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LIBRARY
OF THE

University of California.
Gl

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HEBREW GRAMMAR
ALEXANDER MEYROWITZ,

A.M., Ph.D.

PROFESSOK OF HEBREW AND SHEMITIC LITERATURE IN THE


UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI.

PUBLISHED AT THE UNIVERSITY, COLUMBIA, MISSOURI.

ALIFDi
NEW

YORK:

PRINTED AT INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL, HEBREW ORPHAN ASYLUM,


76th Street, neab Thibi) Avenue.
1877.

/^'p

I'Jiitercd

1k0.P^titi*i4

according to Act of Congress, in the year 1877,

By Alexani>ek Meyrowitz,
in the Oflice of the Librarian of

Congress at Waahington,

ysr^s*

PREFACE.

The number of Hebrew Grammars already published would


seem

to exceed the scholars studying this language.

there are but few which are of real use.

And

yet

like Gesenius,

Some,

are too large, and are written rather for the scholar than for the

Others are too meagre to satisfy even the beginner.

student.

After having been a teacher of


years, I believe I

verbs,

{e.

etc., as

it

this

g,

but

thirty

have omitted

my Tables, their deviation being but in the

added, besides the double anomalous


and r('^) the verbs ri^n, Vs&>^ ^^. TPn,

I liave

y'^

will be seen

work

this as I

more than

for

have found the middle way.

the Guttural verbs in


vocalization

Hebrew

by glancing

will not be the last,

at the Tables.

and

critics

may

And though

find fault with

have found with others, I believe nevertheless that

will be of great use to the student,


facilitate the

even for

comprehension of the

the salvation of men, which

is

Word

self-instruction,

of

God

and

revealed for

greatest aim and

my

it

desire.

There are three systems of pronunciation of the Hebrew, viz.,


I follow the Polish, bePolish, German, and Portuguese.
cause

it is

It gives
this

the most

me

common among

the Jews.

pleasure to acknowledge that the appearance of

work before the public

is

chiefly

owing

to the munificence

of the Rev. S. S. Laws, LL.D., President of the State University of Missouri.

ALEXK. MEYROWITZ.
Columbia, Mo., 28th April, 1877.

LI

Hebrew

Tlie

The

original

LETTEKS.

in

letters

Chaklee, derived from


Ezra.

A W V

ALlFOUNiA.J

1.

Iv

li

present

use are

tlie

square

Pulinyrene alphabet, adopted by

tlie

Hebrew

letters are the Pluenician,

found

on monuments and the Maccabean coins.

2.

All the letters are consonants, except

and y,

also

at

the beginning of a word, where they serve to express a vowel


syllable,

ophor,

by

y^'y\

lines

N.B.

e.

g.,

pQ^^

Aharon,

uvain, '''^SDI

Q^^

nmipri

Odoni, "j^y omod, "^^j;


the vowels

and dots above, below, or within the

Hebrew was

Arabic and Syriac.

are expressed

letters.

originally written without vowels, like

Letteft'8.

be seen in the above table that five letters assume


a different form when at the end of a word, wherefore they
are called finals.
They owe their origin to the time when
3. It will

and to mark
writing was still done without dividing the words,
When in
the end of a word, -final letters were introduced.
from
one
were
divided
the
words
time
of
another, all
process
the Jinals were dropped except the five, because they served as
numerals for 500- 600, etc.
4.

The whole alphabet

is

primarily divided into two parts

a. Radicals, b, Serviles.

a.

Radicals are those letters which are used only for the
formation of nouns and verbs, consisting chiefly of three
letters, which form the root of a noun or verb.

b.

Serviles are those letters which, besides being used in the


formation of nouns and verbs, are also used as prefixes or
suffixes to nouns and verbs, to express other parts of

These

speech.

^, when

2
n

serviles include half the alphabet,

and are

prefixed to a verb in the future tense, denotes the

personal pronoun, nominative Ist singular common.


prefixed to any word, denotes the prepositions m, by^ or with.
with a pathach under it (,"j), when prefixed to a noun

with a daghesh

"n^tjn

[<^^*j

prefixed

e.,

if *^^^ fii'st

Gutturals, y, n,

(^.

is

1^, {^,

with

point)

letter

in its

first

of the noun

letter,
is

one

e.

g.^

of the

which cannot take a daghesh,* the


komats |-( instead of pathach J-}] it
T

denotes the definite

article.

denotes the precative,

e.

g.,

suffixed

HDS

to

^9^'*

the imperative,
(^ome now
pj
!

prefixed to the participle of the verb denotes the relative


pron. who, that,
p] suffixed to the future 1st sing, or pi.

com. denotes the future optative.


|i profixed to any word
with Chatuf Pathach ,") denotes an interrogation, e. g.,
"^^S^'n
j^

whether keeping? (Gen.

with a Mappik

(jr\)

iv. 9),

suffixed to a

Jpf]

whether from?

noun denotes the

* The effect of a
Daghesh in the middle of a word
but the Gutturals cannot be doubled.

is

posses-

to doable the letter,

sive pron.
iii.

e.

3d per?,

feni,

sing.,

e.

without a Mappik denotes the proposition


n?i1D ^^^ Sodom (Gen. xix. 1).

g.

the beginning of any word (except


most of them being pj-oper names) denotes

and, but, even, both


pretixed to a verl) in
.

pron. nom. 3d

eleven

in
tlie

to^

words,

conjunctions

and.

the future

pers. sing, or

tense

denotes the pers.

Suffixed to a

])hir.

denotes the possessive pron.


pers. sing.
pretixed to any word denotes the ad verl)
first,

2>

(Gen.

15), Pi

at

her seed

g. J^it;*];

noun

it

(witli

com.
like.

7J

vowel) suffixed to a noun denotes tlie posseissive pron. 2d perWitliout a vowel,


2d pers.
son masc. sing.
rj, poss. pron.
fem. singular.
Prefixed
prefixed to any word denotes tlie preposition to.
to the infinitive construct, denotes in order to.
with a Cheerick under it, pretixed to any word witli a Da-

*)

ghesh in its first letter [and if the first letter be a Guttural


which cannut take a Daghesli,* the Cheerick is changed into
a Tsaireh

^J denotes

from heaven,

the proposition from.,

V"^^^ from

earth.

denotes the possessive pron. 3d pers.


J prefixed to a verl>

nom.
'

tlie

pi.

suffixed

g.^

to

D^'2^*i2
a

noun

masc.

future tense denotes pers. pron.

1st pei-s. })hir.

suffixed to
J

in

e.

the 2d and 3d pers. plur. of a verb in future


fut. optative. Suffixed to a noun, it denotes

tense, denotes

possessive pron. 3d pers. pi. fem.


prefixed to any word, denotes the relative pron. who., which^
that [Abbreviation of '^^^^J.

p. The meanings of
tifarious tliat they
5.

this letter, as prefix or suffix, are so

divided into classes (commonly


organs of speech, /. ^.,

Secondly the alphabet

in five)

according

mul-

cannot be reduced to any short rule.f

to the

is

* See note to letter n.


f D and n are frequently prefixed to the
change them into nouns, e. g. nriD from r\V\,

infinitive

Ddn

construct of

from 3C>\

verbs,

to

....

Gutturals,

Palatals,

Lingiials,

Dentals (Sibilants)

(1)

Nasals,
Letters belonging

^^T

^^'

0^^"$

same

tbe

to

word witbout altering

-:i

CO "I

:L'

^ ^

Labials,

in

:i

^*

^^

p T

y H H

CH)

its

Or\Z*^ ^^ laugb

classes
e.

meaning,

^S;^

or

may
g.^ py]

^^S,

Hebrew

or

pyt^, to

to escape.

^^
THE VOWELS. r\

IL

intercbange

^'^':/.\s;^

was written \^rtH0iit/\^^felsv f


tbe
tbi-ee
Only
long vowels, o, ee, and ow, were expressed oy "^-^
tbe tbree letters, 1, (H) ^ or ^ for tbe long o, ] for ow, and
Yor ee.
Tbese letters, wben serving as vowel bearers, were
called vowel letters, bnt tbey are frequently omitted.
The
Origmally, tbe

1.

text

"^

")

Massoretes, about tbe Hftb century, invented certain signs, to


I'epresent tbe vowels.
Tbey are ten in number; five long and
live sbort ones.

Long.
1.

T
2.
^

3.

4.

5.

Komats,

6.

Tsaireb,

7.

Segol,

Cbeerik,

8.

Cbeerik parvum,

Cbowlom,

9.

Komats

[).

ten vowels

Tbe names of the

five

the vowel in tbe

first

one in tbe second


2.

Tbe

its

1, like

in rule

o in home

6,

a in sharp

7,

Kubbuts.*

long vowels contain

all

the

syllable being the long, the

"^

i,

accompanying

2, like
,

chatuf,

corresponding short vowel.

tbree long vowels

with or without tbe

Patbacb,

10.

Sburuk,

?|

N.

Short.

a in able

e in

met

3,

8,

in

and

may be

^,

and

letter,

machine

in pin

9,

ow

o in off

written

yet
in
10,

retain

vow
u in

5,
full.

10
sound, in which case they are called long and
in tlie other case they are called
while
defective ;
long and full,
B.
When ^ is written defective, it is changed into
N.
their long

kubbuts.

