

have

to

seems

Clarendon's

Kent

to

as

in

'.

Germany,

must

be

his father

sure

did '.

SIR

36

unpopular

not

Cavaliers

the

of

Cromwell

policy,and

even,

the

restoration

of

Charles

Loyalist

a
many
Oblivion1

them

Act,

the

at

Act

left

would

which,

He

the

of

the

even

still

for

Act

of

protected
permitted.

Council

doubtful

it

however,

only helped

not

pale

more

of

many
whether

State,
tressed
dis-

their

be

the
imperilled, and
only
and
claim
in
the
of
terms
a
pardon
time
to the
submitting themselves

return

to

was

the

in

"

unfavourable

not

England

to

favour

to

the

then

road

The

estates

or

course

within

and

first

Cavalier.
persons

monarchy
be king.

not

established

the

became

the

known

hinted, was

was

climb

to

Cromwell

see

well

desire) but
(passed at his own
that
the
Act
spoliationwhich

from

To

hated

it

should

Stuart

especially grateful to the


exactions
of that assembly

was

was

lenient
to

L'ESTRANGE

It

act.

because

because

aud

ROGER

same

Commonwealth.
The

the

of

terms

kept by

Parliament

reduced

the

and

Act

the

bad

faith

despite the protests


almost

matter

to

of

surrender

which

had

been

the

officers,
army
at discretion.
The

of Lilburne
with
the irritation,
acquittal however
the Council,
which
the necessityfor a public trial had caused
rendered
it very plain that, except in abnormal
cases, a mild
To
'widen
the
of
basis
the
treatment
was
probable.
Commonwealth
policy,it is not surprising
being Cromwell's
and

trial

'

London

that

became

more

once

had

Englishman who
many
and
Preston.
Colchester
We

wending

his

belonged
In

parallel)an

than

not

Roger

(in

been

made

all
to

days

of

L'Estrange

He

had

for
of

category

case

This

Act

excepted
for

words

occurred

to have

seem

still under

1652

had

find

the

ever
how-

his

case

exceptional

other

respects

destroy

him

on

no

an

conviction2.
It does

was

the

to

Lilburne's

attempt

to

for

covert

it since

seen

August 1653.
he
supposed,

in
than

fear

to

undoubtedly
malignancy.
old

back

way

more

then

surprised

not

are

not

excellent

an

of

sentence

death

to

for

L'Estrange that he
the
Lynn affair,a

September 1651 and


passed on the 24th February
of High Treasons
pardon 'all and all manner
(other
all levyiugs of war,
and
all
rebellions, insurrections
only) and
since the 30th
Jan.
1648-9'.
confederacies
Scobel, Acts and

introduced
out

3rd

of its free

conspiracies and
Ordinances, p. 180.
2
Lilburne
Gardiner, xi., 244.
and
the Council, but was
Cromwell
home.
before
Roger ventured
.

returned

committed

to

England
to

3rd

Newgate

May

15th

1653, petitioned

May,

three

weeks

in

sentence

therefore

on

informed

benefits

the

mind

of

can

the

case

the

hands

him

PASSAGES

that

of Oblivion.

Act

Council

the

to

he

37

his

of

excluded

was

When

arrival,

from

the

change of
had
intention of pretendthe hero of Kent
no
ing,
wrathful
understand
rejoinder that in
Roger's
into
Act was
a mere
decoy to tempt Cavaliers

which

we

that

by the

cancelled
way
his notification

no

Strickland

'

INTERREGNUM

AND

PROTECTORATE

of

Act, and

hinted

The

Parliament

at

necessary

the

to

summons

the first of

September proved only

'

Council

on

attendance

prolonged
surveillance
and
which
was
peculiarly annoying at a time
of Hunstanton
when
the old Knight
lay on his deathbed.
took
the way
In this exigence Roger
Cromwell
to
who,
him
after various
disappointments, at last received
kindly
this occasion
able to do more
at the Cockpit and
was
on
for him
than
at
Cambridge ten years before 2. L'Estrange
find by an
books
of the
31st
we
entry in the Council
7th

October,
Council

and

The

occasion

in another

his

of

mercy
when

Col.

him
urge
the House

life to

exposed
by

personal

to

on), and

Master

than

more

For

scene.

the

Civil

the

worst

Sir

the
the

though

Wars,

Hamon's

of

last

left

had

they

exactions

which

the

years
the

him

at

changed days now


Toll (with his injured wife
Percivall, were
set up by order

sequestrate his

to

even

process
enemies.
It

Master

Walton,

the
upon
to Norfolk

down

go

had

such

no

embittered

been

to

tax-collector, and

Parliamentary
had

have

to

been

way

attendance

blessing.

lost

had

further

enabled

must

natural

melancholy
L'Estranges

his

thus

was

his father's

receive

to

'dismissed

was
'

was

for

estate

damage

to

of

committed

We
have
the
Parliamentary canon.
already noted
indiscretion
Toll
of entertaining
reported by the watchful
the escaped Royalist prisoners in 1648, for which
he paid

by

This

is characteristic
of both men.
scene
angry
'
the better
to dispose him
to go to Strickland
Whether
Roger used the
Secretary'sdemur.

about

surly
safe

the

among

exceeding
with

the

Act

Cromwell

that

rigour

and

Turks

upon
when
he

is also
was

Loyalty

not

the
talked

same

of

'

terms,'
change

characteristic.

at

all his

inclination

'

He
"

or

The

my
words

me

(but) that

The

putting himself

'

might
that

have
the

restlessness

he

hut

one

of
man

and

the

been
other

conversation

of the
was

'

convenience

not, it is clear

of mind.'

told

Cavalier

to

as
was

reported
our

party,
'. Trulh

Vindicated.

prisoner on his way to the Guildhall


Court-Martial, Ibid.,p. 10.
:;
He
when
he shall be summoned
givincrin ""2,000 security to appear
and
to
act nothing prejudicial to the Commonwealth
the usual
formula
for taking which
the Court
its adherents.
I never
took any
of their Protestations
scarcely blamed
Covenants, Oaths, or Engagements '. Qbteroator (1684), ii.,No. 80.
-

As

his

'

'

'

SIR

38

ROGER

L'ESTRANGE

for these civil wounds


balm
dearly\ If he found some
trouncing the pious Thoroughgood's Jcivs in Americashall

him

grudge

To

such

the

in
who

pleasure?

darkened

house

L'Estrange
own
exactly ten years
Lynn, since
attempt on
when
he had not
his family. As he passed along the
seen
old road
have
bitter thoughts must
by Cambridge, many
a

after

crowded

his

on

Norfolk

the

levies

for the

Edgehill.

at

chief

of

gloom

turned

he

Cambridge,

Turning

aside
visit

visit

to

have

old

the

join

to

under

presence

the

of

Rupert
the

held

precinctsat

by the silence and


discipline,the interminable
startled

been
new

from

which

to

possiblereverie

such
he

blind 4, we

not

was

material

the

to

find

that

father's estate, despite all the drains of


confession (of forty years
by his own
years, must
of his

Roger'sshare
the

graduate
under-

with

of all liberal warmth3.

lack

side of the

have

place, the

the

prayers,

aside

must

the

his

Newark,

must
Lynn and Kent
depressing recollections.

these

had

he

started

Sidney Sussex, the muster


Bishops' War, his riding out

at

But

in

place

If

at

standard

King's

which

mind, memories

dissension

Roger

came

his

last ten

of King's Lynn, (ff.M.C.App. vii. to 11th Rept. p. 103.) See also p. 10,
chap.
catalogue of Lords, Knights, etc.,who have compounded for their
estate 1655 (Wood
455) we find
J

MSS.
i.

In the

Hamon

is the

here

L'Estrange

second

....

Sir

of

son

to

10

32

the

Hamon,

the

of

Hamon

Col.

Leoman's

understand

Hamon

The

here.

Castlerising 1660) is also

It is difficult

Papers.

State

Clarendon

for

100

of

(returned M.P.

Paston

"105

Ely for

Arlesham, Norfolk
Paston, Thorp, Norfolk

Leoman

Clement
Sir Robert

Isle of

L'Estrange,Upwell,

Thos.

in

appearance

list.

the
2

See. his Americans

At

Vicars

the
say

'

Heretofore"

Parliament

where

is

enemies

malignant
the

time

same

refers

the

clearing
lengthy vogue.

1645"
who

haters

nnd

that

University
See Z. Grey's

son.

brave

the

does

of

the

thereof

falselygive out as if
of learning and parts,
by a most
necessary

its old

state, etc.'.

and

dismemberers
from

to his

prelaticalslander

old

maliciously

advancement

the

at
of

to

confuted
be

would

aimed

ever

and

Reformation

he

already

or

were

they

as

Jews, London, 1652" often attributed


better
disciplined. What
probably much
,"o

But

the

Hudibras, 1744 edition.


to the Rye House
out
of the bribes thrown
The
one
riflingof the Universities was
a
Conspirators. L'Estrange has, himself (Reformation Reformed, pp. 28-32) drawn
been
which
has
rather
the
of
with
seats
their
black
of
learning
dealings
picture
most
he
affirms that 'they made
overlooked.
Quoting Querela Cantabrigiensis
common
beer
and ale being sold as from
colleges public tippling houses, strong'
'

slander

'

had

Apology,
dying father'
*

Nicholas
in money.

has

Wood

alehouses'.

got

'

the

He

the

concerned

can

only

main
had

no

mean

to

story for Oxford.

same

It

notes

me

both
the

estates, Hamon

aptitude to

in
poor

point

of

Cavalier

comfort
was

and

interest

looking

got Upwell in Ely, and


play the country squire.

to

his

to

see

my

portion.

Roger'3 portion

was

PROTECTORATE

AND

later) have
in

the

INTERREGNUM

considerable.

been

PASSAGES

For

it he

by

39
enabled

was

six

to live
remaining years of the Commonwealth
scale
before
than
after.
Hence
a
on
ever
or
grander
a
of
slanders
which
the
are
sufficientlyreferred to by
crop
nicknames
Oliver's fiddler or pensioner, and
Madam
B.'s
baseviol
'.
(Boltinglasse's)
The origin of the former
of his
title was
the occasion
in connection
with
his
repeated attempts to see Cromwell
'

discharge. If
and

for

such

porters about

kindness

when

bating a

noised

decent

bribed

abroad, and

tyrant', L'Estrange

there

is

always

of

spoke

it is

calculated

admitted

of detestation

appearance

secretaries

Oliver's

last

at

was

the

placated Thurloe,

honesty and loyalty.

L'Estrange

publicly

was

the

his

objectionto

no

he
purpose
Protector
and
a

him

to

that

doubt

no

of

that

'crafty

him

with

from

Hunstanton

some

respect.
Of
and

the

life which

continued

followed

to the

death

but

hints, generally from


nourishing condition, was
and

rather

went

He

'

see.

in the

of

the

party

which

of music

to

is

of

one

nothing

he lived

in

there

obscure

are

but

iterated
re-

of

x
Lady Boltinglasse
exposed him to the laughter

the

pension is, of course,


picture of a Commonwealth
interest.
the

and

become

That

satisfyhis love of music,


puritan companies we
can

and

without

known

have

we

source.

contributions

story

not

is well

'

too

provoked

period had

that

the

The
it

able

to have

seems

town.

but

hostile

to the

event

absurd

Protector

freely among

references
who

of the

his coach

kept

his return

rather

Cromwell's
of

name

celebrated

love

L'Estrange

for his

skill

at
on

viol2.

Could

married

it bo

the"

Oates

Titus

Lady Boltinglasse

'

same

in the

King's Bench

heap

Prison, 1684

flesh and brandy ' who


(1890),
AilesburyMemoira

of

ii.,144.
-

the

As

softer
here.

and

biographer of L'Estrange
more

All

his

will have

life,it may
contemporaries who
speak

appreciation.
introduced

side

social

This

hired

was

music

of

the

of

musical

age
into
the

be
of

little occasion

desirable

to notice

him

in this

clubs

before

bill of

fare.

Of

Roger

North

has

to
his

dwell

on

musical

connection,

do

so

this
skill
with

enterprisingmanagers
clubs

by no means
livelydescriptionsinhis
Memoirs
's'- also Hawkins,
ofM
Historyof Music, and
p. 123-7.
The
most
ii., 239".
Grove, Dictionary,
interestingepisode in Roger's musical
his recognition and
with
Dr Waldegravc
in concert
career
was
encouragement
and
of the great Italian
violinist, Nicola
Matteis,
Under-Secretary Bridgeraan
whose
visit to England in 1(372 marks
the
decay of the French
variety of music
of
by the King, but at any rate fostered by his band
not, indeed, introduced
After
this date
advertisements
to
string musicians.
give
begin
newspaper
evidence
of the Italian conquest.
Amid
countless
gibes at Roger's accomplishconfined

to

the

rich

or

cultivated

"

"

"

these

given

.some

"

might "be the

suppose
I heard
Henckson

some

and

organ
I went

an

bear

private

Park,
Mr

one

of
viol
much

not

too,

part

this

company
take
a

to

me

that

and

so

of

room

desired

They

persons.
I did
part.

found

and

or

low

says,
James'

St

in

being

of it ;
touched
in
rise

in

'

fiddle ', he

the

story of

the

Concerning

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

SIR

40

advantage to the reputationof my cunning. Bye-and-bye,


of design or
without "the least colour
expectation,in comes
so
found
He
Cromwell.
us
playing and as I remember,
left us'1.

he

period

in this

theatre,

in

element

life

form

to

have

must

been

singularlydevoted

in

greatly

so

were

endeavoured

which

and

forbidden

the

for

parties which

musical

These

vogue
substitute

humanising

one

party.

to

and long after


by enemies
bullies
with
the event, of amours,
humiliating encounters
be ignored,but one
and brawlers, may
charge which also long
be noticed.
must
he partly admitted
persisted and which
with
confessed
and
sorrow
It is well known
by Clarendon
learned
had
abroad
that
a
the Cavaliers
dissipationvery
of the earliest
One
foreign to the days before the War.
directed
against
of the
Restored
King's Proclamations

stories, told

The

followers,

"an

Roger feebly
gospel to reproach a
that in
can
only mean

This
did

in

Stubbs)
fortune

which
mild

Baxter's

'"

egun,
and

centleman.
1

have

Elsewhere

came

mother

(who

to

or

who
"

me.

Truth
the

Britton.

least

had

and
scandal

lesson

is

we

note

mny

i
'

concerts

than

death

of

"

gave

says

even

turns

This

on

Club

Sir Roger L'Estrange, a very musical


perfection on the base-viol '.
of my
Instead
base-viol.
g-oine to Oliver.
a

I would

for my

Loyalty, pp.
which

of

at Hunstanton

R
[Satirical

Ward

Dr

confirmed,
by

tolerable

Truly my fiddel
profess that
a

life which

hand

Xed

of

slight access

family

small-coalman's

the

L'Estrange
co-heir

dignified contempt
hand'.

I do

driven Cromwell

repeated

to

at

with

'musical

his

at

ill-deeds.

'.

riotous

the

continue

fanity.
prominister

former

was

given him

have

treated

he

alone
sneer

Clubs, 1709) referring

he

his

to

for

the gTeen

and

road

for

not

was

Commonwealth

the

broad

may

it

The
to his opponents.
weapon
of late more
suffered
by the

indeed

"

1656

whereby

meat

of

death

The

such

the

shun

'

not

and

drunkenness

of

penitent

the

of

ever

When

that

retorted

devoted

his

ready with
Bagshawe quoted

L'Estrange,

admissions

of

section

voiced.

rudely

exaggerated his

and

to

which

offence

tongue, rather

his

course

great offence

evil, gave

the

of

47

have

liberty.
and

thereafter

50.

died

But

made

Boyer
out.

no

I affirm

the

scrupleon
that

(Queen

I did

Anne

earth

it not

to

ever.''
how-

(1722),p. 38)

PROTECTORATE
that

of

AND

the

his

shorter

PASSAGES

41

sequestrator.

Sir

Nicholas, author

of

the

early

age

of

months

his

heir

followed

Anecdotes, died
before

INTERREGNUM

at

and

mother,

interval

fifty-two,nine
him

at

an

the

even

l.

These

unnoticed
are
repeated bereavements
by L'Estrange,
throughout life a stoical indifference to domestic
which
his study of Seneca
sorrow
encouraged.
So long as Cromwell
little opportunity
lived, there was
for change except by the hand
of the assassin, and
people
if even
the Royalists themselves
began to wonder
really
desired
and
a
change. Though the Rising in the north
the conspiraciesof Hewitt
and
regarded as
Slingsby were
the acts
of the more
Cavaliers
desperate Cavaliers, many
settle down
induced
to
were
moderate
to a
enjoyment of
what
seemed
likely to prove a lengthy period, and they
made
flourish -.
their estates
] practised a sobriety which
During the rule of Cromwell
',says L'Estrange,excusing
his own
there
small
to form
inactivity,
was
encouragement
who

evinces

'

'

design

any

unless

renegado Royalists
it

party
besides

was

scarce

that

he

his person.
betwixt
divers
For
upon
and
malcontents
of his own
mercenary
possible to act without
discovery;

quick and cruel (two great advantages


slavish people). His death
over
a
in 1658
opened the way
most
entered
certainlyto a change, but that which
upon
it in 1659
of all others
was
(I think) the least expected'3.
Roger has also devoted a chapter (vi.)of his Memento
was

"

the

thoughtfulof

most

policy of Cromwell,

all his works

'that

to

"

gloriousrebel'

the

character

which

shows

and
some

insight.
'

Of

strong natural
think

some

or

otherwise

his

could

discourses

were

abilities

from

his meaning,
I reckon

save

them

his words
that
the

more

any

the

more

more

though

was

imputing
advantages
will
be
not
denied
however
(which
powerfully to his greatness). Nor do

collect

world

all his

to

Fortune

concurred
to

parts I persuade myself he

tion
corrupto

have

pretend
than

entangled

judicious because

the
his
the

Blomefield, x., S3.


See
in
this
Masson's
Oldmixon,
connection
Prof.
list of
i., 496.
authors
the Protectorate
finds
living under
Nedham
(Milton, v.. 75). .Marchniont
'adherants
a
less cordial, while
place under
more
or
a
peculiar outrage has been
"
committed
on
L'Estrange by tying him up with Baxter
as
subject by compulsion."
Otherwise
he
is in good
"
with
Denham.
Davenaut
company
-

Evelyn', etc.
3

Memento

(1662),pt. i.

SIR

42

fitter for his business.


for

he

durst

disclaim
other

his

his

by

So

person.
be
to

neither

"

the

"

His

and

follovp'To

these

made

was

middle

to

'

After

this
he

his

to

time

to

improve

to

monster.

had

will

I must
all his

wickedness, and

slaves
passions were
his death, according to

understood

gained

which

him

express

all his

nay

reserve,

part lay in this

he

course

mischief

to

that
prone
of craft and

up

to

friends, nor

ripen occasions
peculiar talent of

enablements

prostituteand

his

and

the

was

skill of his

by

this

By

obstructions

remove

the

that

mistaken

enemies.

obliged him

interest

his thoughts nor


totally
clearlyown
one
endangering his design and the
way

neither

them

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

so

say, He
faculties

ambitions.
the Council

the Instrument

is to
is

choose

supposed

rather

to

hasten

no

way
him '.

the

wait

betwixt
thus
into

enters

to

wish

than

being pained
or
having it
limited

and

successor

be

other

to

and

of

but

the

they

the

disdain

suspicion of
by depressing

of

his
those

one

had

creature

enlarging his

restless

quieted

be

gapes
which
probably
;
that this miserable

for ; so
the hazard

dependant
a

whoever

power

seeing

it

Council, and
that

raised

had
to fear,
parties Cromwell
viz.,the Royalists,the Presbyterians,and Republicans, our
author
Touching the Royalists,no good for him was
says,
to be hoped for there, but
by gaols, exile, sellingthem for
all which
was
abundantly
slaves, famishings or
murder;
for
pretended plots,High Courts
provided
by sequestrations,
of Justice, spies,decoys, etc.
Nay (for the very despatch
the massacre
resolve upon
(which
sake) when
they should
be
allowed
cavalier
must
beyond doubt they meant
us) no
defensive
much
the
least piece of
arms
by an order
so
as
suffered
to
of Nov.
keep in his
24, 1655, no
person
schoolmaster
house
sequestered or
as
chaplain or
any
etc.
ejected minister, fellow of a college,
ruined ;
the only party the rebels feared and
This was
but
for the
join
they'd never
Presbyteriaus, they knew
inconsiderable'.
to help the
King, and single they were
His
cherishing the army ', keeping the nation in an
ferment
eternal
against the Royalists, setting one
party
and
betraying both by a splendid system
against another
As
all these 'methods'
of espionage
are
duly discussed.
the lodestar
for his ruling principle,'The
Kingship was
Of

the

first of the

three

'

'

'

"

of

all his

labours

'.

Private

affections

he

scarcely knew.

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

SIR

44

himself
has
provided us with
actually did. He
for brevity and
a
chronology of the Interregnum which
quaintness it would be difficult to surpass :
what

he

In

"

1R

Ib58.

bept.
A
Apr.

i"rq
Iboy.

Apr.

22nd

whose

nuge

-{
9th.

days

thev're

throws

1659

bt

ar.

v.

Behold

the

punishment

The

staff of

of it
"

Whatever

may
1648

risings since
band
of Royalists
in

'

standing
and

army
the
been

of the

in

Rump

the

vote

first down

to

goes

while, the Army

again and

Rump

is

support and

\
of

Sealed
no

doubt

the

action

premature

the

as

the

character

the

of

known

for

Rebellion, both

Protectorate, there

Richard's

advent

next

the

have

and

the

neither

in
October
Army, which
and
now
they're FleetRump
in
the
Enter
more
once
Rump
about
the army
comes
once
again,
exit is for ever, March
11th, 1660.

out

Rump's

friend

the

army.
December, and

lawyers,

and

with

later

\ wood's

,r

are

have

Government.

up
Lenthal's

(Some
then

the

and

turn, but

(Apr. 22)

officers undertake
ten

his

takes

his Parliament

they

puisne Highness
They meet and notwithstand-

too.

Richard

( Now

then

must

pack of officers
prove(J utterly Republican,
I single person
nor
Army.
a

I m"

to

May

j^g pariiament

dies, and

Oliver

September
Army,

Richard's

various
of

Select

or

that

with

the

knot,
the

responsible leaders
period of masterly silence

1659, the

May

began to think that the


that the hour
for action
and
and
mere
plotting was
over,
lose the opportunity of
had
to
not
arrived, if they were
Every
confusion, and the gathering of Loyalistsentiment.

abroad

fresh

failure

of the

Commonwealth

to

establish

itself meant

avowed
from
the most
large accessions to their cause, even
or
Court-party,
Republicans. The despairing Cromwellians
attached
it soon
to
more
single-personrule
appeared, were
than to the cause
which
the last single-personhad espoused.
of opinion
General
disillusionment
was
throwing largemasses
London
into the Royalist scale,and
combed
honeyespeciallywas
labour
of
the
in
due
with
to
sedition,
patient
part
Of
the secret
loyal clubs since the rise of the Protector.
has become
of the Rising which
nature
the very extended
identified
of Sir George Booth, it is unwith
the name
necessary
further
than
it
that
to
was
anything here
say
i

Memento

(1662),pt. i.

PROTECTORATE

AND

INTERREGNUM

PASSAGES

45

of its

complaint

organisers,that the old Cavaliers


far too chary of taking any part in it,because of former
were
miscarriages,and that though the risingswere
designed to
take place in those parts where the King's party was
strongest,
it was
rather the Presbyterian than
the Cavalier interest to
which
they appealed l.
The
former
leaders and
enemies
jealousy of new
seems
deterred
to have
of the old party from joining,while if
many
Clarendon's
and
picture of their demoralisation
by debauch
certain
secpiestrationis exaggerated, there is no doubt
a
in the post-Restoration claim
of the Presbyterians
cogency
to some
gratitude on the part of the Government, and since
common

no

man

how

see

and

better

was

he

likelyto

was

indiscreet
had

rescued

demands

come

from

utter

the

of this than

look

Clarendon,

unfavourably

of the old Cavaliers

the

over

assuming

not

informed

Cavalier

and

crown

on

2. A

party, and

dejection by

'

still

we

can

extreme

ness
great weari-

whilst

Cromwell's

better

the

they

were
'

infatuation

by his death,

in

the

Evelyn'sApology for

tlie Royal Party, 1659.


4th November
1659, E. 763
the Presbyterians) party,
of their own
wholly managed by some
(i.e.
the
whom
had
Cheshire
for the
Rout
sounded
last
Rump
disobliged '. The
time
the depths of Presbyterian Royalist suspicions. It was
truly the result of a
'
hatred and
universal
disdain
of their (Parliament's) proceedings, but what
by
treachery, delays, babling, disappointments, and scruples of taking in the Royal
his Majesty or his friends
should
meant
be the better
Party (by those that never
for '")
the whole
dashed
'.
M" nu nto, pt. i.
The
the
was
proposal to bring over
secured gave
been
King before any port had
point to these suspicions. Yet
not
for the occasion
L'Estrange was
quite idle. He issued a paper
calling in the
of London
men
to demand
Free
Parliament.
See Verm
450-1.
a
i/ Memoirs, ii.,
The
only thing that looks like countenancing Sir George is the intended
petition
of the City for a Free
of any one
I do not hear
Cavalier
Parliament, as they say.
in all this affair,but
it is wholly on
that
the
Presbytery and those that fought
and
See also Prof.
Firth's
engaged for what
they call the good old Cause-.'
Ludlow's
104 etseq.and
Clarendon
Memoirs, ii.,
(Continuation of Life (1761),ii.,35).
For the classic dispute between
Eachard
and
Oldmixon
to the claims
of the
as
Presbyterians see i., 486-91 of the latter's History. Baxter
Oldmixon
says
the
Love
died,and the Booth
naturally claimed
Rising as
conspiracy for which
towards
the
Presbytery's contribution
Restoration, 'all the stir tho royalists
could
make
in the City and
was
by spiritingup mobs and mutineers
Camp '. p. 304.
work
and
false pretences they goad the Londoners
with talk of
By thoir mean
on
taxes
and
within
'We
come
liberties,etc., p. 449.
448)
now
are
(March 1660, p.

(11) ' "Twas

'

"

few

from

weeks

of

those

whom

meeting
of

name

Feb.

Royalist
the King '.

immortal
'

As

his

to

1660

(when
of

touch
when

Milton
Davenant

at

tho
and
and

and

Davenant

one

Another

given

Restoration
Dr

of

bringing in
is

the

note

Monk
'.

In

L'Eatrange who
Whig
the

we

calls

Historian

have

word

called
'

word

of

is included
takes

into

the

under

Eachard

in

City)

from

his

there

task
list of

improving

knowledge in language to be as imperfect as


Eachard, Hist, of Eng. (1720), ii.,846.

his

our

the

little

title

the
to

Cavaliers

the

Even

thoy contributed

witty Marvell'
L'Estrange refining and
very

Under-svurleathers.
was

not

"

or

unless
Prentice

is not

the

nothing

to

p)
Under-spitrleatJu
for

omitting

Restoration

tongue

he

'the
wits.

showed

History,' p. 491.

See

ROGER

SIR

46

which

treacheries
which

the

between

reflected

coupled
the

But

in the Case

full

of

privity

Chancellor, the

party

the
of

state

in

"

in this

assisted

and

approval
by

was

of

jealousies
and

helplessness

L'Estrange's
'

2.

adventure

which
and

Charles

deterred

means

no

Sir
from

the younger

of many
tracts
the Late King's Party

Cavaliers

if fewer

the

with

out

one

of

names

Corker, and

experiencedintriguersand

old

to choose

"

Appeal

had

escape,

school, produced between

less wary

own

not

the

Francis

wretched

the

did

L'Estrange

with

associated

are

and

Willis

Richard

L'ESTRANGE

from

the
other

that is
by Oldmixon
by embroiliDg the City on the subject of taxation, and by
liberal use
The
of the Press.
everready L'Estrange took
a
6th
withdrawal
on
advantage of Lambert's
August 1659
from
London, to set forth the first of a daring series of
of troops and Roger
left naked
manifestoes 2. The City was
appealed not indeed for a Restoration, but for what all men

action

knew

of

to

the

carry

indicated

sort

meaner

Restoration

it

"

full and

free Parliament.

clearly the very small


part
which
the old Cavaliers
took
in the approaching confusion
the hesitancy to which
the
and
reduced, than
they were
almost
but covert
absence
to the last of any
appeals
up
bolder
less prudent
for the return
of Charles.
Far
but
in this direction were
demands
made
by their old enemies,
the Presbyterians.
The
followed
Lambert's
repression which
triumph has
made
been
much
of by Clarendon, but
if we
follow
the
of the fallen leaders, we
rather
fortunes
are
surprised by
the leniency of the Government
mark
of weakness
of
a
in this instance.
all
If Royalist designs were
at
course
Nothing

shows

with

"

more

"

interfered

with, the

interference

of communication
facility
as
having been introduced

quickly re-asserted
1

Not
almost

are

i.,206,
2

The

Thomason

and

and
on

momentary,

was

propaganda
the

death

noted
of

by

and

that

Clarendon

Cromwell,

very

itself3.

authorities
generally ascribed to L'Estrange, but the British Museum
See Prof. Firth's Last
Years of the Protectorate,
certainlyright here.

ii.,69.
Declaration

Collection.

of the
There

City
is also

to

the

Men,

at

Westminster.

Not

in

the

and
(Bodl., Wood, 567 (46))a Remonstrance
Protestation of the well-affected
People of London, Westminster, and other Cities,etc.,
16 folio pages,
with
list of the Parliament
it was
a
to whom
to be sent, dated
men
10th
November
It looks very
1659.
like L'Estrange's work.
3
Eachard
reflections
conduct
of 'this generous
849) has various
the
(ii,,
on
undertaking ',which though seemingly fatal to Royalist hopes ' proved a mighty
the Restoration
'.
step towards

it also the

with

momentary)

the

extraordinary

most

of

theories

which

clash

The
Press
English nation.
by the inabilityof any one

some
or

and

hawkers

the

the

or

Club

deafened
The

from

Rump

officials with

which

demonstrated

action

on

of

By

terms

order for
to

matters

not

by statute, but
in.
Every morning
of
yelled out news

it

an

Nation7-, this

Presbyterian
of such

that

that

to

at

meet

in

of

action
of

Lambert's
the

to

14th

January2,

old

of

Whitehall,

of

error

Proclamation

confusion

union

tacit

Council

the

divines

return

the

City

December
not

'full

that if
now
saw
synonymous
be relinquished.
met, all hopes of relief must
of "100,000
assessment
brought
per month

on

riding down

"

Eight days previous

to

the

tion
Proclama-

the hardihood

to

issue what

Parliament, proposed by the City


the

very
the London

which

constitution

and

almost

are

Free

called

were

free

the

convulsed

clearlypointed

to, L'Estrange had

referred

he

for

tions
',but fettered by all the Loyalist restricParliaments, the Royal party and the

crisis.

the

Parliament

this Parliament

The

ever

Wallingford
futilityand
then

was

Cromwell's

the

"

has

moment

with

came

"

the

It
Rump.
important.
a

if any

the

free Parliament

City

opportunity

pamphlets,declarations,
Harrington, Milton, L'Estrange,and

October, and

13th

callingfor
and

two

Bow, while

"

called critical

be

became

the

the

came

an

London

sermons

critical moment

the

Now

rein

by Royalist
the Metropolis1.

and

Prynne,

of

the

at

manifestoes

could

(also

founded
of government
on
Greek, Roman,
of the latest absurdity of the Rota
tradition,news

Mosaic

and

of

mercuries

fall

scheme

new

Club,

was

to

the

and
opinions,speculations,

which

government

carried

expelled by

was

gave

of

47

moment,

and

army

October.

13th

chaos

of

the
which

Rump,
on

months

three

or

the

General

victorious

of

exaltation

of

the

Royalist hopes, for

of the

ruin

The

PASSAGES

INTERREGNUM

AND

PROTECTORATE

embodied

to

the

day that 'Hewson's


mirmydons'
and
Whitlocke's
draft
prentices,
the views

of the Commonwealth

of a paper
called
the Obn rvator
of the Times (a collected volume
the
tide
of atheism
and
begun in 1704 to stem
particularly
itself on
directed
L'Estrange 's old Observaior)
against Defoe's Review, modelled
told Clarendon
in its 36th
after
the Restoration
remarks
number, that Thurloe
that
possessed of the People, the Power, and the Army, yet
though they were
chief
The
he attributed
of which
cause
to the books
they lost all in a moment.
the
wrote
fewer
Cavaliers
in number
than
and papers
which,
though
by
those on
far superior in strength of reason
'.
the other
side, yet were
2
669 f. 11 (24) Bod.
1

Lesley,

View

Rehearsed,which

'

Dated

3rd

January

in Thomason

669
Collection,

f. 22

(56).

SIR

48

ROGER

L'ESTRANGE

lawyers and Savoy clergy was


at Whitehall.

the

rule.

nation

be

may

the country

How

to the

granted

Church

present

it saddled

tithes,and
and

constitution

The

it maintained

submitted

Army

wide

no

toleration

establishment
with

seen

the

Milton

fact
of

of the

out

single-chamber legislation

intensely disappointingit
from

Council

that

it

the

to

was

tasteful
equally dis-

was

the

establishment
of
out
(because
the tithes
of popular
perhaps because of the measure
to
election it gave) and
and
his
L'Estrange for whom
party generally nothing but a full popular election could
moment
at that
a
bring about
complete abrogation of
of
they desired in the form
popular government, which
to

and

"

"

the

Restoration.
Meanwhile

manifesto

the

in

seized,probably with

had

he

eye

12th

Monk,

to

\ Ro^er

December

of

news

whose

had

Coldstream

those elements
just come
out, on
most
the defection
were
embarrassing to the Government
of Hazelrig and
Morley at Portsmouth.
Particularly

arrival
which

an

of

at

"

himself

set

the

fan

to

disorder

and

of

resentment

had
rough handling of the petitioners which
appeared the day before in the City. For the only time
of the London
think
in his life, L'Estrange could
rabble
2
in Clarendon
with approbation. That
which
recalls
passage
Hewson's

in

similar

passage
deplores the

and

Tacitus, where

anarchy

the

of the

Chancellor

when

relates

father

and
City
son
and
the
blood of
engaged themselves
contrary parties
the
of
the
the master
servants' villany',
was
frequently
price
kind
of
which
indicates the
muddy waters
L'Estrange had
the
in haranguing
to stir up
now
apprentices into revolt.
of
the soldiers that it is
The
so
impatient
City is grown
into an
feared they will suddenly break
out
violence
open
them; they have already entered into a solemn
upon
ment
engageSo
reads
the
'.
that
to
to
the
preamble
purpose
'

in the

"

'

of

document
of rather

December,

16th

and
Remonstrance
669 f. 22 (18).

Continuation, ii.,39.

Final

sheet

Protest

Si

and

gave
December

nse

to the

great offence

20th

December3,

startlingnature.

Engagement

12th

the

appeared

qf

the

Nothing

the
less

than

of London, subscribed

City,16th

December,

by

the

Common

669

Council

the

setting

by 23,500 hands.

f. 22
'

(26).

Mayor

and

entitled

the

'

sting'.

others

The

'This

(Apology).

from

Final

On

vindicatingthe

scandalous
certain
aspersions contained
22
A Proclamation
f.
669
etc.,
(32).
Protest,
pamphlet
from
Council
London
(16th December, 669 f. 22 (25))banishing Cavaliers

Lord

is

engagement

saints, particularly to Tiehborne.

declaration

and

in
of

the
was

an

opposition

by

the

of

up

Parliament

Council

hath

'The
treat

of their

behalf

the

to

as

us.

No

us

upon

them

"

and

the

very
there is a

if the
As

an

Law

and

had

and

refusal

the

December

mention

emanated
to
wore

pay
on,

must

of

posed
pro-

convenient.

most

appear

of known
a

to

England on
to proceed

manner

preserve

integrity

fair

intelligence

yesterday the Conservators


myrmydons
put an affront

his
of

people

persons

for it.

reason

the

be

to

4 commissioners

in such

than

lives, they

effect of

whence
As

since

Liberties, Hewson

our

and

longer

of the

shall

may

out

with
of

rest

rightsand

invaded

about

that

constituted

of every county two


be still among
to
us

Choose
that

the

commissioners

same

to

49

Whitehall.

at

City of London
respectivelywith

PASSAGES

INTERREGNUM

AND

PROTECTORATE

Parliament

Free

heads

Their

enrages

forfeited,

are

'

perish \

Council
city tumults, the Common
the proposals for a Free
Parliament
the great tax, was
forciblydissolved.
and

it became

more

clear

that

the

that
and
old
had
forgotten Monk,
Wallingford Council
silent George' was
preparing for his January descent from
Coldstream, the impending ruin of the chaotic Government
its
for
a
corresponding contempt
appeared certain, and
soldiers and agents was
displayedin the City,where Hewson's
by the rabble to which
pelted with mud
regiments were
themselves.
L'Estrange and others so fervently addressed
all
firmness.
of the
Fleetwood's
City lacked
government
his desire to stand well with
The secret of his hesitancy was
'

the

party of the

Restoration

to

which

entreated

Whitlocke

too late.
give ear ere it was
of the 14th
Two
December,
days after the Proclamation
in January, L'Estrange
for a restricted
Parliament
to meet
Sense of
Protest and
The Final
took
himself
to issue
upon
of language in
he
the City, in which
adopted a freedom
speaking of the Government, and discovered such a contempt
of the Savoy ministerial
earnestly
clique, that Tichborne
of
the hawkers
and
severely abused
sought out the author
the
inflammatory piece. The
daring journalist had also
singled out the Lord Mayor, a true trimmer, who had bade
met2.
the Town
Parliament
be quiet till the new
A week
Roger
later,undeterred
by Tichborne's menaces,

him

to

would
later his enemies
the
use
years
'. See chap. viii. 250.
Parliament
it difficult afterwards
He found
his
to
defend
Vindication of the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, 30th

Twenty

shall have
-

the

same

to

menace

him,

we

'

trimming

'

attitude.

.s-v

April 1660, E. 1023 (2).

SIR

50

issued

(23rd December)

till

still

urged
City\
the
crown) was
liberty(or
restored
The
was
Rump
in

the

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

December)
had
the

Though

late

take

days

been

Restoration

of

should

taxes

no

be

of
paid

restored.
the

following day (24th


The
four
days preceding
in
the
City.
unprecedented gloom

was

on

huzzas.

short-lived

amid

that

Resolve

so

the

near

could

Cavaliers

do

the apprentices and


secretly among
They had been so easilyand signallycrushed in the
trust
alive to internal
so
treachery and disrising and were
that
it was
again
highly unlikely that they would
had
A
to arms.
they
accepted what
large number

little
mob.

he

which

audacious

more

more

regarded as

work

than

the

inevitable, and
and

present trouble

in

any

to

case

transcended

confusion

most

in

men

the

importance

thought of Restoration.
Among all men, therefore,
with
in connection
vain
whatever
hopes they nourished
real sense
of their country's wounds
a
Charles, there was
form
of stable government2.
and a strong yearning for some
the

even

efforts

Whatever

therefore

emanated

at

this

time

from

taken to observe
discreet reticence
a
was
loyal party, care
become
the subject of the Restoration, for they had
now
on
effort they could do nothing,and
that of their own
convinced
work
that they must
body of moderate
through the sane
for Charles.
not yet prepared to shout
opinion which was

the

In

such

positionthe

close

of

the

year

found

parties,

other
fitting to notice briefly what
writers
were
doing for their respective sides.
Evelyn, Stubbe, Howell, Prynne, and L'Estrange are the
chief champions on the side of the Restoration.
They were
1659) reinforced
shortly (towards the end of December
and
Giles
powerfully by the journalistsHenry Muddiman

and

here

it may

be

of the
of the
Resolve, etc. (protesting against the terms
Agreement
of Officers,
22nd
December), 669. f. 22 (32).
2 Evidence
in the
is found
of this weariness
the
on
part of the Cavaliers
E.
th"
4th
November
763
(ii).
16T"9,
pamphlets of Evelyn (Apology for
Royal Party,
Stubbe, Commonwealth
put in the Balance, but best of all in L'Estrange's jtypeal
Present
in the Can
to 'The
of ike Lot* King's Party,January 1660, addressed
and
that royal person
between
whom
Declared
Supreme Magistrate of the Nation
it is now
for the helmship and
apparent the only contest
steerage of the present
methinks
is
to
like
in
the
now
probably
lie,
hinting whereof
my
government
very
motives
blood.'
'the
to the
The
of
the
tone
drops
deprecatory
tract,
pen
the
so
long
were
high displeasure and indignation which hath
writing which
I confess
continued
number
myself
against that
loyal party (amongst which
'the
failures
and
other
Booth
result
of the
too sadly that
one)', proves
as
a
Cavalier
for lost unless
by division
party began to despair and to give their cause
fell out
themselves
render
their
victories
they should
useless, which
amongst
than
sooner
(1662),pt. i.
they expected '. Memento
1

Gen.

The

Council

SIR

52

ROGER

L'ESTRANGE

and
then he wrote
his Letter
Commonwealth,
the Ruptures of the Commonwealth,
in which
he proposed
for the

alarm
on

impossible Republican Aristocracy,which


partly
ideas
the
of
Rota.
reproduced
Harrington's
In the four critical days preceding the Eestoration
of
the Rump, he lay inert and
knowing as all men
despairing,
did now
that the decision
than
lay rather at Coldstream
The restored Rump
he approved, but its wateredWhitehall.
down
he
Republicanism and its views on the Establishment
regarded as a betrayal.
had
General
been
The
greeted on his journey south at
his several halting-placesby numerous
protests and petitions,
a large number
purportingto give the state of opinion in the
for the first time in twenty
seemed
now
provinces,which
importance which
eclipsedthe noisy
years to spring into an
Capital.
the
had
9th
He
received on
his army
January, when
between
Newcastle
and
somewhere
York, Harrington's
was
and
Rota, or Model
of a Free Commonivealth
probably at
in his London
time
the same
budget a pretentiousAddress
to the Commissioners
of the City of London
for the Rights
Liberties of the English Nation
and
1, which
purported to
of the Counties
and their advice to the City
be the demands
It vehemently urged that no more
in its dilemma.
petitions
the
should
from
that
should
to the Rump
taxes
come
no
City,
be paid, and demanded
But
an
absolutelyFree Parliament.
had no provincial authority,for it was
the document
penned
London.
in
by Roger L'Estrange
still some
ment,
There
was
danger in demanding a Free Parliaand Roger was
that
quite right in claiming afterwards
if not
he set
his life,in his hands, when
he took his liberty,
in regard to
these
2. But
forth even
guarded manifestoes
the anonymous
Appeal in the Case of the late King's Party
which
belongs to this month, and finds
already alluded to
his Apology
no
place in the list of his services which
that
is seldom
account
furnishes, and on
quoted as his
well with
the
there is a suspicion that he wished
to stand
his

own

"

"

party in power.
Bristol

In

appeal to

the

Richard

Mayor

to

Ellsworth
associate

urged the prentices to


with
adjacent counties, and

January (Apology,8, 1660).


the credit of the danger with
to share
enough afterwards
generous
1680.
See Discover//upon Discovery,
his publisher,Harry Bromo.
1

J'ated

He

was

3rd

PROTECTORATE
with

AND

INTERREGNUM

PASSAGES

53

the Lord

Mayor and Council of London, and in January


further
urged the prentice-mob to rise against the Rump,
the design to be communicated
by the Press 1.
of Exeter,
Responsible people,however, like the Recorder
careful
which
to use
mediate
would
were
language
promote an interof
state
things leading up to the largerpolicy'.
This
attention
both
petition of Bampfield's drew some
from
the Rump
and
from
it was
Monk,
perhaps because
known
from
to emanate
a
was
country which
burning with
discontent
and arming.
It reached
Monk
at Leicester,communicated
probably by
the Speaker, to whom
it was
addressed.
On 23rd January the
Rump made a 'fawning reply to it. The same
day at Leicester
'

'

the

General

sent

to the

This

L'Estrange

those

Kingship,and

in

adverse

admirable

for

parts

tract

Limited
The

letter

long

Bampfield's

Parliament, and

more

the

of

was

veiled

its

crypto-

design,

true

journalist of the

that

seemed

Monk's

still

Rolle, there

to

to Mr

Petition

it

to

answer

cated
to be communi-

'

impossible to imagine2.

self-constituted
of

Rolle

answer

in

cautiously

the

as

be

Devonshire
and

type

attacked

if not

the

in

read

was

it would

Although

an

letter

document

Royalist

letter to Mr

gentry of Devonshire

Petition '.
astute

cautious

attributed

to

more

Party

exclude

the

non-committal,

appeared what is really


to L'Estrange, the Plea

Monarchy'3.

four

dubiouslyalleged against a

reasons

and

Restoration

by Bampfield
are
noteworthy as affordingthe author
of this pamphlet
an
opportunity for acting the laudator
of
acti
temporis
Merry England before the Civil confusion.
These

were

(1) The

Monk

"

major

inclined

to

swallowed

(2)

part

the

Republic alone

lands
can

See

It

Letter

seen,

from

the

plain,'says

but
are

sort out

is admitted
'

those

that

E.

This

765 (8). tncluded

have

against'.
the entangled interests

Prentices
llallam

war.

of Bristol

to those

[Coru. Hut.,

of London,

9th

February.

if he (Monk) had
].. 490), 'that
the whole
credit
of the Restoration

have
lost
delayed a very little longer, he would
'The professional hypocrites were
',p. 489.
deceived.
Cromwell
to Rolle,"22nd January, E. 1013 (20).
bungler to him '. Monk
3

be

to

4.

(3) The army is against.


(4) It would beget a new
a'

nation

Monarchy,

crown

of the nation

of

was

mere

in Somer's
Tracts,vol. vi. ; we note p. 57. Pepya, i.,63.
public expression of the opinion that a Republic is best lilted for a
tradingcommunity i* noteworthy and will recur.

SIR

64

Such

reasoning offered

Plea.
the

It

authority

Gen.

Monk,

which

he

which

the

he

the

country

for

scope
whether

the

him

to

addressed

to his

the

Gentlemen

of

intolerable

the

his

Excellency

Devon'1,

grievances

attacked

even

forth

set

now

and

of the

author

L'Estrange had

enabled

'from

represented
of

four

and

in
tractions
dis-

positions

above.

His
of

letter

find

when

manifestoes

noted

ample

is difficult to

scant

Kentish

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

daring on
following

the

notice

last

this

occasion

critical

recorded

was

The

week.

in

Council

the

events

had

taken

fluttered
about
Royalist papers which
On
2nd February, two
city and country.
days before Monk
entered
reminded
of the Press
London, the Lord Mayor was
Act
of September 1649
it was
enacted
'that no
by which
hawkers
and
books
and
dispersers of scandalous
papers
shall be permitted ',and
was
required to proceed against
them.
their
laborious
deserted
Many
people had
more
round
the
with
streets
a
callings to run
budget of the
latest attacks
the
A
week
on
later, letters were
Rump.
sent
out
to all the
by the Council
garrisons to the effect
that many
groundlessly and falselyinterpret that
persons
and
is resolved
for a full and
(Gen. Monk) has declared
free Parliament'.
This on
12th
'from
the
February when
apprehensions raised thereby the streets of the city were
at

of

the

'

filled with
'2.

joy

after

Secretary

the

But

bonfires, tumults, and


Thomas

Press, and
before

even

The

long
a

arrears,

with

so

that

abused
cause

admonished

was

of

acclamations
to

look

Tichborne

alarmed a.
grew
entered
the city the Royalist and

Monk

anti-Republican faction
of citizens

Scot

limitless

he

had

could

laboured
have

soldiery
that

gave
had

incited
an

occasion

for

mutiny

to

to

fraternise

them
with
so
City, which
recently loaded
invited, not yet successfully,by the
curses.
They were
the prentices and
with
intrepid L'Estrange to join hands
others
who
united
for a full and
were
by an
engagement
free

the

no

were

them

the minds
prepare
of their wishes.
doubt
to

Parliament.

Under same
f. 23 (23). C.S.P.B.
(1659-60),p. 330, 28th January 1660.
effect from
Norwich
and
Suffolk.
petitions to the same
Prof. Firth's
For a note
the
on
prentices of this period see
Apology, 1660.
Tears
Last
of the Protectorate,(ii.,73). Many of these youths (according to
of Cavaliers.
Mercurius
sons
Kustieus) were
i

669

date

"

the

C.S.P.D.
Master

and

(1659-60),
pp.
Warden

313-1.

of the

Council

Stationers'

of State

Coy., 2nd

to the

Lord

February

1660.

Mayor,

and

to

PASSAGES

INTERREGNUM

AND

PROTECTORATE

night of Thursday,
organised riot of the latter,in

2nd

The

of fear and
distrust
agony
the
had produced in
City.

'witnessed

February

showed

which

attempt

an

which

Monk's

55

policy

an

the

of silence

object of the revolters and


their Cavalier directors
them)
( L'Estrange foremost
among
had
and
Monk's
the
to seize
they
was
entry,
city against
addressed
soldiers
whom
the
mutinous
to
Roger
gained over
have
the
of
run
himself,
differently.
course
history might
author \ the apprentices drew
Late at night ',says our
into a party in the city and
scattered by the Army
were
down
into the Strand
had they rather drawn
Horse, whereas
and
those
in Somerset
with
House, it
joined themselves
that
believed
was
they might have
by sober persons,
The

'

'

carried

About

it.

and

false-alarmed,

was

that

pretence
upon
hinder
Monk's
all their

persuaded
not
they were

advance
in

device

succeeded,

their

the

in

in

courtier

following (Friday)

afternoon

ungenerously

but

party

security

their

their

evacuated

rioters

City quiet, and

left the

revolted

instantly posted to
have
the Town,
they would
quarters'.

into

cut

quarters and

of

out

throats

This

Roger

if

the

morning,

the

in

one

wise

which

condition
calls

'honester

guests '.
The

marched

Monk

in,

might have perused


bolt
the unwearying Loyalist,to the effect
another
from
of
that he (Monk) was
far too wise
to
regard the events
the previous night as
(what indeed
they were) a menace
if he

and

had

time

or

inclination, he

'

'

his

to

entry.

Saturday (4thFebruary) the Rump used its momentary


terminated
which
would
have
triumph to adopt a measure
400
to
This
Act
raised the Rump
all Loyalist hopes.
On

members

by

flood

full and

electoral

the

on

basis

free

Parliament

"

1653.

Oxford,

petitionsfrom

of

of

was

York, Lynn,
which

demands

It

were

followed

etc., for
answered

garrisons,referred to above.
But on the 7th a critical measure
reviving the December
the
of "100,000
tax
was
signal for a
passed, which
gave
forces'- not
final rally of all anti-Rump
only in the City,
of extrachief centres
The
but
throughout the country.
Norfolk.
Warwick
Devon
and
sent
urban
agitation were
the

by

1
-

letter

of

State

to

the

Apology, 1660.
See

letter 24th

\i., 821),quoted

by

in

are

raisingmoney

February 1658, H. Cromwell


Firth, Last Years of

Prof.
the

compendious

ways

to

to Thurloe
(he

cause

I /

State 1

'Errors
Protectorate,n., 271.
discontentment'.
a general

its resolve

the

on

the

9th

order1, for which

against the
the

ordered

Rump

prominent objectors,'half

of

arrest

the

more

citizens',says

their

of

score

Common

the

Wednesday

On

tax.

resolved

London

of

Council

resist the

to

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

SIR

56

L'Estrange, 'chieflymerchants'.
the day of the order"
On
the 7th also
Secretary Scott
Monk
Whilst
was
enjoined to look strictlyafter the Press.
was
pursuing his odious task of subduing the rebellious city
received from the commanderwas
(8th-10th February) news
affected
disof dangerous meetings of the
in Norfolk
chief
in
Exeter
from
in Lynn, while
came
tidings of a
the Royal party.
among
great dispersalof arms
"

Monk's

of

flush

the

In

of

ordering

prescribedan
attack

An

the

determined

only

was

measure

refractory Common
discreet Lord
Mayor,

the

fatal to Charles
now

was

of

arms

election.

next

almost
it

to

the

II.

fatal to

the

citizens

and

protracted struggle; it
long and by what steps to the
of

issue

of how

matter

for

of power,
into the

his greatest moment


Monk
It threw
Rump.

in

thus

the

commending
Abjuration Oath
on
City liberties was

whilst

Council, and

the

of

discontinuance

the

counted

they

the extreme

adopted

Council

themselves, the Rump

which

success,

the

Restoration.

month
saw
days of this memorable
in the
Monk
carrying out the Rump's destructive work
City. The 11th saw him tender something like an apology
adrift from
to the
City Fathers, and clearly cut himself
in
of portentous anxiety followed
A
week
the
Rump.

raising the City Militia,


to
by
delay the measure
conference

of the
the

and

General, in

only

which
The
suppress

Wales, where

of the Common

those
endeavour

Council,

patch

to

turned,

now

were

and
the

Resolved

the

admire

faction

to

up

Scot's

and

officers.
to

desperate

cling to

then, that

to adhere

sentatives
repre-

peace

sincerely desired.

side

can

Militia
secure

Republicans fought stoutly


of
The
scene
talking it out.

the

met

vain

for

motion

the

orders

Royalistliterature already appeared futile.

Republican
to

one

tables

we

the

Rump

On

State.

Council,

Common

to the

of alderman

house

the

was

of

order

the

defied

had

which

transferred

strugglewas

the

which

10th

and

9th

The

'The
former

power.

efforts

First

of

the

they opposed

Commonwealthmen,
of the

theless
Never-

they endeavoured

summoned,

vote

to

Court

in the

they're
negative.

AND

PROTECTORATE

abirding too,
From

the

troops

the

Restoration

marched

of

news

Presses

18th

down

majority

to Monk

and

and

Hying bodies
load

disgorged a

February
the

to

three

"

House

of

Venice

"

the

City,in

than

abuse

which

the

the

of

return

he

anti-

before

days

the

had

Presbyterian
addressed

in Season

Word

the

Monk

good

to do

sense

2.

Rump

secluded

celebrated

one

members
from

tract

concerted
dis-

somewhat

the

hand

of

Milton,

necessitatingthereby a prefatory word of explanation.


Beadie
and
Uasie
memories
Way, etc., does not awaken
splendid rhetoric as does the Areopagitica,but it is
best

Milton's

of

City.

it undertook
for

and

of
the

in the

revolution

Monk,
mind,

The

Restoration
It is written
tracts.
pre
in obvious
agitation,though laid aside during

hurriedly and
the

'.