Hebrew

3.

is

written and read from right to left, like all


and the consonants are
;

Shemitic languages (except Ethiopic)

pronounced before the vowels, except the Pathach under


at the end of a word, e. g.^ p|!|"] riiach, where the vowel

|^
is

pronounced before the consonant. It is called Pathach furtive^


its position and pronunciation are, as it were,
illegiti-

because
mate.

SH'YA.

Any

4.

letter

^^J^", which

which has no vowel

is

marked by a Sh'va

This mark

equal to an apostrophe.

is

is,

however,

omitted at the end of a word, except in the following three


cases.

When

a.

two vowelless

the word,

e.

g. 'I'^i

h.

The

final

c.

The

pers. pron.

Tj

letters

come

to stand at the

end of

yard^ both are marked with Sh'va.

has always a Sh'va

nom. 2

"Tj^

hoch.

pers. fem. J?^^ at.

5. As there is a difference between the pronunciation of a


vowelless letter at the beginning of a syllable and a vowelless
letter at the end of a syllable; the letter in the first case

being vocal, and in the latter case quiescent the grammarians


called the Sh'va whicli marks a vowelless letter at the beginSh'va mobile, i. e., Sh'va vocal and
ning of a syllable j;^
;

^1(^'

Sli'va wliich marks a vowelless letter


a syllable pJJ
)X\^ Sh'va quiescent, i. e. rest.

and the

at

the end of

When one

is to be pronounced
of the gutturals,
y, H? H? ^^
a vowel, it gets
without
at the beginning or middle of a word

6.

half a vowel [composite Sh'va], viz.


J

n!0^

^meth,

7r>^0

ini^'^^h^^l-

t:

-:

or

e.

v:

g.

"^^'^
v
:

''slier,

11

DAGIIESH.

III.

a point within the letter,

1.

Dagliesh,

a.

To harden the pronunciations


To double the letter.

b.

In the

first

i. e..

case

called

it is

p, ^, ;,

2^

-], },

and

iW2

"

"

"

''

th;

''

"

'

'

difference in the pronunciation of ^ and

out the daghesh

of twofold use:

lene, and can occur only


only in the following six

with it
"
"

3.

is

letters.

n:2).

The

some

Daghesh

in a letter beginning a syllable,


letters:

of

3
3
i

like b.

"

p.

"
PI

k.

"
t.

with or with-

is lost.

daghesh

in

any

letter,

except the gutturals

{^,

,,

and "^j in the middle or at the end of a word, doubles the


1^, V
letter, and is called the daghesh forte.
lY.

ACCENTS.

12

10

clio,

Tipdio,

sho k'tMioh,14

17

T'lislio o;Vl()wlt)li, 15

Azloo-arash,* 18

21

Y'thiv, 22

<

Kadinoh, IH
-

Gershajini, 19
2?>

P'ssick,

Pozer, 13 --

Ethiiaohto, 12

Y'azlo.

Dargo, 20

Siliik,* 2P,

T'li-

T'vir,

SluilsheieTli.

QP

25

Merelioli k'fnloli, 20

Kariie poroli, 27

))

Yprrtcli

l)eii

yowniow.

Of

these 27 accents only No. 3, 5, 9, 13, 15, 19, 25, and 27,
are conjunctives all the rest are disjunctives.
Tlie principal
;

disjunctives, a knowledge of which

proper

are

reading,

tlie

following

Zokef katon,

Segol,

absolutely iiecessary for

is

Eeveei,

Tipcho,

Siluk, or

Ethnach,

Soph

possuk.

When

4.

two or three words have but one accent, the words


to tlie accentuated word by a

without the accent are joined

Makkaf r^P^

horizontal line called

(").

5. The accent is generally placed on tlie ultimate, or penultimate syllable and when a syllable before the acc^entuated
one is to be intoned, it gets a pei'pendicular line under it, called
;

Metheg ^HDj
vowel

(^*-

before

^-

the

^i

bridle)

The

al

the

ter of the

of

its

e.

To

^22^- Even

also

tiie

Metheg,

third
e.

g.,

AETICLE.

Tlel^rew article fully written

is

^|^, like tlie Arabi.-

S is, however, always dropped, and the tirst letnoun gets a Daghesh compensative. (For the change

vowel, see

? I.,

4, letter

>

gf.,

takes

Metheg

y.
1.

Pashto and

distingnish between

Kadmo, one must be guided by

<

the following accent. So by

V'azloand

Azlogaresh, by theprecediogone.

13
It stands

2.

finite

only:

a. ns

a deiinitu article, never for

h. as a demonstrative

prononn, tlms,

c.

<j.,

inde-

tlie

tH^^Ts
T

tliis

night (Gen. xix. :U.) D>L2'J


relative

prononn

iH^

^^'"^ (E^- ^^' 2^^)

^'^^'^

went with

^^'^^^

^^^-'?'"1'J

^-

liini

is

(Josh.

X. 24).

AVhen one of the letters ^, 2, ^, is prefixed to anonn with


article, the whole article disa])pears, and tl\e prefixed letter
takes tlie vowel of the article.
Tlins, instead of nDSijS '^ '^
:3.

an

rjp32

in tlie silver. *n.n2 ^^^ '^T'\T\2. hi the nionntain.

C1^^^

the man.
2"l^rj'p to
4. When the nonn has the Jirticle, all the following adjectives
and prononns also have the article. If the nonn has the article,
and the adjective has not, then the adjective is a predicate.

YL NOUN.

1. The Hehrew nonn has two genders, and three nnmhers.


The genders are masculine and feminine the nnmhers, singu;

lar, plural,

a.

Masculine are

All living beings of male gender, e.g. Cn*l!5^ Ahraham,


n"^*]^?

b.

and dual.

All

a lion, ;2i^

names of

it

father.

nations,

e.

g., p^?3J7.-^'ii'dek,

*")*,

a nation,

"IV^'^ Ashur.
c.

All names of seas and rivers,


the Jordan,
I'l"!^

d.
e.

Names
Names

Q''

the sea, "IPO

^^

T T

I'iver,

n*12 Enphrates.

of mountains,

of months,

e, g.^

e.

e. //.,

g.^

"'JQ Sinai,

t^^"in

'^

month,

^ll^H Tabor.
];^'^!!^^^

April,

TTT

a month.
f.

The names of

metals,

e.

g.^

^H*

gold,

^03

silver,

/'^^

iron.

N. B.
^' 9")

There

1D3

is

cattle,

a tliird gender,

l^y

sheep.

which may be called either

14
2.

Feminine nouns are

a.

All living beings of the female gender,

Q^

a mother,

in

ny_l knowledge

^. ^-^

^.,7)1*1 Rachel,

e.

^ cow.

["HS

All nouns wliich end

d.

in

in fl

^ blessing;
TOIS
T T

^- ff-i

^-

H^'IH^

^-^

the end

in

kingdom.

Names

c.

and towns,

of countries

e.

*^^y a city,

^.,

jy^J

Canaan.
All the njem])ers of the body,

d.

foot, )tj^

9-

"I^

^.,

hand,

^j^

<^

eye.

Nouns

of masculine gender form tlicir plural by suffixing


e.
syllable Q"'
g. ID^ ^ word, D^*!!]^ words, DIO a horse,

3.
th-e

ry_ an

an ear,

e.

Feminine nouns form

D^'DID horses.
ni,

^'-

^-

n"iD
TT

Ji

])iessings, nj;.!-

cow,

^^^s,

rois
T T

lose this termination,

a idessing, riir*i3
t:

observe that

will

and take

nouns ending

in

form ^^.

in its place the phiral

All nouns which exist by nature or art in pairs, take instead

of the plural a dual form, which ends in Q"^

two hands,

Q*^ J**

N. B.
line

by suffixing

niy'i;

N.B. The learner

4.

rinsT

their plural

When

D^Dp^D

e.

^j"^

(/.,

a hand,

scales, 7J*) a foot, Q"'5^'l feet.

any of the dual nouns assumes either a mas<;u-

or a femine plural ending,

e.

g.,

DIH''

it

loses its

original

meaning. The word pi")^ means handler; so Q'^^3*1 means times.


5.

in

There are some masculine nouns which have

the feminine termination,

DiDD

a place,

nliDDp

luive their plural in the

bee, Q'^'nili'n

^^^^^^

e.

g.,

P^^^es

^^n
and

^'^

''-"^j

Pl^i^

father,

fathers,

feminine nouns which

masculine termination,

n^DJ

their plural

e.

D'^'PDJ ^"^s.

g,

niir}*n a

Sonu; nouns

15
take their plural in either gender,
^^^r; or

f^^^^i'T}

e. g.,

"^^rj

generation,

generations.

Masc. nouns which have feminine pi. terminations,


nouns which have masc. pi. terminations, have their
natural gender, e. g.,
adjectives and verbs according to their
the
fathers
are
D^into
good, nlDto CD'^'liinn the

N. B.

and

fern,

nn^n

bees are good.


6. There are some nouns which exist only in plural form
and have no singular, e. g.^ Q"'^ face, D'^JP.^ ^^^ ^S^' Q''*11J7J

youth,

''Dl^i^

number, and no plural,

DDi^
T T

The

dust.