Republican

of vehement

reinstate

to

L'Estrange published A

more

The

came

little tale of Rome

57

literature.

the

little

tell their

country

and

On

and

PASSAGES

INTERREGNUM

its

unpopular

remains

ever

3.
courage
For
by this time

the settlement

With

one

forced

into the
passage
of Milton's
claims

by
public
to

noble

from

transferred

the

bed-fellows

strange

Republic
It is

was

the

danger

side which

publication had been


L'Estrange and Prynne
"

and

espoused,

"

of

for

except

Milton,

the

now

anonymous.
ungrateful task to record

an

here

L'Estrange'sfirst

of good taste
in his attack on
against the cannons
It is possible to regard the poet in the light of a
Milton.
his name
did not then enjoy.
posteriorsacrosanctitywhich
At any rate the gibes of Roger's Seasonable
Word
published
towards
the end of the month
(February) sins far less in
offence

See

Declaration

Full

(p. 55) gives

which
a

'

'

Printed

Monarchy

would

L'Estrange

up his services
heat of party

liberty only
attribution

The

at

is given

of the True

State of the Secluded


Members
Case
excluded.
30th January, E. 1013 (2'2).
669 f. 23 (52). The
date of the
Plea for Limited

list of the

Hague,
in

Thomason

the

Catalogue as

have

in

forgotten such an
his Apology
Despite

the

or

to

to

conveys

us

desirable

King's Party (that is,that L'Estrange


certain

Government.
matter

With

Christ

criticism.

points

would

echo

to the

representation

against
does

increase

not

Ph

valid

by

the

the
claim

not

its author's

of

it

he

.summed

without
due

likely
the

English

against Oldys's
style nor by

in his

Appeal in the Case of the


its moderation
it) because

credit

with

author, 17th July,

same

'

tract

Is

the
E.

Restored

765 (4),puts

doubt.

Restoration

bad

is not

reason

same

beyond

himself

of Milton's

The

An

the

this

conclude
supported by Monarchy', we must
L'Estrange (Somer's Tracts,vol. vi.). It is not

printer.

that

when

lie

of it to

Ins

the

tribute

"

faction

lat(

on

February.

20th

contribution

excellent

stream

put the

pamphlets

brand

running
of

so

larger circulation
657.
Masson, Milton, iii.,
had

high,

Gentilism

it

upon
or

to
reijuiredcourage
Yet
Kingship'.

provoked

more

say
not

that
one

rapid fury of

this

the

respect than

There
which

later

two

fool

any
author

could

had
(the
of things before
fond
opinion of
themselves

of Milton's

pamphlet on
he adjures the Rump
referringto the state
to stand)
to quit that

passage
resolution

successive
the

'

',and

Parliament
of

name

of
of

the

Monk's

Character

Royalist squib

famous

fasten, where

allowed

under

Milton

the

the Rota

of

The

pamphlets

unhappy phrase

one

was

and

Censure

The

March,

30th

L'ESTRANGE

(17th March)

Bump

the

Grand

to

'

perpetuate
Council

General

or

'.

such aristocratic Republicanism


approve
difficult question for even
such an apologistas Masson,

How
is

ROGER

SIR

58

to

came

certainly it

but

Philistines.

How

Harrington's

Rota

the

when

of the

was

Readie

as

endless

the

Easie

Rota

for the

sake

to

he

would

of the

weaker

that

town,

now

hysteriaof
explain(second edition

London
to

and

Milton

pet jest of the

for Milton

Way)

jeering by the

between

peace

victory turned

useless

and
the

principleof
to deny that

became
of

of

cause

make

to

omens

jesting'.It

the

was

'

concede

the

brethren,

as

people desired the monarchy.


voiced
the
heroic
He
once
by right of
minority which
the right to rule.
conquest had assumed
I could
only wish,' says L'Estrange in a civil sneer
his Excellency (Monk)
had
been
little civiler to Mr
a
wealth
finished his model
of a CommonMilton
! for just as he had
men
Directory in these very terms of the choice :
of Lords
House
not addicted
to a single person
", and the
or
members
and
work
is done, in come
the secluded
spoil his
project'.
the attention
demanded
There
two
were
questions which
settled the day
Parliament.
The
first was
of the Restored
after
the return
of the secluded
(22nd February) by an
the 25th
Parliament
order for a new
to meet
on
April, but
of the electoral restrictions
the matter
not so speedily was
the

majority of

the

'

'

"

"

settled.
members'
irrelevant

other

The

time, and

consumed

matter

much

aroused

discussions

on

the

power
In this

the

half

second

greater dissension.
of the

sword

of
The

actually

Monk
fit to
event
saw
Royal party.
Act
the
Militia
amend
(passed 12th March) in an antigiving offence to the officers.
Royalist direction to avoid
the
But
over
so
long had the fanatic party held power
the Cavaliers, that in
that
a
feeling existed among
army,
some
slip'twixt cup and lip,that power would stillbe retained,

alarmed

the

26th

March.

E.

1019

1S8.
(5*); Har. Misc., iii.,

SIR

CO

'good old Cause,' and this despite the


against such tampering1.

in the

In
the

the

the

country

factions

have

aid

their

the

in

still

of

the

hope
the
last
of policy was
resort
failed,
the Presbyterians and
Loyalists.

them,

they

assassination

of Monk

and

already

on

may

believe
Their
be

not

It is to such
both

on

attempt

by republishing

war

searched

The

divide

to

all

these, the
if

we

would

then.

we

the

owe

Republican
memories

and

Course

involve

to

Militia

hopeless, and

the

Rise

'for matter

into

the

revive

to

the

attempt

Failing

even

that

On

sides.

made

was

to

means

considerations

as

against

went

If

privately mooted,

was

no

and

itself to the extremists,

landed, if

till Charles

so

appeals

March

L'Estrange2.
then
was
by

case

Militia.

recommended

24th

clamation
Pro-

remained, they hoped


If these

elections.

still had

Council

still influential

were

sheriffs

Commonwealth

old

to

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

the

last

literary

side

of

the

of

the

clever

great
War, as

murtherers

of

the

have
saved
him ', which
was
King with those that would
the
line
taken
Cavaliers
of
the
by vengeful
precisely
This
L'Estrange type for the next
piece
twenty
years.
did two
the
of
Stuart
it
things
represented
long course
alarm
and
it
the
Baxterians
to
treachery,
whispered an
which
in this event
proved very real. But Baxter
wras
Penitential
for the
sermon
already preparing his famous
Parliament.
opening of the Convention
bears
Letter Intercepted* which
date
A
the Thomason
23rd
March,
adopted the Miltonic
opposition to both
involved
Monarchy and the increase of popular government
"

in

free Parliament.

day

far

later

"

formidable

more

dated

although

letter

Plain

English*. It issued
Livewell
Chapman
(who
1

17th
f. 24

069

the

for

March, Proc.
(24), 19th March

arrest

affections

of

of

of

all persons
in

some

the

possessed a
agitators had
reply to these attempts.
forbidding officers to meet
a

Apology,p.

E.

27th
4

1017

March,
Not

95

(36).

who

for

It

in

G69

quotes

the
the

f. 24

party
in

the

Collection.

to

title

mint

Milton's

of

Beadle

quit London,

Catalogue),'A Proc.
and
debauching
alienating the
Thomason

(40). L'Estrange
in the Army.
'

forefront

the

that
'the
says
See
The
Army's

Proc.

framing
manifestoes,
C.S.J'. B. (1659-60),pp. 409-11.
See
Roger's reply to this tract, A
of

the

subterranean

soldiers

out

came

"

bearing

published

attempt

considerable

for the

the

all abandoned

March

Army,'

1660.

in Thomason

also

March

Monk

to

from

Council

(24th

22nd

of

17th

March

etc.

Sober

Answer, etc.,

AND

PROTECTORATE
and
of

Easie
the

hotheads

eight
the

abuse

future, when
the

up
leeks

the

late

rabble

King's

the

been

Republican party.
the
Royalist party

of

the

PASSAGES

have

to

seems

of

of

pages

set
'

and

Way)

INTERREGNUM

of

London

shall

statue

61

It

consists

and

now

of

for

fears
anxious

so

returned

have

labour

joint

to

the

to

'

and

the object
of their old bondage ; with
onyons
it reprints the
reviving old memories
non-addressing

of

Resolution
On
from

of

January 1647-8.
25th Br Griffith
of the ranting type
Clarendon
prayed to be delivered

the

which

and

which

of

God

and

honour

impartial

an

evoked

the

Council

his

indiscretion

Kin;/'1,an

lodged

Royalist

issued

"

Fear

for

Commons,

"

whom

sermon

the

him

in

Newgate,

Milton's

Brief Notes upon a Late Sermon,


of this
which
in turn
a castigation
Pulpit Mountebank
Guides2.
These
provoked Roger L'Estrange's No Blinde
three
second
attack
Republican pamphlets with Milton's
Griffith
Nedham's
Ncivs from
Brussels
on
(Eyesalve) and
the last effective sallies of the
were
good old Cause '. They
also remarkable
were
as
daring source.
issuing from one
Livewell
almost
the sole publisher left to
Chapman was now
the
Cause '. March
22nd
date
of Plain
is the
English,
'

'

"

'

'

and

the

on

arrest

28th

of Livewell.

scandalous
a

sick

Neivs

bed

did not
Public

the

to

take

Proclamation

first

March

23rd

which

write

his

action

to

till
Intelligence

Late

News

dismiss

him

aroused

the

from

Evelyn
The

Unmasked.
from

the

of Nedham's

is also the date

Brussels

from

for

out

was

Council

writing of

the

the second
April,when
part
of Milton's Readie
and Easie Way was
selling3. Praise-GodBarebones
is said to have assisted Plain
English into print 4.
We
know
that Chapman
several
lingered about London
weeks
before he fled to the Continent, and it is exceedingly
probable that he printed the second edition of Milton's tract.
These
and
Rarebones
men
Nedham,
Milton, Chapman,
the

9th

"

E. 1918

Of

later

edition

Consulem
J

far

"

(1).
more

importance

is 'written

dedimus

It is dated

Si
10th

than

month

the
further

has given rise to

"-

Jin'-/ Notes
down
some

the
surmise

e. 187 (-')"
Griffith's
on
torrent'.
as

to who

Its

Thia

sermon.

1'J

motto,

Sylla

nott

was.

in one
note
is an
MS.
original. There
copy
written
reported was
by Sir H. Vane, Scot and
the
the discovery
Major Salloway (.-),
printed for Chapman
bookseller, who
upon
of the matter
Proclamation
issued
him.
It
out
lied, whereupon
a
against
written
after the inditement
was
of the said person,
Xedham
and
by Marchmont
The
alarm
convoyed to the printers and booksellers
by Praise-Cod-Barebones.
to the officers and
written
soldiers of the army
was
persons'. Tho
by the same
Proclamation
for the
March
of Livewell
is dated
28th
arrest
Chapman
(669 f.
24(47)).
as

follows:

"this

March

letter

as

in

the

was

...

SIR

62
formed

privy

the

to

mild

designs

and

the Readie
the

of last

kind

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

the

on

Way

Easie

references

guard

the

of

The

Army.
suppressed,as

Monk

to

Republic, and

of the

they

second
Masson

were

edition

of

points out,

first edition, and

stituted
sub-

parallelto Sulla.
Desborough's letter to Chapman
like your Plain
books
of 8th April demands
more
English ',
the
General's
and
hints
at
a
on
design to secure
person
whilst
it
that
8th
subterranean
May,
bespeaks
agitation
the
the
be
to
was
congregations which
greatest
among
and
for thirtyyears to shake the
to the Restoration
menace
a

'

of the Restored

throne
The

reply

the

to

house

agitationin

the

army

contained

was

in

loyal address to Monk


disclaimingany motive of treason,
and signed by all the guards and
captains*2. To L'Estrange
fell the
task
of dealing with
the
despairing series of
2nd
above.
On
Republican tracts mentioned
April his
Treason
Arraigned chastised Plain English by that point to
which
his favourite
to become
was
style. It
point method
is a piece drawn
by no fool ',he says, and I should suspect
Eiconoclastes.
hand
it to be a plot of the same
that wrote
either or
both of you
Say, Milton, Nedham,
(or whosoever
mixed
with you
this worthy person
ever
else) say where
allow
and
that
is you,
or
they that employ you
you

'

'

"

'

wages
To

3.

the

divide

Presbyterians

Desborough's policy

was

"

but

it also

up

for

himself

if Charles

the

same

Yet

'
'

We

C.S.P.U.
fix

about
as

yet
2

mint, tried
few

on

London.

lurid

the

to

The

the

Press

409-11.

is free

and

the

picture

to

the

Loyalists
English,
"

Plain

General

Stuarts.

of revenge

and

to

At

set

the

Popery

Army*, proceeding out of


and suspicion.
similar discord
and
having been dismissed

to the

excite

faithfullest

object

of

restore

days later, Nedham

as

the

back.

Alarm

(1659-60),pp.
you

Army

than

brought

were

day later

to the

rather

it drew

time

same

appealed

the

and

8th

April 1660, Desborough to Chapman"


our
thoughts to our brethren
convey
restraint
that
is no
for
there
on
enough
it,
man,

to

'.

in
Ordered
to be published by H. Muddiman
now
by Monk
Gent, who was
high favour, and besides the 2v" w, book,printed for the Council of State.
:1 3rd
April is Thomason
date, E. 1019 (14). The taunt is good in Nedham's
the
for a single
him
Scot
allowed
case.
Forty shillings was
by Thos.
wages
Marchmont
newsheet.
to
was
only the chief of a staff maintained
by Scot
write
for the
See article on
the
Letters of News
at the
and
Newsbooks
Rump.
Restoration,by Mr J. B. Williams, April 1908 (Ung. Hist. Rev.)
4
the
Guards.
with
Alarm
to the Army
Double
L'Estrange answered
your
(E. 1019 (19)).

Way

second

iled,the

Chapman

edition

strugglinginto

was

PASSAGES

INTERREGNUM

AND

PROTECTORATE

of the

Readie

On

notoriety.

these

Guides'1
in

circumstances

of his master

hoof

observed

does

he

that

quill

note

with

admitted

Jonson,

Ben
'

venomed

Gildon's

nor

clergy

Roger

used

excellencies

those

something

it

but

Blinde
shame

the

most

the

'

dull

certainly

was

Milton's
the

like

first

this occasion

on

of

countenanc
dis-

to

his

in

entirelydisappeared, and
It might
be
not
spirit discovered.

venomous

'

misinformed,

not

poet has

the

on

Asses'

laid

hand,
Griffith

I/Estrangeindicted his No
biographermust feel some

little restraint

The

mentioning.

attack

his

which

tract

"

Easie

other

had

impartial Council
that
if Desborough
in Newgate, so
was
there
were
only Mr Caryl left of London's
a
republican conspiracy l.
In

and

the

said, the

been

has

as

63

genius,

loyal author

pride by
Gilbert Sheldon)

of The Dignity
have
been
(G. S. who
may
of Kinship Asserted.
Here
L'Estrange displaysan energy of bitterness almost
beyond anything that had yet appeared on his side, and
unfortunately on behalf of as silly a piece.
Milton's
attack
'Tis there
on
Salmasius) that you
{i.e.
two
yourself into set forms of raillery,
commonplace
pages
thick, and lest your
infamy should not extend itself enough
the course
of your
within
of usage
mother-tongue, the thing
in a travellinggarb of language, to blast the
is dressed
up
the
to
Universe, and
man
English nation
a
give every
'

horror

for

mankind

he

when

considers

that

are

you

of

the

race.
'

you
head

In

this

above

are

you

the

yourself. There,

exceed
divided

from

the

others, but

not

content

in
to

Eikonoklastes

see

that

sacred

body, your

piercing malic enters into


struggling soul with a blasphemous
himself
prerogative of God
cience)
(omnis-

the privateagonies of his

invading the
and
unchristian
most
and
by deductions
illogical
certain
aspersing his last pieties (the almost
inspirations
of the Holy Spirit)with juggle and equivocation '3.
There
was
now
pouring in from the counties a stream
of Loyalist Declarations
which
assured
no
people that
animated
the party, and
to make
thought of revenge
good
the
a
pledge there was
good deal of politicabuse turned

violence

Page 62,

::

It

i"

-Mine

to

the

not,..

amends

16S0

that

edition

L'Estrange's
of

Paradise

name

Loil.

g.

appears

178(2.)
in

the

list

of

scribers
sub-

64

SIR
the

on

L'ESTRANGE

Cavaliers

ranting

violence

ROGER
who

likely to spoil all by-

were

These

declarations

chieflyfrom

came

the counties

which

in

January and February, prior to Monk's


occupation of
the
had
for
free
and
full Parliament.
a
City,
petitioned
Their
extremely peaceful, not to say Christian, intention
afterwards

was

inevitable
was

triumph

undoubted

an

avoid

to

remembered

the

made

attempt

appearance
to the Faction

Declaration

harsh

use

And
the

by

made

of the

though

there

Restoration

indecent

an

triumph,

powers
it was

point to the Cavalier


penitential of documents

to

most

"

the

Church.

the

by

of

certainlyopen
Restoration

in

pre"

where

the wolf
and
the
they threw
lamb,
put on
away
submitting themselves
humbly to their calamities as from
the hand
of God.
violent thoughts or inclinations
no
They had
2.
against any persons whatsoever
Blincle
Guides, there
By 20th April, the date of No
was
really no further or pressing need for a continuance
of
the
warfare
in
the
Press.
better
Royalists were
to
vote3, since the
engaged in directingthe people how
danger that the will of the people should not prevail had
indeed
had
the
to
other
passed. The pendulum
swung
side and
stiff
hand
a
was
required to restrain the more
nervous
or
vengeful spiritsfrom
prejudicing the election
Just
the Republican extremists
as
by their wild words4.
'

'

carried
find

that

annoyance
clamours
of

the

Apart

certain
for

warfare

into

the

of these

rash

Cavaliers

Charles'

to
a

revenge
Restoration.

from

to the

Season

the

over

"

or

as

the

Government
that

would

Restoration,

of

price
Ranting Royalists,

"

one

Griffith's
4d.

10th

shall

proved a serious
by their importunate
have
violated
the spirit

L'Estrange became
result

we

of

them, but

A
imprisonment, see
April, 669. 24 (57),'Do

Word
you

in
not

the
people dislike you, your friends bluah for
you,
than
itself '. See Hyde's letter to a
the Rump
dangerous
you.
This very last post has
711-1S
Wood, A //ana, iii.,
Royalist,16th April 1660.
-4 complaints to
unskilful
3 or
the
King of the very
brought over
passion
Divines
in
The
of
of
their
late
'.
and
some
our
sermons
danger of the
distemper
'
News from Brussels,
I hate
to show
the teeth
impression conveyed in Nedham's
to be
before
bite', had
we
strictlyguarded against. See Kennet's
Register,p.
120, and Hallam, Cons. Hist., p. 491, note.
2
May 1660, 'the presbyterians paid their
Oldmixou, Hist., i.,464 and 466.
in money,
in great boasts
of service '.
the Cavaliers
compliments to Breda
:; See
Roger L'Estrange, Necessaryand Seasonable Caution Concerning Elections,
24th
March, 669 f. 24 (32).
4
The
Royalists began too
Hallam, Coiis. Hist, of Eng. (1S79), p. 491 note.
State Papers, 721, 2, 7. Thurloe,
with threatening speeches '. See Clan ndon
soon
from
Breda
(Somer's Tracts,vi.,562).
Tii.,887, and the King's Declaration
how

know

the

You

King

are

disowns

more

'

'

Blinde Guides,
In

To

Answer

feditiousPamphletof

7. MIL?

OWS,

INTITULED

the fear of God


Notes upon 4 late Sermon Tttl'd,
Brief
and the King ; Treacbd,and ftnee
"By
fublijhd,
D. D. And Chaplain
Matthew Griffith,
to the
lateKJNGt
"rc.

Addreffed

If the

Blinde lead the

to

the Author.

Both jhallfall
into the Ditch,
Blinde,

Primed for Henrj"BromeAp'd*o,

TITLE

PAGE

OF

NO

r.i

INDL

GUIDE

$6"o.

S.

[For.

SIR

66

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

Redivivas,

congratulations, Britannia
and

schools, and

side

of

Wild

here

are

to

had

L'Estrange

the

down

of

anger

the

arouse

and

City

advice

to

the

the

of

trimmers

taken

"

disorder

General

and

if anonymous
drew
City, which

the

of
his

unwearied

among

mutinous

Pleas

even

Booth's

from

"

the

to

bold

up

Protests

fan

first

very

Tichborne2,

the

for

efforts

to

prentices 3,

Cavalier

if

not

before
the danger point was
Monarchy
passed,
(unauthorised) representations of country
feeling, and

Limited

for
his

his intervention

notably

his

lastly

and
with

the

personal
and

accursed,
that

the

hour

had

of

the

service

men

man

the

of

whose

record

great

all

to

of

persons

at

Col.

ought

broils

to

way

and

Jeffries

unquestionable

'

integrity

good

to

as

to

Postcript

Discovery

upon
march

Discovery,

Lambert

had

listed

and

time

Paper'

was

upon

his

in

City that in
His
Majesty's return, I
Capt. John
Lloyd, two

and

the
Separatists in
published the following
The
Declaration
Westminster).

about

is not

the

and

honour,

the

Thomason

P.

See note

p.

54,

See

p.

57.

Firth, Last Years of the Protectorate,ii.,69.


Observator, ii. 80.

note.

note

on

to

Declaration

48

(addressed
Booth
George

London

(The
in

1680
Sir

towards

Prentices.

first

behaviour

my

I believe

I
citizens
forty considerable
yet living, that
hanging for His Majesty's service in these times as
in the three
often perhaps as any
as
man
kingdoms

name

the

not

ventured

to

1659

danger

pamphleteers.

tumults

and

the

John

of

if

find

shall

the

him,

best

name

till the

blast

statement

own

We

5.

obliterated
Willis'

begin

made

fanatics

the

have

to

to

episode,

elections, make

Corker

the

of

made

not

had

least

his

the

with

attempt

efforts

work

which

does

to

opened

measure

appeal

can

the

wretched

were

Royalist journalist,
Finally, then, in
in

kind

the

by,
gone
whose

afterwards

that

ruined

Devonshire

important

of
exposure
their
tampering

and

suspicions

any

in the

energetic

army

of

record

write

December

His

l.

attitude

from

dared

few

Rising, when

rush

hot

the

Universities

Dryden, Waller, Davenant,


Sprat, and
to the
homage
Rising Sun.
pay

safety.

But

his

marks

the

from

be

in

T.

to

fair
'

Sir

readiness

Collection.

G.

Oates).

and

of the City

and

to

'In

H.

Vane

; at

which

the

Men

at

CHAPTER

III

1660-2

DIVINES

PURITAN

active

L'estrange's
should

we

interests

are

one

life

to

For

the
To

1.

he

moment

the

meet

the
To

voice

3.

To

fall

had

To

the

the

regard

be

real

the

by

these

ground

the

of

rest

energies

his

which

loyalty
warfare

lated
circubehalf

on

of

phrase

gave
to

of

wise

great

Burnet's

Cavaliers.

disappointed
and

late

prove

struggle

what

"

he

that

they

they

were

"

of

Press
But

he

as

policy

offence.

History

for

to

Government,
of
a

See
ascribed

note,

67

keeping

Plea
the

at

and

activities
of

the

gaol

and

the

for

clumsily

Commonwealth

while

his

his

champion

near

plan,

Nacsbook

for

loud

very

Majesty's
office

reward

the

came

the

for

passion
rewards

monetary

cating
vindi-

gained

Restoration

obtained
as

he

that

to

the

actual

he

in

disloyalty, that

devoted

into

as

successful

was

as

that

factions

Press.

he

then

the

the

of

Burnet

and

and

humour

the

the

charge

by

His
that

of

that

Church,

Cavaliers,

challenging

This

from

seditious.

embarrassing

briefly

orship

the

Dartmouth's

his

seditious

said

period,

distressed

of

time

common

his

on

pamphlet

in

the

blossomed

which

Survey

in

calls

methods

noted

subsequent

men

abide

enemy.

the

the

of

Conformity,

against

find

Presbyterians

denied

with

himself

the

his

the

of

expose

may

regard

same

indeed

against

complaints

foul

concerned

the

the

which

four

had

during

publicly

were

It

related, and

than

sake

Restoration.

2.

4.

rather

At

charges

even

clearness

concerned.

mainly

be

was

for

that

heads

Press, with

the

agency,

three

less

PRINTING

demands

sequence.
or

more

SEDITIOUS

now

under

chronological

strict

in

life

it

treat

AND

for

policy

the
to

Caveai.
Clarendon.

bitter
See

note
p.

69,

SIR

68

The

slight
inclined

was

relieve

him

category

as

apology1,
he

evidence

this moment

at

the

as

than

Flanders,
disputed loyalty.
handed
him
a
affair,L'Estrange

Kent,

welcome

at

to send

the

that

to

after

just then

Cromwell, and
blackest
Next
ancient

Cavalier

young
took
the

L'Estrange

Cavalier

trouble

of tale to

the

in Scotland

under

some

that,
as

Monk

in

an

over

his

danger,

an

Chancellor, which
both

in

Germany'

in

busiest

was

really involved

melancholy examples

England

3,calculated

to

was

under
arouse

feelings.
establishment

the

to

of

the

Church

his

Old

of the
in

this

notable

Cavalier.
direction

When
he

Restoration

all her

in

question agitated the Chancellor

glory no

chargin
backslidings after a
to

the

when

that of the conduct


that

make

But

carried the kind

enemy

tion
printed Vindicagood enough to say

the

the

of

Kentish

King's apostasy was false,shows


contrary, he then regarded Roger

squibs, which

anti-Rump

the

of his

was

'Mr

in matters

after

Clarendon
to

in which

of the

man2.

honest

Clarendon

manner

Appeal

saw,

copy

to

That

assurance

an

rumour

all slanders

the

house.

his

and

of

we

Chancellor

soothing things,

certain

1653

the

and

the

Court

High

In

to

that

shows

acquit L'Estrange of disloyaltyand to


of any
in the same
apprehension that he was
his lying
now
Corker, who
(June 1660) wrote
more
Nothing shows
clearly the authority of

addressed

was

have

we

to

Chancellor

the

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

we

more

remember

imputed
resolve

than

Charles'
on

better

became 5.
important the matter
That
dark but probably just passage
in the continuation
of Clarendon's
history6 which describes Restoration
manners,
is directly led up to by a long discourse
the
on
violence,
a
nd
loose
the
of
Cavaliers.
Instead
of
manners
jealousies,
God
for
the devoted gratitude to
a happy Restoration,which

things 4,we

see

how

Retrospect Preview,Second

See

Chap, ii.,34.

For

the

Scottish

Series,i.

292.

betrayals,see

Prof.

Firth's

Last

Years

of the Protectorate,

ii.,121.
It is difficult to say whether
Charles
in the
early days

regard Clarendon's
throwing his shield
an
as
attempt to justifythat
anti-Cavalier
bias he adopted, by making the King's subsequent fallingaway
the
result of their
frank
of Charles from
the first
clamours, or Burnet's
exposure
the
virtuous
true
as
Ministers
night he spent in London,
picture. 'Those
them
to let the world
that
(Clarendon and Southampton) thought it became
see
they did not comply with the King in his vices.' Airy, Oivn Times, i.,1C6-8.
5 See
of Clarendon
in his Essay on
Hallam's
Hist.
Const.
Macaulay's estimate
e
Continuation
of Life, ii.,34-6 ; Airy (Charles II., p. 103) refers to the
'
Chancellor's
sorrowful
eloquence '.
"i

over

we

of

are

the

to

Restoration

the

AND

DIVINES

PURITAN

PRINTING

69

General

promised, with the


tion
there appeared at the Restoralayiug aside of all jealousies,
cessation
of the disunion
and
no
suspicion of the dark
which
went
days, but, on the contrary
urged on by rewards
assumed
than
to some
fiercer
Two
a
ever.
things
aspect
the
of
On
his
Charles
the road
return.
on
spirit
damped
he was
of the
to London
met
by the importunate clamours
Old Cavalier, and at Canterbury he received
Monk's
ful
wonderlist of men
was
worthy of a place. This latter difficulty
much
more
negotiable than the former, and Monk
proved

April

declarations

SEDITIOUS
the

to

"

"

unreasonable, but

not

Government
the

former

and

the

Earl

rise of
As

had
be

the

loudly began

to

them, than

to drink

the

men

to

wished

'

that

assume

of whom

"

to

office-seekers

the

had

far

due

the

hazard

'

or

the

men

had

most

especially
they had

any other pretences of


2. Thus
earlyClarendon

attitude

scrap

preferment

who

in taverns,
accompanied it

had

without

least,
service,and

believed

of

'were

deserved

notable

and
sort

of

Roger L'Estrange

limit

so

they

health

King's

which

imprisonment
running any other

forced

these

of themselves

suffered
or

of

most

disorders

any

time,

1.

esteem

due

but

"

importunate who
capable to perform any

more

more

if for

'

new

Cavaliers.

solution

no

was

"

character

least

were

none

to

to be

ire of the

the

arouse

in the

man

Ailesbury a good authority went


the disappointments of this class is

to

the

to

observed
and

of

Whigism

'

to

there
difficulty

that

to say

as

sufficient

was

For

singleCommonwealth

Act

hostilityto

was

of

the

merit
was

extreme

noisy example

Oblivion3, and

"

who
whose

the
discontent
of noble
families and
of
really sprung
by degrees from
of the
Counties
whose
tirst gentry in the
ancestors
were
good families
and
what
account
not
of their steadfast
on
sequestered, decimated
loyalty the
of Lord
estates
Byron (under whom
L'Estrange served) almost
wasted, and I never
]t

many

"

heard

that

the

heir

Ailesbury Memoirs

was

ever

countenanced

"

hundreds

more

had

the

same

fate

'.

first complaint against


(1890), i., 6. Eachard, iii.,6: 'The
Clarendon
the
Cavalier
and
this began so early
proceeded chieflyfrom
party,
after the Restoration
that,'etc.
2
Continuation,ii.,36.
:!
'The
that were
men
Times, i.,289:
Burnet, Own
disappointed of all
angry
their hopes made
a
jest of the title of it ''an Act of Oblivion and Indemnity ",
and
said the King had passed an
Act
of Oblivion
for his friends
and
of Indemnity
for his enemies.
To
load the PJarl of Clarendon
it was
more
given out that he
advised
the
of his friends
sure
King to gain his enemies, since he was
by their
hints
'the King fastened
that
it upon
him
graced
disafter he had
principles'. Burnet
him'.
the host of exceptions demanded
for insertion in the Act,
Among
find Koger L'Estrange's for the
we
and
exception of Tichborne
others, no doubt
for the Court-Martial
sentence
after Lynn.
JJ.M.C, App. to 7th Kept. 96(b). Set
chap. i. 19. The Act of Indemnity blotted out all offences since 1st Juno
1G37Lords' Journals,xi.,240, 379.

scandalous
But

hostilityfor

with
and

brought

manners

this

many

which

many
Continuation1.

the
The

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

SIR

70

Proclamation

reproach on the whole party.


faction
long years tempered the satisa

(given

History

publicityin the

wide

the

read

loyalgentleman

Neivs-

noisy ranters, did not mend


matters, though it pleased the Presbyterian and straiter sects.
It is sad to find L'Estrange admitting himself
publicly
drunkenness
free
from
to be of this band, 'not
altogether
and profanity 2,and loudly voicingthe jealousy of Commonwhich

booh)

rebuked

these

'

wealthmen
The

admitted

rising of
of

to favour.

Sir

party, and

Restoration

at the

Cavaliers

the

proved

had

Booth

George

stone
touch-

keenly

were

scope and interest of that affair. Clarendon


much
contributed
to the
convinced
that it 'had
was
very
covery
wonderful
change that had since been issued by the dis-

divided

to the

as

the

of

Kingdom

'.

At

the

and

affections

general

time,

same

as

Cavaliers, he deplores the fact that


been

kindled

in

the

them

improved amongst
It

royal party,

had

from

...

who

had

formerly

no

pretence

the

Old

to

greater animosity had

and

still

was

combination

that

introduced

the

concession

a
'

dispositionsof

from

the

and

and

ment.
engage-

of

persons,

number

great

of merit

pursued

King, rather
a
just title

objects of his justice,to


the greatest favours
to
the King could
confer, and which
from
that time
they had continuallyimproved by respected
offices and
services, which
being of a later date might be
thought to cloud and eclipse the lustre of those actions
ancient
which
before
beer)
had
performed by the more
observed
had
been
to be
Cavaliers, especiallyof those who
valued
remiss on that occasion
3. They therefore
habitually underRevolt.
the services wrought by the Cheshire
We
have
not quite idle in that
that L'Estrange was
seen
might

have

been

the

'

affair4,but
the

his claims

Memento

themselves
of

the

him

prove
on

the

Rising and

not

were

to

be

great, and
of

the

his

class

ground of suspicion of
of Presbyterian guile.

the
'

references

in

that

excused

true

motives

I well

remember

note
to Burnet's
History. ' He furnished the great house
chiefly with Cavaliers' goods '. Own Times, i.,17(5,with Mr Airy's
1661-3.
So Evelyn, Diary, 27th August 1667, and Pepys, Diary, 7th March
note.
' I do
here
in reprint 1681:
publicly confess
Memento, od, 1662, omitted
myself not absolutely free from thoso distempers which I am both sorry for and
1

See Dartmouth's

in the

Picadille

ashamed
3

of '.

Continuation,ii.,36.

Chap, ii.,45.

PURITAN

DIVINES

particularin

one

AND

SEDITIOUS

that

transaction', he

and

smelt

methought
understanding
that
the King
extremely laboured,
my

come

and

over,

that

embodied,

men

or

into the hands

King

Without
which

first

but
disloyalty,
and
Slingsby

his

secured

or

the

was

design to

engage

mere

lucky

condemned,

were

presently

Mordaunt

for

fall,not

to

had

the

from

party

take
may
described
as

we

has

Clarendon

was

escape

of the

was

execration,

which

L'Estrange.

on

port

L'Estrange

with

which

blight

time,

to

either

was

that

conduct

ungenerous
typical of the

was

of Parliament.

Mordaunt

pursued

It

Presbyterian
stage-managed attempt to decoy the

evidence

any

that

the

words

deliberate

passed

of treason.

2.

person
Rising in other

The
move,

'

says1, 'that

persuaded

any
hopes of

bare

71

might be

before

too

the

on

his sacred

PRINTING

block

of

arrears

no

Hewitt

when

suggested treachery

the

to

distempered Loyalists. Although his subsequent conduct


showed
him
be
above
to
reproach, the whole
party of
roysterers and tavern
Loyalists united in the pursuit of a
noble
conducted
by a hundred
stag 3. Every petty tale was
the King's ear
channels
with
the result that Mordaunt
to
truth
was
totally neglected. 'The
is', says Clarendon,
and
'most
affected
summing
more
up*
men
were
grieved
and
discontented
for any
honour
and
preferment which
conferred
another
for
than
they saw
man
being
upon
in
their
'.
disappointed
owu
particularexpectation
also the
of Mordaunt
came
Mingled with incriminations
stories already alluded
of L'Estrange's treachery,and
to
if his
Roger might have claimed kindred with Mordaunt
and
own
manners
jealousieshad not too notoriouslyclassed
him

with

the

Restoration
to

'the

"

assume

Ranters.

an

Men
modelled

new

attitude

Memento, part L, 36.


for
attempting

of

who
of

favoured

were

gimcrack'

moderation

and

"

bid

could

the

at

afford
less

their

and
condemned
Slingsby was
is
curious
It
1658.
of
plot
hopes
that we
hear nothing of a port in connection
with
the Cheshire
affair,but then wo
hear
little of the
Hallam, Cons. Jlist.,
negotiations for bringing the King over.
'
of his brothers
The
Royalists
pressed that he (Charles) or one
p. 483 :
of the
would
land
irresolution
and
the
For
notice
coast'.
of the
on
timidity
Cavaliers on this occasion, sec ' '"''
State Pape s, i.,491 and 590.
I
8 C.3. P.D.
1659.
Their
December
to 16th
(1659-60),pp. 277-8, 6th December
I
activity to ruin others is greater than their zeal to restore their master.
Hull

"

Yarmouth

had

been

betray

to

of

the

the

which

Cavaliers

"

in the

'

...

wonder

Lord

concerning
4

Mordaunt
the

Sealed

should
Knot.

Continuation,ii.,38.

be

so

used

by

them

'.

Mr

Baron

to Sec.

Nicholas

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

SIR

72

quiet. So Sir John Birkenhead, Master


of Faculties, so Howell, Historiographer Royal, Muddiinan,
Sir John
Denham,
Surveyor
of the Newsbooh, and
writer
of the Royal Buildings.
Roger
But scarcelyhad Charles been safelyrestored when
his
hastened
to present the public with
1660
6th June
and apology.1 This early appearance
naturally
full defence
afraid he might be
that he was
brought on him the sneer
friends be

fortunate

"

"

forgotten
motto

he

showed

from

resolved

was

the

Lynn
the

Qui aliquidstatuit,parte inaudita altera


Aequum licet statuerit,iniquum est judex,'

for

done

neither

to

ambitious

spoils.2 His

the

'

had

of

division

the

in

the

first
to

Newgate,

Restoration.
in the

dismissed

suppresses
the
Kentish

last time

the

to

"

earlier

These

perhaps

affair, and

the

on

unfortunately
expatiated on

conditions

might have been


abroad, and which
The
main
part of the book is devoted

Cavaliers
value.

struggle,and

abundantly

shows

of events

exile
Kent, from
matters, however, are

pages, and he
which
probably

thirty-fivepages

for

"

to

of four

compass

treated

are

narrative

Newgate

from

we

he

what

know

one

Accordingly

King.

nor

let every

to

what

the

of

of historical
to

the

his

regnum
Inter-

enemies

ventured
hanging for
already,that he
might have known
His
Majesty's service in these times as far and as often
in the three
Kingdoms'3.
perhaps as any man
here
We
only concerned with the Dedication, which
are
givesa hurried pictureof the suspicionsof that distraught
for
I first heard myself suspected ',he says,
period. When
his pensioner,and a betrayer of
of Cromwell,
instrument
an
his sacred Majesty's party and
designs,I could not choose
of that calumny
the authors
thank
almost
but smile and
fixed a charge there,
had
full of faults),
so
that, (in a man
I
it was
where
impossible I should be guilty. But when
'

'

'

to find that

came

E.

187

divers

of my

nearest

in

of apology of course.
Corker,
(New Series,i.,'291),acknowledges
'A
striking specimen
days later.
almost
justified the neglect with
Restoration,' says this editor.

cautioned,

four

letter

the
'

my
of

which

2 So
recentlyrepeated as in Mr J.
(1909),p. 259.
a
Obscrvalor,ii.,80 (June, 168-1).

were

kind
days" a very different
in
the
Review
quoted
Retrospective
fearful]apostacie',and was liberated a few
the
disregard of truth and honour, and

by

(1) Anticipating Corker's

friends

B.

Charles

Williams'

II.

treated

them

after

his

History of English Journalism

SIR

74

ROGER

L'ESTRANGE

let in Morrice,
had
compromise with Monk
not to speak
to high office,
Cooper, Clarges,and Manchester
of offices,among
of a similar indulgence in the lower
range
printers,booksellers, and lowly scribblers, Roger began more
and
and more
to speak for
to fall into
a
cynical hostility,
of his kind..
The Bartholomew
a
ment
ejectvery large company
that

time

had

to

yet come
L'Estrange yet found

had

not

glad

the

Cavaliers'

his metier, which

hearts,
to

was

nor

help

the

Nonconformity and the


seditious
Press.
When
he did, he developed a
ferocity
with
mild
variance
his
former
at
compliments to
entirely
Presbytery,and a forgetfulnessthat he himself had graduated
of seditious
the greatest exponent
as
writing against the
its

in

Government

Government.

Commonwealth
The

struggleswith

fruit of these

bitter

musings

was

series of invective

elegant phraseologyhe
struck at the Government
through the side of Presbytery '.
The
first of these was
provoked by Corbet's Interest of
England in the matter
of Religion,the second part written
the hopes of Presbytery still
in the spring of 1661, when
had a Presbyterian
Parliament
stood high. The Convention
trived
majority,but whilst it lasted, the other side skilfullyconThe party
\
to postpone the question of a settlement
in which

pamphlets

to

use

his

own

'

'

or

classis

'

as

"

colourable

Clarendon

pretext for

calls them

their

"

had

more

than

Cheshire
pretensions. The
Prynne, their champion, who

affair.
their
Rising was
supplied the legal arguments for loyal Hewitt2, did more
writer.
other
than
the Restoration
perhaps to forward
any
Convention
the
Baxter
to
preached the opening sermon
credit of
Parliament.
In a word, they usurped the whole
orders
effect to the disthe Restoration, and
pointed with some
the Cavalier
and jealousieswhich
had reduced
party
of noisy impotence.
to a state
sooner
So that the shouting of the Restoration
was
no
of
the merits
than
over
people began openly to canvass
Presbytery. The Directory was placed in open competition
the
this work
In
the
Book
of Common
with
Prayer.
of the
Press
aided
Freedom
powerfully, and L'Estrange
in saying
writers
the testimony of numerous
corroborates

Mr

the

'Though

other

party

Osmond
2

Last

are

Presbyter
resolved

to

would

put

Airy'sBurnet, i.,315,
Years

the

have
it off

with

note.

of the Protectorate,ii.,78,

note.

Church

settled in Parliament

delay'. Vemey MSS.,

the

cjuotud in

that

freedom

this

minds

AND

DIVINES

PURITAN

of

affection

had

'

the

people

for

the

SEDITIOUS
manifest

so

that

the

was

the

became

75

influence

an

unanimous

Restoration

Presbyterian cause

PRINTING

the

on

of

pre-eminence

the

altered, that

so

of

argument

common

public

'

meetings x.
It
warned

the

this

was

Church

the

politicmask
lured

were

the

leaders

of

credit

that

the

embodied
whom

the
had

desire after the

anti-Cavalier

the Declaration

of 25th

Savoy Conference,

and

The

first of these

is

the

second

pleased

regrets
the

Both

batches

of

1661.

Hence

we

which

Majesty

Ministers,

Proclamation,

bade

of

several

after

the second
announced

1660, which

people be quiet in

the

the meantime.

modest
and
grateful document
;
very
that
whilst
the King
was
graciously

of the

moderation

other

London

October

altogetheromitted
Government.

his

to

resumption of their livingsby their


presented 2,the first at the King's express

were

with

"

the

invited

legalowners,

drop
the Presbyterians
King
seemingly
to

come

ambitions.

the

of

views

had

of the

of Proposals

Papers

two

by

which

Presbytery

which

return

greatest betrayal of their


The

of
hour

the

compliment

effect

to

on

and

revival

references
these

first paper, his Declaration


to the question of Church

papers
the
and

proposals
shall

find

whole,

while

it

effected

with

much

published

were

Petition
anger

for

Peace

in

part of

the

on

with

L'Estrange.
On

change
doubted

the
was

if

Nedham's

an

the

immediate

phrase)

scarcely be

minimum
'

would

can

showing
have

that

said

the

of friction,it may
of the teeth
(to

been

be

'

more

use

politic than

allowing the advocates of Presbytery to find out gradually


that they had
been
betrayed.
In October
1660, when these things were
being amicably
of Bramshot, Dr
John
discussed, the Rector
Corbet, bosom
friend of Baxter, in the first part of his Interest of England

gratefullydescribed the King's Declaration


as
granting 'just
and gracious concessions'.
Early in 1661 he issued a second
vein 3. These
part in the same
Presbyterian insolencies
aroused
the false harmony
on
L'Estrange to break in at once
'

'

Truth

and

Burnet,

Loyalty

"

fed.

'
Times, i.,316, note.
Many of these had pone
of the Restoration
in so
and
with such success
signal a manner
'.
great merit and a just title to very high preferment
"
10th March
W61, E. 1857 (2).
-

Own

into
that

the

design

they had

SIR

76

his

with

to

the

"

should

we

which

Government

Cheat

Holy
Presbytery, and

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

think

on

considerable

still bent

was

attack

unabashed

first

annoyance
keeping on the

on

felt

Presbytery. But Roger had already


the pulse of. Parliament, and
despite the brave words of

the

Lord

mask

of

good-will

Chancellor2

Whiggish patron
29th

his

chance

warily ',he
ground 3.

opening
the warnings
affrontingthe

of

said,

'

the

at

"

As

'

to

Grirustone, Burnet's

Harbottle

Sir

"

1660, and

August

to take

to

for

the

Act

of

Parliament

friends,determined

of

Court.

here

am

upon
Oblivion

of

the

on

'

tread

I must

narrow,

and

the

slippery
compact

of

words, that is already


broken
by the Presbyterians themselves, as witness that mass
of
of sedition,Smectymnuus Revived, published in the week
referred

silence

the

in the

to

Restoration

by

Chancellor's

Manton4.

Dr

in

the

type

new

lead
protestations

historyand aims of Presbytery,


served
the
that
they had ever

smashing attacks on
a
downright denial
Monarchy except to make

the

up to
and

Meanwhile

Such

it their

trouble

of the Rev.
person
that brings trouble

tool.

brewing

was

for

Zachary Crofton, a
to

party.

any

Presbytery

zealot

He

was

of the
at

this

for
(from February 1661-2) a prisoner in the Tower
A
Covenant.
wild
for the
certain
and
whirling words
prison seemed to calm his ardour momentarily, and in July,
the Anglican
of the Governor, he attended
at the invitation
to
services
in the Tower.
It is scarcely possiblefor us
time

1
the Undeniable
and Positions
The Hohj Cheat, Proving from
Practices
of the
Presbyterians that the Design of that Party is to enslave both King and People
Treatise
under the Masque of Religion by ivay of Observation
a
entitled,
upon
The
in
Interest of England
the Matter
of Religion, etc. Fourth
Impression,
printed 1662. and now
reprinted 1682.
After
the King's Speech, 8th May
1661, quoted by Clarendon
{Continuation,
said
it was
ii.,180). The Chancellor
penal by the Act of Indemnity to use
words
that
the
within
of reproach and
names
or
equity of the
surly looks were
'
the integrity of these
Statute
To prove
'. Oldmixon, p. 477, remarks
:
speeches
book mentioned
need
and
written
we
a
by the infamous
only mention
by Eachard
Historian
fills one
of his folio pages
with
what
Roger L'Estrange. The Reverend
he takes out of that notable
of the
some
piece wherein
Presbyterians preferred
called
Cromwell's
arc
by the King for restoring him to his Kingdom
creatures,
-

'

St

John's

creatures, etc. '.

When

Oldmixon

goes

on

to Bay that

'

this libel

(which

applauded and bought up l"y


the creatures
of the
to be
was
Court, and
dependence
sufficientlyproved what
is
in
fair
words
he
his
For
the
book.
clearer
most
',
nothing
placed
goes beyond
that the Court
than
frowned
in this
ominously on
L'Estrange's first adventures
direction.
Even
a gaol was
contemplated for him.
3 The
his conduct
and
in 1679-80 is striking. In both
now
analogy between
thou
1 was
the Government
of
him
the way
marshallest
cases
to
me
might say
of the Court.
go ',by interpretingthe true mind
is the

Relapsed Apostate,

not

the

Holy Cheat)

'

Truth

and

Loyally Vindicated,pp.

f"8-60.

was

DIVINES

PURITAN

the

understand

excited

bitterness

defence

Crofton's

SEDITIOUS

AND

was

by

this

communicated

be

to

PRINTING

77

compliance.
his brethren

to

warily stifled
printed pamphlet, which, however, was
handed
Written
round, the
copies were
by his friends.
the sectaries
for thirty
familiar method
of sedition
among
found
himself
As a result of his compliance Crofton
years.

in

free

1662, but

in

episcopal

greatest anti-

for

out

L'Estrange's

1.

quarry

proceedingsof

abortive

The
it clear

real and

in the

concessions
'

for the

substantial

the

Savoy Conference

surrender

unconditional

that

Presbytery. The
the Bishops were
than

the

to

him

marked

and

excesses

him

drove

remorse

the

Prayer

fate offered

Book

part verbal and

most
'

was

made
to

yielded by
literal rather

"2.
within

admitting divisions

the ranks

of

Presbytery,
Baxter
makes
of similar fissures in the Church.
much
Setting
undoubtedly existed, it
apart intellectual differences which
and
be said that between
Stillingfleet
Morley it was
may
merely a question of how far Conformity could be forced on
people.
Baxter
was
naturallyregarded as the soul of Presbyterian
in the
suspected of a hand
contumacy, and while he was
document
referred to below, he was
more
particularlyblamed
little later, and
which
for the book
out
a
was
came
long
Conference
the
classic
of
Savoy
Papers. The
regarded as the
Petition
has
dedication
or
no
preface, but is
for Peace3
kind
of minority Report to the Episcopal
addressed
as
a
Yet. as L'Estrange put it,these people were
Commissioners.
That
those from
whom
it was
most
scrupulously concealed.
without
to us
it had
seems
to steal out
a
printer'sname
incredible,having regard also to its singularmodesty. In
Whilst

Memento

Baxter

Dedication
(1662),

to

{Life,ii.,288) describes
of

utage

siuh

as

Tower,
under

abide

Kennet

Clarendon.

Crofton's

in the

Death, written

/"'..(/"
of

the

appeal in

the usual

it makes

substance

of

Usher,

397, 402, etc.


(Register),
Defenceagainstthe

See his curious

career.

1661-2,'and

God's

name

now

made

publique

l'or the

by the
present visitation in Londou
minister
of St
Crofton
was
Botolph's,

No
printer'sname.
ilence, 1665'.
Ahlgate. Kennet, 375 (February 1660-1),quotes from Roger L'Estrange's /
hath
Mistaken
quieted that
single imprisonment of Crofton
[Holy Cheat), 'The
'.
i.. S2-3.
mercies
his
S""
of
all
the
Ralph,
than
Majesty
more
multiplied
party
t"" treat
and
commissioned
a'^n't
.1
the
/!"
Bishops
Most
rchbishops
to
v.
Reply
the Alteration.% of f/"" Common
BookoJ Prayer', probably written by Baxter, and
"

bound
1
as

it

with

up
E.
,nis

Petition

the

1091, May

1661.
/,.

Majesty'sCommission

the

for

Peace.

Petition for Pcaee

lliijhtReverend

to treat

with Hum

v/Uh

Bishops
about

the

Reformation of the Liturgy


appointed by 11 is

by the divines

the alteration

of it,1661.

ROGER

SIR

78

L'ESTRANGE

Presbytery,or Primitive Episcopacy,


The
and the Church.
part reason
why it aroused so much
is that it synchronisedwith
spleen apart from its merits
the Mediator

as

between

"

"

sets of

two

inflammatory

the

between

engagement

which

tracts

Government

Regicides'printedspeeches,and
able, holy, faithful

the

sedition

first batch

late

ministers, are

the first general

and

ejectedministers1, 'some

of the

Sermons

marked

the

"

of Farewell
of

hundreds
and

whom,

only
(wh-tehis of
great
very many
of congregationsin England,
far greater moment) abundance
Ireland and Wales
are
overspread with lamentable
ignorance
of their families

and

destitute

are

that

many

the

flocks

are

not

able

of

faithful

this

(not meaning

guiltynor
the

on

whole
tract

scarcely a doubt
thought Roger L'Estrange
Relapsed Apostate
provided with a mocking
The

the

he

when

he

created

any

party

Baxter's, and

indulged
attacks

Dedication,

over

that

it.

wrote

are

of any
on

So

in

least

at

of the

one

Presbytery.

on

considerable

fashion

L'Estrange

usual

scandalous

reflection

itself it is

In

Introduction.

an

an

that

seeing too

accusation

of his little creditable

least creditable

but

Church)'2.
strongly resembles

is

there

as

not

teachers, and

dishonourable

style of the

The

distress

insufficient,
negligent or

are

less

much

in

out

cast

stir3.

It

and

Advertisement

an

is

lengthy diatribe,but

no

in

declamation, but

mere

thorough, if one-sided quoting of chapter and verse, adorned


from Ben Jonson's
Bartholomew
also by two quaintquotations
The
Fair.
ferocityof the piece is partly explainedby its
It
1661.
date, 14th November
of his greatest unpopularity with

attacks
a

escape from
in on that account.

the

On

Calvinist
the

the

2
3

like
of

Church

opening of
of

hand

one

the

Royal

all those

Civil War

Relapsed Apostate,

wish, by Roger
Eaehard's
p.

232).

L'Estrange,

led

men

notes upon
It

extravagant praiseis

seems

See

"".

and
was

of

"

which

to

at

the

weakening
been

have

won

Airy, Burnet, i.,315-6.


Presbyterian Pamplet entitled,

design are laid


long remembered

course

difficult.

old
an
by Morley
thorough 'purge* in

considerable

been

him

involved

most

was

had

tin-fir Hon
1661.

had

elements

Ejectment.
or

of his

offered

disaffected

Clarendon

cause.

Petition for Peace, etc., wherein

situation

desired

who

"

Prior to the Bartholomew


Petition for Peace.
The

the

were

Parker

The

moment

because

Presbyterian business
the cloud of infamy he

welcome

himself

Court

the

the

at

This

Howell.

on

issued

was

corrobated

as

open

by

by

as

good

Kennet

heart

can

men.
Church-

[Register,

Morley, after having


view
the
other
supported by Southampton \
tion
the hopes alluded
to in the King's Declara-

this

to

over

aroused
of

October

Clarendon

and

and

mind,

of

hints

Burnet

1660.

Southampton

friend

his

by

course

trifled with
which

79

PRINTING

SEDITIOUS

AND

DIVINES

PURITAN

is

it

at

the

as

result

vacillation

this

between

coolness

the

in

this

of

change

Government

which

gives L'Estrange's
RelapsedApostate considerable importance. For it attempted
to drive matters
beyond hope of the pacificationdesired by
Grimstone, but
Southampton, Anglesea, and Sir Harbottle
evidently not by Morrice2.
these
mention
That
Morley and L'Estrange (if we
may
ill-advised as a point of policy in
not
two
together) were
mind

this
the

the

during

shown

is

matter,

1660-1

winter

the

by

forty years, and


its pale in 1682-5.

Conference

were

ambition

alreadyconceived
of

abroad

of

rumours

disturbances

the

Burnet

as

"

the

to

did

Nor

the

of the

When
Petition

great
mass

the

and

Peace

of unofficial
1
a

but

to

sinister

King's Lynn

credit
dis-

much

take

figures

who

had

to note
the dangerous
perspicacity
of anti-episcopal
literature,which

be

construed

how

the

libel, except

"

from
enough to fasten here
widespread publication. L'Estrange's

had

"

already

Press Scout"showed

i.,316.
Airy, BvrneL
So far Sir Sidney Lee

as

see

clever

and
he

of

it is still difficult to

could

L'Estrange was

information"

the

Regicides'speeches provoked.

all this is said

its clandestine

of

family.

great

for

work

motive
any
it does
not

3pleen the

Thoroughgoods

it need

ejectments

and

had

his

behind

his

impoverished

the

merely

were

hated3, and

see

and

Tolls

of the

he

thing

imagination

drift

"

series of bitter attacks

his

of the

project of accommodation, it is
any
is extremely unlikelythat L'Estrange

spiritsto defeat
It
impossible to say.
hot

in

revival

Whig

no-comprehension
Bishops at the Savoy
hints
partly due to the Court's
towards
Rome, whilst the spreading
disaffection and
exaggerations of

1661-2

of

for

Church

the

whether

But

the stiff attitude

and

movement

the

particularlyby

next

within

the

history of

that
2

(Art.

taken

himself

on

the

Ibid.,i.,315,

L'Estrange, Diet.

Faction

the

had

duties
taken

note.

Nat.

Biog.)is right in using


his anti-Presbyterian
disinterestedness'
to
describe
phrase 'with
greater
his own
on
activity. Others, however, even
side, spoke more
slightingly. The
about some
contemporary view is rather expressed in the remark
coming
one, who
from
and
benedictions
instead of money,
Lambeth, with only thanks
away
swore,
let the rogues
henceforth
write for themselves'.
"Damme,
Set
Obstrmtor, i.,289.
the

L-ennet,Register,
p.

232.

on

SIR

80

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

extraordinaryprecautionsagainstdiscovery. They addressed


them
it to the Bishops, yet from
of all the rest, it is with
most
concealed, but on the other side, the copies flie
care
in swarms
about
To the excitable
\
the nation
Royalist
Petitions
for a thorough reformation,
the parallel
of the 1641
'

'

and
so

earlier Scottish

the

recent

many

the

tumults,
revolutions,it was
would

Government

present

was

in

ever

by

no

prove

mind, and

with

certain

means

that

stable than

more

the

others.

this

in

'Just

Majesty,whom
sure

little,as

if

When

they

drive

in

March

not

both

the

for

number
did

of

order

L'Estransre

rather

Friends

warned

he

of the

who

had
not

was

About

borne

the

different

very

nation

that

the
he's
does

be

inconsiderable,
very
credit
with
the
people.

to

the

labour-oar

Court, which

the

time

it

the

at
a

list of all those

against
he

did

might

this time, and


person

same

was

the

now

King

or

indeed

infraction
was

in

'

suggest that
be

from

the

still dissimulated.

this

arms

use

commission

"

L'Estrange against

true, but

schismatical

used

Loyal party

'

of

of

interest

than

game,

private

own

the

'

preparing

was

and

tried

papers

ever

at

was

Church

rules

similar

Presbytery with
numbers.
Surely

their

temper

anything without the Independents ?


that the moderately Presbyterian clergypredominated
London
an
was
perhaps
exaggeration. But
'down
with
the
day was
Presbytery',and

in
the

the

and

they

is to confound

cue

to

then, when

2.
and

Armies

Presbyterians

they

claim

Baxter's

'

his late
upon
their barking

with

good, they babbled

no

him

minimise

to

stranger

know

Where

his

and

sects
a

do

save

to the

Now

language3.
much

to

hunted

wedge between
Presbytery
to April, 1660, Roger had

violent

and

encroach

scaffold,and

very
would

meant

Alarm

the

to

they

they pursued

the
upon
that words

arguments
were

did

manner

his

of

the

reported that
employment ',
father.

list for

the

This

King's

benefit4.
since

the

troublingthe

Restoration, another

repose

of the

Church.

Relapsed Apostate. Introduction.


"

6-7.
Echard, iii.,
Ibid., p. 28.
3
the
Alarm
to
to the Armies, 4th April,1660, E. 1019 (19),
reply
L'Estrange's
with the guilt of
beast
The
shameless
proceeds to charge the secluded members
drawn
the
Declaration
from
senseless inference
of both
the King's blood
a
upon
of the
votes
for non-address
'. Roger then
Houses
in 1647 touching the reasons
passed. The Independents shuffled them through
explains how these votes were
the Presbyterians were
dining.
when
2

'

Relapsed

postate"Advertisement.

SIR

82

Bishop,

and

between

in 1671

and

his

and

of

wrangle
only
ment,
imprison-

three

doughty

unseemly

an

Dissenters1, terminated
various

terms

Vindication

the

Howell

of

man

his

wrangle,

Baxter,

His

in

attack

to

as

Schismatical

the

TVliipfor

Letter is neither
Bishop of
clever performance, and the Bishop
a
a
dignifiednor even
of
Baxter's
have
disgust at his
experienced some
may
the
in the
meddlesome
own
Wliip was
champion. Whilst
Press, Bagshawe, hearing of L'Estrange's breathing out
with
Second
Part
him
a
threatenings,cleverly forestalled
to all that L'Estrange
of his Animadversions, with an ansiver
The
date of the
intends
to write.
Whip is 7th February
time
It so happened that
1662.
Roger had had for some
Animadverter

hand

in

on

L'Estrange

infuse

10th

was

double

L'Estrange.

in

the

We

on

to

Clarendon4.

The

time, and

addressed

and

appeal

treacheries

Roger

while

that

then,

short

levities

reasonable

before

himself

cleared

meantime

based

of

some

remark

should

"

congenial for
wrath
against the

Dedication

the

name

and

easy

for

the

Sedition

of

portion

Bagshawe
complaining of

to

had
of

men

disloyalty his appointment as Surveyor


is warrant
the Press
in February 1662
enough for that
it was
appearing,
sufficientlyannoying to find the old charges rein
and
the matter,
if nothing had
been
said
as

the

imputation

and

me

should
2
we

from

man

of Baxter's

occasion

Baxter

on

'

Bagshawe

I could

have

wished

disputing faculty" and wholly


spirithe thought no
being of a bold and Roman
the smallest
'.
duty

hath

man

facts,but

the

Seditions

'Of

used

Memento,
Historical
Clarendon

original
He

to make

and

no

great

"

classic lament.

Troubles', No.

Whilst

he

had

stranger
suffering

in the

wrangle here

we

dark,

xv.

of

Essaysand Counsels.

Roger probably

title A
the
edition
appeared 1682 under
with
ike
and
Remedies
some
Seditions,
Rise,
of
of
Treating
Progress
the
It omits
late Troubles.
Reflections t'/ion the Series of our
edition.

1632

the

"

dying'.

are
;;

for the

deter
The

of

Register,
\". 609.

Kennct,

let it alone

the

Rise

1662,

May

of

to

It

it deserves

"

unanswered

remained

Clarendon

"

the

on

priest into the

Memento

of

book

Essay3.

to

meddlesome

on

work

famous

Bacon's

Worcester's

ambitious

more

Memento,

The

the

not

Vindication,

own

rushed

now

himself.

as

sprang

doughtiestRoger L'Estrange, who,

the

abuse

abusive

of

after

Bagshawe,

Morley's

with

content

occasion

".

to

champions,

L'ESTRANGE

eminent

two

of

death

But

the

were

these

the

by

ROGER

Dedication,the

second

personal matter,

and

the

chapters

last three

of

the

edition.
says

good

Dedication

if Clarendon
be a particular favour
charges against.L'Estrange before the

it would
his

is 11th

April,1662.

would

order

Council.

The

Bagshawe
date

of

DIVINES

PURITAN
that

who

by a
appealing

man

following

the

SEDITIOUS

AND
could

nothing of the facts.


1662, Bagshawe
May
L'Estrange's Apology of

in
of

example

result
the
preceding December,
office alluded
to l.
Smarting under
evidently dreading
Appeal and
addressed
himself
the
to
Privy
and

which

life

the

"

licentious

Press

particularly when
Meanwhile

dismiss

may
details

we

the

meagre
Pope, and

of

Baxter.

Nonconformists,

his

Oxfordshire, in November
led
then

his

to

the

in

have

deal

Baxter,

his

Truth

notice it
that

more

interest.

his

His

insolencies

first in

the

the

say he
free in

was

take

to

still
in

ness
faithful-

or

Gatehouse

to

regrets

one

lot with

livingat Ambrosden,

liberated

was

As

to

in

"

with

Vindication

with

thrown

L'Estrange's persecution"
refusal
in the Plague year, but
on
Allegiance,was
again imprisoned, and
feud

in

light on the
energies practically for

from

free

the

considerable

1662.

where

"

the

Bagshawe with a reference to


remaining years given in Wood,

imprisonment

Tower

was

been

moderation.

"

In

Bagshawe's
results, Roger now

Council

ejected from

was

of

its

to

had

He

the insults

shall

come

we

had

his

we

"

which

of

throws
absorb

to

was

him

for

"

Vindicated'2

Loyalty

subject

and

force

singular

of

83

know

Clarendon

to

PRINTING

the

and
not

was

London
Oath

of

maintaining his

order

die

to

in

1671.
If

judge by

may

we

one

I/Estrangewas

generallyunderstood

beaten

Puritan

in

the

by

divine.

unfriendly notices,
have
been soundly

two

or

to

He

had

found

his

match

vituperation.

leaving the

Before

it may

Presbytery

be

in this connection.
Corbet

against

subject

convenient

Apart
the

in

of

from

L'Estrange'sattacks
summarise

to

Bags] la

he had

we

Cheat, Baxter

Holy

his

on

work

inveighed

and

the

whole

L'Estrange's Apology to Clarendon, 3rd December


1861, E. 187 (1) used
the preceding account
of the Interregnum
tumults.
Truth
and
and
Loyally Vindicated from the clamours
reproaches of Edmund
"
article in Eng, Hist. Rev., April 1908. Nei
Bagshawe, 1662.
In 64
of verbose
of News of the Restoration,by Mr J. B. William-.
and
pages
the controversy
vituperative narrative.
Roger [/Estrange cleared himself, ended
1

largelyin
-

'

and

silenced

and

iu another
Loyalty would
of the
pamphlet literature
In August
1665 he seized

the

Davies
the

narrative

himself
of

was

his

under

fallen

chap.

xi.

Crofton

minor
of

whose

like

enemies

He

opponent.

was

now

age.
in

The

committed

savage
most

fam"

treatment

to

result ithe

cell
Tower

much

acquaintance with
correctlystated, however.
The

vice

in

Case

20th

was
Bagshawe
(1664-f"),
p. f"45.

observable

of Truth,

censure

scarcely argue

Bagshawe's

severity. O.S. P.D.


is the

critic

Da
"f Jf/m.
1662, with

December

attempting
This

vindictive

L'Estrange's

to

console

treatment

character,

84

SIR
of

crowd

ROGER
in

Presbytery

supplement

L'ESTRANGE
the

State

it entitled

to

greatest

of this kind

formerly

installed in the

Relapsed Apostate,and

Divinity1.

in

printed

the

new

remembered

Discussed'2,long
Dissent, and directed

Surveyor is

the

as

classic

the

whole
against
Calamy in consequence

singlingout
preached

but
sermon

Parish

December

1662.

It will
the

from

seen

of

heads

very
had

who

be

defiance

Church,

old

his

in

St

the

Mary

was

Toleration

castigation of
of

mass

of

and

he

Dissent,

contumacious

Uniformity

Act

at

Aldermanbury,

this list that

the

claim

of

fourth

in which

year

office of

The

the

28th

L'Estrange attacked

offending factions,

and

the

men

the

Baxter
gratitude of the Crown.
and
Calamy had been
only less active than
Prynne in
promoting the Restoration, and
Calamy especially was
much
courted
of that
by all parties on the consummation
some

on

event.

these

All

directed

different

at

To

abuse.

pamphlets

have
and

persons
the idea

contest

that

though
degrees of
Presbytery had signally

with

the
Restoration,
helped on
question of Toleration, the

enemies

hopelesslydivided

not

the

underline

appeals

to

in

bring

to

double

the

of

burthen
chosen

brief

did

parallel

distinction

the

draw

and

between

between
and

different

show

that
of

know
1641

the

what

the

Church
to

and

ask

1661,

respectful

tumultuous

on

and

great
were

for, to
and

to

submissive

word
authority
a
the Presbyterians guilty of faction, through
of Press
and
the iterated
Pulpit, was
agency
these

works.

first there

is the

helped
they originally

on

protests, in

2"Tumerous

exemplify every
quotation of each may
to

And

to

theme

common

one

passages

these

might

positions,but

be
a

suffice.

claim
the

of

of

the

Presbyterians that

Restoration,

claim

which,

inclined
to encourage
L'Estrange was
very much
in the
Interregnum struggles. When
Republicans like
last move,
as
a
Nedham,
attempted to drive a wedge
the Royalists and
between
Presbyteriansby showing that
as

we

saw,

State

Divinity,of

Sifjylemenl to Relapsed Apostate, 1661, probably

November.
Sir
Discussed, 1663.
L'Estrange, Toleration
(art.
Sidney Lee
to have
re-issucd at the same
time
of Nat. Biog.),'He seems
under
his own
name
previously published
Presbytery Displayed ; a tract
Toleration
But
to
distinctly
Roger
(Preface
Discussed)'the
anonymously'.
says
He had no reason
not'.
to publishanonymously
then.
of it,I know
author
2

Roger

L'Estrange, Did.

had

latter

the

identified with

been

PRINTING

SEDITIOUS

AND

DIVINES

PURITAN

all the

85

great

measures

bounds.
no
against the Stuarts, his indignation then knew
find him
By 166o, however, things had changed, and we
writing in Toleration Discussed the following dialogue1:
"

"What

Zeal.

do
I

'Conformity.
the

King's

business

well

; and

of the two
pass
fine,'tisallowed at all hands that the
to that

come

of His

Majesty's

Restoration

would

choice

new

jot as

every
that one

members

secluded

of the

ye think
think
a

have

done

were

then

matters

In

unavoidable.

was

prime singleinstrument

the

was

Albemarle.

of

Duke

parties,the very fact appears against


employed to make
ye ; for though all possibleindustry was
choice
the next
totallyPresbyterian by disabling all such
and
their sons
as
(in effect)had served the King
persons
since 1641, without manifesting their repentance for it since ;
of the people for the
the general vote
yet so strong was
and
interest
against all factions, that all
King's true
if ye

'But

endeavour

little to

too

was

designed.

was

to

come

If

have

ye

party we'll pass

of your
The

the

leaven

say for the merits


of the cause'.
merits

the

to

on

as

to

more

no

Convention

next

Nonconformists
the
were
position, that
divided
the subject of Toleration, is argued with
an
on
Baxter's saying We
of more
distinguish
reason.
appearance
"2
from
the Tolerable
the Intolerable
tion
was
spoken in connecwith the King's proposal of a Catholic
indulgence, but
record of Presbytery is sufficient to show
the Commonwealth
the substantial truth of L'Estrange'splea here ::.
If it be the Uniformity ye dislike,how
come
ye to join
with the Directoryagainstthe Common
Prayer; with that of
the Assembly
against that of the Church ? In short your
disagreements among
yourselvesare almost as notorious as
conjunction against us, and ye have given proof to the
your
world that it is not
possiblefor anything else to unite you
but a common
booty ; witness the contentions, papers and
second

'

'

'

First

Baxter's
the

'

loved

We

of the

to argue.
on

type of question

the

was

iii.,
6-7,and

Oldmixon,

the

now

within

come

few

Cavaliei

weeks

Ballam,

Cons.

5th

"
.

where

charge the secluded members


iii.,p. 80, note.
2
Oldmixon, i.,488.

of Restoration

he
with

and

we

of Eng., pp.
April 1660
(E. 1019
Hit.

attacks
the

yet
483

reprints

suffered
the
'.

have

and

and

Burnets

i.,486, who

the

Vow
[/Estrange, D"
Arraigned, 3rd April 1660,
to

This

"SeeEachard.

'

make
are

i". 25.

Love
the affair for which
subject, in which
for Presbytery.
Pa^re 304, all the stir
Rising are claimed
mutinies
in City and
and
Camp
was
by spiriting
up mobs

remarks

Booth

could

16G3,

edition

Oldmixons

not

488.

and

Royalists
Page 448,
a

"Ve

word
also

Treasons
(19)), and
'the shameless
beast, (who) proceeds
guilt of the King's blood '. See chap.
3

Toleratwii

JUiscuss'd,p.

44.

SIR

86

(say

to

The

Toleration.

desires of the

London

the

many
Commonwealth.

make

distinct

two

of

of

terians to be ministers

Again
Then
Albans

reckons

Government
to

not

up

Presb}'gospel'1.

of the

1661

set

government
the

wards
1641, after-

to

the Lord

discourses

beyond

run

within

point, it being
libels were
not
only

notice, that

have

of foul weather

this

argue

will

licentious

need

We

'

and

parallelof

the presages

',etc.

Church, and

and

opinions and

ministers

sedition,not

libels and

'

such

forms

again

unequal,

Church

to

2.

to 1681

Among

in

different

eternal

there is the

extended

schism

Milton

tolerated.

be

cannot

Churches

that

Toleration,

and

it both

upon
tells ye

evident

an

for

unreasonable

will follow

Rutherford

practicesas

Independents

Ministers),are

mischiefs

and

and

Calamy

others, not

L'ESTRANGE

and Goodwin
Burton, Edwards
be numbered, concerning the very point of

disputes betwixt
and

ROGER

the

St

against the
memories

our

ken

of

our

own

the

in

fore-runners, but
late troubles,and what

of our
were
high degree the causes
licentious discourses of Cloakmen
the frequent,open, and
in
Pulpits but the ill-bodingplay of porpoises before a tempest ?
'

We

the

liberties of the

religionand
charged as an
how

the

sacred

blood

Majesty

even

with

Now

Kingdom
;

the Press

and

as

now

well

instant

busy

as

Lastly, and
single theme of

Roger'sattacks

nation, and
the

upon

how

We

design.

of Plots

news

the
may

against

King

remember
of his

account

about

us

labouring
and

as

we

may

under

the

bold, sermons

Government

was

are

find

to

this
temper
dis-

same
as

late

factious,

defamed.

The

thronged with pretended converts,


as
reports against the King and State are
they were
twenty years ago'.
the
to
sum
Presbytery is Rebellion
up,
the Holy Cheat, the first and most
violent of

of the Faction

scandalous

current

look

seditious, the

as

false

whose
guilty souls
by those men
justice for every drop of it '.

we

this

at

pamphlets
lectures

If

cast

was

divine
'

the

of

abettor

Irish

reckon

also the

remember

may

are

"

on

that

sect 4.

and
Parliament
in this connection
attacks
the excised
on
Presbytery in
History
published separately hi/the Court, in 1680, printed by H. Brome,
side and
singularly little quoted by his own
publisher. Milton was
L'Estrange's
for compliments
indebted
side
the
to the
usual fate of a purely
other
he was
rational
spirit.
2
thesis on
The
tract called the Parallel or
Semper Idem, 1661, is an admirable
this subject, but a doubt
to its authorship forbids
as
quotation. See Appendix.
* Inserted
The
to date, 1681.
to bring it up
pamphlet quoted from, is the
rd edition
of A Memento, etc., originallypublished in 1662.
1

See

Milton's

"

"

First edition

1661, p.

98.

All

these

tracts

were

reprinted1681-2.

DIVINES

PURITAN
'All

factions

popular

State, and

the

and

Episcopacy

SEDITIOUS

AND

seek

to

am

of

name

Church

but
as

in

their

87
to

way

whenever

Prince
quitted
any
his
is,
royal dignity ; for

himself, that

saved

King is
unruly populace

the empty
with
the

the

take

PRINTING

the

of

Majesty. It is
raging tides, they

carcase

it is with

and
the bank
is weakest
press where
all. If they had
either modesty or

in

instant

an

overrun

conscience, they would

far,if they have neither, will they stop there ?


rather
What
did
the
what
late King
deny ?
grant ? or
till by their mean
abuse
of his unlimited
concessions, he lost
force

not

his

so

and

crown

life ?

religious forms
lies at
1

If to be

civil State
out

the

of

words

could

most

tender

words

when

forward

way
mark

promoting changes in the


Church, the Presbyterians are

of the

particularlyin

Crofton

with

his

mind

Their

established

pardon

in

to
the
reasonings are dishonourable
and
of the late King, seditious
provoking to the
bold
and
imposing in themselves, repugnant

adds

and

pale'.

Speaking
'

give

stake?
no

be

assurance

wrapt up in the
not, words
But
what
imaginable.
are

him, he wanted

crown

what

Yet

and

law,

the

to

main

scope

of

the

Roger
memory

people,
to

the

general

'.

These

excerpts

responsible for

the

illustrate

may

persecutions of

the
Charles

view

which

II. 's

reign

was

and

of his successor.
early months
They were, as has
been said, L'Estrange's title to the gratitude of the Church,
till the Popish Plot crisis that he improved
but it was
not
that
title to the
was
extraordinary degree that money
him
contributed
to
by Oxford, Cambridge, and
publicly
fact which
shows
the Judges of the realm
a
clearlythe
of

the

"

attitude

of the

Church

to

that

crisis.

clearly,the fearlessness
his
in the Interregnum, so
and
from
immune
these attacks were
now
danger.
by no means
They fell in as has been said with that victory of Morley
the
and
Clarendon
over
were
Southampton
party, and
in persuading the Government
instrumental
probably more
that they had overlooked
a useful
ally than all his Apologies,
Caveats, and old Cavalier appeals. Yet the importunacy of
these
of his
appeals and protests is an important element
turbulent
activity,and since the old historians, Eachard,
the spokesman
Oldmixon,
and Kennet
unite in taking him
as
One

thing is
generality of

borne

out

very
attacks.
As

of

phase

this

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

SIR

88

opinion, it

Restoration

of

desirable

be

may

story here.
The
Holy Cheat had, as we saw, interruptedthis side of
in the Prefaces
his activities,
to
and
beyond acrid remarks
that

to

take

his

anti-Presbyterianworks

up

Government

the

mingling

on

in company

he did little

that

score.

with

the

grievances and
Naseby against the
It

abuse.

meaner

had

back

received

been

"60,000

grant

wrote

July

"

1662

in

they

the Cavaliers

for

died

have

they might

1661

had

last

at

the

and

Act

Eoser

meantime
and

fold

the

been

nmrmurings
with

down

allocation

the

had

of

it

embarrassed

was

by

Howell's

Howell
the

the abortive

great Uniformity Act, which

introduced.

the

Cordial

yet established

not

old

ignored

indiscreet
By Howell's
When
suddenly revived.

were

and

Loyal Officers' Fund,


Press

their

Parliament

"

the

Cavalier

the

neglect and

mean

in

that

into

Had

suspicions quieted.

him

imagine

can

we

Government's

clear

is

But

embarrass

disappointed ones, recapitulating


of Edgehill
setting their account

their
and

publiclyto

Clarendon

specially created

own

been
in
bestowed
Historiographer Royal had
an
was
ingredient of
February, and Charles' gift of "200
he now
his well-meaning way
In
said
his satisfaction2.
he at least was
that
men
precisely the things to remind
of a good conscience
provided for. His recommendation
of

office

beneath

was

Historiographer Royal.
and

established
fund
and

the

"

the

that
and

yet
to

King

was

be
of

gravamen

frank

as

speedily

was

if

emoluments

the

not

the

That

to

up

the

'

dignity

of

the

not
King was
long
that
a
by poverty,
relieve the necessitous,

embarrassed
set

'

not

charge from the other side


favouring the Commonwealthmen,

the

of

acknowledgment

through the

the

fact

that

the

"

Kine

the

these

are
Presbyterians
points
infuriated
Cordial
which
Therefore
of the
L'Estrange.
in
'.
As
for
Cavaliers
noble
patience
yourselves
possess
of
loss
and
the
his long imprisonment
himself
a
dejure
office spoke for themselves.

in

came

"

'

See p. 93.

the

on

nothing

head

caused
by the distribution especially
heartburning was
the
did
of
sums
granted to those who
by Clarendon,
the
Cheshire
Revolt
or
even
prior to the Kentish
Rising.

Incredible
alluded

for the

King

to

(Continuation,ii.,36.)
(Lives(1753),ii.,3-4). ' In the time of
for which
the prevailing Power
tampering
Clerk
continued
he was
in his place as
to the
not
King's Historiographer'. So Eachard, iii. 178,
2

Cibber

with

',
practice

the

Rebellion

reason,

Council, but
'of

we

at the

several

find Howell

Restoration,

only made
parties "by his
was

ROGER

SIR

90

is

menace

the

ness
strong because it mingles its bitterto
extravagant submission, offeringthe bosom

perhaps

with

an

Prince's

It

too

but

dagger
of

mouth

of the

out

L'ESTRANGE

threatening
if he

Bacon

him

did

with

a
certainly was
Oblivion
'maliciously reviving past

report

hot-foot

came

fill their

not

flagrantcontravention

most

of

destruction

that

its author

was

bellies.

of the

Act

differencies,'and

lodged in Newgate.

in title
reply bore an unfortunate resemblance
Sober
written
in
1653
in praise of
to another
Inspections,
the
for attack in his Modest
It gave L'Estrange
Oliver.
cue
its
Author
and
Plea for the Caveat
(28th August 1661).
of Howell's
the exposure
Besides
loyalty,the Modest Plea
itself to another, and, to the Court, more
addressed
grateful
of sedition
theme
the manufacture
by Press and Pulpit
seditious
Not
lectures
in the
a
day that passes without
noted
with its significant
City '. Mead's lecture was
phrase
month
Ye know
not what
a
bring forth and with such
may
Howell's

"

"

'

'

"

month
upon
rather
to the

that

accent

an

related

Francis
made

Tytan,
of the

one

return,

Pulpit

for
do

to

my

Commonwealth

mischief

'

Stationer
House

treason
dispersing

combination

soul, I thought it

plot'1.

printers to the

two

for
anger
there's
a

author's

our

the

timing

upon
of a

of

since

betwixt

and

lately

Lords, incurs
His

the

Majesty's
Press

and

'.

afford some
ment
amuseleaving this subject it may
the subject of these furies twenty
to quote Roger on
he enjoyed the full favour of the Court and
years later,when
satisfied attitude.
In Observator,
could then adopt Howell's
No. 201, vol. i.,August 1682, occurs
the following dialogue
the longevityof the Cavalier's complaints:
which
shows
of the late King's servants
whom
Tory. Are there some
either the means
his present Majesty has not had
the
or
in
remarkable
to
opportunity perhaps
oblige ?
any
way
from
the
This
does
not, however, derogate
King's gracious

Before

"

inclination.
'

that
does
arrant

Whig. Well,
have
his

but

changed
road,

Whigs2

and

and

I know

scores

of these

their

principles no more
yet at this day they are
seditious

old Cavaliers
than

the

accounted

sun
as

rascals.

i
Plea is 17th September
date of the Modest
Modest Plea, p. 6. The
1661.
Caveat.
his
for
Report speaks me a prisoner,'
Roger,
says
Memoirs
See
of Hie Karl of Ailesbwry, i., 6, already quoted.
Whigism
reallysprung by degrees from the discontent of noble families'.
'

'

'

suits your

and

the

Tory. Upon

there

now

were

Observator

This

time

he

(1289)
asks:

Trimmer

larks

dozen

returned

to

'What

"

the

to

91
that

instance

one

will go off upon


if men
disappointments, who can help it

piquesor
In

find

I cannot

main

PRINTING

animosities

but

purpose,

Truly

SEDITIOUS

AND

DIVINES

PURITAN

'

one

capon

the

same

subject.

snarling pamphlet

was

the

Court

and
Act
Ministers,
against
of Ideninity,the King's Declaration
touching ecclesiastical
after the Restoration.
affairs ?
It was
soon
against Howell
that

wrote

you

'

the Cavaliers, and

State

there

of ye, it was
the Caveat to
other papers of Observators2

some

were

days against Church

libels of these

fanatical

several

upon
and

hand

for the

Alas

Observator.

'.

Amongst

the

Birkenhead,

who

satisfied

of

group

Cavaliers

much

naturally saw
nourished

Sir John

was

Howell's

in

cogency

jealousy of the younger


as
fident
exceedingly conAubrey has described Sir John
'3.
and witty,'but 'not very gratefulto his benefactors
at the Restoration, and
after,caused
heaped-up honours

Cordial.

he

Besides

'

man.

His
him

to

one

of

defenders

should

lived in

having

poor

way

Commonwealth

himself

much

as

suggested publicly
and
whipped4.
as
good as any man's
"

Oxford

at

and

though

"

Howell

as

was

Bridewell

to

sent

He

men.

that

and

loyalty seemed

of
a

the

in
exerted

be

record

Sir John's

of less fortunate

murmurs

Howell's

L'Estrange

the

the

dislike

and

all

refused
he

pliance
com-

had

scarcely
L'Estrange during

L'Estrange did not hesitate to suggest that


also played the traitor to Oliver "'. This is
of the
instance
noting merely as another

Interregnum.
had

Birkenhead

perhaps

worth

reckless

charges

long

accounts

thrown
the

"

about

the

in

which

process

of

settlement
such

gave

these

pain

to

Clarendon.

On

the

whole, Musgrave (Character of (1696), chap, ii.,introd., quoted


Cavaliers
of
some
were
seems
justified in saying 'The
well pleased, others
as
highly disgusted according as he (Charles)

Oldiiiixon, i. 693)
them

very

answered

expectations'.
Cheat,etc., 1661.
See Wood, Athetue,iii.,1203.
Relapsed Apostate, introd.
their

Huhi

a
4

have
5

had

whipped

me

Ibid.

'What!

Justice

'A

(Birkenhead)

....

Sir

John

Your

too.

humble

most

servant,

Cm

tell

you

hetter

me

trade

ide)
a

Fidler

on't.

am

Oliver's
told

physiciansor

that

ho

and
formerly fellow-servants,

were

laid
was

old

whether
...

Barkstead

would

that

'.

that

very

Kogue

by

Law

to

the Statute

; he

mo

'.

his

Intelligencers had
Barkstead

(Birkenhead)and
conferred

told

me

that

Now

notes.

was

this

Fidler, and

sir.
the

(the
same

that

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

SIR

92

Relapsed Apostate^the introduction


1661.
charges,is dated 14th November

The

these

L'Estrange received
apologiesof a gentleman

later

'

story of

the slanderous

to Clarendon

'

L'Estrange (says he),

'

Hall

the

to

glad

am

so

or

private
having conveyed
Roger's pension.

confessed

who

week

Westminster

at

bears

which

to

you, for I'm


both in honour

to

meet

something, which
and
in conscience
myself obliged to acquaint you
then
with '. He
proceeded to explain that Captain James
Whitlocke, a Knight of Cromwell's ',had told him the story
of the "600
reception of the
pension first. Clarendon's
'charitable, consideringthe suggestion, but as
news
was
it was
cruel '. Hence
related
innocence
to my
sharp and
him
at Whitehall,
the cloud of suspicion which
surrounded
and hence on
the 3rd December
1661, his Rumble
Apology to
till I've

unquiet

told

you
think
I

'

he

Clarendon. ,l wherein

word

that

from

that

day

no

One

The

ever

later3

authority in
a

reply

of this last

motto

old

Apology.
his

him

knave, and

we

as

Memento

five

inaccurately

and

scandals

to

saw,

the

'

2.

did
same

(April 1662).

duces
simules,introBagshawe's personal character,
cahdos

Sic canibus

on

but

Bagshawe,

Roger's

to

work,

attack

vicious

the

repeat

gave

or

syllablein contradiction

called

mortal

distempered

six months

high

offered

"

four

earlier

be such

could

this,'says the Observator

to

has

he

trial for

on

Clarendon

that

stated

suspected

never

mortal

'
"

he

put

told in the

long story

the heads of the


pages
The apologistafterwards
'

be

to

Apology merely recapitulatesin

This

his life.

demanded

charges. The
pension story had only been scotched by the Apology to
Clarendon.
was
Captain Whitlocke
repeating the story and
offeringevidence on the points. Like the former defence,
roof
under
whose
is dedicated
to Clarendon,
the Memento
I have
benefits', and
formerly received so many,
many
it is not for
the Chancellor
rather boldfacedlythat
reminds
condition
either of my
to thrive by begging'.
nature
or
a man
besides

defending

author

the

from

various

'

'

the

At

time

same

he

of his attack "to


scope
of Anglesea for harbouring

enlargesthe

include, though cautiously,the Earl


who

Bagshawe,
E.
But

in

His

late

31st March

as

Commissioners

which

regard
6

so

the

King,

prays

be

may

ordered

before

the

195, 625.

1
2

before

he

Roger
to

1663

we

note

that

Indigent Officers

charges L'Estrange
writing a book against the
his denial, if permitted
prove

Birkenhead

with

L'Estrange denies and offers to


C.S.P.D.
privilegeas M.P.'
Clarendon, Jane 1662.

of Sir John's

Apology

for

'

(1663-1),
p.

92.

PURITAN
Council
writer

Did

'

but

the

his

of the

the

and the

Cavaliers

their enemies1.

of

state

last time

the

For

charges.

pitifulcondition

to the

reverts

swelling

his

substantiate

to

93

PRINTING

SEDITIOUS

AND

DIVINES

the

and

whisperings

the

walk

Majesty

streets

to

murmurs,

do

we

as

to

hear
over-

the

observe

passions of the people to see the stand they make '.


of
That's he ',says one,
that brought me
to a Council

various
'

'

War

because

march

not

against

the

King

at

goes another that


the King's account, and he's in such and
me
upon
office'. These
are
brave, jolly fellows, but before

Worcester

and

condemned
such

would

an

this wonder

he's

now

is over,

and

so

There

so.

two
up comes
man's
eyes can

perhaps of the
; they have
upon

three

or

look
spectacles a
cloth enough to hide
scarce
nor
strength enough to move,
the scars
they have received in the King's service.
Do you see
that sickly man
? (criesone) He
is a gentleman

saddest

spent his fortune for his Majesty ; that very


Colonel that goes before, he was
sequestered and plundered 2.
that

has

'

the danger point was


Roger wrote
office. The
though rather humble

When

and

over

self
him-

policy of the
Court had swung
round
nearer
L'Estrange's position. The
in operation,though the guillotinedid
Uniformity Act was
The
fall till St Bartholomew's
not
Day of this year.
of
the 'Colonel'
fund
and
for 'the
"60,000
sickly man'
presently to be passed through
L'Estrange'squotation was
the House.
The policy of keeping the Cavaliers
out, on the
had
received
a slight
assumption of their inviolable loyalty,
in

"

"

check.

"

'

II. ',says

Charles

all under

his feet

left them

to

bones.

'

hearts

557):

yet

with

also

we

alloted

; not

us

Humble
'

for

such

Truths

soldiers

as

are

...

of

Jlumlle

Party.

the

1664

/""

fund.

Remonstrance

be

made

parts

(Somer's Tracts,vii.,
of

Christendom

these

hath
been
indigent money
years' service and 16 years'suffering '. The
of the King's party (ibid.,
condition
517) asks

since

more

them, provision may


See Marvell's
(?) Season"1-/
Bennet
has got of the
poor
The

mouths

our

in

H.M.C., 5th Rept.,


filled with
laughter and

See also

in most

table-talk

for 6
pay
sad
of the

exercise

Treasurer

only

spent their estates

had

that

Court'.

much

6 weeks'

his

loyalty have

been

have

Representation

'
Rix (1853),
p. 127), had them
against them that if he had but
have
would
to their
plumed them
that
and
they might not despond,

Wilton

money
those
when

in

'.
Hammond's

Capt. Chas.

believe

'I

for

them

starved

of my

men

so

sold

paid

heaviness

years past, but

three

that

As

J.

the

as

far incensed

public hatred

the

was

service

his father's

'/.

all

underhand

were

p. 105.

then

and

our

destiny,

their

(Diary by

nation

Parliament

in

asked

been

Bohun
the

and

But
.

pensions
his

had

Questions

our

old,
'.

Dividend

of

maimed,

without

On

the

other

hand

calling
others

stocks

or

too

got

to

much.

(chap, vii., 'I'll): Sir John


was
"2,600'. Sir John
indigent Cavaliers' money
to C.S.P.D.
See also Introduction
(1661-2), pp. 8-9 for
A,

and

etc., 1677

Complaint qf

Your

"

Majesty's Royal

and

Loyal

SIR

94

result

of

figure

at

rather

L'Estrange's

his

awaited

He

the

of

the

that

name

the

of

later

Besides

his
2

of

and

father

sufferers'.

The

it

Act

King

'The

Hume,

to

at

the

himself

King
for

Hist,

was

of

Eng.,

Danby's
It

the

etc.,

he

Church.

the

urges

noticed

has
Truth,

was

ancient

very

24"/t

would
who

aside

set

and

arrest

his

savage

Loyalty,

September

obliged
always

viii.,

167.

to

not

reign

had

been

loyal

many

pretenders

the

and

he

several,

time
'

Prince,

See
dated

that

reward

same

But

Twelve

p.

26,

Such

1656.

!
show

to

proper

death.

by
Jenkins'

of

sermon

sufferers.'

situation

oppression'.

'

and

himself,

released

was

become

in

of

Macaulay

'.

to
"

become

Calamy,

London

Crown

Church.

tyranny

Bagshawe,

what

the

nation2.

the

now

the

for

Indemnity

6.

had

on

prevailed

with

always
with

avoiding
the

of

always
Cavalier

of

Press

ment.
advance-

trifled

called

councils

Church,

Jenkins

the

show

the

whilst

not

had

the

execution

for

list
and

had

than

Crofton,

on

thought

illustrious

rather

Christ

of

hi.,

subjects,

come

over

in

the

on

He
a

instrument

quotes

notion

Eachard,

made

old

attacks

1684

in

had

alliance

fit

L'Estrange

was

his

his

when

where

to

such

allies

boldness,

Cavalier

the

Jenkins,

Wru.

'

jeers

been

that
a

truth.

done

their

loyalty,

the

same

in

pious,

of

printers.
Act

storm

and

much

party

Government

and

be

the

raised

and

abject

Charles

then

Nicholas

Westminster

Press

delayed

prominent

shown

to

King

said

of

clandestine

and

talked,

now

almost

an

what

years

the

leaders

had

conceived
do

libels

that

at

familiar

haunted

still

fellow-Cavaliers,

was

professing

to

and

his

He

he

passage

Presbyterian

his

He

of

talked

treatment
on

Morrice.

was

office.

had

He

naturally

"

of

he

Already

office

discoveries

resfular

into

of

that

with

agitation.

Secretary's

the

than

Hall

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

were

act
the

as

source

as

the

over

subjects
as

many

head
of

party

of

to

his

enemies

of
much

who

had

the

real

Party,
injustice

agreeable
disand

IV

CHAPTEP

remains

to

century

is

the

speculation

quarried

has

at

attempt
too

to

for

out

'

'

Whiggish

against

the

its

liberty

attacks

padlock
books,

in

monopoly

in

this
the

on

formal

For

subject

of

list of

is

do

more

Williams

B.

the

former
little

with

latter

confined

is

than

more

prepare

the

the

delivers

the

from

this

95

scarcely

time

subject

for
see

and

equally

century,

associated
on

century

complaints

', and

eighteenth

system
writers

seventeenth

with

Press

unsatisfactory.

whole

the

often

though

therefore,

the

on

attacks,

direction,
old

J.
but

the

to

with
The

information

and

is saturated

literature
'

of

subject

informative,

from

apart

this

on

and

well-written

and

Mr

knowledge,

our

Pix,

history.

literature

Our

in

on

Statutes.
of

or

and

themselves

work

narrative,

period

the

party

Macaulay

Wilton,

of

heap

vast

general

more

gaps

connected

narrow

While

the

supply

to

more

and

Arber

of

labours

modern

of

bias

content

enumeration

relating

other,

and

like

either

Surveyor
seventeenth

the

the

an

Company

the

and

Hallam

writers

other,

bare

and

have

like

formal

the

or

these

but

Stationers'

printed

writers,

or

on

of

most

of

writers,

expected

be

to

documents

later

side,

one

Tymperley

do

but

is

As

in

the

of

matter.

enumeration

various

by

the

on

the

as

Government

the

l.

prolific

while

interest,

far

so

History

to

done

be

subject,

this

to

done

relate

to

necessary

legislation

goes,

the

relations

their

in

of

sketch

intimate

be

Post-

Ministers

how

previous

Ordinances

and

Statutes

been

already

has

This

of

will

it

the

of

license

understand

to

sort,

history

the

briefly

very

order

this

of

excesses

the

on

in

but

Press,

Pestoration
viewed

touched

already

have

We

PRESS

THE

OF

BLOODHOUND

THE

to

all

Appendix.

time

time

gibes

grievous
sure

of

nervous

with

the

SIR

96

ROGER

L'ESTRANGE

and

attributes

blessings of the
Revolution
to the enlightenment produced by the defiance
of English Liberties
in the Press.
of the
brave
assertors
of
deism
of the
The
towards
the end
alarming growth
of

name

L'Estrange,

the

'

'

century associated

seventeenth
and

Tyndal,
for

Shaftesbury
1. By
two
or

year

century the

alarm

the

stage, but

II. and

Charles
convicted

late

had

almost

by
provoked

his

to-day

for

Restraint
the

entered

the

French

Revolution

certain

teenth
nine-

antiquarian
and

prosecutions on

recall

We

seditious

question of

the

Toland,

of

names

eighteenth and

which

brother.

the

the

the

Government

the

part of

revived

created

Atheism

spread of

the

matter

with

the

have

printing on

printers

see

libel law

panic

of

days

worst

lived to

the

dating from those alarming times 2. An event which induced


the
Southey in the nineteenth
century gravely to propose
might have been expected
Repeal of the Act of Toleration
the latent re-actionaryfeeling on
the topic,which
to arouse
Even
to-day the example of a Press
quite dies out.
never
in India

Law
such

of the

Restraint

admitted3

be

causes

"

is the

be

bar

of

evasions

better

than

before

the

the

and

See

the

in

the

compare
Committee

of

of

is not

Nor

4.

one

that

the

less

the

real
such

to-daycould

of

the

The

again seriously

held

case

study

to

seventeenth

accounts

prolific

difficulties

inevitable

century licenser, cannot

evidence

late stage licenser

of the

Summer

do

1909, with

L'Estrange's various

Bohun's

appearances

Diary
before

committees.

similar

Imprimatur

wish

misgiving.

Hallam

which

Even

up.
who

those

drama,
and

set

of

1694

after

in

the

"

proposed withdrawal
quite a parallelit may

good deal

part

resided

Restraint

"

of

the

not

stage

which

element, however,

proposed,

the

on

regret the absence

to

persons
in England, while

measure

sober

causes

Magazine, April 173S.

man's

Genth

Essay

the

on

Press

"The

"

Revolution

of
degree at least to be owing to the communication
justly said in some
and
this
whilst
under
taken
Press
not
was
the
a
licenser,
clog
yet
knowledge by
to revive it'.
taken
then
and even
off it till it expired of itself,
great pains were
Cons. Hist. (1S79), p. 719.
For the 'great pains' see Hallam,
a The
reference
syndicalistprinter Bowman
is,of course, to the trial of the

be

may

'

'

convicted
:;

Though

its

in
reopagittca
4

Jhid.

1912

in March

imposition

the

caused

old

Statute.

alarm

which

consists

in

the

called

forth

an

odition

of

1738.
the

strict

sense
merely in an
example the draft o
Regulating the Press, 1698-9, repeated substantially in another
II. ALU., Neio
271.
Scries,iii.,
Every feature of the old Statute

liberty

'The

of

Press

from

the

superiiitendanccof

nave

the

Imprimatur.

exemption
a
proposed Bill for
attempt in 1706.
is retained

under

liconser

'.

See

for

SIR

98

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

give1. 'In the reign of Henry VIII.', says Hallam,


when
the
of Printing,
politicalimportance of the Act
especiallyin the great question of the Reformation, began to
be apprehended,it was
absolute
an
thought necessary to assume
control over
it,partly by the King's general prerogative,and
still more
'.
by virtue of his ecclesiastical supremacy
Pemberton
in the famous
law-suit
The
of Seymour
v.
Stationers. 1678, affirmed
the Royal control of the Press from
the date of its introduction
2. The
lawyers who approved or
exemplified the various orders of the Stationers' Company,
their authority on
founded
the Press Act of 19 Henry VII.3.
Wilton
Mr
Rix goes still further back
in referringsuch

could
'

'

'

restraints
lead
in

of

Council

of

seventeenth

Restraint

with

an

the

other

reformation,

of the

writer

anonymous
the
to see

desired

hot

century, who
horrors

Act

follows

champions

of

desired

William

On

the

other

reign, who
'

themselves

before

the

printing

to

of
by
great men
times
for the promoting learning, the printers then
those
and
excellent
and
the
being learned men
judges of books
whilst
art
not
trade, and
degenerated into a mercenary
this continued, there
need
Press.
to regulate the
no
was
In
of
England, after the Reformation, the terrible havock
unlicensed printingon the Continent
(especiallyHoly Leagues
and
Martin
Luther
of slower
quarrels) were
growth
well kept under
till 1640, and
it is well known
thingswere
the calamities
between
that and
the nation
groaned under
1660 were
mostly caused by a lawless libertyof the Press'4.
the

ancient

MSS.,

written

liberty

the

III.'s

revived, complains that


devoted

the

connect

to

Inquisition.

in

printers

1517,

therein

Trent, and

Milton, Blount, and

the

side,

the

to

books

or

the

Printing was

printing
Law

was

have
2

'The

'

invention

new
v.

Stationers

invention, and

therefore

(Atkyns

case

new

liberty of Printing

Ibid.

first found

adjudged

of that

resolution

exorbitances

been

under

lawbooks'.
and

the

"

'

down

law
every

and

monopoly)
could

man

Modern

licentiousness

'

to 1678.

The

relied
not

Lords

upon
by the

Reports(1683), pp.
thereof

has

ever

in the

this

that

Common

25b'-7.

since

it

was

magistrates. In England
it has from
time
under
the King's own
to time been
regulation '. As late as 1 Jac. 2
v. Parker,
(Case of Stationers
Viner, xvii.,20S) the Koyal prerogative was
argued
it was
'.
the ground that
of the crown
art introduced
on
an
by the care
:;
in 19 Henry
and
Set the Press Statute
VII., quoted in the Stationers Orders
1082.
and
1G84.
the
Stationers'
4-20.
Arber,
Rules, 1078,
Registt
Transcriptof
rs, i.,
Yet
find no
VI. to
'we
attempt on the part of Henry VIII. or his son Edward
harass
the printers as such '. (Bigmoreaud
Bib. of Print in";(
Wymau,
1884),ii.,120.
* Tanner
MSS.
141.
See Mr Augustine Birrell'a Seven Lectures on
C. 73'.',
the
Law
Renouard
"nit Historyof Copyright ( 1S99), p. 49, where
he quotes M.
(Traiti
des Droits d'. I uteurs (1838),i.,29-o0) to show
the reasonableness
of this early view
out

care

restraint

of the

'

of

printing

'

au

moment

ou

la penseo

e'etait la guerre

'.

Edward

In
in all

of

the

reign began

YI.'s

manner

THE

OF

BLOODHOUND

THE

primers

with

nionopolie
conformity

of

system

view

09

PRESS

enforce

to

Prayer1, a monopoly for which


printer Seres suffered in Mary's reign, though Elizabeth
handsomely compensated him by settingup in his family the
detested
and
extensive
most
monopoly of the reign. Mary
not only set up the Stationers
Company (the Societyhad long
enjoyed an informal existence2)but attempted by an Act in
the

to

her

of

Book

that she
gag the Press '. It has been denied
in this matter
by particularreligiousanimosity,

last year
animated

was

but

if she

'

to

new

The

reign

awake

scarcely

was

invention

'

Common

sister

', her
Elizabeth

of

under

was

is

of the Press, and


grasp
her
initiative
for Press

all later

Proclamation

Star Chamber

to crush

be

4,in 1566

what

grave

soon

appeared

nuisance.

The

importance

new

to

Ordinance

quarrels of

Prelate

1559

attempted
the

to

sects

controversy gave

and

matter5

the

was

which

1586,

In

terrors".

the

Mar-

the
of

Whitgift'sOrdinance

and

in

delusion.

such

no

ever-tightening
by an
is indebted
to
legislation

marked

forms

the

of
possibilities

the

to

of

cause

re-affirmed

only

not

limited
but
Imprimatur of the earlier Proclamation,
The
Stationers
and
the Universities0.
printing to London
to assume
Company
great importance, and the
began now
by this Ordinance
by Mary was
authority delegated to them
largely increased
by rights of search, which, however, were
of the civic rulers of
often
frustrated
by the interference
the subject of much
London.
These rightswere
subsequent

the

Soc),

9.
of

Records

the
R. C. Kivington"s Essay on
11.
Registers,
v.,
I"
tder
'"" Hilger (Joseph,JDerlnd*
when
is thinking of this reign particularly
Mr

Egerton Papers (Cam.

504, and

Strypc, Memorials, i., 378 and

See

138,

Stationers

the

in

Company,

Arbor's

sind

die
4

englischen Zensurgesetze mit


refrain

gain ',the
5

Martin,

privai
17""'2

Collier

of

". us

Printers

many

erected

Presbytery

''the

(Ecc. Hist.,
'

so

the
did

vol.

at

regard

Wandsworth

first-born

of

ii.),'This

disguiseof
sedition

them

aud

what

(of Canterbury) pleasure


please may (togetherwith 5
able printer to work
master
as

more

they

the

'Jn

reign

'

nor

'. and

conceal

(Bigmore and
that
of

of

of his

have

may

'the

iblished in
He

quotes

venomous

1 "'Israeli

itself

(Quarrels of
closely'.

more

ii.,121). Sir John


(of 23rd June, 1586)

Wyman,

Decree

printers but

Master

bh

of

tli''

Mar-Prelate
fast

the

or

they print, so

Presbyteri
all Presbyteriesin England"'.
junto published a great many

This intolerably harsh enactment


of
Arches,
1637, remarked
Larnhe, Dean
certain number
doth
not appoint any

Lando

orders.

when

so

'

Grace's

not

and

Martin

travel

andern

in kcinem

geschriebeD'.

Blut

enactments

Freiburg,1904 (pp.206-21))

Wie

'

says,

Privately Printed, p. 16.

Boohs

pamphlets under
A ulhors),Never
ti

'

Arbor, i.,Introd.

he

leaves

it to

his

when
cither
of
London, who
Bishop
free
the lligh " 'oinmissioners)allow
any
trade '. Arbcr, /
Hi.,704.
oi

100

SIR

recrimination

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER
the

part of

the

before
monopolists who
until the expiry of the Act
indeed
exercised them, and
in
coincident
1679 claimed
The
authority with the company.
sad

on

the

of

effects

Stationers, from

Queen

obtained

Company
is the

of

century

were

monopolists,that
great

at

men

methods

the

subdue

intrude

to

and

so

return

the

indeed

officer

in
was

'the

invest

to

the
'

employed

by
the

strugglesagainst crownregularlyretained by the


we

after

and

Press

these

of

when

Charles

resolved

in the seventeenth

several

time

Hall, and

they

when,

Chamber

of

company

time

the Stationers

same

of

the

against the Patentees


Atkyn's Original and Growth of

Stationers

shall find that

we

them

law

license

the

Printingin
Richard

the

At

company.

Star

deeply involved

so

the

to

of

And

Printing,1664.

in

power

Mary

decree

of

executive

power
burthen

executive

in

to

come

the

also

were

Great

examine
Fire

to

despair of the Act,

themselves

into

attempt

an

these

loyal monopolists into the governing body,


effect what
Atkyns and the others desired, viz.,a
in effect to the state of things which
prevailed before

Star-Chamber

decrees

Ordinances
Many
protected monopolies,

monopoly,

continued

of 1586

and

Acts

and

James'

the

and
of

1637.
Elizabeth

rule, the

created

and

golden

But
he
practicel.
greatest monopolist.

of
age
made
the

the
The
Company
reign
James
of the
have
to
', says one
writer, seems
peaceful
been
little disturbed
Presses
by the products of Private
the
of
work
the
Vorstius, Ba Deo, published on
although
Continent, which
was
here, gave him
publicly burned
siderable
conthe subject of long diplomatic
uneasiness, and was
has
successor
correspondence2. The reign of his unfortunate
been well described
the age of pamphlets
'.
as
by Johnson
If James'
reign was peaceful,it had hardly closed before
confronted
the Government
was
by as serious an irruption
Stationers

'

'

"

"

the

on

part of the
With

1586.

the

Press
fanatical

as

had

called

rigour

which

forth

the

Decree

of

characterised

him,
Laud, as Bishop of London, set himself the task of silencing
the Bastwickes, Burtons, and Prynnes, and in the event
was
extended
in 1571, and
in 1501 passed to his son.
was
For
monopoly so fruitful of later troubles is granted (7th Eliz., 6)
list
for 7 years to Totcll, 20th Eliz.. for 30 years to the same,
Eliz.,for 30 years
and
to Wright
Morton, and 15 Jas. I.,for 40 years to John Moore.
SeeArber, v.,
21 Jae. I. protects the patentees.
The
57.
Statute
3
in this
Hilger, op. cit.,cites several other cases
Martin, vols. xiv. and xv.
reign.
1

Seres'

example,

monopoly

tho

law

BLOODHOUND

THE

later

L'Estrange was
allowing popish books to

accused,

as

'

'

from

extracted

the

brought

the

latter

Ordinance

the

works
and

comrades

his

1637, while

of

by the

and

\ while
Prynne

pass
of

PRESS

THE

OF

people,of

same

secretary Heylin

his

innuendoes

such

augmentation

while

tind

we

of the

by others
it did) the

introducing

as

affirmingthat

pamphlets began to flyabout like lightning'.


of Council and Star-Chamber
latter the jurisdiction

thereafter

'

the

the

and

necessary

was

and

Pressed

Press

The

tract

over-Pressed, looking back to the Ordinance


the Golden
Age of the Press, we find Atkyns
To

the

Stationers, and

of the

power

Restoration

the

But

regarded generally as

taken
coping-stone of this rigorous policy3, was
and especiallythe patentees to mean
(as indeed
continued

as

pillory2.

the

to

101

of

the Act

took

I. which

Car.