Some nouns have

boyhood.

last

e.

g., tl^f^^* sun,

^HT

only the singular

gold,

Vip summer,

mentioned are mainly collective nouns.

7.

the

Proper nouns,

mark

stands

e.g.^

^*^ David,
T

of gender nor number.

as family

m{<
T T

Adam, have neither


But when a proper noun

name, or national name,

D^'^iyp Mizraim, Egypt, Jl^^ Zidon,


gender,

e.

g.,

it

e.

g.y

takes

*^y)

i^evy,

number and

H^^T^ Levites, ni''")yp Egyptian women, |^^^J

D'^^niJj Zidonians.

YII.

CONSTKITCT STATE.

"When two nouns come together and one belongs to, or is


\i. e. Gen it.] the noun possessing or defining remains unchanged, but the noun possessed or defined
1.

defined by the other,

undergoes the following changes.


2. a. Nouns masc.
sing, shorten their syllables when constructed to another noun, e. g.^ 111^ a word,
*1I1"1

H^D

word of Moses,
an elder, ^^3
elder of the house,
jp]
jD]
the heart of man.
^Zl^ a heart, QH^^ DD7
T
TT
b. Kouns in
plural masc. drop the last Q and change the
:

preceding Cheerick

into Tsaireh

e.

y.,

words,
-C^^^l
T
:

16

nro

'^'l.^'l

words of Moses.

0*13 '^^pX the

elders,

D'^2p\

elders of the house.

Dual construct drops the

the penultimate

eyes of

into

man; Q'jnD?'*

Feminine

d.

into

wisdom of Solomon,

^^P^'

a.

Dm

HDm

e. g.,

abs.

const. Pi ^1^'^;]^;

riilDI^'
N. B. The noun wliich

is

defining noun and takes no

The

1.

good sons

pi]}te 0133 good

2.

second vowel,

tlieir

Hiu'^i/!.

const.

'

Hebrew always
in

man

An

c.

<j.^

p|^2^1^.

ADJECTIVE.

DiCO a good

fdl^ Hl^m
T

defined stands always before the

adjective stands in

POiCO

hito

article.

and must agree with the noun


;

n*l1n the law of Moses.

"5^^*^

VIII.

change the

wisdom,

Feminine plural nouns shorten

e.

abs.

[^'^^ ij"^^

of the wise man.

'^OCip'* ^Jps
iri

and changes

two eyes,

U^'2^^

(/.,

nouns ending

sing,

and the (-^)

and

last

<^

Hk^'^^
T

after the noun,

gender and number,

good woman

as ^*''^

Q^^to D^J2T

(hiughters.

two or more nouns

adjective belonging to

(also verbs

or participles) must be rendered in the plural numl)er and


if one of the nouns be masculine, the adjective, verb, or partici;

ple
^

must be

">Jp]

the masculine gender,

in

Abraliam

and

But when

3.

e.

""

tied

by the nouns which follow,

and

Adam

and

liis

H^ti^l
T

and Sarah were old (Gen.

verb stands before

tlie

a..
"

e.

</.,

tlie

noun,

ip^^'^^l

wife hid themselves (Gen.

PiP"* Q''^'^ and were not found fine

women

xviii.

is

it

DrH^^l
T T :

11).

not modi-

d^n ^^500!*]

iii.

8),

(Jol)

i^^p^

xlii.

^i^l

15).

the adjective stands before the noun, or when the


article and the adjective none, the adjective is t(j
be understood as a predicate, e. g.^ V*l5^n HDto the land IS
4.

noun

good,

When
lias

an

ni^to V"n^
/ V
T

a-

^^od land,

iH^^n
HDto
T T
T
1

'.

the land

i^

IT
the good
good, r\2)^ri yn^iin the good land, nriten yii?
In the last case the emphasis lies on the adjective.
laud.

Comparative and superlative of the Hebrew adjectives,


verbs, particles, and pronouns are formed in the following
6.

manner

When
3

is

two nouns are compared

prefixed to both nouns,

e.

in the positive form, the letter

And

nn*1^-l3 nn^^^'D VJ1^3-

2^^

IDJ?? 1"35

g.,

HTil

shall be as with the

it

people, so with the priest; as with the servant, so with the


master; as with the maid, so with the mistress (Is. xxiv.

In the comparative, the letter

2).

noun with which

it

is

compared,

vii.

(Eccl.

nJDD
T V
The

1),

e.

g., ^ICO
is

is

formed,
superlative
i^ost holy; b.

before the

|P?^*P Q?^ 3lCD

better than precious

c.

i.

all

(Gen.

iii.

1)

19).

by repeating the adjective, e.g.,


by adding the word ^^p, e. g.,
.

by putting the

article before the adjec-

3 before the noun witli which it is compared,


HD^n the most beautiful among the women,

letter

Q''^\35

n&^jp3

D1*iy more subtile than

better than she (Esther


nZjlEn?
T

and the

g.,

the day of death than the day of one's birth

730

"'^np ^"ip
*i^p ^to very good
tive,

^^'i^^^

^ good name

1'n^in DVt2 Pl?^n QV)'


ointment, and

e.

12

'7'1'n

the poorest in (the tribe of) Menasse.

N. B. When the superlative is expressed by a verb, the


word ^2 with the prefix
p is put before the noun with which
it is

compared,

was wiser than

e.

all

g.,

Dn^<"^3p nt^bp D^Jl^) And Solomo

^^

men.
IX.

1.

are of two kinds;.

a.

Separable, consisting of distinct words.

b.

Inseparable words,

Separable pronouns

J^KM

PK0N0UI!^S.

The Hebrew pronouns


^^ e.,

are, 1.

letters suffixed to

personal

^ JX A

^^^-'--'Ar

ly

~^==^.

nouns and verbs.


3. demon-

2. relative

Ix
I

18
strative
5.

and

possessive

The inseparable pronouns are,


both expressed by the letters
,^ ,n

4. interrogative.

6.

passive

O (CliSn pronouns) suffixed to nouns and verbs.

?D

2.

Ac.

Abl.

Inst.

'5

^?

^?
12
T

I??

1"?

'^sc

PERSONAL PKONOUNS.
D.

N.

19
in singular or plural, to denote whose object
^
^HSTD
book, ''lOD ^^y book.

suffixed to a
it is, e.
g.^

7.

The

nonn

possessive pronominal suffixes are

To A Singular Noun

20

The

passive pronouns are the same suffixes as those of the


in which they are objective,
uouns, appended to the verb
instead of possessive pronouns.
table of tliem will be found
ainonsr the verbs.
8.

X.
1.

Nanieration

is

NUMERATION.

divided in units, tens, hundreds, thousands,

and the

letters of the alphabet are used to represent them.


etc.;
with a
(See the alphabet table.) To express 1,000 by letters

dot over
i'hus

it t< is

we now

"2 2,000, 3 3,000, "i 4,000, f] -^,000, etc.


the
figure
present year of the creation, sliortlv,

used,

ryn'nn5637*.
2.

Numbers

are divided into cardinals and ordinals.

cardinals have masc. and fern, absolute and construct.

The
The

numbers have two genders, but no constrnct state. Tlie


numbers have also pronominal suffixes, e. g., 1J''Jt^ us two
ordinal

(Gen. xxxi. 37),

n^r\pbp you three (Numb.


CARDINAL NUMBERS.

Feminine.

xii.

47).

21
4.

From

ten to twenty, the

masc. without

viz.:

termination,

number

HT

ten has

its

proper gender

^^^ ^6^- with

Some

HT

of the units stand in the absolute and some in construct state.

Masculine.

Feminine.

mn
1

11.

it^V,

''^Pl

12.

<VPV..

le.

n^y^niz^'sj^

T 'T
1^.

B.

be observed that number 11, m. as well as

It will

fem., is used only in the construct state ; 12, in construct as


well as in absolute state.
From 13 to 19, inclusive, the masc.
in absolute, the fem. in constr.
5.

The numbers 20

to

90 are formed by

"n^j; in the number 20, and the same


masc. unit numbers,
is

added, the unit

e-

g^
6.

100,

w^bv^

Q^

21, D^'i^'DHi

nysn^^

to

to the constr.

D''t^7^' 30, D'^yS^I^? ^0-

used in the absolute with the

nnv^

suffixed

^^ ^ ^"it

conjunctive,

54, etc.

The hundreds have always the feminine termination T\^'Q


^^
units which number the hundreds
plural ^1^^^Q

are the
to

is

e. g.,

suffix

19,

>

same
e.

g.,

termination,

N. B.

as are used in the fem. cardinal

ril^iP
e.

Two

g.,

"d^^

Q^C^^

300.

numbers from 13

The thousands have

^IJ^51^? 4,000, D^5^^5

the masc.

T<^W

6,000.

hundred, two thousand, and two ten thousands

22
take the dual form,
20,000.

n!!l!2^5

vsi^n 1^'^^^'

e. g.,

plural

p^^"'^i

D^HJ^D

200,

D^B^i?

Hl^D*)? means,

2,000,

a great

'^n^iS*!
multitude;

'

Ts^'^'y

7. The ordinal numbers are in all cases like the adjective,


and have both numbers and genders they must agree with the
;

noun.
Feminine.

23

When

written, but not pronounced


which are called quiescent verbs. (For particulars see

b.

the letters are

XL

all

2.)

2.

The Hebrew verb has 7

1-

/i^S

voices, or paradigms.

wrought) or 7p_

0^6

(light),

unburdened by any additional

because this voice

is

daghesh, denotes

letter or

the simple active.

was wrought upon) characterized by a pre-

2. 'PJ^CJ (he

fixed J or

by a daghesh

in the first radical letter, denotes

the simple ^am-y^.


TheJNifal form cannot be

N. B.
yet

oiintransitive verbs,

no Kal form at
same meaning,

all.
e.

'

niB^

TjSl' TlS"!^

lie

went,

was

Dip

DH /3

l^^

Hithpael,

i. e.,

and

D"*!p-l

In some verbs

sick.

e.

reflective,

g.,

etc.

by a daghesh

diligently) characterized

wrought

(1^

^^^

of the

meaning

he will divide himself,

7j^5

g.,

In some verbs Kal and Nifal have the

n^HH^n^
T V: V
T T

he approached.
Nifal has the

g.,

e.

Such verbs have generally

warred, fought, Ji^^\3 he leaned.

3.

made

can stand as a deponent, signifying Kal,

it

in the second radical, denotes the intensive active.

N. B.

When

Piel

is

made

of a

verb which

intransitive, it denotes in Piel the transitive,

nS^

glad,

opposite

meaning of Kal,

removed the
4.

he made glad.

^VQ

N. B.
in Pual,

in

HD^

Kal

^^ ^^

In some verbs the Piel has the


e.

g.,

/pD

he stoned,

S'pD he

stones.

(he was diligently wrought upon) characterized

by a shooruck
in

i. e.,

is

the

second

Some
e. g.,

same way we

under the

radical,

first radical,

denotes

the

and a daghesh

intensive passive.

verbs have their active in Kal, and their passive

VrTl he washed, VH"! he was washed.


find verbs

In the

which have their active in Piel, and

24
their passive in Nifal,

comforted. (Psalm
5.

e.

g.,

QH^

he comforted,
to be
UT\1T}

Ixxiii. 3.)

^"'J^Dn (he caused another to work), characterized by


prefixed and a

between the second and third

radicals,

denotes causative active.

N. B.

There are some verbs used only in Hifil form, e. g.,


rise early, C0''2n he looked, HSH he
smote,

to

n2^sl
T]*'7^'n

he cast down.

T5JJSn (he was caused to work).

6.

n
^'

and denotes the causative

prefixed,

/i?Snn

characterized by

It is

passive.

OH

(he wrought on liimself), characterized by

prefixed and a daghesh in the second radical, denotes the


Some verbs have in Hithpael the same meaning

reflexive.

as in Kal,

Qlp,
2.

e.

and

g.,

"Tj^npn

Tj^H

he went,

DpipHn,

to arise against one.

When

the

the characteristic
radical, as

radical

first

is

one of the

of Hithpael changes

its

letters,

^SlTlpn "he feigned himself drunk,"

"IJjn^n "he guarded

^*, j^,

place with the

first

73Dnn

for

himself," for "nj^^'prh for euphony's

sake.
3.
is

When

the

first

radical

is *!' CO'

or

p, the

characteristic 21

omitted, and compensated by a daghesli in the

g^

for
np"ivN:,
4.

sons,

npin^' ^^^^^

The Hebrew verb


and genders.

nn(5r;^n*

varied by moods, tenses, numbers, perThere are three moods: 1. The indicative^
is

describing the action as done with certamty,


hast learned.

There

is,

Tl'^JOb

TOTO "Oh,

e.

^^,

^^^, and j^

that Ishmael

might

live

Lest he tear (Ps.


18),
(Gen.
|S
hnperative^ commanding a thing to be done.
xvii.

^^\

g.^

V^t^

thou

liowever, also a conjunctive, wliich

formed by the words,

chiefly

first radical, e.

*or

^^^Qli^^"";

is

"h

before thee!"

vii.

3).

This

2.

mood

The
can

26
also be

made

Oh, turn

or by adding the particle

remember

a precative^ either by suffixing

^^

^-

e. g.,

9">

'^^ "^^T

Sometimes by using both forms together,


save (Psalm

^J nU'^in Olij

xviii. 25).

T^yW
e.

Oh,
g.^

The infinitive mood,

3.

simply speaking of an action without any regard to time.


is used sometimes only to
give force to an action.
5.

The

Hebrew verb

tenses in the

are three:

The

It

past, or

preterit, expressing a thing already done ; imperfect and pluperfect are included, and are to be understood by the context
2. The progressive present, of which there
are two, the present participle and the past participle. (See
3. The futare, declaring the action yet to be done.
table I .)
The past in the future is expressed by the simple past, e. g.,

of the sentence.

Dnnn^ Ol^in II^'^? TjnnbiDl but thy chldren which thou


shalt
6.

a.
b.
c.

have born

The
The
The
The

Two

after them. (Gen. xlv. 6.)

Hebrew verb

has three persons:

person speaking.
person spoken

to.

person spoken

of.

genders, mascuhne and feminine, and two numbers,

When anything impersonal is related,


singular and plural.
the 3d person sing. masc. is used, e. ^., HDl'^T' ^Di^"! 3,nd one
.

told Joseph.

(Gen.

xlviii. 1.)

IRREGULAK VERBS.

XII.
1.

The

first class

of the irregular verbs

Those verbs of which the


1).
(See
are imperfect, D''"lQn> i- ^-^ the J and
X.

"^

2.

DTI
*

The second
-3'

^- ^-j

p^Ji

he poured,

p^^"'

the imperfect.
radical is J and

will be omitted,

"^

the second radical takes then a daghesh,


will give
jp^ he

is

first

e.

g.,

and

J^^ he gave,

he will pour.

class of irregular verbs is called quiescents,

the letters are written, but are not pronounced.*

The Hebrew Grammarians made use of the three letters ^ y Q to designate


The 1st they call Q the 2d y the 3d ^.
is {<
they say it is a verb K"2 , tc.

the three radical letters of any verb.


So instead of saying the first radical
:

26

These verbs are


1when
{*^"^
2.

3.
4.

the

first

radical

is

%
second

V'y,

((

"

"

((

"

"

"
n'^^,

7.

J7"y?

There

''

"

"

iC

i(

third

when

Q!|p

"f

V'^,

6.

72*^^

g.

"

2S^";i

"

vN^"^.

e.

Ji^,

1"^,

5.

"

"

^,

7*)^

^tJl;^

TT
22DD

the 2d and 3d letters are the same

a third class of irregular verbs, called guttural^


of the radicals is "^j j;, H? in which case there
caused a deviation from the usual vowel pointino of the verb.
3.

i. e.,

is

4.

is

when one

Some

verbs are quadriliteral, as

to cut oif,
lg^'^2

Vy

and

prostrate,

to

expand.

^"^ appear
from ^120

to

752^3

00*13

gird,

Also the piel of some verbs

in quadriliteral

form,

as

to throw, ^\lf
to delight,
}['{(;

7CO7D

from

t<^

ny^\

ory;;^-*

PASSIVE PJFtONOU:^S OF VERBS.

XIII.

The active verb takes a double pronominal suffix, first


denote the number and person, second the objective or
accusative case, as they suffer the action of the verb to which
1.

to

they are joined


''P

thus

being the agent,

2.

H'^in^^?^'

the patient.

^^^^

^P^

his fleeing,

e.

Q^^ISPG
T :t

The participle

J^>

Pi hei*;

(See Table.)

g., ^^'^\)'2 in

my

in creating them,

her.

^^^^' "'H

The infinitive takes the pronominal suffix of the

as well as the objective,


in

takes the objective

possessive,

calling,

in"n33

n"l3r^
T .t:

to ^0^*^^

in

the like

suffix

manner.
3. The pronominal
objective suffixes are sometimes to be
rendered as if they were detached pronouns governed by a
preposition understood, thus, ''JQHJ thou gavest unto me.

27
(Josh. XV. 16.)

^JUn

with thee (Fsalm

1-

'^i;,

ri''^?

|>J^

^^
025^

ADVERBS OR PARTICLES.
takes the suffix of noun plural.
"
"
"
"
"
"

after,

where?

none, but

because,^

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

^^ > "

"

^'

between/

^ri^5

except,

lo,

nb)]

only,

i03

as, like,

-\ib

apart,

behold,

because

}''r

^"
,

)',

plural.
^;

^'V'

sing.

'*

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

^'

''

"

"

''

"

^'

"

"

*'

"

"

"

"

"

^'

^'

"

"

"

"

"

''

"

"

"

''

"

"

"

"

''

^'

"

"

''

"

"

"

"

''

''

<<

<t

<<

<<

<<

"

*'

of,

opposite,

'^^pi'

before,

from, out

plural.
sing.

of,
^'

S'^^D
T

^''''^'==''==-=-^-^

nDijb

p*"-^*^

^^'^^

.(^tLiXr (J l^^yV
^
"

for the sake of

7n

n.iJ

sing.

"

lybs

^1D

plural.