17th

away

second

the

deluge.
the years
There
is indeed
a
singular parallel between
and
1677-80.
1637-40
Putting aside Atkyn's jaundiced
and
in each case, after a display of energy
view, there was
in the
repression,a period of comparative calm, broken
case
one
by the Civil War, in the other by the Popish Plot.
to
up
previous restraints

aids to

were

what

do

the Star

and

endorsed

which,

prosecutionsleft

these

attempt in 1680

an

the

authorityof

by transferring

Press

King's Bench, an attempt


Scroggs and
rigours towards
which

unsuccessful, and

not

away

to the

powers
Parliament's

despite
was

was

in the

Council

and

Chamber

Weston,

there

swept

such restraints

that

patentees desired, to revive

the

precedentsand

their

view

the

Moreover

Popery.

which

Parliaments,

factious

lead

Both

to

in

authority brought

that

heritage

of

1630, that

Laud

the

to

tyranny

of

failure

the

in

next

age4.
See

Printer's

1629

Co

or

his

and

the
-

the

surveyor-hip of the Press


For
the extraordinary
Printer, author, and
to write, ought

p. 19.

himself

upon
::

One

"

Bigmore

of

the

printers,the point
*

George

were

made

great tract

precedents
the famous
interest
'

All

licenser
be

to

to

of
to

judges are

etc.) we

on

the

that

but

men

conduct

whilst
'.

Fox

Pari.

enjoy
James

were

the

in

this

of "300

on

now

1 1, and

Charles

prerogative of the
the King's Bench'.

debate

bond

Jeffries,

remark

enacted
a

L'Estrange'sefforts

which

by

Chaplainsmonopoli

to

pass.

punished, 'for an author


what
judicious to understand

were
man

"fSir

which

only Popish books

laws
atrocious
ever
ii.,l'2'2. It ordered

most

Wyman,

and

allow

Docum*
of this case
ids Relatingto
circumstances
see
Prynne (Cam. Soc.) ; especiallyNo. 4, Prynne to Laud,

Mr

Proceedingsattain*!

and

he

of

entered

writes'.

liberty'",
by all

into

to enforce.
chiefly directed
Press.
the
'By these means

fruits of these

II. for

"land

to be

taketh

who

blessed

reviving in another

endeavours

shape

the

and
Chamber
rs
by transferringi
In
See also Hallam, Cons. Hist. (1879),p. 613.

Star

of the
said

judges
'The

6th

December

Judges

Hist.,xvi.,1264.

are

1770.

it is of

blameless', Burke

some

said,

SIR

102

Parliament

Commonwealth

The

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

found

soon

that

Free

luxury they could not afford, and far from


the twenty years
confusion
being a period of liberty,it is
rather
characterised
by greater severity. The Imprimatur
Press

was

which

Hallam

took

handed

1643

exercised

to

over

their

swept

Independent
licensers
of

with

and

authorities

Puritan

rigour

the

Levellers
and

the

as

and

result

old

pendents
Indewhich
of

the

setting up of new
Act, but again the old trouble
three general licensers could not

The
In

who

intolerance

natural

in

was

divines1

much

The

1649

Bradshaw's

work2.

the

as

affronted

of

licensingappeared.

overtake

of

former.

triumph

under

of restraint,

essence

highhandedness

the

away

the

number

duties

Episcopal licensers,
by the same
had

be

to

the

was

and

1652, 1656,

called

1658-9, the

in

the

Act

the

matter.

in

operation,
severityprevailed,but
his son's accession, as we
worse
founded,
conbrought confusion
saw,
and the Council vainly called on Scot and Tichborne
and
London's
the nuisance3.
magistrates to put down
By
the
of
had
April 1660, we saw,
slipped to
danger
publication
other
the
side, and just before the Restoration, Prynne was
Act
to draw
an
appropriately chosen
by the Commons
up
and

were

whilst

which

Cromwell

should

The

trouble

periods, was
three
in

licensers

by

that

1647-9

and

be

to

this

set

of

real

in

the

found

in

up

1647

by
were

put

certain

with

Commonwealth,
the

the

feelingthat

inflamed

was

to

all deal

for

once

real

clerical

upon
lived a

The

Imprimatur.
Ordinance

unpaid.
the

of

There

by Royalist

was

writers

later

twelve
and

1643
was

restraint

in

as

the

especially
pernicious,

then

ably
remark-

Gilbert
Mabbot
1649
prolific. In May
resigned on
conscientious
complained of the
grounds4. The Stationers
licensers
who
inadequacy of the three
neglected their
When
the matter
taken
in hand
at
was
honorary task.
the Restoration, no
made
in the Act
provision was
(1662)
for

payment

Government

of

licensers,and

it therefore

devolved

the

on

provision for the Secretary'snominee.


As the Episcopal licensers gradually restricted themselves
to
of
duties
of the post
licensingworks
pure theology,the vast
1

of the

Bigmore

to

and

make

Wyman,

licensers.
the Stationers'

C.S.I'. I).

Claimed

Areopugiticu.

pt. ii.,p. 22.

ParKamu

ntary Papers, No.

Petition,20th December, 1648.


H.M.C.,
February 1660.
(1059-60),
pp. 343-4, 2nd
of Milton's
first biographers, 'Poland, as
by one

vi.,give
7th

list

Report.
convert

to

BLOODHOUND

THE

PRESS

THE

OF

103

importunacy of L'Estrangc, we
the
post actually lucrative, the rock on
that of
and
later licensers
which
split was
contemporary
duties l.
for impossibly arduous
remuneration
undefined

accumulated, and
shall find, made

seemed

troubles

down

gone

restitution.

for

clamoured

now

had

class which

One

the

though

the

the
the

To

the

Patentees

late
of

license

the

from

resulting

chaos

1640

in

torrent

the natural
guardians. Like
they were
the Churchmen
they awaited impatiently their Restoration,
should
of Uniformity which
their
Act
eject the present
to force
But
they had no zealous Parliament
usurpers.
doomed
to hopeless petitioning
their claim, and
were
many
for favours
already in the possessionof those whose retention
of them
according to the early policy of the Court,
was,
deemed
expedient.
Of the three parties,
patentees, printers and booksellers,
which

of

Press

the

and

protectiveclause

like

individuals

but

fighthard

and

Company

the

individual

their

more

of the

the

of

Patentees

Printers

The

Courts.

patents.
Stationers'

generalrights of the

particular copies

work

and

Atkyns,
for

They got this,


Seymour had to

Act.

new

Courts

the

the

delicate

the

in

Norton,

Law

between

decide

To

the

in

of their interests

the restoration

with

concerned

the first were

was

left

were

they had been in a miserable way still sighing for freedom.


They had been the first to petitionagainst the monopolists in

as

1641

at all.

Press

best

Their

-.

the

to

Hence

strict

turning them,
1

as

said

L'Estrange

of

he

to

was

which

Act4,

took

that

the

on

their

"

have

closed

licensing,but

for

fees

no

said

should

1637, into

in

restraint

no

opposition
being ineffective,they

That

3.

1662

have

Stationers

the

so

"

Act

new

preferreda

fortune

the

(apart from
yielded no

Newsbook

of

corporation,

select

then

effect

much

profit.
contrary)
for Reviving the
Act,
(111) c. 1692." The Copy of Reasons
office employed by the
licenser
there
ia no
'As
to the
etc., already quoted.
The
better
which
is not
Crown
paid considering his great labour and hazard'.
book
each
licensed
for
unlicensed
of
fine
8d.
a
sum
on
or
writer
books,
a
proposes
evidence

MSS.

C. 739

omission

of which

Taimer

'

the

he

the

to

doubt,

for

arduous

can

the

continued

still be

in the

also

Act

is

restraint

accomplished by

said

of the

one

the

on
one

or

the

greatest defects

theatre
at

most

is that
two

the

'.

One

reason,

no

licensing though

offio
iii. Petitions

of Printers,
ii.,122;
Wyman,
Bigmore
Monopolies.
against
"
'The
H.M.O., 7th Report 154.* Petition of Stationers, 17th January 1GC2.
and
the
Bill
to
of
Lb
Printers
obstruct
the
to
gain to
passing
great design of these
2

Pari. Papers, i. and

and

etc.

themselves

the

estates

of Petitioners

and

others

'.

Case
of Free Workmen
ii.,126; Pari. Papers, xvi.
Bigmore and Wyman,
Printers
i., probably belongs to the later date, for it complains that
(1662-')),
increased
the expiry of the Act (two years) tlie Printers had
to 70.
4

on

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

SIR

104

from
the tyrannicalStationers
end, freedom
booksellers,not printers),
were
Company (whose great men
their demand
\
and, if possible,
separate incorporation was
in wretched
and
Patentees
Between
Stationers, they were

this

for

and

that

plight and did not hesitate to say


increasing of
encouraged the illegal
have

they might
scholar

still

was

dealt

who
all

of

their

Those

of

had

peace
of how

'

low

the

during
the

awaiting

'

when

hurry

to

which

event

the

was

and

"

Presses

little

fairlylarge

had

Nedham

fled,and

lay
long

men

many

hardly

so

would

"

once

and

disappointment

bound

to

come,

and

more

the

scription
pro-

perhaps

was

referred

of

those

attacks

to

was

to

great party of Presbyterians

the

inevitable

Press, had

nothing,but

month

when

moment

in the

Charles

of

return

and

hear

we

Eestoration

only waiting

were

that

Chapman
3

sedition, whilst

with

hum

Press

the

Government

the

declared

repugnant

Brewster

brother

partiesin

of

been

desperate section.

and

proud Stationer,
played on him

and

legislation.
thought that with the

knowledge

or

Press

who

Whitehall,

author

rogueries2.
warned

sedition

The

mercy.
of the

mercy
he liked

as

condition

the

was

forward

more

copy
of tricks and

stream

new

at the

oppressors
numbers, so that

their

at their

more

his

with

manner

Such

them

their

as
L'Estrange
to,
by
from
betake
the
to
themselves
would
speak
they too
the
from
what
could
Press
not
speak
pulpit.
they
attacks
that
We
have
on
prominent
seen
L'Estrange's
their
on
a
present
running commentary
Presbyterians were
of
their
behaviour
viewed
in the light
ambiguous past. He

such

hastened
before

had

of tears

about

of

to be

shed

things

such

"

"

his Coronation

demand

of the

and
Piegicides,

in

the

v.",p.

Printers

133.

week

the
of

Smectymnvus
preached to Covenanted
in 1650.

There

Jt

is

difficult

were

King's
worse

Charles

at

also the works

posals,
See his Considerations and ProArbor's
Professor
to reconcile

with
the most
enviable
body of men
Mrs
Also
Arber, Register,v. xxix.
that Printing may
not be a Free Trad*'.
as

tion
publica-

the

Revived, and

sternlyopposed by L'Estrange.

etc., chap,
selection

at Scone

for the

almost

landing as Dr Manton's
still,
Douglas' old sermon

Covenant, manifestions

the tears shed for the burnt

noted

their

constant

James's

(17th
oppression.
'At
the first
January 1704) Reasons
in the printer'. Her
trade
centred
view, like
beginning of printing the whole
that of Atkyns, is selfishlymonopolist.
2
George
Withers, Scholar's Purgatory (Spencer Society, 6th collection,
and
Arber, Register,
62-6)
iv.,13-16.
;
pp.
3
Desborough's letter to Chapman quoted chap. ii.
cries

of

See

SIR

10G

the

from
March

word

'

'

these

papers
by the

date, and

same

Commonwealth

from

Politicus'
instinct
almost
The

February

to

or

rigorous

most

freeman

oblige

execution
such

as

the

1644

and

Tarquin
proposals referred

Draft

and

bonds

Stationers

Proposal
oaths

to
Company
'. The
Surveyor
the King's Printers

the

to above

which

of the Act

their

see

also
have

had

is not

for twelve

his.

by
Bye-law
on

out
with-

years

for his emoluments

He

it

bye-laws put in
general warrant

own

demands

are

makes

entered

be

to

ing
censur-

Mercurius

accompanied by

are

proposes
printing of all narratives and

(a) The
exceeding two

Intelligencenot
of paper ; (b) A monopoly
of all bills
x
which
he licenses : (c) Is. a sheet

sheets

of

young

the

of extracts

1654,

'

'

of the company

clamour.

any

collection

between

the

to the

obviously belonging

hand,

playful fancy.
with that suspicion of
that

is

same

The

certain

every

there

sources

present King,

the

to

belong rather

to

surveyor

1662.

Besides

'

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

"

ment
advertise-

and

other

all

on

books.
Needless

ignored,as was
perilous thing to grant
Secretary in the spring

with

them

It

been

in

was

to

that

on

his

3rd

get

Even
a

He

had

in

his

mind

'Confederate

secretary

commitment

1661,

taken

the

Dom.

'as the
to

we

besides
of

the
most

unrewarded

own
"

more

that

of

the

presently.

1662
(the date of the
Apology and May
question of employing L'Estrange, probably

1662, quoting
Car., ii.,39., No. 92 ; Pari. Hist.,iv.,233, March
to be
was
Pulpit was to he purged hy the Act of Uniformity, care
of a Licenser
'.
bridle the Press and put the reins into the hands

S. P.

Ralph,

of whom

"

December

year
shall hear

to

the

Between

Memento)

Printers

early

particularlya

important discovery, the result of his


vigilance in July and August of this
'

new

so

L'Estrange published his Apology to Clarendon, which,


made
a
powerful exposure
pleading his own
case,
illicit Press.

as

trouble

to

to

moment.

jail whom
only
could
keep there.

"

1661-2, and

ceased

troublesome

considerably

resolution

"

especiallyto

winter
never

were

Warrant

have

to

seems

earliest

remembered

be

may

the

at

have

printerslying
legal argument

poor

Bill

1661

time, and

the

through

it must

1661

have

of

alarms, there

new

Bill rushed
as

any
1662.

nervous
during
when
period
L'Estrange

the

was

at

ministers

annoyed
it

the

loss of

The

wishes

these
modest
not
very
say
also the request for the Search

to

rather

strengthof

the

on

this

107

PRESS

THE

OF

BLOODHOUND

THE

discovery

his

of

than

plaints
com-

often
mooted, but though he
neglect, was
in February
Surveyor of the Tresses
certainly made
itself proves
by Secretary Nicholas' patent, the Memento

of

to

have

It

above.

legalise his
that

he

his

able

was

libels

when

to

off

score

the

than

more

Britain.

of Little

dens

to

authority, however,
Bagshawe by seizing a batch of
the

Anglesea's house

at

remember

we

with

armed

little

done

have

to

scouting in the

amateur

probably

was

fact

in

seems

this

proposals referred

the

Hence

1662

office,if it carried any

of

shadow

merest

whatsoever1.

emolument

It

the

been

was

new

scruple

puzzling seizure

rather

"

which

on

Bill

abortive

the

wrecked-.

was

The
Act

framed

was

the

are

resorted

to

to

do

as

rather

was

held in

judges to proceed
Law
compendious Common
to

itself to
aid

of

as

branch

of the

If therefore
of the

is made
that

that

Act

and

seizure

was

recommended

which

course

of

example

we

the

wished

to

dispense
to

with

the

use

the

judges

legislature.
the

in

1662

possible,and

where

Parliament

"

which

Government

more

This

scarcelyever
tion
terrorem, or as a justificarigorouslyby the more

of

Law

Act, the Press


and

following the

Press

new

chapter.

leave to the next

may

able

better

Treasons

new

we

the

which

principleson

of the

discussion

stern

to

cases

be

mention

cited, no

be remembered
of this year, it must
of search
chieflyvaluable for the powers
and by delegation
it vested in the Crown,

great Act
was

which

disputed on legalgrounds to the secretaries and


its only benefit
L'Estrange3. For all practical purposes
the raising of prices by that clause which
to the public was
that
their patents to monopolists and
despite the
secured
periodicalplaints of the poor printers1.
and
In the confusion
multiplicity of 'libels',fanatical
darkened
the air during-the first
and
Presbyterian,which
"

often

'

"

Fortune

rout

has

been

of which

Menu wto,pt. i.,May


place.

so

kind

pitifulremains
1602.

These

as

to leave
I make
are

not

me

yet

of ink

Lottie

Lordship
your
words
of a
the

and

present

a
man

with

heap

of
a

of

book

'.

lucrative

of noblemen
the houses
were
exempted from liabilityto search.
debate
in
the Bubjectof exhaustive
Warrant
was
legalityof the General
The
Wilkes
and
the
alter
great lawyers
the eighteenth century, during
ease.
vested
to the powers
inclined
to trace
the warrant,
by
who
were
argued that case
1770.
of 6th December
Debate
Pari. Hist.,xvi., 1J77.
this Act.
See
the Law
excellent note
i See their
on
Monopoly,
in
Petition,1662- 1.
Viner, Abridgment (1742), ami., 208.
"i

That

The

three

years

history and

the

of these

Restoration, it is impossible to

the

of

obscure

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

SIR

108

But

each.

effect

of

wares,

which

either

there
from

were

the

trace

certain

juncture

at

their
of their
or
own
they appeared or because
author's
importance deserve a cursory notice.
And
first it was
L'Estrange'sand Atkyn's loud complaint
But
time goes
that Presbyterian wares
tolerated.
were
as
and
eviction, their
especially after the Bartholomew
on,
became
they gradually
more
precarious and
immunity
hues
the
darker
of Dissent.
of
adopted the secret channels
of the
We
have
already noted the chief engagements
and Presbytery in which
conflict between
Church
L'Estrange
intrusive
took such an
only concerned
we
are
part. Here
and
with
those
regarded
pamphlets as they were
papers
which

'

as

libels '.

Interest

There

of England

in

latter

the
respectively,

first

were

the

October

parts of

two

celebrating

March

and

1660
the

Corbet's

1661,
of

memory

the

regicide Carew.
Baxter's

famous

Petition

for

and

Peace

the

publication

of
the
occasion
L'Estrange's
were
Savoy papers
In this work
violent Pelapsed Apostate already noticed.
the
men
lying in gaol for his
always having in mind
wide
and
the secret
on
July discovery Roger descanted
and
roundly accused
publication afforded these papers,
in the
He
detected
abroad.
of
Baxter
sending them
ring of menknaves,'
printers of the Petition for Peace a
several
in everything during the late times, and
who
were
in favour.
Francis
still continued
of them
as
Tytan
Commonwealth
It is not
printers
surprising that those
of

the

"

"

'

"

"

of

Mercurius

leveller

the

and

Britannicits

R.W.

and

'

he

other
that

Mercuries,

hunts

in

Ibbotson

couples

with

of such
vast
in a work
sale.
\ should bear a hand
deceives
not ',says the irate Cavalier,
If my intelligence
me
delivered
schismatical
the
was
piece of Holiness
same
Mr
Baxter
to the Press
or
by his order, Ibbotson
by one
the printer (the levelling Ibbotson, I
Smithfield
in
was
lie that
printed the Adjutators Proposal, I mean,
suppose,
and the Petition to the Army
against the Mayor ami Alder nun
has a fingerin the
in October
told, too, R.W.
1647). I am
pie Britannicus, his old friend, he that hunts in couples
These
with Tytan.
good folks have printed treason so long,
that they think now
they do the King a kindness to stop

Tytan

'

'

'

"

Relapsed Apostate,

Introduction,

BLOODHOUND

THE

Indeed

THE

OF

109

pity their old Imprimatur


man
called
aside
office
into
Ireland
a
so
unluckily
by
good
;
should
had
the Toy stampedelse
have
with
'
privilege.

at sedition.
was

'tis

PRESS

'

we

information

My

barrelled

tells

for fear

up

further

me

of

that

venting,and
with

which

the

was

several ways

sent

so

much

bauble

being performed
despatch
secrecy
tumult
and
the
bespeak a general
prepossesses
nation
'.
better
reason
against
He was
right as to Baxter being the author of the Petition
for Peace, but his charge against the latter of being privy
to the publishing of the Savoy papers
was
certainlyfalse1.
The curious thing is that Baxter
should
tion
by his informato Secretary Morrice
have admitted
that the publication
does

but

these

of

and

Press

modest

Law

If

when
add

we

was

papers

the

they saw

the

Yet

there

was

no

light first.
the

of

papers

crime.

Crofton

agitationprinted

at Stationers'
by Iialph Smith, a high person
Hall-, and
those
of the Morley
Baxter
Bagshawe controversy to the
or
as
L'Estrange would
category of disturbing,
say, seditious
have the main
tion
literature,
we
scope of Presbytery's contribusedition
to
serious Bartholomewprior to the more
Sermons.
ejectment deluge of Farewell
These
have
little in them
pathetic discourses
beyond
-

'

'

exhortation
a

to

powerful

very

Government

this matter.
action

in

On

regard

Proposals,and
1

in

effect3

were

a
persuadingpeople
agency
could ejectsuch pious men
be vicious.
must

which
The

in their cumulative

comfort, but

E. 1870.

that

indeed

the

hand, there

one

the

to

Petition

secretarial

hesitated

in

its treatment

Morrice's

was

Peace

for

issued

warrant

ment
Govern-

and

of

dubious

Papers of

for the

arrest

of

Catalogue gives the date of publication as (?)May


the subject [Register,
'Morley t""M me
p. 550).
when
he silenced me
would
he answered
that our
ere
long (but) only
papera
words
L'K-trange the writer of the N" wsbook hath tailed out a great many
against
of them
'. Baxter
further
tells us that on
some
hearing of the publicationof these
he informed
not
hunt for the delinquent,
Secretary Morrice, but would
papers,
though he privatelythought him to be a poor curate of 1 "r Reynold's. Altogether
'
Baxter's conduct
violent.
as
was
unique as L'Kstrange's charges were
Although
1 was
above
100 miles
all imputed
off yet it was
and
to me,
.Roger L'Estrange
that it was
nupposed to bo my doing '. Baxter, Sylvi
put it in the Newsbodk
Edition of Life (1696),ii.,379-80.
1661.

1661.
:i

The

Kennct

his

.v.

Apology

Hart,
'Ten

or

Index
Twelve

Sermons,30,000
certainly
ever

been

Thomason

quotes Baxter

make

in
up

made

greater honour

on

Berith Anti-Baal, seiV.cd 23rd


for printingCrofton's
Anglicanus (1872-8),p. 191.
Expurgaton

Impressions
all, all which
one

of

the

public, and
of

March

"""

the

scandal

of

most

they
'.

the

1st, 2nd,
now
they are

as

audacious
aro

now

and

3rd
drawn

Volumes
in

one

of

binding

do

dangerous libels that hath


printing it in Dutch
too, for the

Considerations

and

and

1663.
Proposals,

ROGER

SIR

110

L'ESTRANGE

the Bishop of Worcester's


on
Bagshawe for his Animadversions
On
the other
hand
the
Stationers
Letter (Second Part).
act
not
themselves, largely Presbyterians, would
against
and
and
still
L'Estrange
them1,
Atkyns
vainly implored
Government

the

It

to
to

seems

attempts

crime) or personal
for
Presbytery were
other

The
admitted

been
the

resurrect

to

all extremes.

to

go
have

no

attacks
the

on

moment

the

"

tender

categories.
Quaker
(1) Mere

nothing except
(Crofton'sand Davies'
the
side of
Bishops from
to
be proceeded against.
non-Presbyterian libel

Covenant

great class
such

that

agreed

"

It

treatment.

fell

into

two

or

three

the

to

(2)

Anabaptist stuff taken as an affront


and against the Act
of Uniformity.

or

Church

Phosniv, Prodi/j// and

The

Annus

Mirabilis

tribe

for the burnt


Covenant, and
passionate tears
to the tyrant.
scarcely veiled prophecies of doom
those of October
(3) Regicide Speeches in two batches
"

"

when

1660

and
These

those

Government
from
and

be

made

must

of Vane

body

and

3.

Manton

Cook

has

drawn

case
Twynne
jeremiads
merely anti-prelatical

In

1663

the

Government

mantle

over

the

Church.

enough

do

to

Before

executions

held

occurred
to

over

here, however,

Even

the direct

between

whose

as

of

1661-2

2.

tolerable
distinctly seditious and
by no
of that
to
be sharply distinguished
They are
age.
the scholarly and
modestly-worded Appeals

were

of Baxter

main

the

to

much

and

brave

enough

ten

we

years

notice,

of Dover

was

In

of such

treason
so

distinction

nerson

and

the

Keache.
to

shall

cast

its

find it has

protect itself.
this

consider

disloyal class it may be well to


few of the outstanding names.
note
a
absconded
Nedham
we
saw
giving out the usual reason
of debt, which
have
been
partly true, for his wages
may
from
Scot were
stopped in x\pril1660, when the game of the
He
followed
into exile in
to be up.
seen
was
Republic was
we

"

It i-"noted

'

as

suppressed unless
by
engrossed by Oliver's
2

with

A
an

full list of these


account

of

PubUcus, No. 27, 2nd


discovered).
:;

The

Calamy

attempts
into

of

truculent

rare

thing

order

for any

from

creatures

Presbyterianpamphlet

to

be

of the
the great business
Considerations
and
Proposals.

above,
'.

seized
1'ress

and

being

seditious

is given in Truth and


tracts
Loyalty Vindicated,
in M- rcurius
Surveyor's activities. See also notices
Press
KiG2 (notice of a Private
July 1063, and 1st October

the

Eachard
menaces

and
are

Kennet

to

ludicrous

twist

the

onough.

patience of

Baxter

and

OF

BLOODHOUND

THE

PRESS

THE

which

September by L'Estrange's Bope for Pol,


suggests, have

Williams

Mr

been

as

may,

anticipate

to

attempt

an

111

l.
needy journalist
subsequent
in
returned
for Nedham
aimed
with foresight,
If so it was
his peace, set up in his
the year of the Restoration,made
originalprofessionas a physician,and lii'teen years after did
of
Men
with
against the
good pay
good court-service
and

conversion

for the

favour

'

"

"

Shaftesbury '.
Nedham's

perhaps wrote
and
kept up
week

his

of

shutters

later

two

or

account
a

"

the

protection in

back, but

unlike

with

allies.

new

Nedham

to

find

We

with

opens
'bloodhound

the

1663
of

heroes

allies

the

"

Brewster, Dover,

printer preacher,
-

eminent

not

were

Lidwell

trade

of

Whig

spouses

it may

They

the

Dunton's

he

the

the

is

of October

passages,

had

Chapman

in his
(sic)

at

whose

Confederates

'

Smith,

Frank

the

in

services
real

and

husbands

'

narrator

melancholy
catalogue

L'Estrange called

Hall, but
which

to

and

they

their

had

tailor-

Tvvynne
wide

wives, obdurate

the Cause, ludicrous

though

took

share.

constant,
are

the

Keache
Creake

wretched

Stationers'

roving kind,

their

and

and

were

seem,

with

1662
'

drive

Smith,

Prank

afterwards

interviews

L'Estrange,in
'

in

wares

Shortly

several

not

-.

Chapman's
"

hazardous

the great

But

again, and

in

includingMr

of Press

them

Press',

earliest liestoration

these
of

the

bond.

him

swept

task

of

libertyon

at

set

after

him
gave
ventured

stocking if

1661

on

practices and

his old

Calvert.

him, and

for

prison

Livewell

also

not

1660, and

most

work,

Nedham

Morrice

pursue
in
him

and

Brewster

of Milton's

Secretary

the

of

publishing quantities
company

of

autumn

"

last, followed
for debt, though

life.

and

printed

the

to

also

"

licentious

who

Chapman,
ally, Livewell
Plain
English, did some

the

elder

main

of

generation

English liberties'.
To
ascend
ranks, there were
higher in the Stationers
Ralph Smith, Crofton's Printer and a future warden, Ebbotson,
Wilson, all printers and
Hodgkinson, Lilliecraft,Bobert
'brave

publishers
1

The

Williams

date

of

of

to

See

Commonwealth

papers,

and

in i
(J. B.), History of Journalism
the date when
Polvi
1(560,
Ropi for
September
on

his

worst

Roger

of

all

afterwards

'discoveries'.
on
Quevedo'a Vision fora facetious encounter
of a compliment
p. 386,somewhat
regions,chap. -\iii.,

L'Estrange's
improvement

Livewell in the Infernal

Chapman.

of

the

I lie tir.stwrote

with

asserters

112

SIR

ROGER

L'ESTRANGE

of
Tytan, lately appointed printer to the House
and
Cromwell's
Lords, while
Fields,
printers, Newcombe
been
Printers
in
favour
have
to
seem
displaced as King's
and
of the old loyal Barker1
But
Newcombe
is a
Hill.
is to print the London
Gazet and
great and coming man,
die King's Printer
in 1680.
Hodgkinson still printed the Newsbook.
These
usurpations grieved the old loyal patentees
Richard
before
of his
Atkyns, dispossessed sixteen
years
law
monopoly, and
Roger Norton, patentee in English
Church
books
in a similar
plight. To their imagination
Francis

"

the Stationers
all

craft
them

sad

the

reflected

condition

of Cavaliers

and

to Atkyns
L'Estrange's
especially
who
would
strictures on a Prince
pinch his friends' bellies,
were
speciallygrateful.

To

over.

the

On
Muddiman
book

"

whom

of

pleased
the disloyalmurmurs
were

"

Those

of

acts

in

more

with

connection

retribution
have

indulged in by

the

regicides. These
daring libel which

of the

blood

Phoenix,
of

the

of

Confederate

Calvert, and
did

Creake
'

and

Covenant

the

tears

took

alarm

and

Brewster

they
not

sufficient

The

whole
1

of

of

censure

for

burst
out-

an

the

as

the

of

the

form

the

resurrection
the

was

which

the

said

work

Chapman,

were

(so

the

the

chiefs.

judges),

malice '. Dover


necessity than
upon
Thresher
bound
the
the impression and
and

Thresher

whose

talents

were

some
gave
in extorting

formidable.

When

seized, but Chapman


slipped through Roger's hands, though later

was

in.

came

of

the
It

booksellers,

(printer) finished
In prison Creake
precious work.
to L'Estmnge,
useful information
the
evidence
at
cheapest rates
the

for.

fellow

Restored

emotion

prophesied

poor

the

judgment,

of

act

much

stood

News-

deprecated

the

occasion

Stationers

all

printing,a

rather

it

of

group

Brewster,

acted

who

all

and

as

Covenant, created

the

of

burning

earliest

The

Press.

the

admiration

the

excited

loyal party for their moderation,


each
the
the Whig
historians, were
in

with

'.

'

'

henchman

rewards, and

have-nots

'

his

and

substantial

of the

which

Government

Birkenhead

hand

other
"

"

given

Calvert

Tytan

was

evidence
credit

See his Petition

to

of

was

involved,

also
touch

but

there

was

him.

tracking

and

for restitution,H.M.C.,

seizingthe

libel

7th Kept., p. 19c".

was

printing and

in

hand

for

Majesty,and
'

so

To

the

This

Court

August,

of Whitehall

1661.

Ed.

"

order

that
his

from

warrant.

this 15th

day

Nicholas.

Keeper of the Gatehouse,

Westminster,
'

prisoner till further


doing this shall be your

at the

Dated

of
1

compiling dangerous hooks,and

close

him

keep

you

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

SIR

114

his

or

in my

word

deputy'.
close

"

warrant

"

prisoner ',says Frank,


still living can
witness

proved a fatal word to me, as many


(1680), for the keeper improved it to a title; there I was
truly buried alive,it being a prison famous for oppression
of poor
besides
prisoners as many
myself can
notoriously
witness'.
Though Smith was an ignorantenough and fanatical
took his stand
on
Magna Charta and frequently
person, who
and
quoted the examples of Empson
Dudley in tyrannos,
his case
in this the least exceptionable period of Charles'
rule was
interest.
deplorable,and is of great constitutional
Habeas's
Three
were
required to persuade Broughton, his
keeper, to bring him before the judges of the King's Bench,
and in the meantime
the warrant
was
changed and legalised
of the name
of his particularoffence
by the introduction
'

'

'

"

the

Annus

Mirabilis.

he

rabble

his

at

constables.

the

instructive
reference
'As

that

he

But

was

learned

alone

not

was

time
in

Lancastrian

narrative,
the

to
a

many
substance

fates

close to
of

my

these

we

in

when
the

observed, being founded


of

great stickler

for

the

things. In his opposition to the General


anticipated Wilkes
by a century, and had the
back
applauding his spiritedresistance to the

possibly never
men
proved so
been

was

of

legal aspect
Warrant

Smith

respect.

There

and

ignorant
precedents,it has
constitutional
ment
experi-

quite

Law,
on

this

poor

their

the

period. Before
leaving Smith's
anticipate by quoting his
may

of the

'Confederates'.

afflicted

relation, be

sufferingsboth

in

it remembered
my

person

and

exercised
and
on
by general warrants
me
without
compassion (by those employed in surveying,printing,
and
others of which
a
vending books) upon
many
doleful
catalogue might be given, of several persons
by
and
(in the general) mere
arbitraryways
particular or
private piques that have (from a nourishingcondition)been
were

such

reduced

to

to leave

at their

to
cases

poverty
death

them

carry
of

to

Mr

one

THE

OF

BLOODHOUND

THE

die in

to

as

much

bo

the

died

low

Newgate and his family reduced to


latelylived upon charity and died
One

3s. cortin

in

these

years
ago in
that his wife

want

under

able

not

truth

some

such
in

little less than

died

Calvert

Mr

the

witness

grave ;
who
Brewster

115

gaols, others
buy a poor

to

as

PRESS

extremity.
his family

great

prison and

lived plentifully
beggary, that once
; also
Mr
Dover
a
one
printer died in Newgate almost to the
in the like
Lidwell
of his family, Mr
(sic)Chapman
rum
imprisonments he and his family
by continued
manner,
their
ability as late instance
ruined, others fined above
ruined
shows ; others by like imprisonments, also were
by
of
the
with
invested
surveying
Stationery
power
persons
and
wink
when
the
at
Trade
even
same
pleasure
abusing
them
and
where
l,
they please as favour or pique governs
total

brought

to

seize

unlicensed

an

and

Smith

was

and

delays

the

discover

The

bail.

extending

nigh

two

to

henceforth

victim, not only of the Government's


Stationers'

search

seizure,

enmity. L'Estrange

greater

was

for

Whiggish
the

from

over

Of

the

naturally took
'discovery',Darby
of

the

refers

not

the

libels

great

as

The

the

of

one

enmity

one

the

hunt

L'Estrange had

his indiscreet

prison on

vicious

'

old

venturing

so

much

to

chagrin of L'Estrange,
the

on

attempt

although

L'Estrange

as

to

the

in

interest

An
but

band,

the

to

released

was

in November.

Tytan

great figure

in 1684, when

full cry,

Confederates,

who

He

in

is

and

Continent2.

other

Parliament

in

printers was

safelylaid

Smith'

Frank

Again

other.

the

have

able
charge-

several

than

his

must
years,
the most

prosecutions, but before


of February
committee
1677, he appears
Surveyor'switnesses against the Stationers.
his

in

length of

the

and

Habeas'

became

He

him.

sorelytried

to

of several

expense

of the

them,

prison,and after vexatious


and
bribes
treatment
by L'Estrange to
severe
of Prodigies,was
at last released
authors
on
back

remanded

imprisonment,

but

sell

shall not

'.

themselves

sell them

others

because

book

adjournment
made

was

he

the

of his

victims

was

officials of

to

of

prove

probably
the

Stationers

be a
of this passage
would
good annotation
See also
in tho
Seventeenth
Century.
capital history of the Stationers Company
360 (149),and
Smith's
petition to Arlington, February 1673-4, S. P. Dom. Car., ii.,
enormities.
letter of his (no date) Hid.
a
(150),both setting forth the Stationers

Company.

See

See p. 320.

chap, vii.,207.

SIR

116

ROGER

L'ESTRANGE

to
have been
publisher of the Phoenix1, no proof seems
forthcoming.
In February 1662
the month
in which
L'Estrangewas
the
office
of
the
to
Government
shadowy
appointed
Surveyor
found
Brewster
Bristol
the
at
Fair.
These
emissary
during
fairs
used
the
secretaries
for
were
provincial
by
settingup
"

"

for

booths
taken

in

this

his

stuff

Bishop

lodgings and

sufficient
have

to

seditious

such

had

Knight

by

the

relation
It

certain.

to

of

the

to
rout

Sir

out

John

results 2.

'

substantiallyas
conspiracy of October
suspicion and alarm.

lined
out-

was

Northern

Government's
seditious

felt that

was

wealth

diocese,and
Moon, whom

excellent

Confederates

of the

revealed

sharp warning

Simon

as

Brewster

wares.

trunk

of his

with

The

Smith.

materialised

'

his

care

booksellers

just raided

seditious

provoke

to

better

fate of the

The

direct

sale of their

the

press

to

these

1663

The

revolts

was

be done

something must

effectually
the delinquents, and
to overcome
L'Estrange in his newly
office
that of the old patent of February 1662
not
erected
felt it desirable to make
to justifyhis existence.
a great show
in October
his vigilancewas
In the first week
rewarded
work.
by the discovery of Twynne busy at his treasonous
visit to Simon
The
Dover
a
following week
(who had
lately been released after a year in prison) discovered on
Will
Out
Murder
described
his person
by L. C. J. Hyde
villainous
a
as
thing scattered at York, a little unlicensed
The
dangerous Panther
completed the
Quaking book'.
be said that Dover
was
committed
rediscovery, and lest it should
the old Pharnix
refurbished
to
suit
on
charge
in the Newsbook
that
the Printer
the hour, Roger declared
was

"

"

"

'

'

is

hoped

that

as

at

the

of

the

and

the

person

of

public

under

the

manifestation
his

sacred

had

been

released

were

again taken

'

Northern

Francis

Tytan

is as

reached

right

as

any

working
be
of

bond

rest '.

Truth

of

and
of

the

in

and

the

C.S.P.D., 2nd and 7th February 1663,


Newsbook, No. 8, 12th October 1663.

vol.

covery
dis-

peace
conscience

course

when

and
of

rumours

Loyalty Vindicated,

p. 57
^

it

the

Chapman

up in September
the Government.
of the

off,and

design levelled

colour

Calvert, with
on

it

made

Majesty,
and

masque
and

of the

will

uses

religion'3.
Although Brewster

Plot

of

act

very

good

many
well for

very

Ferguson,
1662, they
l

the

in

apprehended

was

1663-4,pp. 37

and

43,

ears'

the

in

Nat.

at

pictureof

Sir

know

Bundles

type.

house

Vane

Harry

'You

the

"

house

this

on

the

treatises

great vogue,

ance
resist-

considerable

midnight

memorable

his

in

Brookes

against

bring forth'

may
had

which

used

was

gang,
book

with

"

'

consolation

'

month

Preachers,were
L'Estrange encountered

raid

of

found, and

PrelaMck

Brewster

peculiarlyoffensive

batch

the

by

out

Regicides1Speeches

libel

another

pulled
old

the

what

not

of

of

besides

containing

found

of

whose

'

was

rogue

raid, one

October

Brookes,

was

printing

another

Yet

117

PRESS

THE

OF

BLOODHOUND

THE

his

at

trial \

by knowing where to look Roger


of the
had effected in this uneasy
fortnight a clean sweep
for
now
feminine
part of rebellion '. It only remained
the
the
by skilful hint and surmise
lawyers to connect
by vigilanceand

Thus

'

'

feminine

'

and

weeks

Eighteen

Justice

Chief

of

the

Narrative,

regarding their

part.

they lay in prison. Erom


Keling, the Newsboolc, and Frank

learn

we

Northern

masculine

some

notes

Smith's

circumstances

material

very

the

treatment.

credit of the business


was
place,the whole
to his
the printed trials were
due to L'Estrange,and
even
favour
considerable
order
a
printed by Harry Brome
shown
a
to L'Estrange by the judges and
part reward2.
interval of nearly three years
Secondly, the scandalous
and
the
between
Dover,
matter
alleged against Brew6ter
nevertheless
with
Brookes
and
and
that against Twynne
the

In

first

"

raises
Not
Press

the

as

See
The

Roger
the

fact

an

these
all

four

Laws

Treason

of

this

cut

the

of

the

interesting night's work

'

was

1662

indicted
Brookes

figure noted
the

dock4.

guiltyof

be

in

Brookes'

as

3.

the

on

Law.

poor
printer in
he

period

reign

who

the

could

Confederates,

as

tried

Twynne's,
by Common

"

alleged,and
How

in

of the

was

cases

except

"

workman.

by
He

sedition
Trial

"

559-63.

judges

North

Lords.

that he

exceptionablepart

of

account

all

description

Fox's

characteristic

only a

Trials,vi.,
-

old

the

Defoe
was

of

Statute, but

denied

of

one

under

'

least

the

bring them

to

doubt

some

far

by

'

made

attempt

an

then

claimed

insinuates"

Scroggs

the

admitted

the

Hence
cases.
print their own
against Atkyn's law patent,reversed by
the Privy Council
his examination
before
(1680)
Amos
exclusive printing of certain trials.
[Cons.
sole right to

judgment
in

had sold his right to the


Hist, of Charles II. (1857),
p. 247].
3
Bonn's
11. and
Charbs
James II.
*
Life of Daniel Defoe, by W. Lee

(1857),p. 301.
(1869),ii..517.

"

118

SIR

and

scandalous

was

only

He

things ?

made
first

selling

not

L'ESTRANGE

the

on
'

"

stouter

it

fact
done

was

printed anything,he

never

book-binder, that

Dover

defence

ROGER

his trade'1.

was

and
appearance
that admitting the

grounded

his

printing

but

when

act

there

was

"

no

law

or

in

that a
being touching printing',and, secondly,he demurred
book
of speeches whose
title runs
faithfullyand impartially
collected for further
satisfaction',could not be interpreted
claimed
that the speeches of
Brewster
as
factiouslydone.
of edification and
matters
dying men
were
public that
diurnal
the speeches were
almost
common
an
as
as
a
the
which
the
be
admission
on
judges (who may
styled
in
the
The
case
Regicide
prosecution) eagerly fastened.
which
that
of
the
offence
most
was
packet
lawyer
gave
suffered for acting as public prosecutor against
Cooke, who
in the speeches
I.
His
letter to a friend included
Charles
could
be
described
not
a
as
public speech, and as it
clothed
of
in the
names
represented the Regicides as
against the printers.
martyrdom, it carried a long way
'

"

'

'

"

But

the

of
and

least

bad

public

'

he

it ; for in case
heard
it. But

subjects with

did

Presbyterians such

his

it all

jury in
of 'good

speeches

it but

horrid

that

Brewster

did
who

King's

murder2.

also

was

were

of the

fill all the

to

laws

those

England, 3000

over

one

that

soul

own

knew

man

second, this is

age
the

if

of
justification

the

that

upon

it, no

publish

to

of old

collection

of

even

it be

Phoenix, for which

The

the

that

let

impression and

first

'

the

instructed

judicial speeches

Government',
in

spoken

this, Hyde

without

even

indicted,

was

of leading
printed sermons
Baxter, Douglas, Calamy, etc.,during

pieces
as

from

Commonwealth.

pretended to be printed at Edinburgh in the year


handed
the
of
indeed
Covenant
to
breaking ', and was
informer
Creake
early as May
so
by the Confederates
The
the
Phccnix
not
defence
that
1661.
was
printed
but
from
and
licensed
from
manuscript,
printed
excerpts,
'

It

And

the

so

jury brought

him

in

guiltyonly of sellingnot printing.

Mule

Trials, vi.,563.
2

7.^. of Charles

'Brewster:
without
'

Hyde

State Trials, vi.,546.

penny

they died

; that
.

these

are

sayings

of

dying

commonly

men,

printed

Never.

'Brewster:
a

I.

My Lord,
opposition.

can

instance

in

many

; the

declares to the world, that


and
I think is a benefit
so

bookseller
as

they
far

only

lived

from

minds

such

sedition

the

getting of

desperate
'.

lives

so

aside

brushed

was

printed

and

this

and

King

'45,

the

Oxford

at

was

license

rebellion

in

after

it

was

what

forward

set

judge.

when

Do

The

plea

that

From

Presbytery,
against the

arms

his
upon
the license

and

defence

of

rebels then

of

view

Presbyterian

the

they were
in Tywnne's

and

poor

very

his

ultra

the

few

tenementam

remarks

business

when

jury, they

seem

Hyde's

not

was

at

case

he

sentences.

made

by

the

to

case.
mercifully inclined, especiallyin Dover's
desire speciallychosen
by the culprit'sown
jury was

have

been

This

the

from
the

London

In

Stationers.
of

competence

the

doubt
as
any
with
such
deal

of

case

prosecution to

to
a

Hyde assured them, with an obvious reference


it
L'Estrange, 'There are those already that understand
well as booksellers or
printers,besides half the jury are

trade

as

it not

least, by
and
that he read the proofsof his libel,

discounted

was

L'Estrange's evidence
their poverty
in any case
delivered

sermon

'

Imprimatur.
ignorant men

to

of

me

your justification ?
for the Restoration
So much

for

in

were

other

Scotch

the

up

No,

printed,was

that

set

tell

you

was

for the

himself

put

it

Then

they

King

was

here

was

to

'Douglas' (sermon)

licensed

brought hither.

(Calamy's) by
to

the

Scotland,

in

there

done

by

119

PRESS

THE

OF

BLOODHOUND

THE

matter,

'

such

2.

Creake

and

againstthe
Phcenix

terrorised

some

and

persons 3.
Whilst

the

fur

excuse

among

the

the

severity.

old soldiers

and

had

and

to

the

that

obvious,
able
coloursooner

no

are

world,

enthusiasts

suspected

some

their fortitude

of

menaces

trials is

of these

Regicides

The

abroad

the

of fifteen

names

Government

than

1660

published

are

the

him

that

in October

speeches

from

prison

witnesses

part printed the

in

person

politicalcharacter

denied

be

executed

Prodigies.

L'Estrange extracted

it cannot

This

Confederates.

the

printerswere

and

inflaming

and

dispersed
the

thronged

ground having been already prepared by Phoenixes


Prodigies,the one promising a glorious resurrection for

streets, the
and

State Trials, vi.,pp. 553-4.

Ibid.,p.

519.

Ibid., p. 555.
'
'

L. C. J. Hyde : Do you
Creak : I did so then.

'

Hyde

'

Creak

:
:

think

the

Press

is open

to

print what

L'Estrange information
you give Mr
when
I
was
a prisoner in Ludgato '.
Lately,

When

did

you

list ?

of this matter

the

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

SIR

120

Covenant, and

the

other

by lies and

prejudice people against their


conspiracy in January, excited by
and
the Eegicides, was
of Peters
James, the
by the affair of John
was
a conventicle
speech to
to

new

seeking
superstition
Venner's

governors.
and
execution

the

followed

1661

of whose

substance

effect that

the

speeches

October

in

ment
indictthe

King
at Charing
Cross ',exactly the insinuation
of these
speeches. Although
the bulk of the Presbyterians did not approve
the speeches
the
attitude
of the
condemned
or
l, the passing of the
Presbyterian
Uniformity Act threw a large body of moderate
small conspiracies
opinion against the Government, and numerous
which
Burnet
were
prudently ignored
says
and

his nobles

had

shed

the

blood

the

of

"

saints

"

"

the

were

In

result2.

December

the

1661

Lord

anxious

of the Commons
message
that
intercepted letters showed

Chancellor, replying to an
that
to the Lords, stated
there

wide

feeling
of revolt, and exactlya year later Tonge's conspiracy sought
of a treasonous
letter,printed off by the thousand
by means
and
the congregations, to take
dispersed among
advantage
of the despair to which
the Church
driving the
policy was
sectarians.
'

popish

At

massacre

is

to

believe

indication

of commotion,

the

that

which

trick

While,

service.

exaggerated the transactions out of which


against those people, the Government
for cherishing a most
anxious
to be blamed
every

venerable

the
into

brought

was
reason

time

same

'

there

'

the

was

court
arose

is

fore,
there-

very much
the proceedings

perhaps

wish

not

to suppress

have

might

of

furnished

'

rallying point to all the disaffected 3.


that the prosecution,
It can
at
scarcely be wondered
is very
believing that 'the dispersing of seditious books
like as brother
akin to raising of tumults
as
near
; they are
and
an
as
sister',should have sought to bring in Twynne
instrument
of the Northern
conspiracy and to throw a shade
of that suspicion on
the others.
L'Estrange was
persuaded of such a connection, but
a

his

See the

disapproving remarks

on

this

head

of

even

such

zealot

as

Croftou

in

Defence againstthe fear of Death (1665).


2
he dismisses
when
the
Burnet
speaks only of the 1660 to 1661 conspiracies,
'
these
fomented
spread and
Reports were
suggestion that Clarendon
petty plots.
of the plots of
much
of Commons
aggravated as they were
reported to the House
20th
November
countries'.
Presbyterians in several
Airy, Burnet, i., 326.
the
Commons
and
the
the
to
19th
of
December
1661 ara
dates
on
reports
subject.
State Trials,vi.,212.
little

"

122

SIR

the

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

gates of the

last time, when


a
'
to the
phanatique

prison opened for the


huge funeral concourse
accompanied them
in
burial-place

Bedlam

processions which

of the earliest of those

',one

almost

were

the

melancholy

demonstration

sole

mitted
per-

subjected people.
been
set
people ', says L'Estrange, might have
at libertyby his Majesty's special
have
grace, if they would
been so ingeniousas to have
told the meaning of their own
hands and
to a clearer
discovery of their
papers, in order
to

These

'

'

dangerous Confederates
could

and

in

they themselves

when

cases

pretend ignorance, but they rather chose to end


their days in a prison.
As to the crime
for which
they stood convicted I should
not

'

not

mention

it, but

confidence
of

stop their

to

call that

to

mouths

severity which

was

that
so

the

have

remarkable

proved to the clear


satisfaction of a tender
jury that they had printed and
of the murder
of the late King,
published the justification
affirmingit to have been (in these very terms) the most
act

an

noble

and

clemency

as

this form

to these

of

shores.

sending

in

Holland

there

for

these

It

mercy.

gloriouscause

Marked
check

and

'.

severities

volumes
seemed

exiles
of
to

was

the

on

Continent

sedition
be

and

kind

they
by no

were,

sedition,which

The

was

of

did
means

constantly

were

incitement, and

standing

production of such literature as God's


A
Voice
Crying in Babylon, etc., apart from
matter
peculiarly Dutch
were
a
pasquils which
and
the
Dutch
ostensible
of
complaint,
an
cause
April the trial of the Northern
conspiratorsdrew
of

confined

the

much

as

of this kind

as

of the

that

of the

'

Confederates

'

trials,were

in

committee
Loud

those

Eegicides.

judicialproceedings,despitethe judgment

the

entirely

not

Call,
more

of formal
war

out

l.

In

almost

Narratives

of the

Court

in

still

briskly proceeding.
Nor
to the
these confined
were
meaner
printers.
One
of those
Mene
Tekel was
printed
very presses wherein
execrable
(that most
villainy),
belonged to a ruling member
of that society(of Stationers),
who
cannot
pretend ignorance
to his lifelongand
neither, the printer being known
gross
experience for a person of notorious
principlesand practices
attacked
in
against authority\ The Stationers were
even
case

'

1665.

See the

Lord

Chancellor's

at the opening of Parliament, 9th October


C.ti.l'.D. (1663-4),p. 521, 18th March
1664, and

Speech

Also
Pari. Hist., iv.,317.
1666-7, p. 37 ; 13th August 1666.

BLOODHOUND

THE

the

Newsbook

condition
'

them

the

as

Privilege

PRESS

of these

encouragers

whose

of

THE

OF

and

123
'

wares

special

it is to

Trust

suppress

i.

result
a
now
as
Congregations and the Quakers were
The
of the persecution let loose on them, extremely voluble.
was
IvforuX'r-s name
becoming odious, but as yet the Press
because
the Statute
informer was
in evidence
not
fortunately
for
his
and
made
no
reward,
provision
L'Estrange'smiserable
bribes published in the Neivsbooh
too small2.
were
that in which
In such
demonstrations
as
seventy-live
of
at the funeral
ancient man
an
ejectedministers walked
of the persecuted brethren, and
that already mentioned
one
The

'

'

of

the

funeral

continued

the

of

to offend

Confederates

the Government,

', the
and

the storm-centre
London, they became
inspiringthe brethren, finding food
the

the

Church

children
of

anti-Christians
There

the

in

England

of libellous dissent,
the

for

belief that

idolatrous

are

still

they remained

whilst

in

educating

Dissenters

'

presses,

and
of

the ceremonies

and

ministers

the

'.

was

spacious building,the
Aldersgate,which was

one

St

Martin's, near
of a Quakers'
purpose

'

Bull

used

Mouth

and

',in

for the threefold

meeting-house,a schoolroom, and a


which
was
private printing-house,
responsiblealone for two
hundred
'As

libels.
sure

death', said

as

ejected ministers
from
the places

removed

be
where

disobedience, this

and

in

Eoger
to

April

distance

convenient

some

they formerly preached


nation

i,'till the

1664

will

be

never

rebellion

up

thoroughly

settled '.

May of this year the Conventicle Act was passed,


in July the Conventicle
above
mentioned
raided,
was
Win.
committed
the preacher,
to prison,while
Warwick,

In 17th
and
and

the books
in

and
for

exchange
with

met

was

the counsel
of the
1

press

promise

the

of the

to

leave

remark, 'He
Lord

Conventicle

Consideration.*

confiscated.

were

Act

offer of freedom

An

off his seditious

would

should

go
him

carry
involved
the

on
'

4.

practices

whithersoever
The

raiding of

execution
numerous

and

Proposals.
Sidney Leo (art.L'Estrange, Di t. oj Nat. Biog.)talks
of his shop at the Gun
in Ivy Lane
'having been frequently visited by the Informer.
There is no evideneo
other
than
of Press secrets
by fear of
having been extracted
bribes.
of a single discovery by means
of L'Estrango'.-.
a
prison, and no evidence
1

hap. v., 1-14-5.

Sir

'

'

Newsbook, Kith
s.P.D.

continue

'

April 1664.

Draft
of Bennett's
(1663-4), p. 634, 6th July 1664.
'
in prison, endorsed
till Mr L'Estrange'scharge is

Warwick

warrant
known

to

'.

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

SIR

124

places,and everywhere the officers discovered how nearly


seditious printing was
allied to dissent.
In a week
(17th to
23rd
July) L'Estrange computes that 130,000 pamphlets
seized.

thus

were

The

generally.