""^'
besides,

|p'

"

to, against,

^^P

|J;q^

"

sing.

near, beside,

ndl73

"
not,

^5J^

shall dwell

TTS^

v. 5).

XIY.

*ini^

favorable unto us,

t)e

opposite,
before, opposite,"
"
U

round about,

"

''

"

plural.

28

^2

''

*'

*'

'

"

''

''

"

plural.

with,

^nn

plural.

^*

sing.
"

upon,

;;

''

sing.

under, instead,

''

*'

'

Adverbs or

2.
''l^,

particles which take no suffix: ^^ or, either;


then, at that time;
liow; "H^ only,

1^il

peradventure;
also;

"l'^'^^^

^^not;

D'hil

Q^

as,

*^^^^

n^n

because
]}ll

because

id.;

^^*^N^ if;

^^

1^5

J2

perhaps

without;

'^,
if;

Q/^^

whither
|^^

liither

also

Q^

ym except;

TTT] ^low

thus

so,

H^^ why

H^

Q^IQ

HJ^S
;

^^^w

much

so
;

D''^D^ formerly

15

T'iri^_ together;
or,

i^p

perhaps,

if,

how many
;

^^

very

not

i^^C

IPD quickly; nDI^D something,


to-morrow; nQD below; COUP ^ little; 7);c

wherefore;

above; ">p^ when


Dl^lJ over against

^^ now; H^J

many

of;

eternal;

Hl^y now; l^pj? because

Di^^^P suddenly

because
D^2^2
T-

nothing;

n^^/H beyond

not yet

^23 long ago n3 nD2

but; {^*^* vainly

T^

perhaps,

-^^^^

J^^

manner

j;i'nj3

^T) much,

but;

where

H^^
TT

HD''^?,

according; ^^5^ yet ; Q^pi<; verily ; 3^ slowly;


so be it; ^2 not; ^^2 without; H^here;

anything; "iriD

that not;

^Q^^

T]^;;^,

1^^
It

surely;

1^5

yet,

"Ili?

noun

takes the suffix of

unto,

*|J^

DID

U^^^ momentary
i^''^^"

*Ii7
;

HB

in past time
;

unto; "I'nyid.;

liere;

2)^D

20^*1 emptily

the day before yesterday

/i^H
" yesterday; T^^H
^ilways,
T

|2

lest,

closely;

p*l only,

Qgr there;

continually.

XV.

INTERJECTIOISrS.

Sounds of one or more

syllables,

used

when experiencing

joy or pain, are called interjections.


They being natural
When the
expressions, are almost in all languages the same.

29
is

expression

of joy, the sounds


the

lamentation

or

words

"'In are used.

""i^^
-:
!

"^^

H^il are used of pain


TV
Hn^? h"T'1^^ -""1^5 ^-'^77^

*Tnn

T-

HH

For request or petition the words

^JT

are used.

^^^-

SYNTAX. NOimS.

XVI.

When

1.
all

several nouns

either alike

same

case.

e.ff;

i.

They

rn:2
T

come

to stand in a sentence, they are


or
e., subjects
objects, or they are not of the
be
all
may
subjects having the same predicate,

n^
TT

invx

nl^DI Jacob
VZ3
TT

and

nnx

vjb
TT

^j21
:

his seed

i;;nr'7n
T
::

with

liini

his

sons,

3pr

and

".-

his

sons'

sons with him, his daughters and his sons' daughters

(Gen.

xlvi. 6, 7).

"np^n
TT I

|!}1
I

And

Or

xviii. 8).

all

Also as objects,

e. ^.,

3/111 nfr^iDn ^L^^

he took butter and milk and the calf (Gen.


the nouns in the sentence

may

denote one

D^j;n'l D'^^n:! D'^^rn U'Z'y^ wise men


and understanding, and known (Deut. i. 13). Lastly one noun
object,

may

c.

g.,

define the otlier,

e, g.,

^:^ nyiS

D'J'iyp

rC'2

The

house of Paraoh, king of Egypt.


2. When several nouns are in a sentence as subjects, they
need not necessarily be of the same gender and number,
although they are in tlie same relation the verb and adjective
are then generally in plural masculine, yet when the verb
;

stands at the beginning, before the nouns, the verb can be in


inasc. sino:.,

e. g.,

W\2^^
T- D^^3
-T

Abraham and Sarah were


xviii. 11).
h^^t'^
^JpT
t:
the verb

is

T^y^
tt:

old, well stricken


t?::i

tnnX

^^H'^l

^."ln3^^^ ^"ow

tt:-;

with age (Gen.


And he came.

t:
t-:the elders of Israel (Exod. xviii. 12). Generally
governed by the chief person in the sentence.
)

Aaron and

D'^^pT
)":

all

Sometimes, when the verb stands before the noun, it is


regarded as impersonal^ and agrees with the following noun
neither in gender nor in number, e. g., HlD"' 0*^^.3 ^^IJDJ {*^7l
3.

30

And

it

if

n'njj^
4.
is

was not found beautiful women (Job

xlii.

15), H^'n"' "'S

there be a virgin (Dent. xxii. 23).

The conjunction of

done either by placing

as i*)iDni llfe'1

same sentence

several nouns in the

copulative before every noun,

tlie 1

and his
il3J71 and his man-servant,

IDDX]

maid-servant, and his ox, and his ass (Ex. xx. 14), or before the
last

noun, as rnin**! ^)b ])^i2P p^^^"l

Simeon,

J^euben,

Levy and Jehudah (Ex. i. 2.), or by placing the conjunc. before


the second and fourth nouns
*?^'^1 *n^ "^^flDJI ?"1 T>s.n and
:

Naphthali, Gad and Asher


only before the last.
5.

same

AYhen several nouns stand


sign,

-:

and when there are three nouns,


in predicate, all

must have the

v^lr:y"n^^T^^^n2"n^^ vonp-n^^i riz;np"n^^

P^n^^"n^?1 His
and his sockets

taclies,

and

(Ex.

xxxv.

TlDt^^in /I Ti^'^2?i^^1

his boards, his bars, his pillars,


11).

For thee and

T]^D^?^1 T]"]5i;^l Tjb


and for

for thy servant,

thy maid, and for thy hired servant, and for thy stranger tliat
sojourneth with thee (Levit. xxv. 6). The same is the case
with

the propositions.
one object has several adjectives, they must all
the
with
VIII. 1.) But when the object
object.
(See
agree
is constructed to the adjective, it is not modified.
6.

all

When

7. Nouns belonging to one subject, which are explanatory


of one another, if they stand before the subject, must have the

same mark

Thy

pnii'^

l^j;

^^

as

the subject,

e. g.,

"Hi^

T]*l'^n"'"ri^?

son, thy only one, Isaac (Gen. xxii. 2).

to thy brother,

to

Esau

(ibid, xxxii. 6).

TjIlB^ri^
TJ'^H^^

/^

But when

the subject precedes, the other nouns need not stand in the
*
same case, e. g.,
not

r\^^^r\ Tjn? ^n"].3

TjIlD?

^H^?

-^-^
s

1.

When

words,

it is

XYII.

COISTSTKUCT STATE.

any idea is to be expressed in Hebrew by two


formed by the first noun being constructed to the

31
second.
as

first,

ject.

H^Dr^^n nli^

then defining the

is

TOD D^^D

the Machpelah

^^7^1 city,

This con-

field.

form can occur in an active as well as in a passive subOften we find two synonyms in construct state, as p^^

nt^j; green herb,


part of

my

n1^2

D'^t^J^^'

^^1DJ;.n^^^^D

^W^,

Jl^^N?,

"'p^j;^

'

|3'

n?'

often constructed

^^

form an adjective, as
valiant

work of labor,

flJO

portion.

The words

2.

The second noun

1).

H'^'ID ^ town, n*li^ a field,

residence,
struct

VII.

(See

H ul^n ^^^

^ wise man, ^'^H

condemned man

woman, niD"?3

^J?2' H^J^S^ ^22^


with an abstract, to

a (w^oman) year old,


n5^*p"I3 ^^ arrow

(to death)

(lit.

H^^
HJ^

H"^

the son of the

bow).
3. A noun can be constructed to another noun, adjective
and a demonstrative pronoun, as HT Dip?p ^^ to this place,

n^i^

doer of these.

njj'^y
e.

numeral,

It

can also be constructed to a

U^^IJ^^^ ?2 son of forty (forty years

g.,

The noun can never be constructed


except by
^'

ellipsis,

where

'n "121

it

is

n^nn

e.

to be read as
is

to

old).

a particle or verb,

Q^ffi^? rpy^r\ n;p^?

g.,

which

to

llZ/i^

QlpP
DlpO ^^^^^
rmiir\ n^nn

"W"^^ D'''n^P^?

be read -)^fr^

Also to a

particle, whtjn the particle is regarded as a


as
^^^ wliatsoever he sheweth
substantive,
"^^^^'^/'"nD ^311

*)^*1

me (Numb,

xxiii. 3).

Neither can a noun be constructed to

a noun with a proposition.

When

noun is constructed to several nouns, it is rethe nouns are of difi'erent kinds, but when tliev
are of the same kind, the construct noun is not repeated, e. g.,
4.

peated when

Tf}m}^ np?1 "^Opn?


every time repeated
the noun

is

"^I^pl "^JCO?

ji^^Sl

not repeated.