The

prisons

their restless

pens were
emanated
of these months
this

in

line

Presses

as

enjoyed
supposed

was

was

crowded

were

yet confiscated
with
sectaries, but

not

were

busy there, and


from gaols,where
as

be

to

the

freedom

much

as

threat

The

outside.

sedition

half the

only

of

portation
trans-

the

for

cure

case

Meanwhile
offender

it
trial.

to

thought expedient

was

October

In

Ben

another

bring

to

in

of Winslow

Keache

brought before
Buckinghamshire, tailor and preacher, was
C. J. Hyde for printing and publishing The Child's Instructor
catechism against
at the modest
price of 5d.,a non-conformist
Infant-Baptism and for lay-preaching,etc.
had lain in prison
who
to this poor
man
Hyde's conduct
since May
cited in a speech by Lord
was
long afterwards
Ashburton
rather
in 1770 2. His
offence
against the
was
Act of Uniformity than
the Press
Act.
Except for Hyde's
treatment
so
severe
was
brutality,Keache's
by no means
that

as

dealt

had

saw,

death

to

offers

of

the
of

Brewster

'

', while

Confederates

freedom.
and

The
in

Dover

Warwick,

feeling aroused
April had no

we

as

the

by
doubt

while
L'Estrange's
cautionary influence on the Government,
Newsbook
in
overlooked.
the
were
ravings
savage
is extraordinary.
The spiritwhich
animated
these men
I
which
truths
I hope I shall never
those
renounce
have
and
in that book', said Keache,
written
although he
never
paid his "20 fine, he was
brought to make
any
'

'

'

recantation

3.

too
hot, and the Five-Mile
city became
the
removed
dissenting ministers, the libel flourished
the
Petition
Baxter's
for Peace, it may
country.
down
sent
was
remembered,
secretly in barrels, and

the

When

carrier's
secret.

took
waggon
Gloucester
The

suspicion,and
i

Nembooh,

the

Post

down

great deal

carrier
Office

was

was

Speech

like

in
be
the

stuff

in

object of
always an
extensively used in this

23th

August 1664.
Parliament, 6th and 10th December, 1770.
'C.
J. Hyde, who
received
verdict
xvi., 1277.
from
a
school
him as if guilty of the whole
'. The
part, sentenced
denied
the jury'sright to go beyond the matter
of fact.
s
State Trials,vi., 710.
'"i

of

Act

Cobbet, Pari.

in

the
of

Jury
Hyde

HisL,

Guilty in
and Scroggs

of

in

Keache

as

and

Dorking
another

3, late

Crofton

of

the

of

'Plotter')

(the

Fergusson

had

poetaster,

that

of
No

and

city

descended

fairs

the

Altogether

with

their

and

Pedlars

Scotch

lodged

they

search.

is

credit

takes

L'Estrange

that

Press

wares.

suspicion,

where

ale-houses

when

booksellers

precious

the

1669

of

being

now

good

from

occasional

period

the

cleared

the

regular

and

supply

was

the

strict

of

had

Bristol5,

free

rising

West,

objects

having

pack

the

on

the

1664-6

singularly

was

"

for

"

disaffection.

with

country

Scotch

the

after

when

rife

to

carrying

man

were

continue

wives

their

dead,

Boreale.

Iter

Brewster

with

trade

and

correspondence

and

Calvert

Confederates

The

the

Wild,

busy4.

loyal

his

repented

already

books.

his

scattering

already

was

about

riding

there,

and

sedition

preaching

country

news

compunctious

by

compliance

his

for

to
was

comes

troubled

and

like

Dover

Brereton

At

Tower,

the

Nature

of

visitings

disaffection2.

of

centre

about

obscurely

come

pamphlets'.

libellous

brought

to

Scotch

his

described

Dorking,

'used

about

lurking

still

was

of

man',

'Taylor's

Hackney,
Feake

while

trade,

old

the

of

Forbes

James

assistant,

', with

Cobbler

Gloster

'

in

movements

perpetually

floated

verses

the

Wallis,

Ralph

il.

Prist,

of

news

gave

Wild's

West.

and

North

the

letters

Intercepted

warfare1.

125

PRESS

THE

OF

BLOODHOUND

THE

See

in

Proclamation

O.S.P.D.

(1663-4),

497.

p.

(.'). Col.

May

turned

Bishop

1661-2.

January

16th

Intelligencer,

Kingdom's

the

favouring

for

out

disaffected.

/'./".

p.

I).

''.S.J:

p.

429,

p.

175,

18th

Ibid.,

p.

315,

26th

October.

Ibid

p.

135,

12th

May.

Feake

June.
5th

January.

Kxam.

of

and

4th

of

Forbes,

and

Wallis

'

Dorking

dangerous

0. S. P.

D.,

man

(1664-5)

24.
*

in

(1663-4),

(1663-41.

"300,
:

and

Ibid.,

so

pp.

he

Tt

is

released.

and

297.

of

Bond
For

2nd

February

of

Fergusson

Robert

Wild,

Bee

and

C.S.P.D.
12th

October

High

Totenham

(1663-4),
1663.

p.

379.

Cross

',

CHAPTER

LEGISLATION

PRESS

It

was

that

(February
the

government

of

the

peculiarly disagreeable
unofficial

'

bloodhound

some

vague
officers of the
The
almost
a

from

Stationers

bye-laws

old

did

and

that
was
'

Press

little

work

those

nothing

of

works, and
Stationers

enlargement

the

seditious

proposed
2, were

of his office.

At

had

and

in the

the

the

matter.

which
drew

"

up

booksellers, culled

some

of the

as

who

Birkenhead

or

on

of

by
regarded

when

John

claim

"

enormities

for the

bid for the

"

appointment

established

He

Sir

his

to, in
already referred
February 1662
L'Estrange

certainlyafter
their

the

as

"

documents

the

Press,
kind1.

of

authority

two

list of

before

L'Estrange, even
1662) as Surveyor, had

seen

NEWSBOOK

THE

AND

new

nature

the

same

and
of

binding
a

time

further
it

was

i
The
best guide to this early phase of English journalism is Mr J. B. Williams'
to (Nevjsboolcs,etc., of the Restoration, Kng. Mist.
article, already referred
Rev.,
his History of English Journalism, 1909.
The
older
Histories,
1908), and
ap.
Hunt's
Fourth
Andrew's
Hist
Journalism
Estate
(1850), and
of Brit.
(1859),
with
Mr
Fox-Bourne's
or
English Newspapers
(1887), are
hopelessly inaccurate
Arber's
his
Prof.
Stationers'
so
far, and
incomplete.
Registersdo not descend
Introduction
Term
Introduction
to the
to the
Catalogues is quite general. The
Calendar
For
the
of State
Papers (1665-6), pp. 1-8, is scarcely trustworthy.
general works on the Press referred
to, see appendix.
2
See. chap, iv., p. 106.
The
documents
referred
to are
(1) Extracts
from
in
from
with
the
Mercurius
1644-54.
names
Politicus, etc.,
printers'
margin, in
5. /'. Dom.
L'Estrange's hand.
(2) Proposals for Preventing,
Car., ii.,39-93.
submitted
to
Discovering and
Suppressing Libels, humbly
Authority by the
S. P. Car., ii.,39 (92),wrongly
dated
Surveyor to the Press.
July 1661, in the
is subjoined L'Estrange's demand
Calendar.
To this paper
for a general Search
Warrant
the
the ground that
on
King's Printers
have, although but for their
for these
twelve
last past
own
private interest, acted
by a general warrant
years
without
clamour'
(95),not as Mr Williams
; (3) S. /'. Cir., ii.,39
any
says (article
and
referred
undated
Warrant
unexecuted
to
to above) ' an
grant of the General
but
draft
of
the
a
L'Estrange',
proposed Bill, probably belonging to 1660-1,and
in any
case
prior to L'Estrange'srule in the Press.
'

126

NEWSBOOK
*

for emolument

demands

noted his excessive

THE

AND

LEGISLATION

PRESS

127

ignored,but
printers in the

were

activity against the seditious


that
meantime
compelled the government,
especiallynow
ruled
in Nicholas'
Bennet
place, to reconsider, after the
comparative failure of the Press Act, the erection of the
L'Estrange held into an
important
Surveyorship which
iiis incessant

office.

Roger's advice
make

"

with

Birkenhead

the

had

who

accused

in

acceded

learn

to

future

and

up,
of

they
point was

had

that

no

demand

patron

into

the

it from

Secretary
latter

the

to

in October
to

was

the

out

Cavaliers,

office

an

have

it

was

the

on

been

branded

rather

Bradshaw's

15th

lenient 4.

Press

Act

this,however, the Government

driven

home

prudence,
with

be

insurgent of them,

should

abandoned

in

services, could

of Nicholas

most

sense

for

which

course

keeping

alone, whom
In

he

offensive

Bennet, who

the

of

In

deal.

good

his

most

interregnum

Surveyorship

hawkers

left the

is where

granted by taking

removal

the

exceptionallysevere.

harried

be

strange that this Act

seems

the

course

his

Commons

by erecting the
August 1663 3.
It

for

demands

the

to

The

especiallykind

opened

the

here
and

keepers.

of

been

scene

new

and

"

Project for SuppressingLibels 2


matter, exposed in a public way,
Surveyor by insertinga clause

efficient Muddiman,

loyal and

saddle

only

could

granting free postage


not contemplate. With

It

general

"

Muddiman

of coffee-house

Newsbook, which

1662

of

proposal was

his

Nicholas,

of

review

licenses
of

of

written

bring

to

the

in the

as

remained

ever

office with

proposed by the Surveyor


councils
as will effectually

addition

In

his Minute

"

"

their

enmity

the

encountered

within

bye-laws

for all time.

cripple it

proposed

such

perpetuallyin

is to sit

the

it

Warrant, depress or ignore the Stationers,and

that company

part

what

was

autocratic

Surveyorship an

the

Search

who

time

that

at

more

and

had
was

for

urgency

by

the

the

Car., ii.,39 (94) (endorsed, about 1660 '). In compensation for


the
.let
his charge and
Surveyor enjoy (1) the Sole privilegeof
pains
sheets
all Intelligence.(2)
and
printing all narratives, etc., not exceeding two
side of paper.
The
Sole printing all warrants, Bills and Advts., on one
(3) Is. pr
1

8. P.

'

Dom.

sheet

all books

on

8. P.

C. S.P.B.

knows

that

(the

Press

"

Much

Dom.

it

licensed

or

to

be

reprinted'.

Car., ii.,51 (10. 1).


(1663-4),p. 240, 15th August 1663.
and
was
by his particularorder

Observator,i.,259.
direction

that

').
more

lenient

than

the

Draft

Proposalsreferred

to above.

'

His

took

Majesty
care

of it

128

SIR

Surveyor, than
the

peril
attempted
to

class

peace
for the
and

chosen

and
of

the

were

the

that

of

Government,

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

hawker

the

nation, unless

Newsbook

women

for

printers'wives
Smith

constituted

class

grave

organised by

"

The

loyalty.
"

L'Estrange

as

"

chiefs

Brewster,

of

the
this

Calvert, Darby,

been
must
women
Chapman
endure
their
exceptional strength to
frequent imprisonments
and the hardships of their wandering lives,for they
and

all

went

the

over

who

"

country from

of sedition.
There
purveyors
London
of the veriest wastrels
their

all have

fair to

fair,as the accredited


also

was

who

in

huge class in
late libertyhad

the

whom
law could persuade
no
callings',
to return
To restore
to their less exciting occupations.
the
class was
of L'Estrange's.
a pet ambition
loyaltyof the hawker
The monopolists found
themselves
protected by the Act1,
but the hopes of some
that certain of the present owners
would
be dispossessedfor former
not realised2.
acts of disloyaltywere
The
Stationers
were
duly recognisedand encouraged in the
business
sion
of cleansingthe Press.
An important but wise omisthe refusal to set up by bribes the trade of Informer.
was
It was
during this irksome
delay that the great Press
'

forsaken

Bill became

lawful

Law

2nd

on

June

The

1662.

Bill

in

was

the

reading L'Estrange'sMemento
people were
Memory of King Charles the Martyr, written
study of Bacon, and largely grounded on his

last stages when


to all who
love the
after

much

Essay of Seditions and Troubles.


was
finallyto clear the author
the

ask

Secretaries

writing,

'

Can

bestowed

the

on

as
we
saw,
purpose,
fiction
and
to
pensions

of seditious
-exposure
safe that's served
?
by his enemies
a

Act

new

of the

vehement

'

be

King

soul of the

The

after

Its main

was

Secretaries

or

the

general Search

their

nominees,

of 1661, and

Warrant,
the

feature

negotiated
by exempting the Peers from its ordinary operation. The
the punishGovernment's
ment
object in a word was not to secure
that could
clauses
always be effected by Common
Law
Corpus but to secure
3, or merely by ignoring Habeas
which

the

wrecked

measure

now

was

"

"

This

of his copy.

must

have
Thero

occasioned
was

still

prior to
litigation,however.

great relief,as
mass

of

the

Act

no

man

was

sure

2
39 (93),singlesout
Car., ii.,
L'Estrange's Paper, referred to above, S. P. Bom.
White, all engaged in official work.
Tytan, Field, and Robert
Newcombe,
and
all men
know
let you
'I must
Mate
3 C. Justice
Trials, vi.,564.
Hyde.
for
Act
this
before
was
a
the
made,
printer
Common
new
the
of
Law,
course
by
is a reproach
the
under
other
pretence of printing, to publishthat which
or
any
to the King, to the State, to his Govt., to the Church, nay to a particular
person,

it is

punishable as

misdemeanour'.

his enemy.
other
more

elevated

Among
seemed
for it

'

of

and

Beimet
the

seized

the

in

occasion
-, and

and
officer,

future

the
a

wipe

demanded

have

to

seems

Proposalsfor

off Birkenhead

score

lack of candidates

no

"

prospectus from

Considerations

L'Estrange

indeed

was

of hesitation

sort

some

There

'

master

"

L'ESTRANGE

gentlemanly candidates
L'Estrange
some
scruples of a gentleman's putting in
printerx petitioned for the place. In the

have

to

last moment

to

ROGER

SIR

130

in the

Regulation of

the

Press,

dedication

the

King

the

out

to

last

of

rumours

list of his more


disloyalty,by profferinga formidable
of the
Press.
A
recent
unpaid activities in the realm
is certainly
pamphlet of some
celebrity,the Considerations
of the
the most
informative
and perhaps forceful document
which
It gained
seventeenth
we
century Press
possess.
down
times
for horrible
to recent
a
name
severity,which
his

indeed

it does

One

deserve.

not

lends

indeed

sentence

itself

to

pretation.
inter-

ferocious

The

ordinary
death, mutilation, imprisonment,
penalties I find to be these
the offence
is either
etc.
banishment,
Blasphemy,
Heresy, Schism, Treason, Sedition, Scandal, or Contempt of
reprehensible is the suggestion,
Authority 3. But far more
the oath
of one
credible
witness
not
or
more
Why
may
discussing penalties,he

In

'

says,

"

"

'

'

before

oath

abide

to

or

Chancery
the person
especially

such

before

of

Master

the

be

decision

But

the

Statute

because

of

inherent

those

'

accused

appeal

to

already

defects, but
the Stationers

"

for

serve

being
the

to

demnation,
con-

left at

liberty
Council

Privy

itself is

authority

in

taken

J.P.

or

dead
of

because
to

"

only

letter not

of

failure

the

put it in force.

'Scarcely any regicide or traitor has been brought to


either the
justicesince your Majesty'sblessed return, whom
the Press
for a saint, or
recomPulpit hath not canonised
and
R.

he may
Fox-Bourne
John

was

have

owned

it in

the

same

'.

See

Mr

J.

Newsbooks, April 1908,

Imprimatur

is

p.

of

on

the

first

part, 5th November


241, note.)
i
Thos.
Dawkes, C.S.P.l).
scene

a
::

when

Sir John

saw

we

at the

reality needed

no

Williams'

Eng.

reflected

1663.

Hist.

on

'Nedham's

says
article

some

Fund

successor

already referred

Rev., p. 259, note).


November

real

H.

Mr

it.

L'Estrange owned

(Amos, Hist, of Cons,

(1661-2),
p.

Indigent Officers'

It is this passage
he draws
his

B.

part of Hudwras, 11th

second

that

{English Newspapers (1887),i.,29)

Birkenhead

Restoration
the

sense

to

(on

Birkenhead's

1662, L'Estrange's on
reign of Charles II.,

in

227.

passages

in the

Memento.
92.
iii.,

There

is

hint

board, chap,
B.UgcT(/m!r.r der Verbotenen BilcJter,
p. 217)hasinmind
Needless
to say the
baleful picture of L'Estrange's rule.
that

exaggeration.

StConfiderations and

fg

In Order

IP

ETHER

TO'J

Diverfe

S:I

4SI
m

g|

THE

OF

Jg

"53

r"

the

Regulation 1

tc

Propofelsg

WITH

and ?
hjiancesof Treafonou*
,

oeditious

Tamphlets,Provingthe
Necefitythereof.

"i$3

g"
"

"""

"""""""""""

5"
iV^j-

.va"

"g|

it

S4"

Roger

L'Estrange.

|
m

Printed

^LONDON,

by

A.C.jme^W
|

M.DG.LXUL

|
TITLE

PAGE

OF

CONSIDERATIONS

"

1'ROrOSAI.S

[Face p. 130.

for

mended
of

the

cause

and

what

there

in

or

the

be

may

is

of

effect

to

be

(both

the

suggestingto

found

either

which

of

submitted

is

blow)

the

justice

no

Courts

your

same

131

Martyr (besides the arraignment


of their trials). What
formalities
is

the

for

that

people

NEWSBOOK

patriotand

Bench

the intent

THE

AND

LEGISLATION

PRESS

your
in

struck

are

humbly

in

to

at

royal

your

wisdom.
'Since

the

late

of

Act

Uniformity,

there

been

have

Sermons
printed nearly 30,000 copies of Farewell
(as they
call them) in defiance of the Law
'.
now
suggested
By an ingeniouscalculation, the surveyor
each
that by a fine levied on
impression of these sermons
of "3,300 would
be
ccpialto the value of the book, a sum
the supernumerary
realised,with which
printers might be

bought

out.

It is noted

'

pamphlet
above

signs

of

this

very rare
and
seized

be

to

from

for

'.

Nor

did

thing for
suppressed

the

Farewell

diminishing popularity. A
Epistle to the
King, Roger

Presbyterian
any
unless
by order

Sermons

day

give

had

any
before

two

or

seized

several

bundles.
The

and
in

circumstance

been

those

"

rich

The

too.

of

false trustees

responsible for

work,

single

There

conviction.

got off,the poor

always

was

attach

the

forthcoming.
be

the

first

for

"

they had

Keaches

and

not

did

Bribery

its

Calverts

chief
From

too, of knowing
difficulty,

blame

author

when
to

dozen

mover

Act

had

the

bookseller

author
or

where
not

was

hawker

The

a
might
the
obligation

of

the Press

taken.

were

The

that

despite the Act,


despite all the Surveyor's activities,scarcely one
person
five was
the
before
and
the
for
secretaries,
brought
as

Stationers

to

home

driven

was

there

let
people engaged.
plan is to
of discovery run
quite through, from the
of the
mischief
the last disperser of it '.
to
the
class
came
ignored the hawker
; then

concealers,

men

storing these

who

let

forbidden

their
wares.

cellars
The

'

and
Act

warehouses
said

nothing

of these.
Moreover

looking into the actual state of the Trade,


find some
the
and
Act
we
forty printers beyond what
the bye-laws allow, to say nothing of occasional
interlopers,
of the
vexatious
men
who, by reason
system of general
monopolies, busy themselves
perforce with
nothing but
on

SIR

132

sedition
the

treason

or

booksellers

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

*.

It is

unfortunatelyto

this class

to make

the

interest of

possible and as
of the book-trade, and by their
They are the sweaters
poor.
the printers are
the position of slaves.
to
reduced
means
The usual agents for publishing (he speaks chieflyof libels)
the printersthemselves
'.
are
big as

as

It

is open
to
who
finds

as

The

and

author

take

his

seller,
to a bookcopy
be
master
a
printer, but if the copy
few
mediaries
interto have
stuff',it is convenient
as

'mettlesome

author

the

possible,and
printer.

decree

of 1637

to

the

is

deal

generallyreduced

to

had

attempted to reduce the number


of master
printersto twenty (exclusive of His Majesty's
of Arches
Printers),and the Dean
(Sir John
Lambe) had
suitable
of twenty-one
presented the names
persons2 no
"

others

to be

appointed except

vacancies

as

occurred, and then

only by appointment of the Archbishop


Bishop of London3.
This limitary clause had been repeated
but

enactments,
reiterated

it, but

somewhat

was

futile.

little attempt

of

Canterbury

in

all

The

made

was

succeeding
Act

present
to

or

the

reduce

provision (another defect of the Act)


for draughting the supernumeraries into
other
made
was
trades.
To help these men
out was
L'Estrange'sproposal,an
because
of the opposition of the
excellent
realised,
plan never
the King's Printers
often
Stationers, scarcelyone of whom
had
shelves
of
but
unlicensed
concealed
not excepted
wares.

printers4,because

no

"

"

the

For
works

as

candidates

rest

let

the

required by
for

Printers

the

Act.

Printershipsas

Presses, and make

penal

for

their

to

names

Interrogate,(on
their

knowledge

printersto

escape

all

oath)

of secret

the Act

by

Petition, 1663-4
(Bigmore and
Wyman,
pt. ii., Pari.
and
the
Act
of
1662
more
masters
more
Papers,
xvi.),despite
presses
and
time
of
the
at
set up
more
are
apprentices instructed
petition
nearly
;
is to be done,
and 150 apprentices. //" none
but lid nsi d work
70 Printing Houses
Hence
of tlusc must starve.
they pray for a clause in the revived
a
great many
in the Press
the numbers.
In
to prevent licentiousness
statute
by keeping down
of booksellers
and
Printers
1641
the interests
by getting rid of the
lay parallel,
saddled
with that
Patentees.
Now
nuisance, their interests diverge.
they are
See the Petitions of 1641.
Ibid., Pari. Papers, i. and iii.
2
S. J'. Dom.
Car., i., 307 (85).
:!
See the
669.
Arber, Transcript of the Stationers' Registers,v., Hi. and liii.,
ed. E. Arber
Decree
of 1637, English Reprints, A reopagihea,
(1668), p. 9.
4
The
of 1662 did not extrude
Act
anybody then set up as a master
printer,
But
others
who
could
show
that he had
no
passed through the ordinary course.
The
Draft
reached.
of a Proposed
to set up till the legal number
were
(20) was
Act (.*.
/'. Dora. Car., ii.,39 (95))left it to the authorities to extrude
as
they saw lit.
1

See

the

No.

Printers'

it

to

put

AND

LEGISLATION

PRESS

work.

their

antedating

Make

of

holocaust

133

NEWSBOOK

THE

old

the

of treason, Rutherford, Douglas, Calamy, etc.1.


Lastly, bribe the poor printers to discover the authors

masters

Regicides' Speeches,Trials,etc.,and keep a strict watch


All
coaches
all carriers, posts, and
leaving London.

of
on

packages
be

to

be

and

would

for company
trading for them,

knave

other

these

From
and

The

Press, yet they

of the

Society has

been

never

Commonwealth.

the

defeat

warnings

to

and

Printers
to

Their

compliance during

its

books, and

seditious

in

dabble

sole

almost

an

offenders.

worst

for

any

by timely
weekly searches
of the
friends.
They keep the whip hand
in maintaining their numbers
interested
are
their

object of

the

the

are

purged

They

in them

vested

scarce

the Stationers

to

turns

play

to

'.

trade

Roger

had

Act

there's

; for

such

in

but

stationers

either

forced

break

to

or

considerations

Printers.

control

all

of

trade, 'those

of the
up the enormities
be honest
otherwise
are

sum

that

are

inquest

information

with

kept

strict

books.

unlicensed
To

Hall

Stationers

at

books

containing

country

books

and

made,

the

to

clearlymarked,

is to

the

down

sent

own

excess.

As

latter,they have

the

to

in
all

along

maintained

wall

honest

'Tis

'

printing
times

He
This
Xos.

has

speciallythe
Petition

undated

the

will

printers

creatures

hard

be

is not
25

or

now

to

find

great as the
the
100, for

so

to

doubles,

other

demand

the

Phoenix
is

be trusted

can

honest

his

be

must

nay,

many

by sellingit'.

money

repetitionof

old

it

gets 20

books,

his

have

them3.

he

when

selves
them-

generally confederated

are

and

which

they

and

printers'interest

unlawful

trebles

The

groups,
among

the

true

time,

They

trade.

men

stationers, for

in

little seditious

twenty

that
The

booksellers.
Oliver's

class

"

monopolise the
into

of

hatred

be

to

stationers, and

own

loyal monopolists
the

than

the

to

went

the

"

still less

such

petitioned
But
they

Stationers2.

their

are

cases

many
shown

the

from

incorporated apart

late

of

in

view,

see

probably prior to

for

chap.

iv.

the

1662

survey

Act.

of

S. /'. Dm.

written

'

'"/., ii.,

8, 8i.-ii.

pick out 20 master-printers(the legal nuin


it. and
of integrity to lie
abilityto manage
the late times'.
entrusted
with
sort
it, most of the honest
by
being impoverished
Yet their numbers
100
like 60 with
are
more
journeymen, than 20 with 40, and
this withal without
counting the interlopers.

who

'It

are

were

both

hard

free

of

matter

the

to

trade,

of

SIR

134

ROGER

L'ESTRANGE

publicly exhibited,

the

hint

of

discorporation for
his vehemence
the
Stationers, and
against the Printers,
increased
the enmity of these bodies,which
largelyfrustrated
matter

his

efforts

the

Pamphlet

the

in

Press

for

recommended

the

next

twenty

But

years.

itself to

Arlington at a moment
alarmed
when
the secretaries were
ments
by the dangerous movewhich
characterised
this year.
On
the 15th August
the
1663,
King appointed Roger L'Estrange to the longmooted

Surveyorship of

erected

into

the

office.

an

Presses,

The

the

Court

that

was

first time

sense

expert knowledge he
and
zeal, had persuaded

fit Governor

the

of

the

Press, and

so.
paid, he continued
From
this
able
take
to
are
now
appointment we
a
of the most
view
persistent effort to gag the Press and
the classic example in England of a continuous
effort to
control
her malign forces.
As
to
Considerations, etc., it does not pretend to be
than
in
a
anything more
plain view of the Press couched
the language of a minority report.
It accepts unhesitatingly
the view
that the Press
is a doubtful
good, a thing to be
referred
in large
continually to a Government
department

long

so

he

he

for

of

mass

displayed,his mingled good

now

as

was

"

part,

branch

sedition, 'the

of

honest

work

little'

being

gifted

to

monopolised into the hands of a few, for whom


reward
of loyal services.
It is Crown
property,
those
who
the loyal, and
dabble
in
interlopers

it

to

be

and

that

it is the

are

Granted

the

treated

as

such

view

English judges
Considerations

is

for
a

at

"

very
spawn
and
it was

least

the

any

other

these

view
more

years

held
x
"

by
the

logical account.
charges of
striking particular already noted,
one
respect, a scrupulous regard for

most

outcasts, it is
of

the

The

cruelty, except in one


are
scarcely just. In
the buying out of supernumerary
for

twenty

of sedition.

more

presses and
lenient
and
"

the

providing

prudent

"

than

documents.

impassioned and
lofty appeal to
higher instincts against the Imprimatur, the first so far as
that
know
to
trace
we
disgraceful bondage historically

Aeropagitica is

the

from

Council

an

of

Trent, and

to

deduce

the

fact

that

(1742),xvii.,208) quotes the arguments put forward, and


Stationers
2 in B.R.
v. Parker, 1 Jac.
of the Crown.
I. Because
it is an
art introduced
by the care
the
I!
redound
to
the
Because
that
of the inconvenience
public from
may
of the Press.
"b'ee also Modern
mismanagement
Reports,i., 256.
1

Viner

admitted

(Abridgment

in the

case

of the

ROGER

SIR

136

L'ESTRANGE

of Milton's
showing the permanence
L'Estrange'sforgotten Considerations1.

noble

thus

As

has

appeal

the

Warrant,

feature

conviction

in

which

had

the

1664-6,

at the

was

main

Search

Bill

but

of

1661.

paced
thorough-

L'Estrange almost

as

of

bottom

his

General
the

any

such

Press,

the

wrecked

futilityof

over

addressed

cunningly
occasioned
by

of the

of

tyranny
attained

Locke

disorders

the

to

The

said

been

ideas

than

more

Milton's

tract.

In his Preface
Defoe

(1711)

remarked

that,

at all.

party

Had

The

'

the

of the

will be the
authors

no

out,

this made

Charles

II.

well),say
good, and

that

Licenser

the

that

'

pasquinadoes
the

At
that

It must
the

1738

In

Preface)
is

with

See

latter.
articles

T.
the

on

April 1738.
not

unbolted

( Iml

Character
i

illr

of the
2

The

his sound

of the

to

author

same

his

warns

the

White's

Edition

of

to

views

Humbly
i

Lives

sec

leave

the

we

I hilt

it

White.

Offeredfor

The

the

the

of the

poet Thomson's

series

the

troubles

of
'

design

Preface

(1781),i.,153-4.

Poets

than

hang

with

to

the

et setj. See also the series of


Magazine for August 1737 and

of

can

3.

129

right

censured,
laws

of

the

', Bays

Press

Press, Gentleman's

the

by

the

(1819),p.

guardedly.

more

a-,

liberty of

1772

printer Woodfall.

and

'

world

that

than

(with
eropagitica

Junius

Wilkes,

needful

quarrel

more

in

us

Ions; connection

no

Drama,

the

on

restrain

Johnson's

of A

reprinting

of

names

if Ed.

Vcrhati

fewer

Press

restraint

by our
quoted

abridged Reasons
True

1721, this

L'Estrange makes
this grievance even

recent

sentiment

same

and

throughout

afterwards

Haley's comment,
the

than
would

he

that

Liberty

be
may
because

writers

in

noted

reasonable

more

harm

more

be

Holt

For

And

thingsvery

most

the

be

Printing

are.

it is the

cause

the

ripening

now

time

Yet

the

they

abroad

spread

treason

no

will

of

print what

Press,

was

associated

Press

left to

was

Press

these
did

years, nay
had
had

the most
be
may
abused
Liberty in the

monopolies.

one

liberty of the

liberty,but
with

of the

no

tenfold, because

if

understood

of

2.

same

the

'

which

is

Review,

be

to

diminution

punished

or

(and he

if every
be
less

would

there

the

writing in

found

be

can

of

last 20

practised this we
stopping of the

mouth, and

increase

of his

ought

of the

ministers

'

opening

volume

Government

say the last 50 years,


may
Ptevolution
The
'. Further,
the

seventh

to the

would

be

thief.

'It

unrestrained

printing

to

seems

because

doors
sleep with
sophistry', is

'Servile

312) expresses
(History,Yiii.,
of Aeropagiticais the
Libertyqf Unlicensed Printing,with IhiHume

earliest

reprint

Bohun

(1693),by Charles Blount


who, according to Hilger
in the final expiraBach """;p. 217). was
chictlyinstrumental
tion

Act.

few

occasions

on

which

Charles

interfered

this statement
of his
sense, might confirm
undoubtedly backed L'Estrange in his dealings with
3 Defoe
Lee, ii.,
446).
(Lifeby Wm.

with

the

view.

On

the

License,
the

Stationers.

other

as

well
hand

as

he

the

Imprimatur was
and

the

AND

LEGISLATION

PRESS

of the

The

ago
condemn

rightsand

first Williamson
the

London

the

contested

struggle ranks

invoked

then

with

causes

At

the

century.

that

from

came

who

failed

the argument

for

mischief, and

as

the

to

struggleagainst

cdebres

close

long

of

cases

Norton,
in

Printing

the Patentees

time

same

century, and

of the

quarter, and

from

of

expiration of the

the

'

Bible

'

aid of the secretaries,

the

the

apologistsright
greatest opposition to

Booksellers

1672, through

cheapening

Jenkins, in this

their

1695

in

tested
con-

years

many
after

with
the great
monopolists. Taken
monopolies of Seymour, Atkyns, and

the seventeenth

in

for

Cambridge,

They

and

the

instrumental

and

classical stock.

in

Universities
were

at Oxford

the Presses

the

authors

between

his
prison wrote
rapacity and rogueriesl

and

long

Stationers.
their

had

137

Stationers.

to

this

NEWSBOOK

of contention

real bone

George Withers
Scholar's Purgatory

and

THE

backed

was

association

to

Act

Press

by

the

distinguish

Imprimatur 2.
The failure of this age to mark
the distinction referred to by
author's
Locke, between
an
legitimate right in his copy,
and
the class of general monopolies rightly described
by
Mabbot
when
his
in
1649
as
one
resigning
licensership
of the most
of the
grievous monopolies ?',is at the bottom

Copyright,from

the

former

Anne

that

marked

the

for the

the

basis of the

latter

Queen

of
cause
Copyright Act, so
was
one
irritation
after the
against the rule of the Stuarts, who
Piestoration
encouraged the system to absurd lengths. The
of Printing discovered
mediaeval
view
in
the
apologist
4
for
the
in
1694
less
than
is
monopolists
nothing

L'Estrange'sview
and

Where

of

the

delegated

Press

is, in the
they
of surveying the Press
power
monopolists, a policy which
See

to

Arber, Stationei

author's

"

if he be not of the assistance


(
Stationers Coy. to crush the poor

and
the

lirri11,

'""'..
p. 91.

view

ought
the

quoting Mr

the

of

latter
'Their

former, that

lie

to

tributed
dis-

property,

loyal gentlemen.

of

care

r'Registre, iv.,13-16.

altering titles,
excluding

Crown

as

the

to

differ

serious

the

with

the

loyal

always contested,

rogueries were

not

confined

(and interest)after the first impression,


of the ' toy."), invoking the whole
of
power

names

author

Justice

Mo
W'illcs

Birrell's $

in the

great

case

"

/.-cturet.
of

Millar

"".

Taylor. 1769.
Toland

:;

as
[sic]

Raid.

Statutes
also

[Life of Milton prefixedto Proseicorks (1698),p. S3) claimed


to Areopagitica,
MS", C. 806. The writer cites various grants of Elizabeth

Mabol

convert

from

copy

7th

Eliz.

of Reasons

C. 739 (141).

and

the

See
Car., ii.,c. 33. which
protected patentees.
for Reviving the Act for Regulating the Press, Tcmrn r MSS.
6

to

14

SIR

138

because

his

he

own

ROGER

wished

to

L'ESTRANGE
that

see

authorityin

man's

one

"

hands.

"

Scarcely a year after his Considerations,L'Estrange found


an
admiring echo in Richard
Atkyn's Original and, Growth of
in the month
of
of the burial
out
came
Printing, which
the 'Confederates'
(April1664). Atykns was the unfortunate
Law

Patentee,

of

his

from

old
the

monopoly
desire

renewal

of

Act

the

book
in

of

"

denied

was

judges

North

hints

"

the

mentioned, who

by

Atykn's

cases.

own

often

so

after

the

the

Restoration

print their
anticipate the

latter to

written

was

restitution

to

1664, and

boldly stated that 'the


reason
why the present Act hath operated so little is most
the
executive
is placed in the
apparent, because
power
of Stationers,who
whose
offend and
Company
only can
interest it is
the

from

to

'

do

so

of

Mary,

2.

traced

He
and

the

historyof

the

Press

his

in
saw
distraught mind
the various
and
Decrees
Acts
merely a struggle between
Stationers
and Patentees
a
subject on which he was
fairly
Star
Chamber
competent to speak, if not to judge. The

days

"

Ordinance
of the

Stationers

'Then

their

like

merely

gain

to

the

libellous

(i.e.1637)

rly about
by the Act

him

to

was

mischief

Car.

scandalous
when

i. which

this

abolished

the

on

move

complete mastery
and

lightning,and

of 17

clever

part

of the Press.

books

began to
strengthened

was

the

Star

'.

His

than

the

Stationers

true.

In

Chamber,

close

study of
shown
by his quotations
of the
of sedition, Farewell
amount
Sermons, etc., printed
since the Restoration, and
the disparity between
that and
the number
covered
of convictions.
L'Estrange, he said, had discompleted
L'Estrange'sstriking pamphlet is

more

history,which
tale

of

their

was

in
is

two
no

years

doubt

he
iniquities,

demanded

in

all their

corroboratingWithers'
the

limitation

of the

that
of the Norths
patent
(1890), i., 18. 'The judges had to make
the
benefit of printingtheir
own
monopoly that they might have
See Viner, Abridgment, xvii., 207.
2
For
a good
example of their knavery see Norton's
complaint to the Council,
Norton's
stock
was
1046, H.M.V., App. to 6th Ropt., p. 17.
patent in 'Bible'
successfullychallenged by the Stationers
upheld at the
(1644), and the decision
Under
of the
Lord
Restoration.
26th
son
August
1666, Pepys writes, 'The
he
would
his
father's
decree
rather
than
swore
ruled.
oversee
Keeper Coventry
hang
This
ruined
Norton',
was
saw,
similarly ruined.
poor
Atkyns, we
The
considerable
a
plaints of these patentees, whom
L'Estrange espoused, was
contribution
Petition
See Norton's
to old-cavalier
to be
indignation.
King's
don't understand
The
held by gentlemen who
Printer, August 1660.
place is now
is done
the
work
Cromwell.
printing, and
by those who were
printers under

Lives

(Atkyn's)
reports'.

C.S.P.D.

(1660-1),p.

24.

authority,and

Stationers'

by

1637

the

AND

LEGISLATION

PRESS

the

that

should

Decree

THE

NEWSBOOK

conferred

powers
to the

revert

139

old

on

them

Patentees, who

protecting their rights.


Lest it be thought that Atkyn's complaint was
singular
while
document
worth
the
lie
i
t
it was
quoting
selfish, may
as
after
attests
referred to above, written
long
(c.1692), which
After
the vitalityof the monopolist view.
citing various
were

of all

laws

and

best

men

to

grants

qualityof

course

the

printing

was

ever

privilegescharged with
of Treason
Principles

the

become

Rebellions

insinuated

more

of
person
first peaceable

this

of

matter

in matters

fomented

and

by
So

any single means.


whether
question impartiallyconsidered
than

Press

of the

is the

'This

"

questioned or the aforesaid


imputation of monopolies.

and

'

have

to say

writer

King's prerogative in

the

Laws

of

Printers, the

Law

proceeds

"

wherein

age

capable

by

the

of state

the

it may
of
use

Liberty
a

seem

Printing

recompensed the mischief of the Liberty and abuse thereof.


is neither possiblenor
To publish Loos
safe'1.
Patentees
the objection that
As
to
produce poor and
25th
dear work, that is prevented by the Act
Henry VIIL,
regulates prices. The Universities
by which the Chancellor
have

numerous

under

them.

the Stationers

and

flourish

Holland

partialprinting

the

till the

not

of

time

'

and

Germany

severely L'Estrange regarded

Regicides'trials.
Scroggs and his brethren
the

of

shall

We

its full urgency.

reached

matter

how

be remembered

It may

patents, and

But
'

it
that

was

the

L'Estrange

find

when
view
vehemently the same
more
expressing even
branch
of
another
question is not Law, but News
that
this prospect is from
different
Prerogative. How
the
eagle muing her mighty youth is apparent, but
famous
', but in
are
dealing with the celebrated ', the
"

the
the
of

'

'

'

sense

great

The

August
must

be

Ravi.

century,
nuisance.

'

deplorable

166.']

he

the

most

MSS.,
That

no

L'Estrange.

same

whether

we

'

'

0.
the

took

idea

in
inspired Eoger when
and
the Newsbook.
penned what
that ever
foreword
disgraced an

over

insolent

then

806, already quoted.


'

curs'd

L'Kstrange

invention

wrote

of

It

seriouslydebated

was
'

Printing was
/V
(1660), is

Rope for

not

an

almost

in

this

unmitigated
determined

made
a
question
by such a passage in the A"/rt. /", (he Reader as 'It has been
occasioned
the
not
to
than
mischief
more
long ago whether
advantage were
But
Christian world, by the Invention
of Typography.
never
was
question
any
nations'.
Even
been
of late yearin these
than
this has
more
fully determined
Addison
has
the
on
some
subject.
Spectator,No. 582,
melancholy remarks
Morley'a ed., p. 825.

SIR

140

editor.

and
gratified,

Ambition

stamped

every

on

Muddiman

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

line.

revenge
It is boastful

have

smiled

partially
indulged,are
the
and
also,
displaced

bitterly his services were


for the Boole, by order of the Secretary,at
still requisitioned
his successor
the salary of "3 a week
and employer
to see
eking out eight pages with scarcelyan item of real news.
the
A
word
the
since
on
history of the Neiusbook
desirable
here1.
Restoration
be
Henry Muddiman
may
Restoration
the
of
in that
first appeared as
champion
must

"

"

feverish

week

of December

the

1659, when

report of Monk's

incredible
England stirred up
parties to an
itself at
activity. His Parliamentary Intelligencerdevoted
for a
full and free Parliament
first to the prudent demand
'.
To Muddiman
to L'Estrange, the approach of Monk
to
as
seemed
the City on
2nd February 1660
an
alarming symptom

entry

into

'

portending

as

Dictatorship.

new

But

the

General's

and
its
Intelligencer,
Publicus
Muddiman
(in which
Thursday issue, Mercurius
2
assisted
was
by the Scot, Giles Durie
),into whole-hearted
service, and
equally violent opposition to Scot's salaried
conduct

the

threw

and

editors, Williams
All

Parliamentary

attempts from

Nedham.

the

side

other

these
two
suppress
authors
were
playing

to

their
popular journals failed because
soon
policy,and on the contrary his enemies
up to Monk's
the
defensive.
Williams'
went
first3,and
appeared on
paper
for the last
met
17th March, the day after the Rump
on
at the same
time, the Council again discharged Nedham,
mentary
Parliasole support to Muddiman's
time giving official and
him
which
enabled
till the Council
Intelligencer,
dissolved in 1660 to issue it by order of the council '.
was
at his post till 9th
Nedham,
however, remained
April,
'

Politicus

Mercurius

his

when

immediately

was

continued

Williams.

by
1

Mr

J.

B.

Williams's

article

so

referred

often

to

(Newsbook,etc.,iff

have
we
Restoration, Eng. Hist. Rev., April IPOS), is the best account
frantic
chapter of English Journalism.
2
the
done
Thomason
He had already
as
some
Catalogue witnesses
Muddiman's
Parliamentary
against the Republicans and Independents.
"

was
Intelligencer

later

Mercurius

replied to his
appeared 19th
Mercurius
31st May
:i

But

absconded

Mercurius

to
"

Nedham's
oppose
which
recalled
the

Politicus.

December

Politicus

had

service

"

written
Publicus

1659

some

The

Publick
old

Royalist

memories

Publi
ten

of

days

1648

"

(E. (182))
Parliamentary Intelligencer
Scoticisms

in the
daring revival
195
to 7th June
(62)).
(E.
he
both
Nedham's
immediately continued
(12th April is the date of his last Mercurius
one

and
Intelligencer,

the

this

of

betray

Durie's

week

papers

of

the

when

hand

in

it.

Restoration,
the

No. 615).
Politicus,

latter

\ rS, From

A L R

H IV

ofC

be Land

V.

lining

H I STO

Plea fant and Delectable

The

RV:

'

I th

Ai

krJ I iridSti in

Won

"

enturcS

"

Ficllt
,K}-oftbcSqiieafy
Dj"3tHgero de Strangemenl
An.!, ilfei

'

"'

"'"

"

""'

"
"

*
'

I.

P.

[ig L

""

/,-"'.!

"

'

"
.

,
'

r.

the

.1 ..:

/'i

"

lli T.ni-

ttvoCn

"
.

to
"

hs ;

jc!es on,

".

':

K'ithIliS

'

.'

inter]

ras

"..:..

"

1.'

:"

'

":.

with
btlba,

M
I

the

.1 rhe n. in) I

"

'

..

I to
fellint Labour, which
but
'ufli-lbe lans relate ijodayes,

the I

"
,

for
rdre'ad,

'

:"..:-,

:..*

'

:t*ar.
right.Chi

r a

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in

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ii ! t

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"
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ic

Birth r:'tn;"
\c Well in
snd
ns

thi

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Truth,and hi

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,-.:

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thegrcat
jov "

ta

...

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nfc

that nfhereJ.
1

aa

i.i

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".

ofafj

throughout!

'. J

I ii

i
,thai
1 1

"

1,

.....,i
.

the

j,

"

yi li

his

: .D.t

have had him Ural


of the Prophecy
of t e fa t SbipiatU,
Ihe (hould turn Pagan. Buttbe Knight
\ic!d

decreed otherwayesby
Ha

.-

Chri-

Ati

tol e
'"""ht

Tulpiiu-ould not

._

"

-o

;it :

i'k'4would

i.

by real

"

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was

'it.-

ic SirtU'tHtciin,
and airobccaufcibme
lis

a-

ndi ilul

:.

the

rand debonair //
Thai (he

omes
ti

[ned,and, Lie lafeut

.'

'
"

hi atd

Knight,to
the K
Parents,
i

:
h^c
reD7;
itCnriftian KnightjCau-

is

tent

"

-.

; moil

tela

tliedelivery
"ofrl-e d bonaii

'

'

it.

.uied

"

hut

\i
able Fit:hs, tbatltwas 'uil
Pagan
and a thitd part of at!
uafclvcs, t fljthe roinutcsand in half,

irs,

dthe

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l.kel;

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Knight ftheO

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lum-

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Kin

the 1

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Kiiifir,i ut, at the I


I ir tu it pApapABicHi

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II.

CHAP.
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fince it
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fnel..iHtre"f.i
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prcccl^of rime, the Irf:nt Rnyert" grew
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e,bc'.
y:\Vaf:.,: the !.::" be,
fore the Gate of her Callic,cleaning
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.-

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had

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her

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the fuft apprca.h.n.;


i,.r

InchantrelEs,

aftel
fpalte

this

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.

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.;

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"/i

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[/""neep. /^o.

SIR

142
of

the

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

editorshipthere

account

the

as

Muddinian

was

dissent

of
scourge
from
time

had

notion

some

and

of

the

seditious

time, probably

to

at

of the

To

in

week

this circumstance
while

Government

the

of the Kestoration

not

by

week

we

may

Press

yet

It has

Indeed

line

invention

of

tion
instiga-

and

that stable
the

was

author

L'Estrange's

sense

of the

earlyjournalism to
number
of L'Estrange's Newsof its public,
contemptuous

first
more

the

printing',it

the

nervousness

remind

this

with

failure '.

histories

with

it is sincere

In
'

anything

in

more

would

was

the

but when

news.

in

usual

audacious

the

to

book.
and

been

foul,and

was

murmurs

at Journalism

attempt

exposure.
look for its favour

overcome,

partiallycleansed, public
of a publiccraving for mere

refer

the

animadverted

to this service

lirst

Press

secretaries, through Birkenhead,


Neiosbook
is expressly dedicated
Press, but the new

the

on

it to

turning

mediaeval

would

view

of the

be difficult to
doubt

'

cursed

name.

the

tion
general imputaof the author's
would
so
cupidity. He
hardly have
affronted his public if an
his sole object.
of fortune was
access
How
between
vast is the difference
L'Estrange and a representative
modern
the
How
!
of the later journalism, Defoe
latter and, to his readers, how
obsequious 2, how pragmatic
the former
it was
unfair
him
with
! Yet
to
taunt
having
The
items
of
in
his
number.
six
first
only
jejune news
delay on the part of his newly planted correspondence was
for the following
for that3, and the occasion
sufficient excuse
foreword
and homily addressed
to the English public.
But

casts

Declaration

L'Estrange s

31st
'

I do

declare

It

salary
making much

from
before

"3

the

his

He

;:

had

See, for example,

meannesses

The

per
of the

use

and

and

Mud
or

mistakes

in

more)

dim

an

dislike

his revenge
later.
Introduction
to his 7th

the

was

expense

of

which

privilege of free
G.S.P.D.
(1663-4),p.

Editor
point'. The
supposing this to be

of
an

the

matter

that

left

so

supposing

still to

prevented

of the

volume

the

Review.

'

For

all

humbly asks his readers' pardon '.


he
did
not
was
yet enjoy
great, especially as
postage. See a letter to Williamson, 16th September
'
his help at this
Will
274.
be at great loss without
in
Gakndai
of Stale Papers (1665-6) is mistaken
he

...

Muddiman's
1663.

great

Newsbook,

help with 1 lie


purveyor
not
long
journalist's services, and it was
Gent'
to have
ceased
anything to do with
that

Greed

'II. M.

I may
or

any

stipulated
week.

stopped

was

printed news.

"3

of

the

1C63.

hope

whether

lieen

have

to

seems

at

August
I

on

talcingup

on

myself (as

absolutely indifferent

book

appeal for help in

the

shape

of

news.

the
or

order, the

in

Press
news

no

never

my
with

the

too

familiar

too

pragmaticaland

itch but

question,
and

actions

gives

them

license

and

news

mercury
the multitude

of their

counsels

right

of colourable

kind

and

should

it makes

censorious, and

143

right wits

Public

I think

vote, because

have

NEWSBOOK

their

people in

the

be

to

THE

AND

LEGISLATION

PRESS

superiors,
only an

not

be meddling

to

all which

(supposing as before supposed)


but that in this juncture,a paper
of that
does not yet hinder
quality may be both safe and expedient ; truly if 1 should
would
bear it,for certainly
perhaps the case
say necessary
is not
at this instant
there
more
imports
anything which
the
than
and
the
to redeem
his Majesty's service
public,
and
deliver and
protect
public from their former mistakes
the Government

with

from

them

the

like

for

the

time

to

both

To

come.

which

of a gazette may
contribute
prudent manager
in a
high degree ; for besides that it is everybody's
very
men's
and (in truth) a good part of most
study and
money
of the worst
of address
to the genius
business, 'tis none
ways
of the
affections
business
and
common
are
people whose
much
more
capable of being tuned and wrought upon by

purposes

convenient

the

hints

and

in

touches

the

and

shape

air

of

and
best notions
pamphlet than by the strongest reasons
sober form whatsoever.
imaginable under any other and more
To which
advantage of being popular and gratefulmust be
of the least)that it is likewise seasonable
and
added
(as none
other
of it than only to
there no
the while were
worth
use
and
and
detect
disappoint the malice of those scandalous
and
bruited against
false reports which
are
daily continued
Government.

the

So that upon
(from aught I can
'

the main

perceive the thingrequisiteand

yet see) once

week

news
(for I intend to utter my
I
find
still
when
Yet
if
measure).
the planting and
securing of my

may

by weight
my

hand

business

do the
and

not

is in, and

by
after

correspondence, that the


furnish
will fairly
without
either uncertainty,
matter
more
I
repetitionor impertinence shall keep myself free to double
book
week
be expected however
a
at pleasure. One
;
may

published every Thursday


Tuesday night,leaving Wednesday

to

be

finished

and

entire

for

upon

the

the

printing

'

it off.
'The

way

beneficial to

(as
the

to

the

vent1)

Master

of
1

the

I.e.,sale.

that
book

has
has

been
been

found
to

cry

most
and

SIR

144

the

it about

expose

whether

that

ROGER

admirable

so

and

by Mercuries

streets

be

may

L'ESTRANGE

in

hawkers
other

some

; but

respects,

of that employcountenance
a
question ; for under
ment,
is carried on
and seditious
the present trade of treason

be

may

libels

been
persed
dis(nor effectuallyhas anything considerable
State without
the aid and
or
against either Church
privity of this sort of people),whereupon without
enough
this
inconvenience
I
shall
adventure
to
assurance
against
another
which
that
I
mention
in
steer
of
case
only
course,
be
hereafter
not
it, I may
being put upon
charged with
and
singularity
caprice for a proceeding wherein I am totally
and
that
governed by an honest and conscientious
reason,
too in direct opposition to my
profit.
particular
Touching the prosecution of the work, I have already
which
I dislike both in
given my sense
against Repetitions,
'

good

and

some

coherence

well

; for

man

matter

tire

the

shall

care

the

to

vamp

any

; for the

neither

may

and

to

as

make

to

as

commodity
as

reader

husband

dealer

the

to

respect

myself; for neither


nor
intelligence,
my

taken

whole

so

foul

so

twice
for the same
over
pay
I shall endeavour
to provide such
reader

be

am

too

well

as

for the

shame

nor

as

Nor

the

in

point

for

parts

shall

of

reporter ;
and

order

; for the

story
much

pamphlet.
give myself
but
let
e'en
it hits and lye
it
as
pain
style,
prove
it falls (saving only a constant
to authority and
reverence
as
truth). Finally after this, if it shall happen at last that
I go less then
that I
me
pretensions,it shall content
my
well (at worst), but
[ have
meant
great examples for my
as

as

about

comfort
the

the

and

second

great failures
branch

and

of my
the Press.

for
care

my
and

excuse.

duty, that

word
is the

to

now

Survey

Inspectionof
with their
I find it (in general) with
the public as
of the trade
to live one
too
neighbours there are
many
by another, but more
particularlyI find them clogged with
of people
free of the
not
three
sorts
Foreigners, persons
I offer to the end that when
which
trade, and separatists,
the number,
tion
it shall be thought fit to retrench
the reforma'

"

may
(as far as
discover
'

(1)

begin there.
in

me

In

lies)and

the

meantime

for their

to

prevent mischief
that

encouragement

shall

it,take these.
To

any

one
"

corner,

who
let him

proof thereof

to

discovers

repair with
the

private Press, hole


such

Surveyor

notice

of the

and

Press

or

make

(at

his

office

shop,

Brome's

over

the

sign

get 40s. with

will

he

and

Ivy Lane)

NEW8B00K

THE

AND

LEGISLATION

PRESS

himself
desire."
of secrecy
"5 is offered for discoveryof such

of

145
the

what

Gun

in

assurance

shall

'

(2)

discoveryof

for

'(3) 10s. is offered

libel in

printing.
book

unlicensed

an

printing.
1

5s. is offered for

(4)

discoveryof

seditious book

being

by the hawkers.
little without
alas discovery signifies
But
punishment ;
to provide that men
it is of great concern
wherefore
may
and
times
ten
their
thrive
as
not
get
transgressions,
upon
has
much
by a fault as the pay for a composition, which
the inferior
been but too much
a
practice of late among
vi(pers?) of the Press '.
sold

'

Then
the

Journalism

the

of

ridicule

of intelligencewhich
excite
scraps
of seventeenth-century
latest historian
six

the

follow

1.

and
promises proposed
journalisticreforms
the
main
observe
which
he did not
here
long
very
be
thing grasped by a seventeenth-century reader would
the

Besides

"

"

of

pamphlet
the

into

multitude
idea

in

age.
who
has

man

himself

the

Cares,

some

side

the

to

eye

and

to

the

police-budget of
object to dragoon the
submission, precisely
of

the

best

journalists

the

"

in

"

by

these

interest

of

mercenary
and
news

mere

in

vicious

was

'Their

scanty
he

means

Muddiman's

L'Estrange'sdouble

its

pens

the

had

gossip.
loyalty,and

always
But

the

red

Sec also art. in Kng. Hilt.


p. 188.
carefnlly spread out and printed in
they had
bring in treble the amount
in
exceeds
far
Gazette
profits
single
C.SJP.D.
8th
1606,
August
Williamson,

time'.

them

made
Yet

'the

(Jas. Hickes

sheets'

was

news

to

(l':66-7),
p. 21).
S

were

Nedhams,

Williams, History of English Journalism,

large type

and

Observator

populace.

Reo. (1908),p. 263.


done

the

note

common

allowance, their

L'Estrange type
rag

Thompsons, and
progressed slowly
who, like Muddiman,
Possessed
other.
the
by the humour
or

renegade type

one

change

an

at

into

Tory journalism
been
cynically said that only a
make
time
disgraced himself can

the

it has

As

those

or

towards
of

2,and

turned

inspired the

on

thoroughly agreeable,so

of

men

later

Ridens

that

of

paths

which

Heraclitus

its express
loyalty and

Press, and

be

to

was

semi-politicalnature,

seditious

the

Newsbook

familiar

the

that

tirst number

of

Heraclitus, 13th February 1681,

SIR

146

first number

This

for the

ears

it

so

his

was

pen

the

seditious

party, and

that

long before

not

was

increased

sale

JVewsbook

the

the

of

their

prick up

men

L'Estrange could
So
embroiling the nation.
Pepys was
disappointed in

it

Indeed

made

with

after

without

perceive by

have

contest

typical Mr

l.

number

L'ESTRANGE

must

coming
said long
ink

in

and

to

ROGER

able
comfortthe

Muddiman

the

dip

not

first

began

Newsletters

"

for

designed as a supplement,
independentspecies
department of newsand
considerable
a
growing one, and he
mongering was
might yet hope to compete with L'Estrange's unpopular

which, it

seems,

was

rather than

that his

"

book 2.

deal, and

fair

sixteen

of

dropping one
equalledby the disgust felt

doubt

no

in

created

of

threat

the

by

rest,the alarm

to the

As

to

in the

breath

same

who

eight pages,

could

weekly issues3, was


who professed
one

for

down

cut
'

not

of interest

increase

news-lovingpeople

the

the
'

vamp
in the

his

from

book

intelligence

promised an
matter, and yet
whole
his
first
vamped out
appeared,
paper, and, as it soon
the
from
all
most
jejune news
provided
parts of the world
if
he
did
touch
avoided
home
those
save
England, or
news,
and
witchcraft which
tales of superstition
incredible
an
are

and

'

'

of the

of the age, and substituted


vulgar mind
mere
the
other side of politics,
diatribe against
or
proclamations,

feature

trial.

occasional

an

or

phrase 'the
only one side

was

"

minds

else, to

of

world

like

little

did

though

its

more

Commons
It 'makes

not

there

had

Resolution
but

all

of

to

nor

been
been

attract
'

vamped

June

the

reasonable
did

the

So

that

anti-Government
to

15th

There

Government.

change.

bound

had

news

of which

news,

was

"

for

evolved,

for

attacked

savagely

which

toleration

provide

Government

of

of the

misnomer.

L'Estrange's,
belonged

yet been

not

perhaps a

loyal support
A

sedition.

criticism had

side' is

other

The

All
dubious

political
machinery
a
journal

cabals

much

"

odium,

and
even

'.

Parliamentary
great deal prior to the
1660,

was

barred

out

a
.simplebeginning '. Diary, under date 4th September 1663.
date
Pepys for Naval
'which', says the latter, under
news,
17th December
1664, I shall as I see cause,
give him '. Pepys adds : ' He is
of fine conversation, I think, but
full of
I am
most
man
a
sure
courtly, and
date 15th August 1665.
It is abundantly obvious
complimenting '. "S" also under
that the Diarist did not like the strenuous
journalist.
'
It became
'.
of an
Institution
so
large that it attained the dimensions
Williams, art. E. ll.il. .So Ilist. of Eng. Journalism, pp. 186-8.
3
In this he was
Newsbook, No. 65, 5th August 1664.
wisely overruled by

Roger

applied

to

'

"

his friends.

THE

AND

LEGISLATION

PRESS

NEWSBOOK

147

enterprisingnewsletter-writer, hence those


his scope1.
efforts of the Surveyor to bring it within
of public interest during
If we
glance at the matters
in the
of the Ncwsbool; we
see
L'Estrange's tenure
copy
the

left to

and

Conspiracy with the


their printing Confederates
the Indigent Officers

ecclesiastical situation,the Yorkshire


trials of the Northern
Traitors, and
'

of the

movements

all these

may
towards

Then

should

the

over

country after the

operation of the Conventicle Act,


reasonably have interested the public.
all interest merges
with
the
popular war

the close of 1664

really

the

preparations for
which

all

the

Act, and

Five-mile

prison,
dispossessed ministers, the

of

sectaries

in

'Confederates'

chief

processions

funeral

of

notices

the

of

deaths

Board, the
and

The

in London.

'

have

least

at

the

provided

in the

Dutch,

journalistwith
in

of

this

sign
waking up
L'Estrange's
for
in
direction is his application to Pepys
shipping news
1664, which, records Mr Pepys, I shall,as I see cause, give
budget of

news.

'

him

ostensible

of his

cause

of the

relatingthe indecencies

of

matter

news
inadequacy of his war
Whilst
being superseded.

the

indeed

'. Yet

it

at

sects

the

was
was

Norwich,

in
itinerant ministers
Newbury, or Dover, the treasons
rustic wanderings due to the Five-Mile
their compulsory
is a
good annalist, and describes in
Act, the Neu-sbooh
caustic and vengeful style the effects of the Bishops'policy.
of national importurned
to a matter
all eyes are
But when
tance,
the
book
the Dutch
War,
sadly proves the parochial
of

'

'

If there

of its editor.

mind

days, it

those

of Princes,

victories

heroic

the

at

even

the

forth

blazon

to

was

of

duty

one

was

expense
and omitted

of

gazeteer in
virtues

and

little truth.

altogetherthat
L'Estrange neglected this duty
of York
in which
the Duke
is said
with Opdam
encounter
to have
signalisedhis courage, while he, perhaps unwisely,
when
the public credited the
Sandwich
did justiceto Lord
'

'

Lett

to the
ancillary
the

(Bug. Journalism,pp. 86-8) says

Williams

Mr

that

fact

circulation

of

but

the

the

Revolution.

oj

But

vs.

the

latter,owing
"

the

to
"

been

that

the

Newsbook

the

is sorely

undoubtedly

Newsletter
wa9
have
must
Book

the

this view

still

was

exaggeration due

an

older

form.

1663

In

to

the

than
that of the Newdetter
vastly more
to
restraint,gained tremendously down

Restoration
""itm;i. 2^9.
,

'Trimmer:

For

your

Newsletters,
they

common

are

scarce

read

sooner

than

forgotten.
'

Ubsermlor

sets of 'em

tobe
be
most

delivered
lookt

(the
upon

Do
baser

not

you
sort)
1'

over

with

the

then

that

fairlybound
erity,and

up,

know

same

authentique Manuscripts

that

reverence

of

former

there
in time

hundreds

are

posted

and
to

come

ourselves
times '.

as

we

and

preserved

hundreds
in

thi
pay

at

this

of

condition
itions will

day

to

the

SIR

148

L'ESTRANGE

of the

all the merit

with

Duke

ROGER

action,though the latter

was

magnanimous enough to divide his laurels with the Earl1.


that L'Estrange, on
the 8th
and
10th June,
It is true
Narratives
hurried
into print Two
of the Signal Victoryof the
the Dutch-.
But
Duke
the Newsbook
itself
of York over
should

vocal

been

have

such

on

occasion.

an

Plague might have given L'Estrangean opportunity


for retrievingsome
part of his credit,and indeed he showed
considerable activityand courage, staying in London
during
The

the

periodwhen

whole

the

Court

and

Williamson

leaving Muddiman
Without
a
single break the
papers.
through that disastrous epidemic,and was
Oxford, the

to

of bureau

information, and

of

of the

hygienic advice

and
There
of

latter

was

reason

15th

for this

the

of the disease

; hence

means

of

this

look

to

after his

Newsbook

continued

turned

into

publishingthe

City Fathers
activity. From

gather that

July
being used by

we

removed

orders

to the stricken

hint

visitation

kind

city.

in the News

of Nature

was

and seditious
to lay the stress
ill-disposed
and
the wrong
on
place, and to cut off all communication
correspondence with the City ',for the prevention of which
of the ravages
L'Estrange is ordered to give regular accounts

should

which

What
difficult

form
to

be

'

rather

some

quoted in

those

any account
sinister attempts

say, beyond
left the
and

clergy fled
who
boldly continued

to

that

we

Bills

Mortality
Plague.

of the
referred

know

of

that

to

took, it is

many

of

the

city pulpits to the Conventiclers


minister
to the people,and incidentally

to ascribe in their veiled


the
of God, or
the hand

to

useful

language the
blood

of

terrible visitation

the

regicides3. As

is noted by Clarendon
tion,
danger of praisingany one but the Duke
(Gontintui124
Dom.
P.
All were
S.
dissatisfied with
his
Car.,
ii.,
(25)."'
in.,580).
of the
Duke
There
account
of York's
was
no
relation
of it.
singular encounter
Prince
not even
ment;oned
'. There
is a letter of Lady
with
Rupert was
Opdam.
Fanshawe's
to her husband
(Reports Commissioners, 39 (227),18th January (28),
his
1666) Nor must I likewise forget that your friend Mr La Strange hath among
and
his own
highly in thy commendations
sense
news
put in a letter from Madrid
I do not doubt
but
he will have
a
good reprimand '.
thereupon higher, for which
'
to the
Duke
His Holiness ', a
15th April 1664, his printer referred
as
On
i

The

'

particularlyunfortunate

error.

size,type, and paper as the 2W wsbooh.


'
3
When
the Plague grew
2.
hot, most of the conformable
Baxter, Life, iii.,
ministers
silenced
more
fled '. The
ministers
openly and laboriously preach the
Zachary Crofton's Defencefrom the Fear of Death
gospel'. See in this connection
and
in prison1662,
published in the year of the Plague. He speaks of
written
ministers
in his
rustic wanderings
of
London
hordes
(he could not come
meeting
had
deserted
their places, and
of course) who
London
praises the brave Nonnear
who
staved.
See also the catalogue of a Collection of Broadministers
comformist
Charles
A
Lemon
R.
II.,
Dr
Pulpit to Let'.
(1866),
p. 131, No. 566"
rides,by
355) has described the state of
Stoughton (Hist. "f Jlr/ii/i'ni'" Kni/taml, 1901, iii.,
during these mouths.
the City churches
2

Of

the

same

'

'

'

'

150

SIR

eloquently
public

'

the

there

beyond

condemnation

fact

the

Gazet

to

was

Plot, and

those

period for
such

that

But

be

the

by

students

the

the

who
dozen

of the
newspapers
colour, Avill look in vain for

Whig journals,the

Gazet

the

to

of the

years

of that

terror

applause
tyrannicalmonopoly

and

look
and

matter

of

by high official persons.


sole journal till the Popish

invaded

almost

in these

with

the burst

rigorous

was

historical

material

bold

L'Estrange

of

little to warrant

seems

unpopular hands

The

L'ESTRANGE

1.

Yet

in

of

ROGER

Gazet

crisis,and

for

while

monopoly.

of
appearance
valuable
became
a
the

after
Thererepository of proclamations, trials,and discoveries.
with
the suppressionof the Whig
journalsit relapses
into
the official,
dust
of its original
but
useful, dry as
conception.
Apart from the failure of L'Estrange to do justiceto the
Dutch
and
the malice
War, and apart from
greed of his
clue to the
of the Gazet gives us
enemies, the character
a
for his supersession. The question of advertisements
reasons
-

was

keen

eked

his

out

Scot, by
Muddiman
that

had

before

It

number
not

he

Williamson

and

Politicus

from

advertisements

and

source.

same

to

We

this lucrative

admits

its

Nedham

allowance

pamphlet

book

the

perceive
element,

originaldimensions.

solely for his profit.


official journal
purist view that an
The
advertisements.
Oxford Gazet

that

the

took

the

more

restores

complained

was

Mercurius

half-crown

of

scorned

L'Estrangemore

even

old

forty shillingsper

fair

the

In

one.

he

used

it

place for
later
notices
which
studiously rejected them, and from
the
appeared concurrently in the Gazet and
spasmodic
Current
how
note
2,we
Intelligence
strong the distaste was.
not

was

Eng.

November,
and
being
1665-6

Hist.

S. P. Lorn.
Rev., p. 267.
Downing to Williamson.

Sir G.
in

so

small

volume,

can

be

"

sont

Car., ii.,137 (24) aiid 137 (99),25th


'The
Gazette
gains great reputation,
See Introduction
to vol.
anywhere'.

of State Papers, pp. 4-6.


14th
June,
tion
1666, an advertisement:
'Being daily presst to RepublicaGazet,
of books, medicines
and
other
things, not properly the businesi qf a paper of
will not
for all that
we
charge the Gazet
Intelligence.This is to notify once
with
of advertisements,
advertisements
unless they be mot I, rs of State; but that a paper
the
will be forthwith
and
recommended
to
another
by
printed apart,
public
of the

Calender

"

hand

'.

The

is almost

advertisement
that

it also

proves
much

to Williamson's

made

its appearance

Concerning

Trade.

emanated

identical
from

the

in Current
18th June, which
Intelligence
the
JS'cwsbook,
Secretary'soffice, where

The
chagrin, rested.
spring of 1668.

in the

On

4th

November

1675

of advertisements
referred
to
paper
Advertisements
It is the Mercury, or
The

City Mercury

appeared licensed

PRESS

THE

AND

LEGISLATION

151

NEWSBOOK

feeling that L'Estrange had vulgarised the book, been


personal and harped too long and too exclusively on
from
seditious
been
the
too
libels topic, and
averse

The
too

the

and

dull

It is not

of

reserve

proper

state

be

also there.
was
organ,
the author
of the Caveat

supposed that
this relapse gladly. The
suffered
State Papers preserve
several
indignant and despairing protests to Arlington.
He
refused
have
to
anything to do with the perfidious
to

Williamson.
On

15th

letter

October

which

the

1665,

points

latter wrote
and

feuds

the

to

L'Estrange

to

the

of

envies

journalist?.
Oxford.

'

'

am

deprives me
of

Majesty's
advised
who

the

to

agree

the

as

Mr
luck

the

good

channel

of

those
in

the

which

we

in

helping you
would

be

your
for

in

this

His

propose
right in

to

matter,

of

falling

been

very
in

opportunity

have
things,
of
this
despair
seeing
to

posing
com-

often

have

would

freedom

you

better

Muddiman
and

from

are

reputation.

own

your
with

had

to

of

news,

and

and
you,
future, I take

useful

in

occasion

public

service

you

distance

the

the

having

into

the

sorry
of

effected

if

that

you

the composing
relinquish to us the whole
pense
profitof the Newsbooh, I will procure for you in recomhis Majesty of "100
of it a salary from
per annum.
blame
If I tax it too low you must
yourself for having
told me
several times that the duty of it is very burdensome
I pray
the
and
let me
to you
profit inconsiderable.
you
have your answer
to this by the post and to assure
yourself
in the (certaintythat his betrayerhas his best good at heart
and that
this proposal proceeds from that root ") l.
even
will

you
and

'

'

"

probably himself

Eoger had
over

to

the

profitsof

magnify.

Years

the

after

possibly edited

by L'Estrango,

blame

book, which

his

for
he

was

he

who

as

expenses

may
in the

also

have

tion
prevaricaanxious

now

again declared
saying this he meant

very little out of it,but in


to the debit account
his whole
and

to

that
to

he

made

set

down

surveyor.
boen

the

'other

In
hand

his
'

of

delay
promised Papers of
appearance
to Koger
L'Kstrange,who stopped them by virtue of his
failure.
immediate
an
1666) issued Publick Advertisement*
patent and (25th June
1
S. P. Dom.
(1665-6),
Car., ii.,131 (103),quoted C.S.P.D.
p. 15.

the

above advertisement.
Advertisement
due
was

The

of the

"

SIR

152

later

Arlington,
he
Williamson,
unblushingly screwed
he had formerly depreciated them.
as
reply

days

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

two

to

profitsas high

the

up

'Estrangeto Arlington.
11th Oct.,1665.

'London,
My

'

Lokd,

I have

"

insufferable

the

to

not

passed

thought

many
inst.,which

upon
your
honour
to

I had
the
Lordship's of the 15th
receive
the whole
yesterday, wherein
matter, I find
upon
instance
of your exceeding generosity
only first an abundant
and
I shall ever
goodness, which
acknowledge with an
eternal

submission

Your

'

and

Lordship
in

distance

of

the

respect.

is

with

pleased to charge me
Public
Intelligencersince

carriages1
mis-

some

of

out

was

I dare
not
discretion, wherein
strict reflection,I cannot
a
justify myself, although upon

pitch
done

express

the particulars,
but I hope the
upon
his Majesty otherwise
during the time

Contagion,
weigh
may
did

your

the

hazards

down

make

once

I have

undergone
failings. As to

those
of

use

and

him,

found

service
of

Mr

him

have

Liberty

that

on

and

account,

Muddiman,

short

of

very

sickness
intelligence,but it was
during Mr Williamson's
and
that
if
of it. Now
perchance might be the reason
Mr
Williamson
him
could be pleased to engage
to deal more
openly with me, I should take the same
agreement over
again for an obligation, and immediately set the whole
again in motion.
Touching your Lordship'sproposal of relinquishing my
consideration
a
right in the Newsbook
expressed,it is
upon
certain that both
in gratitude and
over
justice your power
'

is without

me

would

utterly ruin

about

"400

understood
1

3rd

The
of

to

me,

complain

which

does

he

June,

1665

silent

in the

'

anxiety

trumpeted
letter

"

I met

for

year,

Government's
June

Arlington's
in

limit, but then

to

in

the

not
with

the

Lord

mention
Mr

books

the
I

Sandwich

ill

did

to

have

City
Mayor,

the
'to

Cowley

who

great right

See
observed

to set

as

June

up

trouble

; for my

Duke's

5th

that

it

improved to
being now
explain myself if I was

avoid

Sandwich.

withal

offer

me

of the Newsbook

praiseof my Lord Sandwich


Ncwshook
(upon Mr Moore's

This day the


Lord
did do my

let

fame

the

in

was

the

victoryof

in
reports ', is shown
S.P.I).
(1661-5), p. 108),
("'.
date 14th
also
Pepys under
miss

to

the

me

Duke

how

he
and

finds
the

showing L'Estrangc Capt.


to the late victory '.

everybody

Prince.
.

Ferrer's

letter)

PRESS

LEGISLATION

the excessive

charge

entertaining spies and

of

153

NEWSBOOK

THE

AND

instruments

out of my
about "500
of the paper which
cost me
pocket the first year, and if your Lordship had not most
from
his Majesty for my
"200
charitably promised me

for the

...

supply
'

I had

I shall

than

to

found

give you,

present

Your

"

trouble

further

no

obligedand

most

present

at

all

of

wishes

the

with

Lordship

your

imaginable comforts.

Lord,

my

work.

the

in

greater obstination

obedient

ever

servant.

L'ESTRANGE'1.

"ROGER

Two

frantic

more

by the

threatened

letters

Surveyor

Arlington

to

before

despatched

were

final

appeal

and

"

King. On 19th October2


the Secretary of his thirtyyears'
the writer again reminded
his undoubted
service
devotion, and
during the Plague
which
had
invaded
had
laid low
his family, and
eighty
successful

one

made

was

"

of the trade

members

with

to

the

which

he dealt.

spoke lightlyof the profitsof the Ncuslook, he


of which
was
reckoning the great initial drain on his purse
he
he had
informed
Arlington at the time, and for which
of
received
of security of organising a system
assurance
ing
espionage in the Press, plantingcorrespondence and establishWhen

he

"

"

himself

in

largehouse

with

etc.

servants,

All

which

beggary and
infamy '. In the last resort (21st October)3 he again recurs
at the old price,"3
to the prospect of employing Mudcliman
must

fall and

now

himself

be

'

marked

out

for

week.

the resolution

But

for the
of

matter

was

Garjet.

new

difficult

already taken
The naming of

choice.

Newcombe,

and
this
one

measures

jected
pro-

journal
of

was

the

Commonwealth

old

printers latelyrailed against by L'Estrange,


all that
edition, and
was
engaged to print the London
remained
to be done
to get Roger's book
was
prohibitedand
of
the free postage he had
enjoyed at the good instances
Chesterfield
Countess
hostility
despite Sir Philip Frowde's
which
obstacles
the
other
during
Plague revoked, while any
Arlington'slately obtained mastership of the Post Office
for the purpose.
to be used
might suggest, were
Thus by a combination
the camp
he
within
of enemies
"

"

S. P.

]),"". (Jar., ii.,131 (11).


"

C.S.P. 1). (1665-6),p. 22.

Ibid.,ii.,135 (8).

154

SIR

ROGER

L'ESTRANGE

espoused, and irrespectiveof the great malice he had caused


outside 1, by means
which
were
highly discreditable to all
and forsaken,
concerned, L'Estrange saw himself undermined
his boasted
his livelihood
slipping
patent waste
paper, and
from
him.
The
Gazet appeared at Oxford, 16th
November
in London.
1665, and was
quickly re-issued by Newcombe
The
it
of
'general applause' which
greeted it much
"

manufactured

doubt2

no

frantic

and

alluded

to, and

vain

ursred

"

to

on

even

more

number

competition. The
the Gazet in
(28th November), in which L'Estrange imitated
size and style,displaysboth
ness
his despair and the consciousof the triumph of the new
journalism.
that
Then
at last he made
appeal to the King already
carried
which

of

obtained

settlement

be

faithfully,
might

out
at

efforts

him

of

revenue

to "400

or

"500

in

from

the

1665,

were

Even

Ncwsbooh
true,

But

compensation enough.
be no
remedy. The only

was

Neivsbook
have

may

was

the

into

burden

"100

outdid

it to

on

serious
handicap.
very
While
it may
well be said that

lowest

state

of

degradation of

of

the

of

in

of "300

pension

know

we

far

"200

be

to

money,
estimate

an

1663,
a

year
there
prestige

comfort

that

was

secretary'soffice ', which


failed to get the profits

Williamson

single-sheetGazet

from

source

the

it4, though since

profits5,the
a

that

meant

arisingfrom
that

taken

'

his

spoils. Roger

for the loss of

could
the

if

and

generous,

as

Williamson's
away
from
the secret
service

guaranteed "200
paid annually by Arlington.
was

increase

regarded

stole

rate

any

it been

which, had

from

James

old

the

Gazet

'

party press

in

Newsbooh

L'Estrangewould
the

Hickes

not

be

represents the
'

(though why

'

of the party
party seeingthat it checked every manifestation
conflict) it is probably an exaggeration to say that it became

'

'

of

preservedfor
The

rabble

quality

of the

Intelligence'. Such is the preeminence


printed matter
over
manuscript that we have
several
us
copies of the Gazet for these years,

the

ancillary to

Letters

his

of

faction

which

of

employment
1 have

done

'

was

tease

to

to such

and

degree

persecute

that

[ have

the

whole

drawn

upon

imaginable '. S. J'. Dom.


Car.,ii.,135 (8) 19th October,
to
Arlington.
1665, Roger L'Estrange
2
makes
but a simple
who
had
said of L'Estrange's first attempts : ' He
Pepys
date
22nd
under
November
1665.
This day the Oxford Gazel came
beginning
and
is pretty full of news
out, which
no folly in it.'
3
8"x chap. xi.
in his begging letter to Jenkins, 16S4.
it "250
He makes
4
Ormonde
351-2.
MSS.,
N.S., iii.,
5
Page 145, note.
my

head

all the

malice

"

'

'

"

but

of the

volumes

only stray

THE

AND

LEGISLATION

PRESS

written

NEWSBOOK

155
which

\ from

news

we

and
intimate
superior, more
gossipy character, and to see why by the richer part of the
the less wealthy, by subscription it
or
even
community
generally
might be preferred. But though one newsletter
still able

are

its

judge

to

"

"

served

have

must

"

restricted

scarcelytrouble to
comfortably and with

would
read

pay heavily for what


social and caustic comment

of boon

coffee-rooms, the

of

keepers

year
letters

"

City readers
they could

country, whilst

in the

about
"5
expense
the recipientsof Muddiman's

the
country-side,

whole

and

fellows at the tavern

which

sometimes

the

wrote

letters themselves2.
Gazet

The

the

gave

without

Hague, Edinburgh, Dublin, Vienna, etc.,though


attempt

at

order.

division

of

Foreign

Netherlands,
We

of Current

feature

etc.

have

L'Estrange'sbook was
Plague in conveying

the

of

ravages

bureau

demolished

half

merchants

to

seek

Gazet, for

removed

invited

were

and

addresses, which

the

Fire

chronicler
the

Gazet

with

the

havoc

fire, which

the

of

in

editor

new

of the City, caused


trading rendezvous
of
Newcombe
new
places of business.
had

the

to

chaotic.

to

sober

turning itself into a


pleasing to find that

is

hand

in

example,

was

it

immense

temporarily
trade

time

the

After

the

public
Magistrate's
some

acting as

precedent by

hand
The

and

disease.

information,

of

L'Estrange worked
this particular.

the

the

useful

the

continued

of

that

seen

utility during the


orders, advertisingnostrums,
of

any
its

was
Intelligence
heads
as
Germany,

such

under

news

The

Paris, Stockholm,

of

news

go to
he was

burned

been

of

outskirts

City, and

the

mitigate the confusion


L'Estrange with their new
in

inserted

see

for

people

To

to

had

and

out,

business

Gazet.

the

Letters, of
of Muddiman's
There
volumes
are
preserved at Longleat fourteen
1689. L'Estrange'sexpectation in this
News, 29th April 1667 to 12th October
matter
(teenote, p. 147) has been only partiallyjustified.
2
For some
information
the
later
on
history of the Newsletter, see chap. xi.
e also Mr
Stanley Weyman'a Shrewsburyfta a not too fanciful picture of a London
1

Newsletter writer.

(Bag.

Hist.

form
interesting

But

Mr

J. B.

Williams'

Rev., April 1908)


of

by

is

literaryactivity.

article
far

It is not

the

on

NewsUtti

best

rs

account

difficult

to

see

why

tion
Restora-

the

at

have

we

the

of

this

successors

naturally
er
have
been
should
loyal Muddiman
Whiggish. The
it3
tends"
on
to
sedition.
See Macaulay's remarks
as
L'Estrange clearly saw"
in India.
to
use
NewdigateSee
Introduction
iii.
also
Hist, of Eng., chap.
Lady
Sir K. Newdigate's ])i
Newdegate's Gavali r Oma Puritan, p. viii.-ix.,xii.

of

the

"

'

Read

2W waletter from
for which
he is to have
a

Muddiman,

"1,

5s. '.

whose

news

I intend

to hove

for

one

quarter

SIR

156

ROGER

L'ESTRANGE

had
been
an
L'Estrange
indulgent
than
The
on
one
employer.
perfidious Hickes
more
when
the
Gazet
occasion
had
the grace
to
was
underway,
it
recall
L'Estrange's generosity in a direction, where
be
to
The
was
Mercury-women
good business
generous.
from
of
received
him
5s. a
bundle
a
monthly
quarter and
In

respect,

one

the

wrote

(surely

The
the

'

and

but

In

of
Tress

letter

'

is

L'Estrange's

idea

out,

editorial

which

in

With

his
the

nearer

in

the

main

there

in

State

do

we

words

series
which

point

we

see

flourished
excellent

(c. 1650-2)

advertisements
of

folly

no

failure,

of

of
i
2

in

her

number

Public

L'Estrange's
revive

to

days of
chiefly on

"

(1666-7), p.
193-4.

but

news.

21.

he

".

and

or

In

have

'

back

logically
loyal, no

however

essays
Milton
may

burned

newspaper,

effort

the

in

newspaper

Ibid., pp.

Street

has

on

it '.

an

journalism,

C.S.P.D.

Newcombe's

to

had

was

the

Mercnrius
the
a

disquisition L'Estrange

and

modern

first

tion
informa-

Thames

those
of

October,

some

Proclamation

of

way

Mercury,

12th

Fire

The

his

know.

one.

old

disquisition
'

Hence

not

Athenian

the

but

in

the

Perrot

day.

dated

conception

by

had

line

were

from

clothes

both

part.

painstaker.

no

except

attempt,

State

to

after

Charles

for his

one

off'

editorial

Pepys'
a
though

Free

each

them

quarter

Williamson

expressed

in

Politicus

take

specially good

to

has

the

no

advertisements

at

Hickes'

only

great

she
is

and

he

Hornsey

to

looks

for

news

there

'afar

Gazet

use,

20s.

now

them
on

was

removed

She
shop).
her
goods, and

carried

them

is
City lay in ruins, there
still going for the paper

woman

(now

of

women

addressed

the

one

The

when

to

who

out

had

Bennett

when

1666,

coaches

among

these

to have

Old

10s.

of

seems

then

interval

gave
all

them

with

indignation

many

Dunton

invited

'

sorting

creditable
How

brief

Williamson

Newcombe

parsimonious

editor, divides

some

the

l.

printing

new

for

quarterly)
provided them

and
back

in

Gazet

new

not

dinner
and

Muddiman

whilst

books,

ideal
hand.
was

deficient

SIR

158
and

Press

ROGER

to

while, when

wounded
of

good
meanly2.

so

That

Government

would

Government

the

the

him

permit

not

which

discredited

was

Surveyor's

paralysed his activities

vanity
a

The

wares1.

of the Newsbook

the

pursue

him

seditious

highly priced

disgracein the matter


for

L'ESTRANGE

could

treat

in

branch
of
every
abandoned
London

Court

had
Plague
policy. During
3
and left only inferior agents like Muddiman
and L'Estrange
the
lawless
and
to keep down
seditious elements
in the City.
When
the Dutch
sailed up the Thames,
and
when
the City
in

was

the

flames, there
and

King

sinister

were

Court, which

we

of

rumours

know

to

to

revival

of

few

of these

none

the

ferment

circumstances

of

seditious

do

in

despite
the

since

their

time

attempt

claim

by

Baxter

extinguished in 1663.
still slumbered
but

the

For

awful

the

on

abandoned
which

the

the

catastrophe

had

King,

their

Court

with

opposed
But

in Protestant

of

Restoration

look

the

in

1661

dread

minds,
of the

of

and

Eire

for

and

the

Papist
the

low, and,

had

been

failure of

for
that

Parliament

and
Catholic

nothing
and

War.

trace

we

the
in

Civil

lain

the

when

was

of

cause

which

age

writing which

bring England back to the brink


years
It was
to Hubert's
sillystory of his fireballs
Confederacy for the firing of London, that
beginning of that frenzy.
Catholics

an

we

to

The

levityof

be false, but

suggestedto the satirist the example of Nero


classical parallels
were
eagerly adopted.
But

the

the

ambitions
was

needed

circulation

the

tion
pro-Dutch Republicans anno
mirabili,see Introduc(1665-6),pp. xxvii.-viii. As to the damage done to the booksellers
of
Kiston
1666) deplores the ill fortune
Pepys (Diary, 2nd November
my
poor
and
made
who
"2 or "3,000 worse
is utterly undone
than
nothing from
being
estimate
of the
worth
"7 or "8,000 '. The
Stationers'
losses given by Pepys as
from
several
Clarendon
sets it as
"150,000 is corroborated
sources.
high as
"200,000 [Continuation,i., 317). Delaune
(1631), p. 4.J7
(PresentState of London
of dissent
and
Gloimoorm, but a glowworm
(published by G. Larkins, Duntons
sedition)imputing the Fire to the Papists and quoting Bedloe's
narrative, 1679,
See also t llarke (Wood, Life and
Times,
sum.
ii.,85-7)
puts it at the same
worth
9d. sticht they sold
which
that
book
afterwards
for Is.' (under 20th
was
.March
1666-7). Stoughton, op. cit.,iii.,327.
2 At
the same
time
he was
harrassed
by a Parliamentary enquiry (Committee
of Commons,
there
17th October
1666) as to whether
was
illegalpatent or
any
Lawful
abuse
in
the
the
Licensinc;
He
tells
or
Stopping
Printing of Books'.
any
he
several
after that
Prous
was
acquitted. See Observator,
i., 289, and
years
ceedimgsof Lords Libel's Committee, 6th April K"77 (H.M.C., Appendix to 9th
House
of
of the
Sept., Pt. ii.,79 ct seq.). ' He offered a vote of a Committee
for Printing, etc., in 1666, whereby
Commons
he was
freed
of a charge of this
had
that the Printers
nature
against him then '.
deputy. S. P. Dom. Car., ii.,132 (28), 129 (44).
Acting as Williamson's
some

to C.S.P.

account

D.

'

"

'

'

STATE
of

THE

confession

Hubert's
of

massacre

OF

St

PRINTING

all the

revive

to

HOUSES

159
of

terrors

the

Bartholomew.

The

from the dissenting


importance of this circumstance
libeller's standpoint was
recalled that
great. It was
very
when
Toleration
Catholic
a
was
proposed at the meeting
the
the
not
prior to
Savoy Conference, it was
Bishops
but

Baxter

who

dared

wishes.

King's

The

persecuting and

'

all

knew

undoubtedly

spirit.

Their

themselves

up

be

the

behaved

in

to

ing
informers,remindof the emissaries
of the Inquisition,were
where.
everyof extortion
in regard
They had adopted methods
Church
leases
which
had
fallen in
during the

men

the

to

had

Bishops

Roman

'

what

oppose

Commonwealth,
far

and

set

in

and

estate

an

the

beyond

golden time of Laud, and that at a


of decliuingtrade.
moment
The multiplied offices of the
Church, regarded by enemies
as
of fleecing
merely a method

pride

the

side by side with


set
the austerity and
people, were
Government
at
the
simplicity of the Puritan
Church.
Innovations
what
or
was
of
really the re-introduction
Laudian
forms
of the younger
were
regarded by many
generation as savouring of Rome1.
With
the cry of Popery sounding in the people's ear
could
the Dissenters
now
more
boldly attack Rome through
the Church's
of abusing the former
sides,and under
cover
"

"

strike
there

both
had

Prince

at

scarcelyyet
who

it became
from
in

this

later

quarter

arisen

that

Church,
circumstance, with

In

the

band

Church

of eminent

lists

Church

to

versialists
contro-

when

in

danger

was

reaped by

itself

against Rome

first fruits of

abundance

and
of

the

the

were

found

that

that the

so

connection
who

Church.

entered

apparent

that

and

the

popular

enemies

rail at

unfortunatelya

real

in

her

favour
of

the

trappincrs

sufficient number

real

of persecution in those ministers


cases
very
who,
like Bagshawe, Jenkins, and
destined
to die
Davies, were
in a prison 2.
No

one

observed
in

up

He

had

this

saw

it with

greater

district where
borne

arms

plainly

more

resentment.

Catholic
with

and

than

He

had

L'Estrange

or

been

families almost

brought
predominated.

been

both

sheltered

at

home

Clarendon, Continuation,ii., 175.


From
that time
(the abortive Toleration
Bill,1663) the King never
treated
of them
any
(bishops)with that respect as he
had
done formerly
which
easilyencouraged others not only to mention
their
Persona very negligently, but their Function
and
Religionitself.
"stoughton, Out, qf Religion in England, iii.,
l'34-5.
'

SIR

160
and

pamphlets
at

later

there

is

date

when

ought

faithful

for

be

to

he

England,
it

the

In

ancient

Scottish

of Toleration

again
going,

was

zealots

Eepublican
of

out

far

far

the

as

Eising

which

in

the

Court

cerned,
con-

forty

Protestant

presently

the

people

was

these

side,that it

one

of

the

account

safer

than

of

I.,the
"

rather

the accusation

Government,

Catholics, and

Faith, King-and-Bishops

the

time

Catholic

the

court

to

anti-Presbyterian

if any Toleration
was
who
for
Charles
fought

leaving
right. So

any

his

against the

question

for

was

at

was

word

men

an

And

all

that

than

Commonwealth.
of

the

of

In

the

adherents

all, rather

men

scarce

boldly avowed

he

mooted,
it

L'ESTRANGE

by Catholics.

exile

in

ROGER

years

dissenter.

alarmed

the

contrived

was

used
admission
as
an
disguise,was
by the
found
other
that
the
Presbyterian wherever
might be a
that therefore
veiled Catholic, and
persecution was
politic.
of the Pentland
If the Pope were
at the bottom
Rising,he
also the first begetter of all Presbyterian intrigues,
and
was
forms
of Presbytery
extreme
to identify the
at the worst
in

by Papists

with
for

the

extreme

Court

and

peaceful

of

writers

direction
of

the

it
the

which

that

"

owed

who

excellent
-

:;

had

said

the

as

that

Continuation,
of

Oldenburg

676
iii.,
and

since

and

of

rank

become

the

this

the

the

From
new
or

other

fall

Countess
scandalous

and

zest.

among

814-16.

satire

till Clarendon's

in many
cases
and could not be

Ilattige,
p. 196,

ing
enter-

now

obscure

no

that

protested against by Dr Glanvil


1682.
and ImpartialProtestant,

case

of

monarch

Zealous

Clarendon,

politicalsatire.

Parliament-men

in kind

and

triumph
given to

was

never

reply

to

literature,the

not

was

was

everything to him,

course

See the

appear

are

long

with

foullybespattered,and

more

cue

We

persons

joined
equal
scandalous
harbingers of

the
be

of

form

the

and

divines

and

come

loose

courtiers

kind, in which

it may

to

was

lampoon

it

privately

meant

Castlemaine

had

the

L'Estrange stamp1.

libellers.

the

of

great age

sport of the taverns2, but

lawyers

the

became

impossible

was

Always a peculiarlyattractive
naturally chooses for its victims
or
intelligence.
of the King
The
amours
"

Jesuits

spotted panther

indecencies

on

of the

mediator.

another

the

to

Church

the

Meanwhile
In

ambitions

rhyming
Holland

mode

and
:?,

Government

by the men
suspected of
Divines.

See

his

designs, and

seditious

would

Evelyn

have

PRINTING

who

the

in

as

resented

much

HOUSES
of Denham

case

the

161
and

charge of disloyalty.
found
their
infallibly

products of their lightfancies


evil companionship in the hawkers'
bundles
to an
For this the King himself
worst
essays in sedition.

But

the

way
the

blame.

largelyto
who

had

exercise

to

THE

OF

STATE

In

the

displaced
biting and

his

of

company
Clarendon

he

indecent

class

the

of

with
was

men
States-

allowed

Buckingham
even
permitted

wit, and

his

favourite

the

King, Buckingham and his imitators regaled companies


could not
these sharp pleasantrieswhich
fail to bring
into
King and his Ministers
disrespect1. Clarendon

with
the
had

to

indeed

foreseen

of

passages

the

lament

own

generally
old

Cavaliers

next

from
in

all

But

we

of the

Commons

with

already entered
which

libels

the

to

on

to

of

power

idea of
of

the

in truth

the

to

nation

had

Sec

Rankc,

Which

he

to

the

of

the

that

degree
principle
"

party

House

Upper
the

evil

Court

By

had
under

truckling

Charles

who

had

advanced

the

suggested

the

Clarendon
a

which
that

of

seemed

Ministerial

ministers

War,

cold

was

very
fear and

given way to a
together with the delay in
and his reported hostility
to
1

wrote

the
coquetted with
with France, calculatingon
the popularity
the Dutch
might avenge
triumph. But

Dutch

which

course

wit

copies

of Continental

Clarendon

to

opposition

hated

alliance

an

North

treatment

constitutional.

Church,

Parliament

After

the

kind

allies in

almost

the

the

due

was

in

of

Clarendon

powerful opposition to

even

of
triumph
a
responsibility.

of

their

became

Bishops

lukewarm

it

sense

of

license

Roger

for what

from

sorrowful

most

the

that

be

Absent

into the loyal histories


of the
way
direction
know
points in the same

only a continuation
described by Mr Airy.
in

the

deplores

matter

is

But

of

one

passage,

the

himself.

on

It may

this

found

"

century.

and

this, and

Court.

except

"

shafts

Continuation

the

prevailingat
his

his

turn

to

dislike
the
the

it,for fear of the Dutch


of France.

This

disbandment
old

Cavaliers

of
2

was

"

"

the

taken
army,
fatal to

History qfj"ngland,iii.,-ISO.

almost
2nd June
1663
the date
Pepys
in Parliament
to the
Coventry's answers
It is interesting to notice
how
the
charge that ' Cavaliers were
not
employed'.
two
the Millenaries, etc.,
topics were
intermingled, some
proposing to keep down
with
a
standing army
composed of 'the poorer Cavaliers who are much
oppressed
-

of

and

shared

with

Coventry.

etc.
L'Estrange"sCon .nilerations,

would

be

(1664-5),p. 78.

glad of Oliver's

"

Law,

"

"

notes

forbidding

arrests

on

Sundays'.

C,S.P.D.

ROGER

SIR

162

L'ESTRANGE

consenting to his disgrace,Charles chose


if he thought
But
also the path of personal convenience.
disband
that
Clarendon's
or
politicalhead would
appease
mistaken.
much
the new
Parliamentary opposition,he was
of 1667
has
been
Parliament
This
compared by Ranke
far good
the parallel is so
Short
Parliament, and
to the
of libels
in the Press
that it certainly marks
new
a
crop
able
because
of a far more
voicing a considerdangerous type
Court
section of Parliamentary and
even
opinion.

Clarendon, and

in

"

The
reverse

or

there

were

mitigate his
comings

which

and

had

that

like

in

1668

Dissenters

of

old

Cromwellians

Uniformity

of

had

the

fallen

against

and

into

The

intention,
framed

had

The

murmur.

even

Act

and

the

took

the

desuetude1

Church

the

was

insurgent

which

scarce

it

events.

Government's

Parliament

with

almost

movement

momentary

course

of the

earnest

was

the

of

the

many

in

persecuting Church

by

by
passed over
persecutingstatutes

and

the

for

modified

an

was

zeal

and

modation
Accom-

air, and

the

in

to

1661

Manton,

scarcelyconsulted.

were

Parliamentary

and

Baxter

indulgences were

much

been

release

and

leaders

Church

the

hoped

policy,and again as in
Ministers
goings between

Church

Nonconformists

prominent

desired

Clarendon

succeeded

which

Government

suggestion in several pamphlets that the Church


But
the King's debts.
be used
to pay
even
lands should
towards
this slight movement
Presbytery created a revival
Church
of the Clarendon
feelingon the one hand, while on
the Palace
took
the other tumults
once
more
place round
and people began to talk of the good old days of Oliver 2.
of the

form

It

in

was

his

from

these

brief

the

fatal

the

alarmed

tenderness

French
Church

of Dover

aroused

in that

great duel

C.S.P.D.

resolves
MS.

note

on

a
on

with

'

Dissenter

away

embraced

and

165.

the

Divines

Rome

which

of the

Church

Burnet

to

engage

described.

has

with Bishops, that he


is so
offended
bolder'.
Xv
also an
multiply and grow
1667, against unlawful
meetings of Papistsand
Line), 'The Presbyterians having used all their
'The

King

Conventicles

Toleration,
Proc.

the

to

turned

Charles

required the support of


policy, which
Party and culminating in the Treaty

even

(1667-8),p.

that

circumstances

of 10th

March

'

14, 15
and Parlt. for a Toleration
10th
1667 till
in Court
from
October
both
endeavours
their
had
Court
(the King and
favouring it)
February following and
both
in
'.
the
and
all
countries
City
frequent Conventicles
in Oliver Crornioell (Somcr's Tracts,vi.,
World's Mistake
See Slingsby Bethel's
in Ahs.
and
Slingsby is Shimei
477) for a proof that this feeling existed.
Ach'dophd.
Nonconformists

(Bod.

B.

Thus

it

the

which

the

both

"

the

and

generally derision
the

of
on

of the

Parliament

Long

feeling,in

the

into

contempt

had

menace

163

anti-sectarian

Laws

being cited where dissent


openly reared its head,

London

Plague

and

Clergy

HOUSES

session

by another orgy
Bishops descanted

marked

was

ninth

the

that

was

PRINTING

THE

OF

STATE

fallen, the

whilst
the

were

since

the

over

of

case

purged

never

"

which

the

country

daily portion

of

Clergy1.
tenth

The
the

session

Kinjj and

(1670)

Parliament

saw

delusive

Church

and

the

on

basis

of

the

the

Had

he

King
been

not

gaolsmight

for

twenty

for

kept the terms


already committed

have

the

years

himself

died

towards

France

or

of this

still

But

popular.

Rome

was

signal

corresponding relief
Persecution
could
to Dissenters3.
on
only be maintained
basis.
No
Protestant
of
the
sooner
a
were
suspicions
articulate
than
French
both sides
on
policy
responsible men
time
to
a
began to ask if this were
English
worry
weakeuing

Protestants

the

when

harmony

Catholic

this cry which


it mingled with
the

it

of

Popes

huzzas

and

Dissenters

in

See for

side
the

The

given
3

to

As

methods

The

Ranku

compare
to death

that

Church
decisive

to

third
were

has
of 1670

getting

confessed

excused in

and

Contempt of

of the

the

Clergy

in

to

Rome

compared
shrewd

situation

Then

hits

with

commanding

lenient

more

the

1680-1.

once

in this year

Trials,vol.
than

for
vi.

the

old

instructive

some

In

respect'-

some

Conventicle

Act.

was
imprisonment for attending conventicles
the fine given to informers
of entry
and
the powers
oppressive features. Stoughton, up cit.,iii.,387-8.

part of

to

Mead

State

and

its most

alliance

an

step

till

persecutionof

that

Candidly

and

Persecution,

reduced

were

officers

Proclamation

of

(22 Car.,ii.. c. i.) was

penalties

abolished.

and

R.

the

Act

new

546.

Occasions

1670.
L('Estrange .')
example the trials of Penn

lightson

mock

the

over

Smithfield,

1681

January

until

treasonous.

was

to

in

And

gate.

in volume

grow
mob

the

of

1 C.S.P.D,
(1667-8), pp. 243 and
Gachard's
remarkable
and
Grounds

addressed

to

the

at

was

Tantivies

itself voted

Parliament

enemy

destined

was

was

burning

and

Alliance,
victims,

Church's

the

and

concordat

the French

to

with

overflowed

this

of

yet, and

movement

every

any

troubles2.

of their

had

Act

made

between

meetings of
and
Dissenters
whatsoever
illegal,
imposed punishments on
constables
who
officials whether
neglected
magistratesor
in force.
Informers
to put the Act
were
promised a rich
and
the Dissenters
harvest
prepared for a sharp renewal
Conventicle

severe

which

concord

at

to

in

1667

the

now

Church
and

shattered

Justices

1669, O.S.P.D, (1668-9),p. 412.

the

Crown

the

more

as

the

put the

en
a

to

that

Dissenters

new

1611,

the

and

in force

saved

we

Popish

passant, which
persecution,

alliance
Act

in

ran

aroused
.lames

dissent.

is dated

16th

may
scare

the
II.

The

July

SIR

164

This

brief

conduct

of the

already

noticed

which

names

Mean

L'ESTRANGE

summary

may
of
which
Press,
is that

in

and

ROGER

no

the

the

most

volume

of

deserve

sense

fanatic

writers

to

serve

the

illustrate

the

observable
libel

is swollen
of

stigma

still continue,

new

feature

by

fanaticism.

but

the

anti-

(and therefore

reinforced
libellous)ranks
are
which
their honoured
have
by names
place in literature.
Another
feature
is the outburst
of Catholic
apologieswhich
the
and
natural
effect
of
the
absurd
were
sure
imputation
of the firingof London
This
the body of sedition
K
was

government

'

'

which

the

Stationers

loved

Surveyor did little here, and


of being secretlya favourer
licensed
Yet

of their

some

another

milder

best

to

prosecute, but

therein

earned

of their

cause,

the

the

reputation

besides

that

he

books.

class

treated
of the decay
appeared which
of trade, but in part was
the
really designed to commend
freedom
enjoyed by the sects in Holland, or to inveigh
In any case
both
against the intolerable pride of France.
classes
that
libels, in the
covert
were
sense
they were
attacks
the Government
on
by suggesting that the former
better than
to have
these, though several seem
days were
had
the approval of Charles
who
whole-hearted
was
never
in the persecution policy.
A
license in
set was
dangerous feature of another
a
the
recent
urging the legal aspect of certain laws
as
Conventicle
Act
and
as
being contrary to Magna Charta
the
Constitution2.
It was
not
a
new
long ere
type of
pamphlet urged (preciselyas in 1659
against the Rump)
that the present Parliament
had
no
validity,its mandate
to use
term
a modern
having long since expired.
These
tendencies
force.
When
new
gathered enormous
small
coalmen
and
coffee-house
the
men
began to argue
niceties
of
the
the
and to lay down
fundamentals
legal
case,
of the Constitution, a new
stage in the history of the libel
"

"

"

"

is reached.

Lastly the perpetual pamphlet

warfare

with

the

Papists

1 The
became
the
favourite
scandal
to object against any
Firing of London
The
needless
Duke
of York,
to say
Danby, and
Roger
unpopular person.
in 1666.
few of the persons
who
C.S.P.D.
set the fire ablaze
a
L'Rstrange were
the King, Duke
of York, and Nobles
to see
came
(1666-7),p. 214 : At Moorfields
'

Charles
a

the

See

1.
A

revenged'.
Few
Sober Queriesupon

pamphlet

(1660-70),
p.

for

227.

which

the late Proclamation,

L'Estrange

made

(C.S.P.D. (166S-9),p. 140),


'diligent inquiries'. C.S.P.D.

166

SIR

the

Fire

the

Court.

appointed
On

the

the

House.

which

were

On

the

25th

25th
to

is sufficient

and

on

1666

the Fire

and

laid before
of the

nature

the

had

zealous

members,

had

to
nothing on which
popular credulity had already placed

divided

were

that

to

its Causes.

was

non-committal

show

to

though they

were,

except for the

"

views, the Court

two

report

of annoyance
Parliament

source

September

dubious

charge, where

Parties

greatest

January following,their report


The

Protestants

L'ESTRANGE

the

Committee

document

ROGER

saner

charging the Firing

Republicans

and

recallingthe

evidence

of Eathbone

and

his

in

company
coincidence

the

men

"

on

the

the trials

at

of the

spring

it.

between

of London

taken

fix

year1.

the
of the date of the Fire with
They remarked
of baleful note
for the 3rd
a
prophecy in Lilly'salmanac
which
the
a
September
seven
prophecy on
conspirators
executed
in the beginning of the year
had
seized for some
diabolical attempt on London.
The very date was
significant
of their hopes.
the
bulk
of the
But
vast
populace took a different
Hubert's
idiotic confession
view, and
merely inflamed
a
that the Catholics had
done
suspicion already entertained
"

the

deed.

Burnet

indeed

usual

way, giving
order
to leave

in

and

Fire

its

interminable

strong

as

for

room

truth

in

causes

wrangles which

Oldmixons,

and

Observator

forestalled

'

Cooks

couplet'2. The

battle

the

scouted

then

the

to

after,in his

"

story

occasion

gave

to

the pages
a

many

laboured

raged

page
fashion

round

the

as

possible

doubt.

good whiggish

occupy

and
in

turn

notion

one

of the
of

The

of

those

'Burnets,

L'Estrange's

Pope's witty
inscriptionon

to this old
somewhat
spent, L' Estrange returned
Rathbone
the
of the
account
quoting directly from
show
that
the
with
trials
in the
much
to
Gazet
of April 1666, and
effect,
What
in contemplation.
Republican conspirators had the burning of London
1680
aroused
with
the controversy
deeply
by the Inscription on the Monument,
in
ordered
its deletion
resented
and
II. especially,who
by the Court
by James
ad
Smith's
and
with
Bedloe's
P.
Narrative
London's
what
Trap
1685,
of
Flames,
In the interval
Fire reasserted
itself as a first class topic in 1679-83.
i,i, the
series
twelve
of fires spread over
were
catalogued by the
a remarkable
years
true-Protestant
the
Faithful, in 1679 carefully put together by Henry Care
the subject and
which
standard
work
the
became
Bedloe's
on
Scribe as
Narrative,
noticed.
London
See
Delaune's
16S1
State
Present
of
already
was
largely.
quoted
Observator, i., 14, 1681 : ' "Is there not something in a Gazet about that Plot?"
"
'. On the other
Yes, Yes, the Gazet of 26th April 1666 gives ye the History on't
to
letter
of
hand
i., 136) quoted a
Sandwich, 23rd August
Arlington
Ralph {Hist.,
the
had
less trouble and
alarms
from
discontented
1666 : ' We
have
Party than
1

When

charge

Popish frenzy

in

his

was

Obset-vators

"

"

ever

we

had

in any

year
2

'

'.

London's
Like

column

tall

pointing

bully lifts its

to the

head

and

skies

lies '.

STATE
the
in

HOUSES

by Sir Patience

ordered

monument

PRINTING

THE

OF

1G7
Lord

Ward,

Mayor

1680.
The

and

Scottish

that

the

covenanting

side.

had

attracted
absurd

engaged by

little was
that

reports

winter

Rising this

Pope's
The
question

lost interest, except

such

for

busy

were

issue

at

credited

widely

but

emissaries

l,

little attention

with

rumours

the

that

as

the

on

Dutch
Wit

De

Firing of London.
It was
scarcelyto be expected that the Catholics would
remain
silent under
those
charges'2. Roger Palmer, Earl
of Castlemaine, the most
spiritedlay-Catholicof the time,
and
himself
handed
the Press
to
partly dictated to the
raised a storm
of indignation
Printer
a pamphlet which
time Fiat Lux
shifted
the Catholics' Apology 3. At the same
hud

hand

in

the

"

"

"

blame

the

Stationers

those

The

the

from

Fire

and

'

to

as

of

were,
'

Narratives

of

anti-papisttouches
nervous

han"intf

of Hubert

difficult

in

London

sellers.
book-

Charter

of their
had

6,

emerged

old

and

libels and

new

the

of

those

on

even

"

licensed
un-

the several
Enformaof course,
with
Flames
the Fire, London's
'

There

Court's

the

individuals

how

shelves

medley

"

of

renewal

seeking a

their

on

books.

lurid

dilemma

desirable.

was

They
loyal Royston
tions

then

were

found

'

the

loyal

sold

who

Fire, at the instigation

the

visitation

information

some

be

these

on

booksellers

illustrates

would

who

secretaries, made

They
and

and

shortlyafter

Stationers

the

the

of

rush

5.

circumstances

of

timidity
by Pepys4,

is noticed

them,
of

the

and

pamphlets

The

incendiaries.