H^^^HI jpjl

nS?

tlie

noun

m^VV^ HEn

is

y"]vX

32
Often there are several nouns in the construct state, as
^!)^^ Thl2 ^3/ T^'l^ "^"l? ^^^ which case one noun explains
the other, but two or

structed to one noun.

nt^ but must say

TT

more separate nouns cannot be conThus you cannot say H^ll^ffl nDpH
:

in^i'zni D"i^^
TT
T
:

no^HT

PECULIAR USE OF THE NOUN.

XYIII.
1.

in
it

The Hebrew

uses sometimes the

one, as, ^^^^it^"* fl^BiD '^^^ ^O^^

2^ Dr

Israel,

^^^^"2/

day, daily.

n1*l"^np"'y Highteousness,
p]2*D

united

by

Kings

it

conjunctive

^^^^'2/ ^^^^^^

twice, eitlier

as

it

rigliteousness
xiii. 2).

speaks (Esth.

i.

the house of

follow.

When

signifies a diversity

writes,

<^^'

Secondly, emphasis, as pH!^

tl^^S UV^ Dj;i TGnrD

and that land


it

altar! (1

altar,

nouns, as

as

same noun

the same gender and number, or in different numbers. If


is used in tlie same number, it has the significance of every

Hmd

HB'p

two nouns are

between the two


r^y''^]^ This land

and one people or another people

n3T

22).

nl?!

3|?3 with a double

But when the first noun is in singular


heart do they speak.
in
and the second
plural, it denotes the superlative, as

TD^

D^r7?0

ki"t^

<^*

i. <?.,

kings,

Qij^-]p holy of holiness,

XIX.

1.

The

'%.

the highest king, likewise


t^l^p
d.,

the most holy (See

YIII.

5).

RELATION OF THE ADJECTIVE, ADVERB


AND VERB TO THE NOUNS.
verl),

adverb, and

adjective must agree with the


And in construct
(See VIII. 1).

gender and number


adverb or adjective must agree with the noun con^'"^
the fear of the Lord is pure.
n^^*^"'
structed, as n^linD
-

noun

in

state the

The adverb n*lin[0


n^^n*^

is feni.

^s

therefore fern, because the construct

33

When

2.

several nouns of various genders belong to one


is used in the gender of the most prominent

verb, the verb

^^TK^y\ '^l"!?^ HS^SH


^y^^'^\ And
she wrote Esther the queen and Mordechai the Jew (Esth. ix.
the chief person.
20), Esther being
^ni^ijl
e. g.,

noun,

inp^

Tj^

Wisdom and knowledge


The second noun
agrees with

is

Hprnn

pp^

granted unto thee (2 Chron.

i.

12).

J^*1p. being of a higher degree, the verb

in.

Sometimes the noun is in plural and the verb in singular,


and this for two reasons. 1) Because there is an ellipsis, as
*ll^^l where it is to be understood, riH^?
/3
3.

TjigStJ^D

n!z;'''VDDSi;:^'?3^' also
V T
T T
*

2) Lies

js

nusD
nn^^
t

rr^^^
t-:t

in the imagination of the writer, seeing

it

^3
t

each of the

singly mounting the wall (Gen. xlix. 22).

n1^3

Where

4.

ni:i3
rn^^
t^:t
t

noun

to

the noun constructed has the same meaning as the


it is constructed, or where one noun can be left

which

out entirely, the verb agrees with the second noun, as J^^J

PPnn
xiii.

rii^T.!^

when

The noun

^;jj

^^

9).

fem. n^'nn

noun

>

the plague of leprosy will be (Lev.

though

Neither did the cruse of


struct

masc, the verb

is

yet in

because the nouns could be inverted, or the

So

out altogether.

left

it is

nnSy

in

^on

oil fail (1

feminine, yet the verb

Kings

^IpH

\CWT\ nPlSlil
16); the con-

xvii.
i^i

first

masc, because

it

refers to the oil^ not to the cruse.


5.

The adverb and

can be in sing, as
to the whole,

(Deut.

iii.

6.

3'^"]

7i"ljl

21), but in plur.

n.^^3 IP
(Josh.

as

adjective belonging to a collective noun,

^l^J^

iv. 19),

It is in sing,

w^ell as in plur.

Qj;

when

DJ^"1 And

it

only the

it

refers

people great and many

refers to each individual, as

the people

where every individual

Some nouns have

when

pi.

is

came up out of Jordan


meant.

number,

as

'^JS face,

34
Q'^'^n

li^e,

Q'^Q water, Q'^D^*

and the verb, adverb, or

The
adjective belonging to them are to be always in plural.
and 7^2 often come to stand in plural, whilst the
nounL^
|il5^
verb and adjective stand in singular, as tl^L^O D^2)'^^ ^ cruel
^

"

lord

(Is. xix.

4),

vb::2 nob)

XX.
1.

FKOKOUlSrS.

The personal pronouns

Hebrew

in

are either separable

words, or letters added to the verb (See


sometimes they are both used together, as

^1^^

^bp ^pn3 my own

*ri^?l'

IX.

But

1).

y]^^^

"^IJ^J^^?

vineyard.

Often the pronouns, in such a case, are changed, e. g.^


shall praise
^^r}^ TlllV nn^ n*!irp Judah, thy brethren
2.

thee (Gen. xlix.

where

8),

Dri^ Di?'''13d ^^^^


should

l)e
e.

double,

^.,

(Gen. XX.
6), for
3.

Qr*'^^'

jo^^i'

ought to be T]1*lV TlHi^^ or


carcases (Numb. xiv. 32), where it
it

>

Sometimes they stand even

Dr'^I^Dl

(""Hl^^^ ^"^H

5), T]^"li^

QJ

DH Qm

^^Til ^iid she, even she said

they, they are thy lot (Is.

emphasis' sake.

The personal pronoun

dative

"^7

Tr)

used without denoting the dative case, as


return

Ivii.

xxii.

(Numb.

* I
give

34).

etc., is

rD1k^*^5 ^

i*^

rh

i^lj

sometimes

''^in

^^'^11

D^^

according to the general idea of the Hebrew Grammarians, bnt I


nouns D*0 , D^Tl and D^DE^ are rather in Dual form, and that
Of D^tt we read (Gen. i. 7) that it was divided into two
for certain reason.
know
Of
we
that it is divided into two parts, viz., the life here and
c,"n
parts.
it

believe that the

hereafter.
is

in dual,

Also D^'-5^ which means sky, and

mea; ing the two hemispheres.

nn
inx n3Q
T T
.

n^tD'^X^^ nn^':''^t:' n""inN^


T

TT

is

derived from DC* there, space,

The Kabbala says

nnU'lS when

p^PD 13

fjlD

pX

the infinite intended to

shew his perfection, and to do good by it, he made


must be in existence, before anything existing can be.
ning God created heaven, i. e., space, and the earth."

The place
Hence " In the begin-

a place, etc.

35
knowest not
where the particle seems
If thou

advantage of the subject.


The demonstrative pronoun H] "^-j H^^l

action
4.

to

go (Cant. i. 8). Yet even liere,


be superfluous, it denotes that the

is

to the

denotes some person or thing which

is

f-?

present, or

H^^
by

P^- ^-^

relation

we have become aquainted with it, as if it were present, as


for this child I prayed (Sam.
"'n^Jgnn n^n '^VJn b^
iThe
27), lJ^!ilO D^] this we found (Gen. xxxvii. 32).
pron. n*

^n

'

r\}br\ D"''^^n

I'^n are used for a present object at a distance

^P

who

is

t/mt

man? (Gen.

xxiv.

65).

demonstrative "T generally stands for concrete nouns,

The

^^*

for abstract nouns.

Also with these pronouns, as with the verbs, there is a


repetition, w^hen tliey are connected by the copulative ) which
5.

ipl^^ HV One
said on this manner, and another said on that manner (1 Kings
xxii. 20).
Also D'^DID^ ^O^)
These in chariot^s,
..... ^D^Zl Hv^
denotes a diversity, as li^^ 1^1^^ Hll

^02

..

...J.

and those in horses (Ps. xx. 8). The personal pronoun is also
sometimes used as a demonstrative, as
These
|*ini^l nk^D ^IH
are

Moses and Aaron (Exodus vi. 27). We often also find


and demonstrative pronouns together, or two

the personal

demonstratives (but in w^iich case the second

is

always

{^^JH

^^IH '^ITJ^^ "^r^J^^ I, even


HllD
on) together, as Tp^JZ'B
V
TV
T
T
he that blotteth out thy transgressions (Is. xliii. 25).
I, am
feasts (Lev. xxiii. 2).
The
^'ZV)!^
rhi^ These are
or

D"

my

second pronoun in these cases is always explanatory of the first.


6. The demonstrative pronouns must also
agree with the

noun constructed, like the adjective (See XYIII. 1). When,


however, the noun to which it is constructed, is the chief noun,
the demonstrative agrees with it, and not with the construct,
as Jni^'in rrnlnn
ISp? ^^ ^^^ book of this law (Deut. xxviii.
61).

noun

The demonstrative can


is

implied by

it,

as

also take a preposition when a


niD ^^ this place (Gen. xlviii. 9).