Protestant

to

and

desire

hush

to

before

even

insidious

hints

in the
up
could sift the

matters

Parliament

of the

speedy
matter.

"

1666 : ' The


Scots Rebels
by Pepys, 3rd December
referred
to ' this day's Gazct '.
are
complete story we
under
date
11th
the
There
is no
hint of the Papists in this, but
September
of
prohibited) account
1667, the diarist noting the (unlicensed and afterwards
else to lay the catastrophe
the Proceedings of the Committee, seems
like every one
1

It is barely mentioned

routed

are

at the
-

feet
There

'.

For

of the
was

the

Papists.
no

such

hint

in

the

Oflicial Account

published

September

1665.

See

4
5

the
p.

in

the

Go.

C.S.P.D.

(1666-7), p. 107.
8 To M
the Royaliststhat raffered
for His Majesty
the English Catholics.

10th

Apology of

the Humble
.

1666.
Diary, 1st December
the
Even
loyal Ric. Royston asks pardon for selling offensive
C.S.P.D.
Fire.
to extremity by the
ground that he is reduced

wares,

on

(1666-7),

\T1.

6
Exemplified at the request
Nichol, LU. Anec., Hi., 578.

of the Master

and

Wardens,

10th

August 1667.

The
The

popular lampoon

and

caused

relating
Pepys' heart

Mr

to

in

bundles

side

eagerly sought by Pepys

"

the

to

Lady Castlemaine,

discovered

was

Leviathan

which

of

part

and

King

parts of the Advice

various

the

the

on

Petition,

Hobbes'

with

side

"

Whore's

Poor

by

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

SIR

168

to

Painter, the fourth


insult
to
London,

Dutch

ache

'

so

"

'

home

its

were

sallies 2.
such

But
Stationers
these
like

visitations

were

etc.)and

the

to

friends,cleared their

their

At

temporarily of objectionable matter.


bullied
who
and
they threatened
any
authority such as L'Estrange.

the

in

up
seized

on
They
and Osborne
(Catholic Printers of
Dissenters, Darby and F. Smith,

beforehand

notice

avail, because

bound

ever

commodities.

popular
Milburn

than

more

little

of

were

the

sale

of

men
poor
the Apology,

and

sending
shelves

own

the

time

same

appealed

to

another

"

In
from

the

and

Presses

found
'

basis

of

London

that

forty printers, and


the

Printers,

Stationers,made

rich

the

the

month

same

separate visitation
boasted
'

foreigners 3.

some

Petition

to

the

sighing for freedom

ever

hundred

one

This

Secretaries

of their

survey
on

the

and
became

familiar

lines.
As

Secretaries

result

of

addressed

these
to

the

visitations

complaints, the
number
of questions

and

Stationers

with
the remark
that
concluded
charges which
The
discharge
Surveyor of the Press says that he cannot
the
his duty so
are
dependent on
long as the Printers
interest
it is to
whose
Stationers
Company,
encourage
unlawful
printing'4.
the
The
Government
set itself energeticallyto suppress
rather

or
'

London's

Flames

type of libel,and

on

the

other

hand

the

3rd September
1668.
Pepys under
with
Advice
Fourth
to the Painter
'I met
a
Pepys, 14th September 1667:
of the
river
and
the end
the
to the
War, that
coming of the Dutch
upon
and
also
read
it being too
true '. See
ache
heart
to
so
made
it,
sharp
my
dated
October
20th
of Muddiman's
Newsletters
{O."P.D. (1666-7),p. 209) one
and
Hobbes'
lias ordered
of Commons
1666:
'The
House
inspection of White
in
examination
into
abuses
called
book
Printing'. This
was
Leviathan, and
which
from
Committee
the
L'Estrange emerged unscathed.
3
See their
Printing, showing the
Brief Discourse Concerning Printers and
and
the
Stationers
sustained
from
demanding
separate incorporation.
wrongs
V.S.I 'J j. (1663-4), p. 413.
1 t '.S./'. I).
London's
Flames at Leache's, but did
(1666-7),p. 430 : They found
not prosecute the Printer.
Darby's presses for a quaker's sheet,
They took away
and
Milburn's
for the Catholic Apology, only because
they suspectedthem of printing
1

'

the

Company's Copies'.

Catholic
liked

Apology

l.

leave

the

to

is little doubt

There

Catholic

populace,
It
had

mingling

these

libels,and

other

the

on

of

of

fictions

of

and

unruly

an

detainers

the

exposed

hand

one

the

bigoted

and

favour

truth,

caution.

and

fear

the

On

Oates.

Titus

who

those

and

Government

have

but
the
peace,
in 1680-1
occasion

the later
curiously resembled
both
forced
to prosecute
they were

the

would

they
in

Printers

situation
when

169

HOUSES

PRINTING

THE

OF

STATE

that

found

was

broadcast

scattered

been

especiallythe former,
country, and

the

over

were

Smith's
vastly popular Trap
shortly reinforced by Frank
all
on
ad
expatiated in a plausible way
Crucem, which
with
the
a
Papists' bloody designs' and illustrated them
'

of

wealth
their

dispersal

Simon

Dover)

hunting

ground,

unfortunate
old

their

Calvert

Elizabeth

were

and

Mrs

was

again

activity2. Newcastle, too, demanded


that

into

Holland

from

libels

of

Hull

and

town

covenanting zealots
business
by
largely managed
clerk
of Hull
through certain
by

Bristol,

chief

because
vigilance,
bundles

also

and

"

fanatic

old

his

there

exiled

of

Scotland

from

over

printed
an

of

centre

imported weekly
sent

the

of

Brewster.
a

of

agents

(widow

some

were

many
be
to

"

chief

The

narrative.

circumstantial

the

ex-town

Commonwealth

Sir

Philip Musgrave,
of the
the
secretaries
dispersal of
everwatchful, warned
the
Fires
Glasgow
England. From
throughout northern
the Scotch
before
outbreak, the Archbishop had sent news
In
of the libellous activity of the dispossessed ministers.
had
short
the old conspiracy which
prepared the ground
for

the

and

Northern

the year
period of high

order

November
-

1666

C."P.D.

suppress

C.S.P.D.

(1667-8),|

for the

hopes

book

282, 6th

'

Moon,

Thomas

sold '.
and

who

Sir

Whiggim and
L'Estrangeare

Knight

John

the

Treason.
most

punish

and

author

the

is

sectaries.

28th

dated

8s.
is

Sir

an

13th
1667, p. 290.
books
seditious
trade
a
sending
Fire to Susannah
Moore, bookseller,

March

made

per

25

busy looking

extract

C.S.I'.h.
of

1668

and

of

the

6d.

Conventicles.

(1666-7)]
p. 415,
the

of

rate

at

troubling

( '."'.P. I).
_::

scattered

are

Kepublicans

and

16th

to

July 1667,
Calvert,
formerly
that
on
City ',has dispersed 50 books
them

new

(1666-7), p. 296.

to

Michael

by

"

this

to

in

Mrs

and

continued

was

State

"

The

1663,

to
persuade us that the year
papers,
of the Surveyor's comparative inactivity

the

through
was

of

attempt

agents, sufficient glimpses of whom

old

1666-7

Carlisle

From

there.

friends

Scotch

retailed
after

Sd.

each.

seditious

(1666-7), pp.
letter, endorsed

Philip Musgrave, Sir J.

vigilantwatchdogs.

at

the

Knight

'All

of

bookseller,

214-15.

by L'Kstrange,
of

Bristol

and

SIR

170

with
in

the

of

Gazette

and

references

prophetic

the

L'ESTRANGE

of Rathbone

execution

The

ROGER

to

his

six

the

3rd

in

comrades

April

noticed

September

the

and
almanacs
numerous
April,
rule
prognostics of change1, the holding up of Cromwell's
of the people,and the constant
to the admiration
expatiation
and
of
the
the
and
on
misery
decay of
poverty
country

trade, all these


of

1641

was

the

others
and

"

into

of

treason

brought

to

more

of

the

have

in

Moorfields
almost

notice

department,
Uniformity Act, an

he

courage
and
in

to

England

upon
been

he

had

started

force

'

ultra-

the

and

Charles

Scotch

Rising

descended

and

their

packmen,

as

and

and

voluble

themselves

till the

Plot

House

Rye

of

and

secretary

first
appears
assistant
Dr
to

at

libellous

of
as

Islington.

sedition
a

Owen

tombstone

beginnings

Plotter,preacher

the

grammar

and

sedition

there of the

Fergusson
of

of

groups

Not
the

and

victim

of

the

(who

had

the

to

Bagshawe),

glibbest tongues in
all subjects'. So early as January 1662-3
Scot
to
Secretary
betrayed by a brother

coffee

Bennet, and
he

up

Border

England

here

accredited

set

of

at

the

among
Channel

against

the

"

of the

made

either

literature

teacher

libels

doings

the

abortive

organised

career

and

women

the

head.
less

remarkable

'

spectre

two

Dutch

the

nuisance

or

of

of

west

chronic

agents, we

yet the

the

was

in

were

crossed

seditious

matters

the

Of
their

and

"

result

with

directed

type

Scots

stuffed with

packs

complaint
pamphlets by the

As

north

and

Brewster,

they fell in
These
pamphlets

numerous

the

that

official

seditious

his debaucheries.

in 1666,

and

ultra-indecent

or

Ministers

persistence of the

Calvert

Sea3.

pious

admirable

Newcastle,

dispersal of
English seamen
North

things warned

stalking abroad2.

Besides
among
Hull

3rd

sent

his

marked

house

for

one

time

of

to

the

the

Gatehouse.

1668

In

Scotch
long list of libels,written with that
by L'Estrange,and betrayed by occasional
'

Scoticisms.

Sir Sidney

Lee

[Did. of

Pepys [Diary, iii.,


56)

and

Ward

Biog.,art. L'Estrange) notes the


[Diary, p. 94), that Roger 'expunged

Nat.

rumour

from

in
the

of 1666',
submitted
in 1665 all prophecies of the Fire of London
to him
'.
probably correct and yet no great matter
2
Despite Arlington's optimistic letter to Sandwich, see p. 166, note, and
Ralph's refutation
(Hid. of ting., i., 136-7 and notes).
::
The
Lord
Chancellor's
Speech in Parliament, 7th January
Chap. iv.
about
doth
to
than
allow
to go
honourable
1674:
an
war
'Perhaps it is more
raise sedition through the country of an
enemy'. Part. Hid., iv., 616.

almanacs
which

is

'

OF

STATE

THE

PRINTING

HOUSES

171

private joint
dispossessedclergy,in which
participators.
Calainy, Jenkins, and Fergusson were
in
Scot
domiciled
Another
career
England, whose
the

for

stock

earlier date

the

Of

L'Estrange
was

with

Ralph
had

it his

business

years before
at the Restoration
to

which

had

or

time

from

co-worker

sedition

in

Gloucester.

of

rhymster

to

about
about
1653
England somewhere
Fergusson quitted his native Inverurie, and
of sedition and
suspicion
began a career
to

come

second

watch

to

Forbes, assistant
Wallis, the seditious

two

only

of

of

maintenance

made

hints

are

James

time,
Forbes

there

of the

that

and

'.

In

active

the

prosecution
L'Estrange'sappointment to the

followed

Surveyorship,Wallis

Plotter

'

Forbes

had

been

seized

(September

Clapham, the emporium of their sedition


then
and
described
by the Surveyor
writings. They were
the agents of the most
',
as
dangerous factions about Town
Wallis'
the
and
own
dispersers of Sufferers'Catechisms
Their
works'.
was
great, and
correspondence in the West
carriers, etc., to
meaner
they employed various
persons,
out.
help them
in this work, by
Yet another
Scot, almost as formidable
in Clapham
James
to set up
name
Nesbit, was
a teacher
as
and the manager
of the disaffected Scots in England, till the
affair fluttered the dovecots.
Eye House
L'Estrange does
1664), the latter

at

'

not

to

seem

Plot

have

set him

In

the

for

country.
has

that

cautious

whole

come

an

libel

peculiarlyoffensive
Cobbler,
out

scattered

was

yet

discoveryof

it

and

as

'

entreated

of

Cobblers

city and
damnedest
thing

through
the

till

secrecy

by

seize

'

offers of
will

called

Wallis'

might
messengers
make
If you
cannot
offenders,it will be better to let them

opportunity

the

old notes.

delay the Government


of conspirators.
nest

libel of the

till the

Nesbit

L'Estrange described

destroyingthe
till

'

smoaked

comparing his

1668

Room

'

making them sure.


be closelyfollowed

sure

the
of

alone

hope the
up"-. There
I

and
of Wallis
1664,
Forbes, 1st October
(1664-5),p. 24. Exam,
On
in his study.
the
works
L'Estrange found
having read
to
he had
that
Col. Frowde
8th September
asked
Bennett
1664, Roger wrote
with
seize
We
shall meet
of their
three
correspondents in Gloucestershire.
For
an
Forbes
1670.
the
in gaol 1669
or
again. But
rhymster died
poor
St.
Barton
with
the
and
connection
his
of Forbes
autobiographical account
ruing
Chapel, Gloucester, of which he was Brat pastor, see Some Particul
/.
See also Scott's
of John
Lloyd, Gloucester, 1899.
Biddle, by Walter
note
on
Forbes, the Phuhg of Abs. and Achilophel (Dryden (1808),is., 368 ;
chap, xii.,34).
i

Forbes

"

O.S.P.D.

denied

(J.S.P.L.

(1667-8),
p. 357, 24th April 1668.

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

SIR

172

inclination

is,perhaps,too much

to

such

regard

and

idea

conceived

affair

an

as

a
as
suddenly
neglect
Rye
of
these
if
men
perverted genius
workingpatient
In
of
unrest
during these
through twenty years.
any case
directed
attention
of L'Estrange would
be
to
years, the
and
in
in Islington,Clapham, and
the haunts
Moorfields,
as
of the Northern
the week
Conspiracy, October 1663, he knew
the moment
arrived of making
where
to lay his fingerwhen
shall
of the Rye discovery we
them
',so on the morrow
sure

Plot

the

to

the

'

find him
Just
towards
breach
in

was
we

as

hot

of these

scent

men.

King was
inclining
the
Catholics, and
thereby preparing the fatal
with
his Parliament, 'the insolency of the Papists'
Castlemaine's
Catholic Apology,
everybody's mouth.
the

at

much

and

had

suffered

ment
embarrass-

some

in

red

letters

the

for

the

King.

Its

by printing

who

Catholics

of

the

excitement

Government

the

to

when

moment

created

saw,

names

the

on

Bell and
Three
The
publication is instructive.
the
of its transference
Cranes
in the Savoy was
Tavern
scene
John
of
from
'two
gentlemen' into the hands
The Printer
Brereton, who
disposed of it to the hawkers.
method

of

'

'

Milburne,

was

him

do

to

whose

poverty

work.

the

induced

wards
(Osborne), used afterto
already refused
print it, but

Castlemaine

introduced

faith

his

Printer

One

evidence, had

as

less than

no

Milburne,

to

printed off, and


to
helped him
compare
\
printed
'

Lordship's entreaty

his

at

was

the

house

whose

at

written

with

paper

it
he
half

one

'

Osborne

November

Catholic.

order

Council's

The
28th

not

was

seized

They
not

"

he

because

"

of

said

was

of the

action

'.S.P.

I".

document
Roman
a

referred
Catholics

C.S.P.D.

to

was

Printer.

is endorsed

December
"

dated

is

offending

reasons) took
After

few

released.
in this matter

of

"

the

copies2.
The

1666.

Twynne's

Case

was

200-2.

istic.
character-

L'Estrange alleged
book, but because
It

was

this

on

proof-reading always
was

in State

'L'Estrange'sreport

.See Hart, Index, pp.


(1666-7),p. 430.

Apology

'.

their

the

of

Rising.

Press

character

(1666-7),
p. 361, 20th

capital point against

Scotch

Milburne's

print

to

the

book

for obvious

shielded

Stationers

the

the

suppress
examination

The

1666.

printers(Castlemaine was
of
place in the month
months'
custody Milburne
The

to

of

Trials,

his

vi.,

enquiry

532.
after

The
the

It

Southwark.
the

were

and

prison *.

of

long out

not

three

cases

river

those

Others

spiritsat
and

Calverts

to be

known

were

that

discovered

afterwards

was

ruling
the

that

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

SIR

174

Blue

the

Larkins

Darbys
Alley Press,
in

(the wives
printing south

important) were
pestiferous libels,the
are

of

all
the

series,Boom

Painter

in

the

Anchor

the

set up

for

Cobbler,etc.

the

protector,if
be

to

loyal Capt. John

of all the

Worst

very

Seymour

Larkins'

was

known
employer. Wallis and Forbes were
Hackney and
busy flittingin disguise between
not

Clapham.
It

personal
lampoons

triumph

of the

instance
and

The
a

in

is shown

"

and

probably

smarted

who

King,

Petition

from

the

at

Dutch

the

that

L'Estrange
reproach and
pardonable mingling
his reply,dated 22nd
April 1668 2.
Whore's

Poor

for, and

sent

was

circumstances

these

in

was

"

of

L'Estrange to Arlington.
My

'

at

Lord,

confined

present

lost at least 40

I have

"

to

'

'

concerns

have

acted

far

as

contented
'

The

the very

it.
his

then

to

Law

hard

Lordship

now
you
in for their necks,

have
is

matter

I been

so

forfeited
short

it.

hold, and

long

to reduce

I would

Not, my
2

C.S. ["./".

S. P. Dvm.

had

last
very
not

have

own.

my

unless the

the Press

still allowed

this, I would

ere

question be
do persuade myself the

if

the

those

act

very

of

expresslyproved, the

in

Majesty's bounty,
made

that

in

that

present, I

that
for

warrant

upon

the

consider

may

employ

authority would

credit,and

money,

was

of

business

anything

in

pleasure

your
In the

have

off.

Had

my

you

point

come

as

your

brought them

in thus observing
my excuse
If not, I'll wait
it is well.

take

service.

your

and
me,
carry
trouble
I gave
whom
persons

it

attendant,

will

agent, and

my

will

plead

Lordship in spite of all difficulties.


your
The bearer of this letter is a gentleman whom

upon

as

of my

command

the

chamber
for a fortnight upon
my
Willis.
the order
of Dr

life by
of my
If this distemper may

hazard

stand

and

of blood

oz.

to

order
to the

according
have kept

Lord, that I

it

made

ever

(1667-8),
pp. 294,310.
Cur., ii.,238,

No.

as

179.

Printer
will find

Government

the

Printing

I had

brought

first intent of
clear
an

as

I had

interest

STATE
of his

THE

Majesty's service

confess

but

cannot

somewhat
and

OF

of trouble

or

see

unchangeable service

length either to
common
charity.
at

'

This

175

it so, but I
hard
fortune

designed

ever

reilect
to

HOUSES

PRINTING

upon

must

with

my
after 30

years'assiduous
the Crown, exposed
live the object of a

myself
and fidelity
to
bread

want

or

I presume
to speak nakedly
of reproach or
insolence.

it

as

My

manner
any
deserve
to be blamed

is,and without
Lord, I do not

certainlyfor using the modest


liberty
letter
an
a
gentleman, and I assure
man,
my
of a generous
interpretation,
especiallywhen
Lordship
your
shall duly consider
decree
I am
to what
pinched both in
and
Convenience.
point of Honour
cf

honest

'

and

took

the

Williamson

for

pleased to

the

due

now

matter

of

"25.

But

Lordship'saccount

he

last

was

the

upon

last payment

Williamson's

Mr
was

The

Lordship.

to your

solicit

to

was

1667.

October

1 must

part

since

long

not

upon
your
and
Mr
1666

January

15th

on

his

remit
I had

payment
15th

freedom

submit

now

myself upon

the

whole

ship's
Lord-

to your

goodness,and if there be anything wherein so wretched


I am
be of aid to your Lordship, I will most
a thing as
may
undoubtedly manifest myself to be, my Lord, Your Honour's
Obedient

most

and

Faithful

Servant,
'ROGER

The

alluded

persons

to

probably Darby,
for a A Trumpet
1667
to the Spring Sessions

being

as

Calvert, and

Robert
in

Blown

L'ESTRANGE'.

'

White,

Sion, and

Press,

was

taken

held

that

Poole,

one

hold
in

'

were

August
for trial

over

l.

1668

the
Arlington made
find
for by 24th
April we
Roger in
the day after, the
libellers again, and
It is certain

in

now

committed

to

Amende
full

the

honorable,
after

cry
of

owner

the

secret

Gatehouse.

But

Press
in Southwark
the
discovery of the Larkins
was
of
work
of Roger Norton
the Stationers' Company, and
the suspicion is that L'Estrange would
be very friendly
not
the

the

to

scandal

of such

discoveryattachingto

his

friend

Capt. Seymour-.
i

C.S.P.D.
There

James,
so

kind

to

(1666-7),p. 395.
printed letter by that
Larkins, 1684, reproaching
is

to him.

extraordinarywoman

him

Defend qfthe Church

for

and

printer,Eleanor

attacking L'Estrange,
of England, etc., by Eleanor

who

had

been

James, 1687;

SIR

176
his letter

In
for

the

us

of the

half

from

books

which

would

directed
the

guide

to

'

'

quality

his

passages

chamber

the

these

had

whole,

audacious

and

warning

been

possible in

changed temper

of

ment
Parlia-

responsible?

of

Wallis'

undoubtedly

is

se

for

serve

may

; but

punish most,

de

will

jury

is

Belo

because

they reflect

vile libel of

the

same

se.

fasten

can

nothing

take

The

on

notice

Poor

Whore's

Petition

of.

than

Liberty of Conscience is rather to be answered


punished except as an unlicensed
pamphlet.
'

5.

'

6. The

little
now

Saint's

have

hot that all

upon

'

7. Boom

'

It is not

those

who

for

Blue

serve

Vavasour

direct

treason

brought it home, but


their guard. I send

in

it and

the

alarm

is

another

to

spy

were

S. P.

being

was

had

Meetings

and

Conventicle

Alley
in

informed
the

reported
Dom.

libel.

[noticedabove].

the License
of the
govern
be rewarded
'.
therein should

Anchor

Powell

has

the Cobbler

the

Government

Monarchy

are

easy

Meanwhile
at

Freedom

patience would

so

will

jury

it.

Oomesta

Felo

as

'4. I
a

receives

present Parliament.

3. Omnia

that

say

Queries will

2. The

the

on

de
much

make

not

the

that

the

On

juries

his

from

his

information
such
an
as
prepare
the King's Council
to proceed.

1. Felo

'

one

partly

will

his

for

Need
was

from

with

to

those

messengers.
remarks
on

the

1662-4.

to, and

growing respect
which
illegalconstraint

libels,shows

against

of

tenor

marked

the

the

moderate

listen

jury
operations of

him

to

reviewer

He

journal.

preserved

libels

still confined

was

modern

as

has

prominent

brought

were

critical

dozen

He

Secretary'soffice,much
load

Arlington he

to

comment.

and

chamber

L'ESTRANGE

24th,

of

names

excellent

some

ROGER

secret

Printing

watched.
of

In

Quaker

have

their

Car., ii.,238 (202).

and

House

March
and

Fifth

and
Nye
headquarters

neighbourhood.
to

Press

STATE
there.

OF

PRINTING

THE

Printer's

wife

had

been

HOUSES

177

from

followed

the

venticle,
Con-

suspectedl, but ' by


of so many
reason
back-doors, bye-holes and passages, and
the sectarians
so
swarming thereabouts, I have been afraid
of being discovered
of Darby's
one
scouting, but I saw
at the meeting 2.
men
the evil genius at Blue Anchor
Darby undoubtedly was
and
Brewster
ably assisted by the widow
Alley, and was
and

of

one

houses

five

was

'

her

who

son,

his father

promised

copies of The
Darby printed it.
issued

Whore's

Poor
There

of little

hosts

good

as

confessed

Witnesses

was.

them

Press

be

to

at

that

Mrs

stinging libels

as

ever

sold

Darby

and

Petition
little doubt

is

trade

the

said that

one

from

that

in verse,

his

dispersed

precinctsof Parliaments
coincident
with
Thus
to
duty was
L'Estrange's return
of
that old confederacy
the arrest of the remaining members
One
difference is very
which
he had destroyed in 1663-4.
dealt in heavy
however.
Then
Confederates
the
striking,
little
it is chiefly satirical and
not
a
pious stuff. Now
about

the

'

'

indecent, and
on.

maximum
the

way
irritation
of

minimum

result

attention
from

had
to

danger

that

the

the
to

Government
the

Society a

return

the

on

reversal

Court

the
of

the

with

Probably
in

viction
con-

giving

and

libeller.

found
of

Government

determined

Stationers

discovered

been

L'Estrange had

to

difficult to

more

the
futilities,

(1668)

year
what

do

to

of

of these

of the

such, much

as

as

summer

policy and

their
turn
long advised
demanded
They now
Company.
of all the Printing-Houses in
A week
later (24th July), a
so

"

City and Westminster.


of presses,
made, showing the number
complete survey was
ment
journeymen, and apprenticesat each House i. The Governresolved
was
on
making the first earnest
attempt
since
Chamber
the days of the
Star
to investigate the
conditions
of

of the

Trade.

besides
thirty-five,

the

exhibited
survey
King's Printers.

The

the

names

I'See a curious

to Sir R. Carr, ' As to


letter (C.S. P. 1). (1667-8),
a spy
p. 294) from
Press
I dare pawn
of five houses
in Blue
Anchor
life,it is in one
my
houses
when
he
Oliver took
searched
16
in one
more
sure
Alley. I am
pains
night in hunting after my life '.
S. P. Dom.
2
Car., ii.,237 (140).
Come
of 12 lines to Judges and
Juries,
hither, Topham, etc., the verses
s As

the

Private

C.8.P.D.

(1666-7),p. 71, etc. Darby was


arrested, but released 7th May 1668 on
convict for such work.
Bond, because
as
L'Estrange said, no Jury would
.S.P.D. (1667-8),p. 378.
*
S. P. Dom. Car.,ii.,243 (126).

"100
'

SIR

178

List

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

of the several Printing -Houses

July
King's Printing
and

Greek

in

Office

the 24th

Roger

Norton

1668

English, Hebrew,

Latin
Office

King's Printing
Tongnes
The
Printing House

taken

Oriental

the

in

"

Roycroft

Thos.

Colonel

of

John

Printers
TJie other

Masters

are

:-

Evan

Tyton

Mr

John

Mr

Robt.

White.

Mr

Thos.

Mr

Nat

Jas. Flesher

*Mr
Mr

Rich.

Hodgkinson

Mr

Thos.

Ratcliffe

Mr

John

Macock

*Mr

John

Field

*Mr

Thos.

*Mr

Andrew

*Mr

Wm.

Widoivs

Mr

Thos.

Leach

Mr

Henry Lloyd

*Mr

Thos.

*Mr

Mr

Jas. Cotterel

Mr

Henry Bridges

(Coots)
(widow

since the Act

Walter

Mr

John

Winter

Mr

John

Darby

Mr

Edmund
this

Leybourne
Wood

Vaughan
Owesby

of Nevil

Symons,

Milton's

Printer)

Maxwell

Mr

Compare

Warren

"

Cotes

Stationers'

Mr

Mr

Symons

set up

Childe

*Mr

*Mrs

Printers

Hayes

Mr
*Mr

*Mrs

Ann

Brudenell

John

Lilliecrap

Griffith

Mrs

John

Purslow

Milburne

Mr

Peter

Sarah

*Mrs

Crouch

are

by

"

Mr

Thos.

Godbid
:

Johnson

Mr

Coe

are

Redmayne

*Mr

Wocomb

of Printers

disabled

the Fire

Mr

Streater

and

contrary

to it

"

Rawlins

Okes
list

with

the

Returns

given

in

Arbor's

Transcript of

the

Registers,etc.

List of
Decree
in the 1637 Star Chamber
Of the names
above, only four occur
Twenty, clause xv. (see English Reprints, Areopagitiai, by Arber, 1868),viz:
Thos.
Cotes, Miles Flesher, Thos. Purslow, and Rich. Hodgkinson.
2
For
his loyalty specially and
solely exempted
A most
favoured
person.
their
In
the
Press
Act
1662.
reasons
of
against
from
preparing
penalties
any
declared
for treating
no
reason
they saw
renewing the Act in 1695 the Commons
Lord's Journals,xv., 5456.
others.
Col. John
Streater differentlyfrom
"

"

"

have

We
the

first

asterisk

placed an

list)against whom,

had

the

at

far

so

179

of

nanus

as

the

or

printers(in
ment
Govern-

the

is known,

harshness,

for

occasion

no

HOUSES

PRINTING

THE

OF

STATE

Surveyor

for

censure.

mented
suppledays later (29th July) these lists were
of
each
l,from
printing-house
by a thorough survey
into the Secretary's
endorsement
evidently not handed

the

few

November.

office till 19th

The

each

to

presses
was

permitted 20

Act

have

privilegedto

were

number

of

for

compensated

than

more

The

man.

printers and

master

than

more

with

only

Streater

2.

1 press
officials,
etc., who

men

those

by

allowed

allowed

was

(Barker's)'2boasted 6, and the printer


5 ; Boycroft had 4, while
for the City (James Flesher) had
3
and Macock
Newcombe
(printersrespectivelyof the Newsof Lords) had 3 each.
So that on the
book and to the House
of 50 presses
allowance
basis of 23 printers,an
might be
regarded as ample. By this survey there appear 64.
this list with that of the 10 printers who
If we
compare
petitioned for Incorporation previous to the Act of 1662,
5, the

House

King's

Rich.

Hodgkinson

Thos.

John

Grismand

Dan

Robt.

Ibbotson

Win.

Godbid

Jas. Cotterel

that

see

we

of

and

Ibbotson, Mabb,
had

left his business

have
of

been

due

In

factious

Grismand,

140

father

Printers'

John

Hayes

dropped
Ibbotson's

did, for the

it is 155.

who

employed
'

8. /'. Dom.

His

But
no

printers,

as

removal

the

So

that

was

half

some

bare

may

Evan,

son

longer

no

October

'

foreigners

Maxwell

out.

of Lords.

23rd

condition

this includes

labour.

House

of

Petition

desperate
printersand some

Now

1660

Streater

Commonwealth

had

to his widow.

describingtheir
Fire

Roycroft

John

to

his

as

the

'

Thos.

L'Estrange'spersonal attack 5.
Tyton, perhaps for the same
cause,

Francis

printed

the

Mabb
Maxwell

1666

result
the

total

dozen

increase

of

"

the

given.

masters

of 10

men

Car., ii.,243(181).

Petition

for restitution

was

successful.

which
Fire was
Macook, printer of Current Intelligence,
expired at the Great
rival of Newcombe,
who
The
former
had
a
printed the btaa I
enjoyed the patronage
of Secretary Morrice, the latter that of Arlington through Williamson.
1 His
widow.
Ann
and two
others
enters
into
Ibbotson, along with Ann Maxwell
not
to print .seditious
loth
matter
recognisance of "200
S. I'.
August 1667.
Born. Car., ii..Entry Book
28, p. 1.
0
Introduction
to Relapsed Apostate.
.

"

ROGER

SIR

180

credited

is to be

L'ESTRANGE

these

to

three

years, while in the matter


which
employed 18 men,

apprentices the King's House


no
apprentices and the total

of
had

Trade
the

on

This
If

had

been

amongst

the

Fire

divided

we

rely

can

to

seems

that

destitution
all the

is of

masters

1669

warrant

and

Mabb,

Grismand,

great

so

the

on

words, the

for

the

entire

consequent

labour

be

must

men1.

list of 10

1662

Darby

other

In

23.

was

number

course

survey
this
it

and

"

"

Ibbotson

incomplete.

very

the

inclusion

that

appears

of

besides

2,the

followinghad dropped
Surveyor's first blush of

during the
(Republican),Page (arrested for indecency
activity Astwood
with
4, besides
Johnson), Hardy, Lee 3, Sparrow, and Mason
So
that
the
Confederates, Keach,
Tywnne, and Dover.
Roger's purge had been greater than one had at first thought 5.
Of those printers impoverished by the Fire, we
find that
taken
in at the King's Press,
Owesby and Vaughan were
under
Flesher
work
whose
five presses
Henry Lloyd found
with City edicts concerned
than ever
have been busier
must
the rebuildingof the
with
City, etc6. Thos. Childe was
at
Ratcliffe's large and
accommodated
Whiggish House,
the
in
with
art in company
he soon
where
same
graduated
also
Nat presentlyset
Nat
a
good Whig.
Thompson, then
for himself
as
a
partner of Ratcliffe's (at least they
up
of his workmen
worked
into each other's hands). One
was
out

extruded

been

or

"

Stephens,the

Robert

and

whom

famous

L'Estrange

petty warfare

Childe

with

What

of the

messenger

Press, between

afterwards

was

be

to

and

Stephens, therefore, the


an
Ratcliffe-Thompson House
(or Houses) was
exceedingly
of
the Press.
the
to
struggles
good vantage-ground
survey
that interlopers,that is men
A frequent complaint was
free of the Company, were
not
employed. Nat Thompson at
of these.
in Roycroft's Oriental
Even
first appears
as
one

waged.

three

House

month

The

otherwise

For

of

out

an

example,

in

ten

men

which

the

anxious

House

King's

the

above
for

one

such.

were

took

survey

the

place

Stationers.

18

(Barker's) employed

was

Richard

but

men

no

apprentices.
2
3
4

Note
p. 111.
Besides these, Harding,
See

S. P.

Bom.

of printers,summoned
s
As is otherwise
6

Such

as

Roal,

and

before
shown

the

by

the City's Petition

Secretaries

the

drop

for the

O.S.P.D.

Chewne.

99 (162-5),for
Car., ii.,
from

entry

fairlycomplete
on
suspicion.
59

masters

of free

(1663-4),
p.

in 1660

timber

153.

list of three

for

to 35
a

batches

in 1668.

year,

etc.

STATE

PRINTING

THE

OF

HOUSES

181

Atkyns, law-monopolist in pre-Commonwealth days, and


author
of the
so
Original and Growth
of Printing, which
and
Considerations
followed
Proposals
slavishly
L'Estrange's
in 1G64, was
the
of
James
I.'s
on
strength
patent to his
of
Chancery the
grandfather contesting in the Court
Books.
This proCompany's right to print common-law
tracted
the
law-suit
afterwards
was
Company
alleged by
to be the cause
request) of the Quo "Warranto
(at their own
in 1670.
issued out against them
Although the Judges now
decided
hints) to secure
against Atkyns1 (as Roger North
their own
of Lords
rightof printing their cases, the House
after gave
some
Atkyns back his own.
years
The point of interest here is that when
the Government
the Stationers, the latter were
into final grips with
came
embarrassed
monopolies. Two
by these contested
years
later began the even
more
protracted struggle with Oxford

University for monopoly in


Although Roger Norton's
had

he

be

recommended

along

with

Norton

Mearne
Oriental
into

by

policy.
for.

As

Stationers'
With

Roycroft.

in

Court

these

this

first

elbow, any
of

letter of

and

for

of

or

obedient
the

loyal,

command

to the Stationers.

Viner, Abridgment, xvii., "20S


the

surrender

forty-one years

of

the

sole

Hebrew,

Kind's

May
of

1668

your
Greek, and

s.

Court,
Latin,

Reports,1256.
received in 1667 a grant
in
Latin, and all grammars
Hebrew.
Greek, Latin, and

monopoly,

printingof

21th

members

as

Modern

of his old contested

and
Latin, and became
C.S.P.D.
(1667),p. 496.
3 Ibid.
(1667-8),
p. 409.

Greek

Court,

be

Company.

We

On

new

hoped
anticipation

instal

recommendation

request you to admit


Printer
in
Roger Norton, our
1

that

default

Charles, in

'

in

might

reform

Corporations

on

Bex

'

step of the

loyal garrison

men

their

the

was

unique proceeding is really an

quote the

may

the

to

year

Stationers

of

Court

fortunate2,
un-

Hebrew
and
classics,
printer
has
been
his bookbinder,
and
stated,
Roycroft as,
all
and
intrusion
be
their
to
loyal,
printer
thought

great scheme
Parliaments, to seize

to

this

of

May

the

and

likewise

was

in

happiness
King to

King's

was

the

we

lawsuit

others, Mearne

two

L'Estrange at

of

the

stock.

"

the

and

the

Bible

the

Bible

Printer

in

in

he

SIR

182
Samuel

Mearne,

Printer
to

bookbinder, and

our

Tongues, they having


practicesin the Mystery
will
Company henceforth
your

that

for the scandalous


The

Further,

These

it'

to

Larkins'

as

in

were

wardens

of the

and

this

of

the

three
since

Cause

of

the

four

the

Act

and

proceeded against1.
Ralph Smith,

old

was

year

remembered

and

wares,

wild

Crofton's

printer of

as

intrusions,

Winter.

reorganised with something of


left, however
proceeded in a half

Stationers

able
account-

in Southwark.

Press

up
be

Commonwealth

printer of numerous
by L'Estrange as

Printing ;

be

'.

survey,

printers set
August to

our

much

speciallysignalised

secret

of the

Darby, Rawlins,

were

One

out

'

Press

fact that Norton

result

the

as

printers singled
contrary

of

the first fruits of these

was

already noted the


by the seizure of

himself

of the

abuses

July

of

survey

we

Roycroft

contributed

licentious

expect

and

Thos.

in Oriental

suppress

we

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

the

"

"

stuff.

The
Old

Good

and

hearted

With
some
hypocriticalway to set their house in order.
noted
above, they
leniency to the three prescribed printers
should
'lest
set them
they
suggested buying their presses,
places, as has been found by experience,and
up in secret
hazard
everything to gain a livelihood, being generally mean
had
people 2. As to the three prescribedprinters,Rawlins
Ibbotson
in which
Ann
(in 1666) bought the business
the
know
succeeded
her levellinghusband.
as
Darby we
and
his
He
widow.
Dover's
husband
of
martyred Simon
'

'

'

with

wife

of the

bravest
John

"S'.P.

April

Bom,.

Car.
,

imprisonment,

brief

will

Darby

impowered
many
2

the

quit

Thos.
Trade.

the

usual
and

the

four

asks
'

as

by

there

asking
Mayor should

the

treatment

the

of

lour

himself

Williamson

informs

Davies
He

that
the

Act

there
no

advises

be

Stationers

the

will be

supernumerics

the

thing happened, a
to
not
print

the
See
1668
(1663-4), p. 406.
August
(?) 1663 ; but obviously referring to this year.
typefounders should bring proofs of all letters cast to

after

the

bond

marked

and

with

L'Estrange

and

made

had

the

cases

(77).

244

to

itheir

of the extruded
presses
Printing to be disposed of that

up

as

Company

3rd

C.S.P.D.,

C.S.P.D.
that

Ibid.,

for

materials

with

forced

be

buy

to

In

interview

the

of

Fire3, but

the

before

ii. 332 (96).


,

an

stuff.

unlicensed
that

free

made

was

the

already noted

have

we

assertors'.

'brave

Winter

in

City

widow

Brewster's

will be

customers

so

'.
in

Document
It
the
that

proposes
Wardens
the

Lord

Endorsed
Council
against hawkers.
and
four others.
Warrant
for Roger Norton
notes
of a general Search
of the several printers summoned
8, I'. Dom.
Caw., ii.,332(96). An account

before

paper.

their

The

the

Act

of Common

of Stationers, 15th January 1672-3,


Company
right and propriety in their several Printing
historyof ten printers are stated in this important

of Assistants

Court

the

containing
Houses.

execute

of the

particularclaims

claims

See p. 193.

and

of

STATE
obnoxious
was

the

form

of

to

were

openly printing

If

the

ascertain

to

turn

we

purge
in 1673.
the

183

Apologies,Mass

but

we

may
themselves

of

degree

etc.

Attorney-General.

the

by

Books,

evidently, in

Government

issued

non-process

Stationers

three

Catholic

certainlyextruded,

was

HOUSES

PRINTING

protected, by

now

Darby

THE

by printing

He

the

OF

how

guess
when

we

eager
find all

of this

success

new

shall find after the first flush of


policy in the Press, we
zeal, nothing but disappointment. It is true that in October
with a large
seized in Southwark
was
1668, Larkins'
press
the
quantity of seditious books, but a dispute between
and

Stationers
should

the

secretaries

and

Koycroft, the
the

time

revived

had

Stationers
the

its

the

Morrice's

Surveyor and

Stationers
that

rivalries

disputes over

in

similar

the
wrangle over
Johnson's
shop, assured

at

of
despite the introduction
was
incurably selfish.
Company

old

openly

flaunted

the

between

Mearne
the

At

secretaries

validityof their

warrant,

the

who

to

as

that

the

same

Wickham

messenger

carry off the booty, and


Catholic
of some
books

seizure

with

King's

were

The

warrants.

Arlington entrusted

his

authorities

the

messengers
in the
as

"

of

case

that

Milburne, and

of

Taylor yet to come.


It appeared that the Company
monopolies against all comers
the

and

latest

the

Atkyns,
Speed l

"

Sam

transgressor

bent

more

was

Universities,

than

"

securing

on

in

carrying

King's wishes.
The Surveyor was
again reduced to such impotence that
the
have
been
made
another
to
to
appeal seems
by him
after
King in August 1669, for in that month, seven
years
that
L'Estrange's appointment, the King roundly stated
his appointment has proved ineffectual through the opposition
and
members
of your
of several
2,
warns
Company
them
that they
take
due
henceforth
to
are
cognisance of
and
credit
his commission, and
employ their utmost
power
the

out

'

'

'

over

their members,

him

in all searches

three

days

of

of Assistants
and

l
-

to

Law

means

An

'

for

instructive

Ibid., p.

this

notice

446,

no

and

further

discoveries
with

its better

11th

Sec

and

government

":S.I".D.

August

him

1669.

needful
to

are

The

undated

rough

draft

'.

call

on

agree
he
as

Within
a

Court
ways

propose,

April 1669.
subjoined
this letter by tho

document
of

to assist

such

shall

(1668-9),p. 280, 16th

("'. /'. Duiii. Car., ii.,264(25*)) is the

Officers.

him, but

when

given by him, they

to advise

case.

to obstruct

SIR

184

being instructed
return

for

that

Council

the

to

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

and

purpose,

or

of

Secretary

he

is

required

State

to

account

an

of

proceedings therein '. This letter is accompanied by a


in Williamson's
note
handwriting to the effect that the Act
for Regulating the Press
be supplied
has defects which
may
by orders given to the Stationers
Company, who oppose the
proceedings of the Surveyor of the Press ; if they will be
obstinate,they should be reported to the King and Council '.
In other words, the hopeful experiment associated
with
the names
of Mearne
and
Norton
has already failed,and
from
this letter we
date
of L'Estrange as
the intrusion
of the
of
Court
representing the King in the Councils
therefore
Stationers *. We
are
prepared for those stormy
'

in that

scenes

It

is

well

known

matters, there
to

which

Court

besmirched

him

interest

the

in

the

present

could

business
Charles

rouse

to have

seem

in

libels which

foul

The

Court,

eightyears.

next

indolent

things which

interest.

and

the

however

that,
certain

were

effective

most

characterise

had
this

awakened

case.

spring
followingyear (1670) the Surveyor,
various
inspiredby this fresh authority,submitted
plans for
reform
of bye-laws to be passed by the
to take
the form
In the

Stationers'

I. The

of the

Court2.
old

bond

of

"300

be

to

strictlyand

generally

enforced.
II. Loss of interest in the

of
any
forfeiture for offence.

the

right to print
III. All

'foreigners'to
At the
Company.

of himself, added

printing certain
In

April3

these

of

19th
1

Law

proposals,and

sure

his

May

Mr
to

seems

the

the

same

personal request

See

referred

Short

1663.

Rivington, 1903.
May 1670, pp. 227-8.
to a reproachful letter
Officers)are annexed
3
Ibid., 21st April 1670, p. 175.
Report
how
was
legally to force ' foreigners to take

to

1403-1903, by C.
~

C.S.P.D.,

grant of

well
to

His

on

the

This

to make

as

Arlington
demands,

Stationers
does

not

Worship/id Company

on

we

Company
seem

to

be

of Stationers,

R.

19th

'

be done.

as

wrote

monograph
from
the

Accoxoit

them

above.

to

of

for

papers.
officers had
reported favourably on

C. R. Riviugton in his beautiful


date
the Surveyor's intrusion

correct, however.

is the

bills and

to

letter

loss of the

Company's book,

supplement
grant, L'Estrange

new

and

subject to the rules of the


time Roger, always mindful

be

stock

Company's

proposals (approved by the Law


Arlington by L'Estrange.
and
The
Finch.
of Palmer
problem
This report said it might
the bond.

The

STATE

note, have

in

to

the

taken

to

represent the

it

King

the

was

Stationers.
he

had

for

the

seen

be
year
may
of his pretensions,

credit

at

supersessionin the
Government
rely first

year

lowest

of

had

Court

for

of the

Plague,

messengers
and
remodelled

the

appealed to, whilst

been

the

the

on

Stationers

the

Press, then

his

same

mark

water

with

Surveyor

Lastly all having failed,


halting fashion.
turned
King personally alarmed, the secretaries
the only man
who
had even
momentarily succeeded

called
the

again

the

of

185

together

Since his

loyalisedin 1668,
and

high

moment

clearing the

was

October

HOUSES
taken

swollen, and

somewhat

letter

as

PRINTING

THE

OF

to

back

in

in this diilicult work.


We

should

note

L'Estrange's
point of

the

new

view

as

shown

in

the

of

elements

from

case

letters of this

these

year.
in

First, despitethe insincere attempt made


to oust

Cabal

August 1668
the interlopers which
resolved
itself merely into a
that
and even
againstthe poorest and meanest
printers,
"

unsuccessful

the

"

trades

both

of

and

Printer

Bookseller

by deserters from other trades and people


like the haberdashers
were
adding to their business by a cheap
line in Church
books.
These
not
being members
persons,
of the Stationers Company, were
not subject to its rules and
penalties.
now
Secondly, the libellous printersand booksellers were
again overrun

were

studied
Press

in

the

Act.

They

by

made
of

treatment

then

was

it

the

out

Charta

Magna

much

to

of

The

the

turbed
dis-

attitude

of

offence

summary
these
of

masque
the
Nation

no-popery
popular in

of the

when

the

adopt

the

becoming vastly

failures

the

Warrant.

impossible
under

and

case

Search

1661-4, for

cloaked

was

of

bawled

now

General

Parliament

wares

niceties

which
and

Parliament.

Again
reckon

there

were

the

Stationers

with.

and

their

hostilityto
Eoyston's from

warrants
By their various
Morrice, Roycroft's and Norton's
as
King's Printers, etc.
all that the Surveyor attempted, and that
they circumvented
for a seizure was
made
was
impossible
secrecy which
necessary
"

"

while

these

trade

of

men

sent

round

their

emissaries

to

warn

the

and
under
their
approaching search
even
warrant
wrested
the messengers' seizures and carried them
to Stationers
Hall, when
they might be secretlyreturned to
the owner
sold by themselves.
or
"

an

"

186

SIR
The

Men

and

Bishops

like

ROGER

Parker

L'ESTRANGE

their

issued

for Bibles

number

of

and

In

the

contrary

were

of

cover

to the

meeting

the

by the Fire, set up


dashers
encouraged the haber-

created
and

books.

multiplicityof authority
pointed out
injurious to

since

blame.

to

were

"

was

the

as

"

real hold

any

Press.

L'Estrange
the King

move

Psalters

same

word, the

Surveyor long
on

under

and

irregularbooksellers

to sell the

too

which

licenses

patent-rightsof others,
demand

nominees

Court

was

emboldened

now

rescind

to

of Aldermen

these

ask

to

various

Arlington
and

authorities

to

the

in the
subject all irregular persons
trade to the rules of the Company
1.
It is significantthat
there
is no
suggestion here of
That
reducing the Trade to the limits set by the Statute.
hopeless attempt is,however, to be made again in 1672.
But the first condition
is to get the
of a purified Press
haberdashers
prohibited from dealing in books.
They cut
of sweated
Printers
of pirated
number
a
pricesand maintain
Hall itself are numerous
booksellers
copies. At Westminster
the most
who, though under
no
government, spread abroad
rule of the Press
is possible whilst
No
dangerous wares.
these men
elude
the law, and
the lopping of the Bishop's
licensingprivilegesis the first step towards a remedy.
it is only a
Thereafter
of bye-laws for the
matter

Stationers, and

to

in

the

of

event

quarter, of renewing their Charter


Crown's

the

In
them

refractoriness

any

such

on

terms

in
to

as

that

secure

interest.

the
case
any
to their senses.
it

Meanwhile

is

is calculated

Warranto

Quo

interesting

the

note

to

to

bring

Surveyor's

personal demands.
'

The

which

it would
which

charges
"200

charge

constant

are

be the work
amounts

more

year
Newsbooky and

am

all such

their

report have

salary

Proposed

letter

155, 19th May

1670.

to

deputy

rather

as

of

and

coach, without

porter than
and

year,

occasion

the

requires.

gentleman,
contingent
a

am

allowed

Arlington for his interest in


assured
by him, that your Majesty
privilegeof sole printing as Counsel
already stated you may lawfully do ;

Lord

by

me

less

"200

to

or

grant

moderate

of

is
the

added, sufficient
Court

of

Alderman.

to

secure

S. P.

Bom.

the
will

by
if

competent

Car., ii.,275, No.

SIR

188

ROGER

L'ESTRANGE

with
the rambling title,
L'Estrange at Smith's
press
Neither
Thai
Temporalitiesnor Tithes is due to the Bishops,
etc. \ and
inciting the Lords Temporal to take away their
it '"forthe defence and
use
benefitof the
property and
and
the
the
(a practice)proved
Kingdom
reliefof
poor,
the
laws
and
by
practiceof 20 Kings of England, Judah,

by

authors

and

France, and

also

the

excellent

Majesty '.

that

Kings most
the King in

his

attitude

not

have

been

then

this

from

averse

for

account

may

120

by

the

There

is

the

Church,

to

to

evidence

might

ingenious proposal, which

that

fact

besides,dedicated

the

dauntless

Frank,
House,

between
though harassed
L'Estrange and Lambeth
and
in custody,
kept undischarged for 20 weeks 2,sometimes
and
sometimes
at liberty,to his real charge and
damage
'

'

least "605

at

last

at

was

suffered

remain

to

in

peace.
the
amongst

illustrate

To

the

Printers

we

cannot

Streater

and

Smith

Streater
and

when

arrest
*

he

20

of his

one

to

that

by

compositors
with

go

such

freeborn

were

5.

ivarrant

of them, in

with

was

the

and

attitude

of

engaged
Grover

an

uproar
subjectsand

The

False

Shepherd,
attempted to

constable

the whole

James

amongst
audacious, fell into

they

True

who

and

him,

cite

persecutors.
The

wrote

whom

most

with

their

to

than

better

L'Estrange'sdeputy

persons,

out

do

actually

refused

were

spirit prevalent

new

constable

the work

on

of

company
and
and
not

'6,

above
Carr4

Jim

began crying
be meddled

to

thereupon charged

his

to assist him, which


Majesty's name,
between
the constable
they refused and thrusting themselves
and his prisoner,the latter made
his escape '.
Smith, we must
remember, was both preacherand printer.
Act
in 1671, I had
Upon the severe
against conventicles
warrants
"140
against me for being taken at several times
I lost my
at religious
shop
protestant meetings, upon which
some

trade

and
1

above
Judex

Hart,

Cobbet's
2

See

C.S.P.D.

"i

The

Hist., iv., app.


Narrative
already

his

Carr

c.

Expurgatorius Anglicanus,

Pari.

'

six months

(1670),p. 322.
whom
Evelyn

pilloriedat Charing

Cross

for

p.

194;

the

is

tract

printed

in

x.

referred

to, chap, iv., 28-9.

Streater
saw
a

himself
was
exempt from
21st December
1667 :
jiilloried

the
'

Act.
saw

one

Carr

libel '.

that these warrants


known
were
to be
Hist., p. 613 : ' It seems
[State Trials, vii., 949, 956]. Possibly they might 'have been
of the Licensing Act, while that was
the words
in force and
justifiedunder
having
been
then
not laid aside '. The lawyers who
in
introduced, were
argued the case
5

Hallam,

against the

Court

the
6

Cons.

Law.

of Common

Narrative

referred

Pleas, 1764, certainlytook


to above.

this

view.

It

is

important

turbulent

in

side

their
the

the

of

from

forced

to

provide
Mr
to

that

the

lucrative
others.

to

and
him

Pepys,
retire

while

with

grant
source

coach

the
of

the

and

him,

and
of

the

line.

recently

papers
and

We

with

reply

Collections

doctrines

these
after

allowance

with

forced

elements

the

Scobel,

that

aspect

Brereton,

to

was

equipage

fighting

to

for

present,

of

again

blank

ransacked

villany

payment

is

Roger
from

the
For

Coke,

Husband

prove

fitful

be

to

on

legal

scrutiny.

L'Estrange

own

conclusion.

power

all

were

their

Ordinances,

and

to

Justice,

closest

lawyers

the

and

when

brief

return

which
rival

might

the

fall

shall

obtained

corresponding

of

spirit
persons.

able

many

struggle,
of

object

this

obscure

quite

enlist

approaching

Constitution,

broadsides

to

189

of

growth
of

part

were

the

of

Mirror

The

the

was

case

the

on

Party

Country

The

of

defiance

the

remark

to

HOUSES

PRINTING

THE

OF

STATE

of

was

to

that

of

Arlington

find,

however,
was

irritation

most

to

VII

CHAPTER

(1672-7)

l'estrange

Surveyor,
1670

l.
of

alarm2.

This

order

that

year

early

had

which

the

gave

Charter

their
the

"

in
and

Law

remember

enforced4.

in

R.