36

Also (Ps.
fident

xxvii. 3)

*1D^3
T T-

rii^-in

The verb

said Moses.

the noun,

is

-ij^lt

ni^n

in this will I be con-

be understood.

to

KELATION OF THE YEEB.

XXI.
1.

nci3

usually precedes the noun, n{J^?0 HDi^^'l

When, however,

the emphasis, or stress,

will precede the verb, as

it

Sarah was hearing (Gen.

xviii.

10),

is

put on

niJDiC^* H^iL^I

2*'^pn

^^d

lij^'IDI

And
^"d

Pharaoh drew nigh (Exod. xiv. 10). When two verbs refer
one noun, the noun stands between the verbs, as "^n^^l

to

^nd Abram removed

D^^'l D*)Di^
T

xiii.

(Gen.

his

tent.... and dwelt

Where

18).

noun stands

several verbs refer to one noun, the


first or after the last verb.

either after the

In Hebrew, like in most ancient languages, the second


person is addressed in sing, only; if the word Lord is added,
the verb is put in 3d pers. sing., as 7^^*
My lord has
2.

''J"i^^

asked (Gen.

xliv.

(ibid. xli. 33).


3.

and

xxi. 1)

Dl*l^^

of

n3

Edom

fect, as

had

The

past

npD

'HI

future.

(Lam.

II

"IpS

T] jli^

iv.

]'l^

or

Tl'^P

22)

nnC"''5

-^^t
^^

X.

three tenses (See

n*1t^"n5<

n^^lS

The word

The verb has

present,

19),

^>*1^

Pharaoh look out

here to be understood.
5), past,

progressive

may imply imperfect, as (Gen.


^"d Grod visited Sarah. Again

^^^ visited thine iniquity,

O daughter

and pluperfect, when it follows a perFor she heard


that he
nypCi^" ^2

In prophetic language, the past is


(Rutli i. 6).
the
as
used for
future,
"'riPlJ ^J^^l"? instead of )T-\'^ ^iZ*]]?
visited

(Gen. XV. 18).

Thus
for

it is

sometimes used for the present, as

^\^^n^^ mnvsii
jpy.^? njn^?i
4. The He])rew language, properly speaking, has no present
tense (and in fact, time being transient, cannot have a present).
It combines,

however, past and future, and forms a present, as

Ay

niD7 7^X[

^r^J^

n^n

Beholdl I

Ji

am

going {4lf.fj\\me) (,^


formed by the parti oi'^Jlfej

This tense is
to die (Gen. xxv. 32).
^^'
with the personal pron, nom. before it.
5. This form sometimes also stands for the future, as "^J^H
^^''DD Behold, I shall bring (Gen.
action appears as present,

it is

And Pharaoh was dreaming


which

is

often repeated

of the past, as "^^^

The same

is

r\^T

But

may

it

When

xlviii. 1).

(Gen.

(1^3 So used Job

DDl
T T

hifinitive gives an

to go,

Tji^n

used in this form, as u^T]

HyiC^

an action

used instead

is

do (Job

to

i.

5).

the case with an action which

is

T
father (Prov. x. 1).

The

Also when an

17).

described, the future

dent of time, as 2^^ r\\^^*^

6.

vi.

ril3n

to smite

?3

is entirely indepenwise son makes glad a

abstract idea of the action, as


independent of time and person

take the prepositions

as

^, 3, ^, ^,

Tj^j^HB

in

going, '7&)i\2 like going, TjISh^ to go {i. e., in order to go),


TliSlD from going. It is treated like a noun. It is also

placed before the past or future to imply a certainty, as *1p5

lipD''

lie will

surely visit (Gen.

1.

When

24).

imperative or participle,
place, as ]3\]2^ IJ^D?^' Hear ye indeed
is

joined to

tlie

rchr\

Still

went on

(2

Kings

ii.

it

the infinitive

takes the second

(Is. vi.

9),

'^D^ln

11).

The infinitive Kal^ which is the easiest to be pronounced,


when
in itself without meaning, as above, placed before any
is,
other paradigm of the same verb, as H'^D
^^^ where the
7.

first is in

Kal, the second in Pual

second Niphal

^^

3J;P 3^^ the

first

Kal, the

T
^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ -^1^1
0^^^^ ^^
T

^^ is
^'I'^pp^ *^5?P
not used in Kal, the Piel stands for Kal) and the second in
As the iifiiiitive is to be regarded as an abstract
Hiphil.

noun,

it

b^'^t:^

is

sometimes interchauged with the

iJ^I n^ "nDOp^ And number

participle,

as

a fourth part of

38
Israel

(Num.

instead of

xxiii. 10),

*l1Sp^1

HDpn

iljp ^or

nppn |yp
The imperative mood (See X. 4) can only be used in
command when in the negaiive, the future
with the adverb ^7 or 7^ is used, as 1*1210 ^ / remember
8.

the affirmative

not, n<3]D

/H

T'N do not go

The imperative

etc.

also can

only be used in active^ not in passive voice but in Niphal,


which is properly a deponent verb and has the same meaning
;

as Kal, the imperative

used.

is

The future proper has one form (See Tab. of the verb).
The Hebrew uses, however, a commanding future (jussive)
9.

and that by omitting the quiescent letter of the future *


The
(apocap.), and a future optative^ which expresses a wish.
rain
as
^^
shall
form,
^COD"^
(Psalm xi.
(not will)
commanding
6), "TT' it sliall

be

or, let

there be

is

of frequent occurrence.

future optative is formed by suffixing H to the first pers.


sing, and pi., and a 7 to the second and third pers. plural masc.

The

rCP^
you

I will go,

n^^J

we

will go,

jl^bl

they will go,

jD^n

will go.

Y AY CONJUNCTIYE.

XXII.

letter ^ at the beginning of a word (except eleven


of which are proper nouns) with a Sli'va (~)used
most
words,
before a letter with a Sh'va, or a letter of its own class ^, ^, 3
is the equivalent of the conjunction and.

in

1.

The

2.

The

copulative,

Ramah, even

[^'ir^pT
3.

{i. e.,

an adversative

ti^-^^t;^
*

in his

a watcher

As

by way of explanation^ as

Hence

Not

so,

my

this /w^r6 is

?\"^ in all the paradigms.

own

city

(1

Sam.

1l'^J7!Iil

an angel) even a holy one (Dan.


but

HD^IS
So

xxviii. 3).

*l'^j;

iv. 10).

like the adverb 7^2!^ as j*I^?


"^

^7

lord, but thy servants (Gen. xlii. 10).

found in the regular verb in Hiphil, and in verbs

39

As an

4.

when thou
like adverb

As

5.

/^ 0^/111

apodosis thou^ as D"''?3n


art athirst, then
is ]i^

or

"'^^^

the adverb

P'^D^Jl

go to the vessels (Ruth

ii.

^^d
The

9).

although, yet^ as

Q^ ri^

rUH"!!^

"^3

^or he loved Hannah, yet the Lord


nDn*1
~ *121D '''"'1
- 3n^
- T
-T
T
had shut up her womb (1 Sam. i. 6).
:

As

6.

pn^D

adcBquationis, so^just so, adverb |3


nj;iDi^*i nD^.y. iz;5?j

yiNiQ n^ici

to a thirsty soul, so

good news from a

is

far

As

D^^^^p D''D

by ascoui water
country (Proverb

XXV. 25).

As

7.

And he
like

a disjunctive (See

y^VJ^

e.

1),

As

"^^

HSDl

I^^^l l''^^

xxi. 15),

jyOp m order that,


S^ ^^^^^ ^^^* multiply

inferential, like the adverb

^\

D^PID

"h

n3T

himself horses, that he cause to return,

When doubled
9.

g.,

mother (Exod.

that smites his father, or his

adverb

8.

XVII.

As

conclusive,

it

signifies both.

like

the adverb

etc.
.

(Deut.

xvii.

and, as n*11^57l

Yj^

as

to

16).

"H.jlbl

therefore, as V^^_

"I21"ri^ riD^Hp Because thou hast rejected the word of God, therefore God has rejected thee from
being king (1. Sam. xv. 23).
'^"^

T]^5)p ^P^?P^1

10.

As

conversive,

when

with a

ShVa

(1) is

means the future, and when a


a Komats (}, 1), is prefixed to the future

to the past tense,

Pathach or

viz.,

it

prefixed

with a

it

denotes

the past, as "ID^^I and he will say,


^nd he said.
"Ipi*^^]

holds good only in the narrative style

"IpP^l

and he

shall appoint (Esther

ii.

This

but not otherwise, as


3).

40
Note. The root of the Hebrew Verb, consistiDg of three radicals, being
found, without any prefix or sufl&x, in the 3d person masculine singular of the
past tense, the conjugation of the verb therefore begins with the 3d pers.
masc. sing, of that tense.

TABLE Z
Femin.

FIRST PARADIGM ^j;^ OR


Com.

rr<d->
:

^p_.

Masc.
-id':'

:'t

'niD?
Tip^
IJID^
Participle Presen

^-

sinir.

t
13. pi.

1.

42

PARADIGM ^yZ)
Past.
Fern.

Com.

Masc.
1.

""-ib^j

3.
1.

'3.