(C.

and

Williams,
(see
2

p.

the

Quo

Warranto

5th

The

the

and

No.
and

issued

See

of
and

63.

the
two

Finch

taken'

P.

only

seems

Slufiom

matter

L'Estrange

deal

Arber,

plead

with

issued

512a.

p.
to

xl.

v.,

xli.).

v.,

Rept.
1677,

with

terms

Warranto

Quo

/agisters,

March
to

"300

strictly

to

p.

year

The

be

came

last

7th

request

own

this

When

they

rs'

their

unlicensed

(1883),

and

loyalty
approved

of

to

was

The

Committee,

their

at

been

(1)

in

renew

over

April

till

263).
69,

p.

Libels

had

proposed.

were

Stationers

(Arber,

Rept.,

to

their

number.

Act

p.

members,

They
that

the

deadlock

the

in

Monopoly.

Law

the

in

dealing

(1908),
1690

9th
the

at

19th.

Bond

Brudenell

required

ii.,

was

with

Rev.

that

power

in

Press

the

pleaded

secure

of Co;/, of Stationers

reversed

was

pt.

instance

ii., 80,

Hist.

effrontery

connection

John

326)

up'

their

offering

which

Warrantos

Quo

'held
Records

Eng.

II.M.C,

had

at

reign
he

Rivington,

him

1684

this

Surveyor,

for

own

desired

Crown

printer

several

"

three

the

in

(2) Any

Thrice

became

the

were

mentioned

the

proposals
of

of

would

as

passed

their

over

them

give

Officers

may

Bond

terms

fortnight

they

19th

notable

proposals

opportunity

an

such

L'Estrange's

the
we

power

Court

Crown

members.

by

sufficient

not

the

on

in

and

time

same

Warranto

within

Surveyor's

the

Quo

the

of

party

Stationers

September,

At

imminent

Council

meetings

the

regulation3.

they

in

the

the

set

the

proposed
by

two

embodying

resolutions
better

issued

committee

now

and

the

to

and

other

was

Stationers

back

convened

which

quarrel

was

libels

"

the

go

They

each

to

the

of

must

we

August
of

heads

the

between

lords'

stationers

fully

understand

To

of

the

and

1670,

( '.S.J'.

have

to

Government.
others
and

enforced

There
not

to

Palmer

(both by

(1670),

I".

been

Members

print

is

and

190

in

grossly

the

on

seditious

reported

451.

p.

of

copy

such

S.

literature.

1670,

'

Foreigners),

that

such

and

seditious,
Bond

I'.
a

by

taken
Jjom.

Bond

Ibid., ii., 274, No.

"

'or.,

may

198.

be

L'ESTRANGE
is

lose

to

(3)
to

his

AND

interest

THE

in

All

STATIONERS

the

booksellers

supernumerary
become
subject to

the

rules

191

Society's common
or
printers,are

either

of

or

the

stock.

Stationers

to

discontinue.
The

last

and

Aldermen,
On
a

of

the

orders

given from
September, as a result
behaviour, the King

20th

of

effected

be

to

was

better

l.

Warranto

Quo

should

act

should

consult

sincerely
with

in

The

of
through the Court
the King to the Bishops.
of the Stationers' promises

ordered

conditions

their

the

withdrawal
that

were

resolutions, and

that

they
they

the

henceforth
to
Surveyor who
was
the
be
the
King's representative in their Courts, with
three
right to have a meeting of the Court called within
days of his notice given. The King as we saw, admitted 2
time
to an
interview, and earnestly
L'Estrange at the same
urged on him the carrying out of these instructions,which
that
had
been
Charles
genuinely alarmed
proves
by the
which
seditious
had
attained.
while,
Meanproportions
printing
the resolutions of the 5th and
19th
September had,
with
various
be
to
additions
into
passed
bye-laws, and
work
the
to
done.
see
L'Estrange was
of vital importance to
Pay being always a matter
the
that
to
note
in January
Surveyor, it is satisfactory
he
in receipt of certain
and
that
was
following
arrears,
his grant of the sole printing of all blank
legal
papers,
and

other,

became
it

remunerative

In

willing

was

indicated

already
shall

advise

seditious

Clauses

for

and
to

H.M.C.,

Quo

for

of

be

9th

shall
of

the

find

such

charter
other

others,

to

as

security of the
scandalous
pamphlets

communicated

to

Rept., pt. ii.,p. 766.

the

Order

King reminded
that
forgotten,

in

the

Clauses

the

on

this grant

grantee.

their

'with

that

annoyance

year (1671)4, the


to have
they seemed

renew

rescinded

Warranto

same

what
to

We

cause

to

of the

August

Stationers

he

'\

considerable

was

the

confirmed

was

Counsel

as

Government
and

Council

L'Estrange undertaking

against

libels, the

Surveyor
of

directions

of

of the

20th

to do

the

Press'.

March
work

said

1670,
by bye-

laws.
-

vi., 174.

"

C.S.P.D.
(1671), p. 35, 21st
Lordship'e particular account
to remind
Requests him
Arlington
of his new
grant, otherwise
His

connection,
*

with

th"'

Ibid., p. 421.

new

supplies.

January
for

months

1671,
to

L'Estrange
the

15th

to

inst.

Richards.

"50.
was
his promise to notify the
Lords
missioners
Comhe fill low his toll on the
papers printed in

of

SIR

192

ROGER

The

proposal of a
made
been
by

first

should

Stationers

the

annexed
that

viz.

Warranto,

Quo

Charter, it should

new

condition

suggestionor

L'ESTRANGE

"

in
the

to

every

be

order

noted, had
evade

to

withdrawal

member

the

of

the

of

the

Stationers

to
recognisances not
print, bind or
book
or
publish any unlicensed
pamphlet'1.
his offer to renew
them
of
The
the
King reminded
and
8th
26th
the
the
Charter
the
on
on
August 1671 2,
the
with
gracious
Company
seeming gratitude accepted
done
the
and
offer.
Thereafter
nothing was
Surveyor
with
the
relapsed into
lessening activity which, what
and
the
Smith
trouble
the
Frank
dispute with Mearne
and
the Rehearsal
more
more
Transprosed^, became
over
the
futile till Arlington's transference
to
post of Lord

into

enter

Chamberlain

in

which

on

the

"

"

had

legal authority

left him

acted, and

who

one

the

even

done

Joseph Williamson,

Sir

injury

withdrew

1674

Surveyor
of

coldness

the

'

him

then

exposed

to

considerable

Principal Secretary

of State.

C.S.P.D,

King is
Surveyor.
The

renew

September,

436-7, 14th

(1670),pp.
to

their patent gratis,but

so

as

and
to

September.
p. 451, 24th
advance
the
of the
power

the
Lord
24th
August the King ordered
See
suppressing interlopers, Ibid., p. 447.
Court
of Aldermen
of the
Order
referring to this injunction and ordering
an
at the expiry of their times,
all apprentices of out-dealers
to take their freedom
in books
used
'and
all lawful
to
to translate
foreigners being dealers
means
the
Stationers
(Notes and Queries, 8th
Coy. '. Ford, Mayor 1671, 1st October
Series, vi., 363).
3 The
of the mind
Rehearsal
Transprosedillustrates more
licensing of Marvell's
examined
book.
that of any other
of the King than
L'Estrange was
by Coventry,
then
stated
that
his
with
this witty libel,and
23rd
January 1673, in connection
drawn
had
to it till the first impression was
attention
not been
selling. Harry
at his shop the
the
Brome
told
him
Ponder
Surveyor and
was
printer and
was
Mearne
seized the second
protected by the same
impression. But Ponder
who
Anglesea told L'Estrange
protected Bagshawe.
Whiggish Earl
Anglesea
Parker
had
done
that the King had
expressed his displeasure at the seizure,for
him
He
directed
done
had
and
this
him
right'.
Roger
man
(Marvell)
wrong,
the
demurred
his Imprimatur at which
work
to lend
the
scrupulous Surveyor
the privity and
men's copies, without
with
other
that ' he did not like to tamper
and
the Surveyor's
allowance
of the author
',but at length agreed. The Warden
clerk
Stationer's
tho
the
but
Tokefield)
both
(Geo.
affixed
to
book,
were
names
excisions
Tho
were
not,
showed
however,
respected
more
obstinacy.
Surveyor's
for
the withdrawal
of his
excuse
an
in the
second
impression, which
gave
of the Stationers
of the arbitrarymethods
Anglesea's resentment
Imprimatur.
2

Ibid-.

Mayor

to

(1671),p.

assist

the

"

On

421.

the

Stationers

in

"

'

is

as

instructive

Rehearsal

as

Parker's

efforts

Transprosed (Marvell's

to

Prose

stop the
Works

sale

of

Marvell's

(1776), ii., 243

See

attacks.
and

269)

and

be noted
that
It should
App. to 4th Rept., p. 234.
Coventry M8S., H.M.C.,
Mearne
charged L'Estrange before the Lords' Libels Committee, 6th April 1677,
'and
pretended
with
saying that he had the King's order for licensingthe work
he had
'. II.M.C,
His Majesty when
other
none
pt. ii.,9th Rept.,
orders from

78b.

OI.H
\

II M

ST.
"I

llll

PAUL'S.
in

usH

| |.|;s

[Face p.

1Q2.

stated

claims

their

have

we

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

SIR

194

the

to

privilegeof Printing,

Printers, including
thirty Master
Rawlins, Winter, and Darby, three out of the four printers
be
to
noted
in 1668
proceeded
supernumeraries and
as

by

of

out

ten

some

'

the

against at
in

that

the

still retained

right or

the

father

from

set

to

power

print

license

to

to

by deed

for

example

the

Fire', Thos.

son

of

one

the

up
could
of

Master

be

this

list

bargain,

who

whom

Printer, but

transferred

gift or

Printers

Childe, and

from

Downing, Printer
Archbishop of Canterbury

the

Oxford,

of

learn

of Wm.

that

case,

one

University

the

to

least

at

We

assizes'.

next

we

was

note

not

only

but

that

'disabled

by

those

among

another

Printing House, was


able to
depute his license, or right to print, to Thos.
destined
Bennet, who set up in his stead, while Childe (still
for
do
Ratcliffe, Nat
to
good Whiggish work) worked
Thompson's partner K
could
still set
journeymen
Further, it is clear that
find
without
for themselves
consulting anybody2. We
up
were
Robert
journeymen
Battersby and Henry Lloyd who
in
1670.
into
1668
in
partnership
an
entering
uneasy
3 the
Stationers
Two
presented another list of
years later
it appeared
to the Secretaries,by which
the Printing Houses
reduced
to 23 (not including
had
been
that the numbers
list of
those
who
the
usual
the King's Printers), with
into
force.
the Act
since
had
came
set up
Darby and
take
much
It does
not
there.
Rawlins
penetration to
are
found

had

who

work

at

'

'

is interesting. He served
a
for Ireland, was
King's Printer
and
In
the
he
1667
free
City, 6th April 1666.
made
year
Company
'
The
in
1662.
said
actual
master
of
widow
an
the
printer
married
Ralph Wood,
Act made
in 1662,
since indicted
the form
of an
some
Winter
was
John
upon
years
issued
he
said indictment
was
by the King's
which
acquitted of by Non-Process
learn
that
he 'served
Of Darby we
an
Attorney-General, Sir Geoffrey Palmer'.
and
this
Mr
free
of
made
Peter
with
was
Cole,
City in
Company
apprenticeship
in 1665, and
hath
widow
Dover's
kept a Printing House
the year 1660, married
1

The
of

term

ever

of the

career

ten

years
of the

with

Popish

Printer

Wm,

Bladen

since

'.

Note

the Caveat, April 1676, that

to

the

Master, Wardens,

John

Winter

sometime

no

one

is to set up

Printing House

etc., of Stationers, S. P.

l)om.

without

Car., ii.,

given
Entry Book 45, No. 23.
with
3 C.S.P.D.
If we
this survey
1675.
(1675-6), p. 43, 29th March
compare
find that Flesher
and
Purslow
have
left their
that of July 1668 (chap, vi.,178) we
and
Coe have
to their widows, Wocombe
disappeared, and Lilliecrap
businesses
old
the
Stationers
new
out
was
an
offender). Only one
been
(he
by
bought
set up
(marked
master
printer is introduced, and of the old seditious group
Rawlins, Darby, Winter, Okes, the two latter are
contrary to the Act '),viz. :
tion.
with
out
for destrucfirst
the
two
are
while
still,
eight others, marked
deceased,
series of Constitutional
shall find them
We
busy shortly with the remarkable
find in Dunton's
we
Libels. Rawlins
gallery(Life and Errors (1818),p. 251),

notice

'

"

that the

perfunctory,and
the merest

was

STATIONERS

periodicalvisitations

these

perceive that

THE

AND

L'ESTRANGE

There

pretence.

of the

of the

maintenance

195

Press

were

legalnumber

23

books of the period


many
included
in the legal 23,

are

neither
printers'names,
the chargeable supernumeraries. At any rate the supernor
numeraries
harassment
rooted out.
were
never
beyond some
his
determined
With
the fall of Arlington,
successor
in connection
of the
with
memories
with
rankling sore
the Newsbooh, to do without
L'Estrange's services as much
as
possible1. Accordingly, though in February 1674-5 the
a
latter was
Secretary's Licenser 3 the
reappointed as
wholly dependent
Surveyorship having no legalauthority was
Secretary'sgeneral search warrant
on
a deputation of the
the effronterya year later, in concert
had
with
Williamson
the
Stationers that 'we
are
Secretary Coventry, to warn
of
the
that
out
Press
informed
come
daily many
things
licensed
be
to
deriving their authority
by some
pretended
to
from
one
deputed no
they have
', and that
serve
us
that he had withdrawn
in this capacity 8. This may
mean
but
on
L'Estrange's Licensership since February 1674-5
out bearing Roger's license 4.
the other hand, books still come
three days after the above
On 6th February 1675
warning
Williamson
of the
Oldenburg, 'one
appointed Henry
License
5.
Oldenburg's experience as a
Deputies of my
for
find him
29th April
Licenser
we
on
was
very short-lived,
what
he
of the same
regards and what all
year resigning
did
literature
of general
Licensers
regard as an intolerable
this point is interestingas
His
burden.
testimony on
all
of
writers, that even
competent
confirming the views
admitting the general necessity of a licensingsystem, it
which

bear

"

"

'

'

"

"

"

'

"

"

would

difficult at

be

work

L'Estrange,

as

real check

was

and

if not,

paying him
L'Estrange to

And

Roger

arriere due

'

an

(being "250
Arlington was
allowed

me

out

to

as

the

to

Licenser, if conscientious,
of

amount

literature

produced,

useless.
i". I'.

17th

/'

"-.

Car., ii., 432, No.

September

2, is a letter from
1683, explaining that there is

His

which

removed

devoted

so

in lieu of the Xeiabook


Majesty upon an allowance
till my
paid me
by His Majesty's order
Lord
and
"100
above
1674), over
a
(29th March
more
year
then
till 1683
be has only
profits of the Gazet '. From

from

me

year)
of

little.

Jenkins,

men

was

"910.

bad
-

"

:;
Ibid. (1675-6), p. 640, 3rd February 1676.
(1673-5),p. 571.
1676
13th
he
April
example on
Oldenburg resigned on the 29th

I'.S.r.D.
For

"

the

Ad

of
period.

Proposal*
for
Imprimatur during the whole
s
S. P. Lorn. Car.,ii.,Case F.,

licensed
his

than

find

to

that

the

on

worse

time

any
and

'

No.

73.

"

Trade

and

Mtremrius

Libraritu

bears

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

SIR

196

of the wits of the Royal Society,


a
one
Oldenburg was
who
laboured
under
double
the
foreigner by extraction,
suspicionof being a republican and a foreignspy \ suspicions
him
of loyal protest could
amount
that no
off,and
purge
which
to have
Licensers,
clung to all the Restoration
seem
Bohun.
That
Williamson
and
used
including L'Estrange
him
so
freely to translate despatches and to help in the
is perhaps sufficient to belie such
Newsbook
a
suspicion,
have
found
that
he
to
like Bohun
but
anything to do
sufficient
After
offence.
this unpopular office,was
with
complaining that he is the victim of those quos fidis causis
doubts
opprimcre innocentes Juvat,and who have insinuated
in the Secretary'sbreast,
of his loyalty to the Government
of the English Ministry
despitehis so frequent commendation
and
both
to natives
foreigners(as is well attested by 'our
him
of 'a partial
the name
friend Mr
Boyle') as to earn
'

Englishman

continues

he

besides

But

'

this consideration

of

further

have

account,

anxious

from

(Williamson)

freeingyou

allege,that

to

I do, yet certainly


as
now
resigned so soon
and the vast
of
of the employment
tenderness
expense
what
at first I imagined would
it requires above
ere

should
the
time

constrained

have

ease

before

studies

laborious

and

nice

so

please universally
performance
thoughts with my
difficult to

As

his

experience

Those

of

such

books,

exception of

that

unhappy

of

'

He

the

Masson,

was

always remembered

Royal Society

as

Life of Milton,
the
Society.

in

and

He

was

is

the

before

romance'2

Notes

other
it is
own

my

this office,

testium

has

he
in

came

as

in

to

mille

me

care

by Wren,

spy '.
iv.,625-b".
a

reference

whole

and

his

loco'.

rejected more

he did license. Williamson

books
the

preferring

with

satisfied

am

Licenser, he

as

already approved. On
'has taken
more
pains

that

must

task, wherein

is to

of conscience

allowed.

has

he

than
he

to

clearness

which

surrendered, who

genius and temper


the compliance

and

mind

his

of

have

to

me

be of the

myself to

declare
the

have

not

long

had

thought upon this


though perhaps I

"

persuaded
perusal of
him

than

Hooke, Boyle, and


Queries, Second
remembered

also

that
siderable
con-

with

the

perhaps

any-

"

the

other

Series,
as

very

Fellows
vi.

369.
,

capable

official of
2

S. P.

Car., ii. 381 (33). The

Dom.

told him

it would

Dutch

view

search

for

Romance

was

Tamerlaine, printed in
to Oldenburg
Bentley went

Roy

of

not

Charles

it,22nd

be

Holland,
to

Licensed

IL's

amours.

April 1676.

have
'.

author,
the

one

book

C. S.P.J).

L'Estrange

Hattigeor
Bromont.

again,

which

(167C-7),
p.
is directed

Les
'

he

80.

Amours

du,

Last

Saturday
refused, but
a
Hattige was

by Williamson

to

has

who

one

he

Finally

begs

termination
lack

not

of

The

Williamson

it is true

to

said,

the

it to

actuated
been
have
by some
may
But his granting it immediately to

and

of

the

calling in

of

time

time

warrants

the

until

to

secretarial

such

all

interval, and
from

who

Surveyor

special warrant

his

save

Libels

Lords'

still

addressed

"

Stationers

the

naturally aroused the


had
expressly demanded

great Patentees

certain

to

fall of

the

constitutional

Arlington
qualms.

office

an

Williamson

Secretary,and
Surveyor after

of the

hands

renew

time,

That general
Secretary'swarrant.
itself greatly questioned on legal

became

in the

grounds even
in refusing

been

has

it

was,

the

dependent entirelyon

speedy
of

lack

to

years.

many
the

loyalty.

efficiencyor

Surveyorship

warrant

due

Licensership is

his

of

province these
that
to give out

that

sustained

197

STATIONERS

THE

AND

L'ESTRANGE

the

In
he

Committee,

was

directed

"

by

books, but

for certain

search

to

the

own.

Surveyor

as

ment
resent-

this
occasional
general warrant
against the Stationers'
It was
useless.
then, during L'Estrange's
authority was
Mearne
and
that
the
Roycroft exercised
loyal
impotence,
the

greatest

King's
It

be

may

"

but

the

in

not

Licensing

Bill

all houses

down

sent

by

aroused

was

the

in

Lords

provided drastic clauses for


whatsoever
on
suspicion of any such

1675, because

breaking

ire

Marvell's

that

remembered

severe

November
'

Press

the

over

interest.

the

by

tyranny

it

Marvell, Master
L'Estrange's
pamphlet ', whereby, adds
much
amplified,to search any other House
authority was
l.
with
the same
liberty as he had Sir Thos. Doleman's
in the great
Bill was
the result of feelingaroused
This
session 1675
by such things as the Letter from a Person of
formed
the
to
At
Committee
Quality, already noticed2.
'

'

consider

Lords'

405, 17th

p.

this and

be

"

the

of the

forerunner

great

Journals, xiii.,20; Commons'


Journals,ix.,378; C'.S.P.D. (1675-6),
Doleman
was
November
Roger's father-in-law, Sir Thos.
(?) 1675.

groat Whig.

'to

libels

other

See

damasked'.

the

his

work

8th

April 1682

on

Council, he did his best to excuse


Trial
(State Trials, vii., 656-7).
be
daughter, Ann
Doleman, must

1679-80, ordered
by the Primate
to the
Clerk
As
lv.).
(Arber, Registers,
v.,
Succession

Oates'
The

halting testimony
date

guessed

of
from

at

the

Wakeman

L'Estrange's marriage
the

fact

that

it

was

to
a

his
case

of 'an
Litter of Libels,
old fellow
Whole
lasse' (Answer in a
marrying ;i young
born
Marvell's
Good
jest
(1680), pp. 2, 6) and that his tirst son was
Friday 1678.
its point from
takes
somewhat
the
Whiggish slander that Roger's wooing was

violent.
-

in

Hart

(Zndtr,

p. 206) says

it

it, it is impossibleto discover.

was

the

work

of

Locke, but

what

share

he

had

Libels

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

SIR

198

which

Committee,

immediately

sat

Prorogation L'Estrange'sgeneral
was
produced, but Roger informed
"

had

no

office'.

He

he

'

such

Arlington
Lordships that
of
out
Arlington went
to
by the Committee

and
his suggestionsfor the
new
lay before them
Bill contemplated. These
(1) The
suggestions1are:
'libel'

term

should

is notorious

that

extend

not

in

one

long-

their

invited

thereupon

was

the

from

warrant

Lord

since

power

after

to

written

40

libels

legal

'because

matter

it

Press,

to

comes

ever

severe

well

nigh as public'.
though by the help of MS., they are
libels
a
general warrant
(2) For the suppression of printed
from the King in Council, such as he formerly had would
admitted
suffice him.
the Stationers
were
they
(3) When
in Hall
to have
nothing to do
might be obliged tc swear
notice
with
libels,and (4) The harbouring of libels without
taken
to be
as
particeps
given to a Justice of the Peace
his old Proposals
words
criminis.
In other
he reiterated
1662.

of

head

coming to a
following (1676) 2,
was

notice

second

referred

nuisance

The

to

his

Coffeehouse-men

the

the

close, and

first
In

months.

these

in

in

to

January
to

were

Gazet

is

proposal

voluble

get

the

on

the
of
Department
it soon
Newsletter
and
appeared that in new
was
over,
than
carrier of sedition
hands
it was
better
loyalty3.
a
That
in the
Keeper North
Life of the Lord
passage
dealing with the Press, although in the latter part dealing
to
the situation
on
with
in 1680-1, being expresslytacked
take
to refer to
trouble
of 1676, we
the coffee-house
may
Muddiman's

subject.

reign

the

in

session.

this

As

'

the

to

of

business

lies

libels ', says


intolerable nuisance
and

North

4,

to the
an
days were
Court, especiallyfinding that the community of gentle and
that there
simple strangely ran in with them ; it was moved
and
Press
of the
be more
spies, who
should
messengers

'

which

in

(Cons. Hist.,

Jiallam

the

matter

'29th

till 25th

many

of

ch.

xiii.
,

Proclamations.

December

second
*

9th Rept., pt. ii.,66"i and

E.M.C.,

those

See

1675.

Proclamation
June
1676.

The
the

permitted
Lives

See

but
monopoly was
gone,
competitors. See p. :"28.
Lives of the Norths, i., 198-9.
His

h.

427) praises Charles


order
first peremptory

Oauset under
them

of

to

the Norths

his

date.

continue

letters

On

under

II. 's
to

moderation
close

8th January
recognisances

in

is dated

1676
a
"500

of

(1890),i., 197.
continued

till the

Revolution

amid

M.
Bcljame (Xe Public
Exwmen, pp. 138-141.
in his excellent
1881),
(1660-1744),Paris,
Angteterre
and
chapter on Coffee-houses
Newspapers (pp. 172-4) perhaps infers too much
to the Newsbook.
from the fact that Pepys makes
very infrequent reference
*

et les Hommes

de

lettres

en

"

"

L'ESTRANGE

His

committed.

like
printed speech, however, ran
wildfire through the nation, warning the people that their
The
at stake.
of
liberties were
at the bottom
Papists were
their miseries, 'wicked, hellish
instruments, hired to fire
Credit
houses'.
was
our
destroyed as the result of the
merchant
closing of the Exchequer 1671-2, 'no
knowing
'.
is
his
where
Trade
to put
impoverished through
money
in
that
times
France
French
'we
ten
our
tariffs,so
spend
the
and
become
of
must
France,
we
King
English revenue,
his slaves,as the Egyptians more
selves
excusably yielded themfor bread'.
to Pharaoh
Religion is going, and the
is a papist1.
presumptive heir to the Crown
be
This
regarded as alarming
eruption of what
may

Jenks

ROGER

SIR

200

sedition

by

happily

back

very bitter attack


Surveyor,3rd June, which

the
on
person
latter's
the
illustrates

of

profit. Besides
severity,this document

sources

and
charge of extortion
charges L'Estrange with the more
impossible crime of favouring the
old

the

L'Estrange

despite a

unknown

some

call

to

that

fighting line,and

the

into

Williamson

determined

serious

and

first

at

L' Estrange, addressed

Complaint against Roger


Williamson, 3rd

sight

fanatics.

June

to

2.

1676

(After referringto L'Estrange'slucrative grant of 1671


side
of the sole right in all blank
printed on one
papers
all legal and formal
documents
touched
only, a grant which
which

from

and

writer

free 3, the

it

the

seems

proceeds :

"

King's

Customs

not

were

that
well
by one
of L'Estrange'spretensions,to be
the illegality
understood
for
who
did perform the same
done for 8s. 6d. the ream
to an
they came
Upon which
agreement
some
years after.
to do by his pretended
for a pension, induced
with him
so

the

'At

Speech,followed

Jenks'

July.
search,
the Rye
with
loud, indiscreet, but
leaders, Buckingham
9th

to

C.S./'. J).

new

that

:!

See letter
'

it

by Jcnfo, his Case, for


(1676-7),p. 215.

House
sincere

affair

and

person.

especially,

were

were

rate

to

seems

It

is

which
Jenks
have

L'Estrange
was

been

in

altogether

important to note
of applauding

accused

ordered

was

examined
that
Jenks'

the

nection
con-

rather

Whig
action.

381 (252).
the
L'Estrange, 21st January, 1671 (quoted p. 3, note) in which
exaction
the
in
of
such
of
as
a
above,
anticipation
charge
suggests
the
not to exceed
limited by the reams,
so
well if the price were
as

S. J'. Dow.

Patentee

offered

was

C.S.J'. I).

(1676-7),
p. 352.
Car., a.,

ordinary

it

time

same

of

of the

King's Printers

'.

interest

and

Court

at

the

to

To

THE

his

aforesaid

which

others

many

considered.

be

to

are

out

....

(3) Quacks Bills and Books


(4) Ballads, for licensingthese when
hath but 18d. for his pains-

(5) For

winking

the

at

The

last

(but

such

poet

poor

of

spawn

conformity
non-

......

least)his seizingarbit- \
of fact the goods f
contrarily to his
pre- (

the

not

act

as

For

power.
licensingall books
for all

And

'

hath

He

in

for all

value

new

10

new

books

above

10 sheets

will appear
to be :
First, his illegalassuming power, which by Law
and
of
vested
right solely appertaining to the
"

of

Majesty, Secretary
Heralds

Bishops

incapable by

only
King's
Intelligence,

of

Law

to

pretensions
News

When

from

he

was

Societyevery

and

History

he

any
Press

of

these

and

the

to

more

terrified

hath

of the
for

Press

many

2 sheets

1663

grant

gave

him

the

he

years

had
100

good

but

the

taken

as

and

use

this, that

printer

poor

single-sheet,No.

(an ephemeral

-oppressor
Year's
Day

no

As

concerns.

by
and

1, 27th January 1881).


a

bribe

from

certain

guineas'.

all narratives
not
exceeding
Sale Bills,
Bills,
Quacksalvers
play-bills,
and
forms
the sole right of printing all blank
side of the papers.
His
printed on only one
'pension', mentioned
above, by
MSS.
to the
Revolution.
with
the Customs
agreement
was
paid down
of Lords
(Reports,
Commissioners,27, p. 416) an item of expenditure of the Excise Office,
for Coffee, Nowspapers,
1691, for two and a half years past. To the Door-keeper
Gazettes "nd letters; to Sir Roger L'Estrange and other incidents
"548, T_'s.10V1.
-

The

New

the

amounts

Parnassus
Arch

manage

of

management
service
therein, it

'

for

Heraldry, to the Judges for Law, to


for Divinity and
Canterbury and London
of these, is
Mr
L'Estrange being none

his

such

State

is

for

miscellanies, and
to

his

understand

that

whereof, if impartiallyviewed,

consideration

; the

those

to

strange

the

sheet

is equal
speeches that his concern
of Mr
Secretary of State's. The
vogue
in
his pretended merits
conquests, and
of surveying
of his present employment

the result

the

sheet

Is. per
Is. per

in

out

Press, appears

to

sheet

Is. per

the

constitution

sheets
.

management

the

reprinted

under

L'Estrange's late
the

to be

books

given
to

considerable

'

tended

And

Vastly

conviction

rarily without
of

the

numerous

books

(7)

exactions

of Stationers
by Contract
Company
of the English Stock1
besides presents
the Play-Houses

(2) From

(6)

annual

numerous

the

From

(1)

his

201

advantage
disso
illegalPatent
oppressive to the subject.

and

Crown
added

be
may
those
among

these

STATIONERS

AND

L'ESTRANGE

monopoly

of

'

mercuries, documents,
That
of 1671
Advertisements, etc'
of paper,

"

"

"

SIR

202
booksellers

desires

who

but

escape
'For

have

for

his

able to

own

hath

exacted

censure1.
he

service

directions

for

by

not

but

annum,

that

5s.

ream

per
for His

for

printed
Majesty's
as
collectingHis Majesty's Customs,
getting the Hearth
Money and Excise, and

immediate

be

been

satisfyhis avaricious
private gains suffers the rich to

not

many
years
whatsoever
everything

this

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

such

content, but

jure

quo

was

for

hath

this

thousand

many
been

done

reams

per

rationally

may

considered.
It is

'

of Excise paid 17s. 6d. per


grantedthe late Farmers
that part of His
ream
according as His Majesty paid when
Revenue
was
managed by Commissioners
notwithstanding 2.
'

The

seventh

Clause

of

this

indictment

the

taking of
fees
for
if true
not
was
distinctly
licensing books
In
the
which
of Reprints,
case
required a new
illegal3.
license (one of the
objections often quoted against the
Imprimatur) the busy Stationer preferred to compound with
the licenser, and
for ordinary books, the slipping of
even
a
guinea into his hands, \vTas notoriously said to satisfy
the
all sources
from
it appeared that
Surveyor. But
of his old and
new
L'Estrange was
by means
grants levying
tribute
form
of the Stationary trade.
conceivable
on
every
As
of nonconto the
formity
licensing of 'the numerous
spawn
that
matter
was
including Papist books
yet
"

"

'

"

For

example

an

3rd January
class

"

1676-7.

Hattige
having notice, turned
same

as

of his
A

called
the

high-handed

bookseller

had

conduct

Zigliac Amores,
man

out

of hia

and

shop

S. P.

see

received

from
the
for

Horn.

Oar.,ii.,390 (9)

Amsterdam

Ecole

several

des

Filles.

hours.

book

of the

L'Estrange

It is difficult

to

of
II., or the Duke
against public morals, Charles
It
is
that
in
who
had
unlicensed
the
forfeit
of
wares.
singular
York,
foreign
book
this reign Hart
(Quaker and his
{Index Exp., p. 195) could only find one
there
arc
as
Maid) prosecuted for pure indecency ; for blasphemy,
more,
Hindmarsh's
Paternoster
1681
(Index, 262).
Presbyterian
2
under his grant of 1671 as being printed on only one
side of the
This
came
in
1662
vexatious
denied
to
106)
a
(chap,
L'Estrange
v.,
monopoly
paper
enjoyed by Symcock at the beginning of the Civil Wars and complained of by the
Petition of that year so
Stationers
in 1628
and
Printers
See the
again in 1641.
In 1678
similar
referred
4th
often
to.
to
a
H.M.O., Appendix
Rept., p. 21.
and
made
Wm.
Paston
to
'except all matter
(Earl of Yarmouth)
grant was
aforesaid
by us granted to Roger L'Estrange Esq.' (S. /'.
things of the nature
Dom.
Booh 1, No. 5J,contested
Oar., ii.,Warrant
by printer Darrel, 1. Jac. 2 in
B. R.
See Viner, Abridgment, viii.,208.
:) He
exacted
before
the Libels
a
1677, that he never
swore
Committee, March
his demands
in 1661-2
It may
be remembered
that
for licensing books.
penny
Is. per
sheet
for
H.M.C.,
included
book
licensed.
pt. ii., 9th Rept.,
every
the
Commons
In
Press
79a.
the
their
to
Act,
1695,
objections
renewing
p.
Licenser's cxhorbitancies, Lords'
that the Act
did
limit
the
not
specially noted
Journals, xv., 5456.
say

whether

"

the

offence

was

AND

L'ESTRANGE
before

to

come

be

said

here

in 1666

had

his

Libels

the

that

than

Committee,

Committee

Catholic

of

of

him

of

books

in

already acquitted

great seizures

STATIONERS

THE

the

the

Commons

the

the

monopoly

in

great and

one

of

held

reselling
of anti-

moment

estimate
above, and
per ream
difference
perhaps be taken
may

later

need

more

charge

6d.

8s.

no

If

frenzy succeeding

the

and

Fire1.

Catholic

203

accept the

we

17s.

the

as

6d.

value

paid,
his

of

public department.

The

the printed
complaints does not mention
Professor
Catalogue of books {Mercurius Librarius),which
the name
of Term
Arber
has reprinted under
Catalogues.
1671-6,
During the years of L'Estrange's'late conquests ',i.e.,
find in these
were
Catalogues,which
directly under
we
evidence
the
damning
Surveyor's management2, some
Clavell's
of
Printer
either
carelessness, or
L'Estrange's
venality in passing the very type of libel he denounced.
could
for such
cretions,
indisClavell, of course,
always be blamed
the Surveyor could always plead
and
at any
rate
haste, or indisposition.
worry,
it is certain
that
in
that as it may,
Be
July of this
him
to approach the Stationers
year, the Secretary directed
and
insist
the
on
once
more
long delayed bye-laws.
would
in a few
months.
Parliament
meet
Already, what
held
with
Jcnks'
at
Speech and Accounts
of the Folkmote
in a very excitable condition, while
Guildhall
the City was
the libels of the previous year, Locke's
(?) Letter from
Naked
Person
Truth,
a
of Quality,Croft's and Hickeringill's
3
in
still
Marvell's
Divine
Mode
and
were
turning the
people'sheads with rebellious thoughts against both Church
There were
of more
and State.
rumours
dangerous libels newhatched
by the leaders and lawyers of the Country Party.
of

author

these

H.M.G., ibid.,p.

rs

(pp. 6-7)
the

that
the

power

79b.

The

in the

editor

L'Estrange

'held

situation

conferred

the

of

Catalogueof

Library, 1865,

Bodleian
the

office
on

Licenser

of

him

remarks

in

of the

opposition

the Hope
in

to

Press
the

Collection

ignorant

an

and

note

directed

intriguesof

the

Papists'.
lias scarcely given L'Estrange tho place which
Professor
Arber
was
really his
in this publication. In the first place from
lettor
of Arlington's (S. /'. Dom.
a
that the originalidea was
ii.,274 (5))it appears
his, and the quarrel between
-

..

Starkcy and Clavell for the printing of it,merely a printer'squarrel.


books
no
of many
doubt, the busy Surveyor left the consideration
The

appearance

of

Mercury) in 1668,
replace
gives him

to
Dunton
3

the

arius

.'/

marks

forfeited

New

high
the
Surveyor
a

Warrant
to
C.S.P.D.
(1676-7),p. 51.

and

the

L'Estrange'seagerness

to

book
use

search

practice

to Clavell.

Adverti.-cnients

of
his

monopoly

( 'lavcll became

(Lifeand

character

to

In

(The

of advertisements

great bookseller

and

Errot,207).

for

these

libels

29th

March

1676.

SIR

204
mouth

ROGER

after

L'ESTRANGE

the

referred to,
City midsummer
uproar
L'Estrange on the 14th July l appeared at the Stationers'
Court
and
proposed his two new
bye-laws, the substance of
which

was

I.

"

that

Regulative
"

unlicensed
any
said bye-laws be

conceal
the

of his oath

and

to

to

be

hereof

copy
the

kept

for

view

on

forthwith

for

to

in

to

be

to

interest

such

Societyprint
important

most

"

Mr

Company
of

the

delivered

whereof

The

"

of

freeman
every
with
the oath

all discoveries

forfeitures

thereon

to

printed

purpose
demand
'.

fines and

It

read

that

II. Punitive

work

book, and

be

and

Company

member

no

and

the

of

member

entered

its power

use

taking
printed

every

L'Estrange

'that

"

the

at

or

in

book

is to have

of

Common

inflicting

Stock

and

offences.

need

the
scarcely be pointed out that these are
substance
of his old proposals of 1661-2.
It was
the personal application of these
rules
which
annoyed the Stationers.
They were
quite willing to pass
of pious aspirations to be
general bye-laws of the nature
of unenforced
rules.
We
not
relegated to the mass
are
the
surprised that from this moment
Surveyor's relations
with
the
intolerable.
cordial, became
never
Company,
Whilst
be
assuring him politelythat his proposals would

the chief business


Court

before

withheld

was

the

from

next

him, and

Court

2,the

the

as

date

of

callingof

that

Court

bottle
of
a
over
suddenly decided
wine
taken that
was
by Roper, Mearne, and Royston, care
be graced by the Surveyor's
the next
not
meeting should
faction though preAs it happened, the Mearne
presence.
dominant
in
the
The
not
Master,
was
unopposed
Society.
Abel
and
of
the
to have
seems
Trimming kind,
Roper, was
the result,
advised
capitulation. Frequent bickeringswere
occasion
Warden
Mearne
on
one
decliningto give up the
hurried
convened
a
key of the Hall when
meeting was
by
was

the

matter

other

side.

Towards

appeared

the
at

with

made

G.S.P.D.

Ordered

delivered

General

be

to

into

Court.

the
his

end
Court

of
to

bye-laws.

(1676-7),p.
that

the

Court

by

Ibid.

demand

They

what
had

the

Surveyor again
they had
progress

reluctantly passed

the

590.

bye-laws and
particularlythe
debated
L'Estrange be the first business

intended
Mr

September,

Capers
at

the

now

next

AND

L'ESTRANGE

STATIONERS

THE

205

objected
eloquent delays ' were
them
informed
that
to the second
Punitive,
or
L'Estrange
the meeting
be no longer trifled with
that the King would
hand
and
if the bye-laws were
not
of Parliament
at
was
be
pestered with libels
passed before it met, they would
and
lie at their door.'
the blame
Upon this ',says Capt.
John
2, a leading member
(Mearne),
Seymour's information
the
of
make
accused
them
to
and
wishing
sprang
up
of
L'Estrange's slaves, and spoke disrespectfully
Company
the
L' Estrange threatening to report
the
King, but on
It
words, they were
apologised for by other members.
not so
now
appeared that the objection of the Company was
desired bye-laws, but the commuch
to the passing of the
municating
each
it specially to
member,
as
they hoped
to evade
it,by entering it into the bulk of their other byelaws, and then pretending ignorance of it'.
Regulative Clause,

but

such

'

"

'

'

...

is clear

It
the

of the

months

these

reflected the

the added

excitement

L'Estrange as the King's deputy attempting


free body into compliance3.
of

The

afterwards

Stationers

passing these bye-laws was


by the Surveyor, and that
refused
the
key for the
L'Estrange's proposals,was
quarrel with the trimming
the 4th

On
that

no

noisy

the

scene

summoned

Court

effect

of

in them
when
to

delay

in

made
Mearne

deal

with

purely personal

Master.
Stationers

entered

be

book

to alterations

the

the

December,

unlicensed

due

bully a

to

the

that

complained

with

company

merely

Council, with

Common

in

Court

Stationers'

the

etc., in

Mercers,

turmoil

that

in

passed
Clavell's

bye-law,
Catalogue,

'

though described as at the instigationof L'Estrange


attack
that
on
official,since he
as
an
was
surely meant
kept the key of the Catalogue.
that
20th
December
the
these
It was
shortly after
attack
to
nothing, an
against
negotiations having come
'

which

"

"

The

people

so

usual

long

ones
as

"

admitted

outsiders

by

traded

in

the

Surveyor

books,

"

.S'.P.

that

Dom.

they had no power


'
ii.,391, Nos.
'or.,

over

96-7.

the
is derived
from
proceedings of the two
App. to the 2nd vt. of 'J//'/ Rept., H.M.C., pp.
It
69a-796, and 66" and I/,and the corresponding entries in the Lords Journals.
is clear from
coincides largely with L' Estranges'
the fact that Seymour's indictment
was
merely the
Report (,V./'. Dom.
Car., ii., 391, Nos. 96-7) that the former
S. J'. Horn.
is the
Another
source
important document
Surveyor'smouthpiece.
of the Law
examination
of an
notes
Car,, ii.,366 (263),being some
by Williamson
Officers and
1676.
the Messengers, 20th December
a
'All mechanical
Carte, Life of Ormonde, ii.,522.
Companies were
entirely
the republicanside of the dispute '.
on
-

Libels

The

information

Committees

here

given

detailed

in

the

SIR

206
the

Stationers

which

nominal

These
to

charges

the

are

delivered

before

word

the

on

Samuel

King

1668.

municated
com-

is

Seymour
attack

grand

shortly

Committee.
this

strugglemay

In

1661

his

career

with

the

shown

the

sectarian

to

the

which

not
was

for

in

those

marked

the

the

From

etc.

Stationers

leading part
books

is

seller
King's bookunchallenged
denouncing

were

Tytan, Newcombe,

to

Stationers'

times, his record

Cavaliers

old

by the

monopolist

appointment as
pension of "6, was

when

took

as

the

to

for his

introduction

loyalty, he
Popish and

croft

Roy

Commonwealth

June

favour

patentee recommended

and

His

enough,

similar
of

John

protagonists in
that

clean

moment

time

of the

Lords'

Norton

interest.

the

at

the

was

with

in

in

basis

two

Mearne

Assistance

doubt

L'Estrange was

here.

along

without

from

accuser1.

desirable

no

emanated

be

be

L'ESTRANGE

Williamson, though Capt.

to

the

ROGER

conspicuous
seizures

of

of the

years

displaced the Surveyor


when
the secretaries
at a time
were
glad to get rid
very
of the impecunious cavalier.
He
fell foul of the Baptist
Smith
in such ruthless manner2
that, despite
Printer, Frank
the deep rooted
their views, L'Estrange
antipathy between
useful
as
a
seems
actually to have received Smith
ally
him
and
under
of
the
placed
Mearne,
pretensions
against
all fled
to whom
the protection of his tool Capt. Seymour,

Surveyor's declining

interest.

He

'

that
of

Arlington, we
It

interest.
June

to the

obnoxious

were

of

that

marked
the

was

year he was
read that
we

for

so

and

himself

old
of

son

also

as

having humbly besought


the
Trade
offices depend on
brought up his son, Charles, to
his

of

of

Page 207.
Chap, iv.,114.
Mearne's

F.

Smith's

In

in

regard
and

Trade,

etc.

Petition
Dom.

the

he

said

having
he

...

now

grant for
seller
offices of bookbinder, bookreceives

several

treatment, S. P.

bookseller,

our

for life, in
Stationer-in-ordinary
good skill and abilityof the said same

of

1674.

that

Stationer

the

and
of the

Surveyor's

greatest power.

that

us

grants, and
the

Fall

and
Stationer-in-ordinary,
'Whereas
he hath
by his humble
the said Office of bookbinding

and

surrenders

the

sworn

past and

years

many

of the

year

of Mearne's

year

May 1675
petition faithfullyexecuted
in

the lowest

as

with

1674

Stationers'.

to

new

consideration
Mearne

and

plaining
comArlington, and letter to
Cur., ii.,360 (149 and 150),February

SIR

208

Williamson

intervened

which

month

the

In

L'ESTRANGE

ROGER

to have

seems

before

Parliament

collected, besides

the

met,

libels,which

in the Record
still repose
Office, a good deal of evidence
determined
of Lords
gate
to investifor the Committee
now
on
marked
period was
by an
had
the
foretold
Surveyor
printing,as
and
unanimity, puts it beyond doubt
of the Whig
leaders,and the prologue

eruption of seditious
which
by its concert
that

it

contemplated

their

to

work

the

was

It

line

the

in

of them

several

that

the

the

of

eve

place

to

was

this

of

blow

have

tected
pro-

We

confederacy.

three

the

to

meeting

bye-laws would

no

against

Government

already briefly referred


on

action, which

of

Tower.

is clear, however,
the

short

This

mischief

the

have

great libels printed

Parliament,

like

New

the

Parliament.

Whig

The
present
Gunpowder
up
commendable
discretion
a
printers first approached showed
in refusing to print,the fruit, no
doubt, of the rigours and
of L'Estrange at the Stationers' Court, but
an
menaces
Nat
who
found
in
afterwards
instrument
Thompson
was
Plot

to

distinguishedhimself
and

allied

though

mercenary,

employed

as

lived to be
of

favourer

to

the

workman

the

redoubtable

after

Whigs'

sedition

Robert

of the
Sheriffs

the

Stephens,

Press, a brave
Elections, and
'

He
left
L'Estrange's enemies.
that is, during, or shortlyafter,the
Thompson at this time
he would
not
printing of the Prorogation libels because
3, and using his considerable
knowledge
print such books

the

of

characters

of the

one

of

opponent

and
days Nat was
poor
printer of considerable
had
till quite recently

He

Ratcliffe2.

interest, Thomas
who

unconverted

his

In

dissent.

bitterest

the

as

annoying

most

all

"

'

"

'

of

the

which

subterranean

1677 {S.
attack

on

be

useful

the Stationers.
I
and
to

of this

end

on

career

of

Secretaries, but
that

discovery
so

certing
discon-

'they threatened

to

Roger L'Estrange to Williamson, 3rd February


very secretive letter from
refers
to the preparations for the
390
P. Dom.
(132))no doubt
Car., ii.,

morning.
servants

the

grateful
very
his former
employers

was

The

started
to

to

press,

am

in my

discovery

set the

I have
that

informed

for the
me

'

dissolution

the

of the

House.

present design.
'.

'

The

business

Stationers

Discovery

In
'

you
Some

few

in charge yesterday
against Thompson's
the Printing Houses
may
promise myself to see the

gave

me

moving

are

days

is doubtless

of
I

the

three

libels

referred

to

above.
7 men,
it appears
that Ratcliffe employed
of 1669
2 presses,
By the survey
apprentices.
'
:i
that was
A rogue
the
accompted
Obsewatur, 20th April 1684, i.,323:
very
them
'. No doubt
he wrought among
he was
scandal
of the Printing Trade, while
2

and

selected

on

the

principleof

'

set

thief to catch

thief '.

had

Robin

Honest

kill him'.

209

STATIONERS

THE

AND

L'ESTRANGE

reward, for he

his

however

office in which
an
Messenger-in-ordinary,
himself
the sternest
guardianof loyalty
as
distinguished
made

Press

until the

Plot,

was

he

attack

the

rather

or

City's rights,

the

on

In this character
Whig.
the
on
the enmity of L'Estrange, and
he
encountered
his noisy office1.
from
dismissed
of James
accession
was
him

turned

At

into

the

Revolution

For

the

Patriot

and

he

restored.

was

Battersby,

Marlow,

present Stephens denounced

the mercenary
printersof Marvell's
the exception of
Truth, etc. With

Bridges,and Thompson,
Naked

libels,Croft's

legal rightto set


but were
convenientlymaintained by great men
Hall, the brothers Sawbridge2, Wright and
they printed. Thompson
questionable work

Bridges,these

Godbid, but

Mr

sober

had

men

marked
specially

was

as

up

no

Masters,

at Stationers'

whose

Mearne

'

had

worked

not

free

for

of the

in 1672.
Battersby,as we saw, had entered into
Company
a
a
quarrelsome partnershipwith Henry Lloyd (who was
in 1672
a
mere
was
master
printer in 1672). Marlowe
journeyman. But from the Stationers' point of view, the
'

sorrier the
his

cheaper

hold

better

rascal, the

his

on

secrecy

the

and

work.

a
flourishingprinter,but much
Redmayne, once
who
fled
also of the adulamites
crippled by the Fire, was
and
the cruelty of the Stationers,
from
to Seymour
now,
valuable
evidence
of the party of the Surveyor, gave
as
one
against them.

John

Parliament

Trorooued

The

in

met

the

first week

of

February.
15 months

for

Committee

to the House

(ieo.

he

was

over

Seymour,

ch urges
It is

was

20th

included

chosen

Master

See notes
December

in 1675.
that

greatest bookseller

"40,000.

and

was

was

by Prorogation
moved
the

author

report what

they

ten

Bishops.

The

has

that
and
find

Earl

by Williamson
1676, S. /'.

(Life and Errors, p. 211) says


'.
Ho
years
England for many
and
about Printing" The Booksellers
Bom.
Car., ii.,366 (263),containing the
Dunt"ii

been

in

Rookes, and of the Law Officers.


pounding
', their comof the guilt of
Ring of men-Knaves
perfect indictment
with offenders, seizing,yet sellingforbidden
(Popish and Republican)
of

.Messengers Gammon,

Blundell, and
this

'

etc.

wares,

'

Errors, p. 253.

Sawlii-idge

the

immediately
inquirewho

it

upon

::.

Dunton, Life end

J.

'

is Dissolved

of this book

Printer

Considerations

libel Some

the Parliament

appointedto

forty Peers

The

left

be

the

read, and

was

and

contriver

'

13th

Question whether

the

the

On

LoroV

Journals,xiii.,51

Foxcroft, Life of'Halifa

i.,119.
O

SIR

210
of

Aylesbury

L'ESTRANGE

chairman, and

was

and

Albemarle

ROGER

the

included

Committee

Monmouth.

Any five formed


a
quorum,
and their labours
to begin Monday
were
next, at 9 o'clock
in the forenoon
at Princes
Lodgings, and to adjourn as
The
Committee
to
they pleased '.
was
enquire into
any
other
books
that are
of that nature'.
printed
On 1st March
Aylesbury presented his first report, which
resulted
in nothing more
dramatic
than
the
calling of
Dr
for handing The
Grand
Cary to the bar of the House
On
his
Question,etc.,to the Press.
Cary's refusal to name
authors
sentenced
or
employers, he was
for contempt l, to
'

'

be

fined

and

"1,000
of

specificcause
in

the
the

although

libel

another

Although

the

committed

The

Committee

Long

had

the

the

to

besides

"

Committee's

of

form

be

to

that

labours

which
"

Parliament

printers
"

Tower2.
had

the

was

been

sented
pre-

Dissolved, and
not

the

authors

felt to overshadow
all others
Cary libel was
of the suspicions of its high origin. Thompson,
because
its printer,was
too mean
an
object to occupy their Lordships'
to Denzil,
time, but if the libel could be brought home
the
conclave
of Whig
Lord
Hollis, or
lawyers, it would
with a weapon
in the approaching struggle
furnish the Court
which
might have anticipatedthe ruin of the Whig leaders
before
Oates
But
appeared on the scene.
Cary kept his
Charles
from
council despite embarrassing pressure
himself,
of York,
Williamson.
the
Duke
and
Coventry,
Secretary
Hollis
Whether
had
close connection
or
Shaftesbury
any
this libel or
with
not, the legal abilityand
knowledge it
tional
displayedraise it beyond doubt into the rank of constituin

"

hold, the

of first-class interest.

documents

the order
of the
Aylesbury's report was
much
it is singular how
their House
predominated
session
two
to the Lord
days later communicated
effect of

One
Lords

"

this

in

"

Chief- Justice

and

the Stationers
from
the

On
1

Marvell's
therefore

now

and

they

other
2
3

of

Court

the

of

of Common

Exchequer,
to

lend

their readiness
5th

March, the

and
to

Dr

would

Lord

Chamberlain, Baron

a
prepare
their aid 3. Mearne

to

new

Press
claimed

Act,
thing
some-

give satisfaction in this direction.


Committee
again reported on the

of Popery (Thomson's ed. Marvdl's Works, L, 545).


them
was
brought to the barre before
Cary, ;i commoner,
fined
them
notion, of contempt, when
"1,000 under that new

Growth

therefore

crime

Pleas

do

it '.

Journals, xiii.,54-5.
Il.M.C, 9th Rcpt.,pt. ii.,p. 79,
Lords'

note.

'

But
.

no

LIBELS

LORDS'

COMMITTEE

211

Prorogation libels,discovering the author of a fourth


who
a
piece of insolent dissent by a Eev. Sam. Smith
now
appeared, and did penance1. Thompson printed this
8th March
consumed
The
7th and
too.
were
by the Lords
and much
in reading the libels,
impressed by their treasonous
into the safe keeping of the
them
sentiments, they ordered
leave
to
Clerk
communicated
not
to be
anybody without
three
"

'

of

this

finished

This

for

concerned,
that

affair
a

this

the

the

time, viz.

and

Surveyor

could

long-threatenedcontest

chosen.
March

10th

nothing

of

friends

were

of

Mearne.
for

been

the

On

the

between

theatre

scarcely have

said

2.

Lords

the

as

Committee's

monopolising the

of Warden

better

far

so

'

burnt

be

to

Aylesbury's reports

battle

friends

made

be
copy
business

the

was

pitched

the

and

House,

days

two

"

the

after

Lords

had

burning of the libels


the mean
opened
printers Mearne
the attack for the Stationers
by declaring that Capt. Seymour
in Putney, contrary to the
had set up two
three
or
presses
chief
old offences
of 'his
the
to
Statute, referring back
printer George Larkins 3.
the 13th4, Seymour
On
replied that he printed nothing
the sole right in this
but Almanacs
(the Company claimed
of the present enmity), and these licensed
patent, hence much
by the Archbishop of Canterbury. This for his defence,

disposed so far as they


and the punishment of

could

the

with

"

'

which

the

became

His

year5.
friends

of

of

matter
tu

which

and

of

works

selling the

accused

attack

guoque

Osborne,
h