Participle Passive.

n-jc"'?:

nnc':':

sing.

pi.

4:^

Infinitive.

-i)?i>no>

iSi'n'?-

-5^"?'

"iD^n?.

co"-

-iip|n

45
Participle Passive.
i:JJ}^

^1^)^

T -

1.

^'H
I
r

un:t<
-

'.

in

an
I

3-

sing.

47

PARADIGM ^y^H- T
:

Past.
Fein.

Com.

nDbn

Participle Passive.

Masc.

48
Infinitive.

no'pnQ,

iiQbrh,

nr^bro,

nr^bra,

lobn

49
Infinitive.

ns^nni?.

nis^rin'?,

"la'^nn?.

"isbnn?

50

ma'?
T T

"

slie

taught."

IJOnob

l-c.pl.

suffix.

"'^rno'?

l.

csing.suffix.

2.

m.

TjoirJ'p
2.

f.

irno'?)

3.

nn-io'^

f.

jOfV'?

n'HD^

T :-

"

1-

Ijm.O'?

P'-

" thou didst teach."

^"''-

T
3.

''Jrn.15'?

:-,:

c.

sing, suffix.

-*

3.

f.

f.

nj;51D'?

" thou

riniD^
ij"'rnD'?

1-

"

D^nio^

3.

m.

3.

f.

pnio?

p'-

^^^^-

p^niD?
D^nip)

2.

m.

2.

f.

"'^''rn.D'?

iiT'niD'?

i-

o-

^-

"

3.

f.

3.

sing- suffix.

" I
taught."

pi. suffix.

2.

m.

2.

f.

?]''ri*lD7

"T]''niD^

"

m.

i,TnnD7r3.

pnio'?

didst teach."

n^'nn.c?

'n'lO^
Q2"'p-ip'p

(f.)

3.

f.

n^'i^i-ip?

f.

sing, suffix.

51
"

111??

1.

c.

2.

m.

2.

m.

2.

f.

2.

f.

3.

m.

3.

f.

3.

f.

1.

c.

pi. suffix.

nnD^

|nnD^
IJiniD^

P^T

they taught."

T^-

c.

3.

m.

3.

f.

or

"

nri^^D^

pi. suffix.

IJ^D^

DDIJID^

2.

m.

mjHo^

3.

m.

3.

f.

"

we

pi. suffix.

|iJlb^

Participle act.

the noun.

1D)b

je did teach."

'3iniD^

1-

fflnn'D^

3.

1.

c.

pi. suffix.

3.

m.

f.

^-

inijnb^

3.

m.

nij^D^

3.

f.

is

ni^7

sing, suffix.

suffixed like
.

" ^^ will learn.'


1.

c.

2.

m.

2.

f.

mnp^l

3.

m.

niDb"^

3.

f.

'^J*1^7''

Tpbb\
rp^b\
C-ilJ^-i

sing, suffix.

2-

T]1jnD^

Likewise the participle passive

Ijnp'?'^

c-

did learn.*'

learning, or a learner,

Future, HID/'^

sing, suffix.

sing, suffix.

52

The

1st sing,

by changing

{))

and
into

pi.
(

and 2d m.
);

changed into short

Ti it is

The 2d fem.

sing,

without any change.

ceding

).

HT

is

and 3d and 2d

preceded by

(.*)

m. take the

pi.

The 2d and 3d

pi.

f.

HJ

drop

suffixes

a,nd pre-

Infinitive

1JTD /

^'

^-

DDIP^

2.

m.

pip^

2.

Q^bS

3.

m.

3.

f.

pp'5

IID T/

P^- suffix.

!)J*|^^

u^fy?

nn^T

" to learn.**

"^ID

1-

^'

2.

m.

2.

f.

3-

^'

3.

f.

s^^o- suffix.

Tj^p^

f.

rj-ip^
)^^l2b
T T
nnp^
:

Imperative

same form,
Qp, and

sing, follow the

but before the suflSxes )^,

1.

c.

3.

m.

3.

f.

pi. suffix.

^^7

" learn

"
!

""jniO^

1-

c.

inip7

3.

m.

rnn^
t: T

3.

f.

sing,

suffix.

PARADIGM bVB WITH SUFFIXES.


!)j*np^

1.

c.

;^n^^

2.

m.

pi. suffix.

^J^IP"?

^'

^-

2.

m.

2.

f.

^np^

3.

m.

nnrbb

3.

f.

Tjn?3b

pH^S

2.

f.

Q-ip^

3.

m.

P^b

3.

f.

r^np^'

^^"^*

^"^^

53

54

TAJ^ZFIIL-YEnB

yr)

IMPERFECT

PAKADIGM
Past.

Fem.

hp_

XL

1).

55
Infinitive.

nmD,

nmb^

Fem.

r^:o,

nm2

nC^*3

con.

PAEADIGM

bv.^ri'

67
Pakticiple Active (Pkogkessive Pees

).

^r\

nnnj

is

1-

on

3.

pi-

3-

Pakticipi-e Passive ^ICi'^ " seated,"


T
conjugated like tlie Participle Active.

Future.

Com.

Fem.

Masc.
1.

optat.

ll.

n2^j

sinsf".

pi.

3.

opt.

|13-^;; j

Infinitive.

n^t^'P'

nnE'b.

Fem.

n5i?;3,

n:ic:'2.

2*ti'"'

abs.

nTi:?^

con.

58

PARADIGM hv^i ^ERB vg


Past Tense 2Z^)^
Par. Pass.

TDt^'lj
T

etc.

(GRIG. V'S)

Future Tense

'^'^^^ etc.

2^)1 D^^)^ etc.


^'-

Infinitive abs.

and con. 2{7'^n

Imperative, as Infinitive.

PARADIGMS

bys,

b^jj?

AND

^j;Dnn

are conjugated like the regular Verb.

PARADIGM b^Dn
PastT. "^^p^n, ro^p)r\et(5.

Future Apocap.

Part. Act.

Infill,

D^piD
y^p)r2
Future Tense
y^^'V etc.
i'-

Part. Pas. 2ti:riD

f-

n::C:^*in etc.

No

TABLE

F.

Fut. Tense
Infin. abs.

y^p)r]

^2^\!J)r\ etc.

^pV

2p)r\

etc.

and con. ^^'IH

etc.

Imperative.

VERB PROPER
Past.

Fem.

con.

etc.

bv.^n

HS^^^'lD etc.

:}''5^'^n

Imperat. "21^)^]

PARADIGM
Past Tense Z^^'lH.
-

abs.

2^1*^

Jom.

r'^, pj''

" to suck."

69
Participle Active.

1^0

PAEADIGM b^U^n
PastTense
Part. Act.

p^^rn, HD'^rn

p^rpf.np;;^

Simple Fut. p^y^

p'^^n

Future

etc.

Imp. Mood
prPh ^p^yn
Infinitive Mood
p^^H

etc.

TABLE FZ VERB

A poc.

etc.

pj'''^,

pJ^'Oetc.

yy, Q^p "to stand."

etc.
etc.

61

Future.
Kal.

62

TABLE

YII.

VERB DOUBLE AYIN yy,


Kal.
2.

3:30 "to surround"

Niphal.

Piel.

Pnal.

2DJ
- T

22to

2D1D

].

3D.
n2D.
ni3D,

22p
n22D

3.f.
2.111.

J?22p

2.f.

n22p

"ntaD,

sing.

ft)

^1

ni2D.

3. ra.

I.e.

5'

3. c.pl.

'f!l22p

12D,

122D

Dnl2D.

Dn22D

2.

m.

2.f.

^^

1J12D,

1J22D

I.e.
&9

Infinitive.
Kal.
absolute

construct

Niphal.

Dl^D
T

2lDn

^D

2Dn

Piel.

22to

Imperative.

Future.

2d;.

Pual.

23iD

63
Participle.

Kal.

64:

TABLE
Kal.

F//7.

VERB

^"^,

^^^

"he found."

il

/.'/

^^Ji
'lisir

65
'

VERB
Hiphil.

ii"b,

"he found"
ii.^D

<gontUie&^.''0/^>

v-

or)

TABLE
Kal.

ZX.

VERB

n"^

rhl

" tu
reveal.

67

VEKB

Hiphil.

n"^

'

n^:i

" to reveal "

(Continued).

68

69
W)

0)'

>

71

72

73
th

c4

r-'

%H%i

9h

_.

j^.

gen
~

rH

(M*

CO

II

%i

;i,

r:

^^^

%i%'n:

ip>'

"

c
i-i

G^

%H

Eh

G^

CO

tH

fl

2ir% n:

GHg

pi

n ^ %

p'

r;

ninp^

55h%i

jCV
fZ

c ^ ^ a

i:^

CO

CO"

,:

>

"

Ph

II

5iH%i
>=
;

fee

%i %i

fi:

--^-^ c

r\...

r:

;:-

'^^

^ ^

p'

?^

^&
-~

^
ifr 9

74

75

r-J

3
H

a
O

<W

76

77

78

79
tD

80

81

82

CO

*TH
.

(N

,J^I

*~Kh

.J^l

G<l

^..

,J^-

tH

CO

J^-

Jr^" J^:

1^

83

84
/

85

4i

CO

.^H

.]

INDEX
PAGE
5

Letters

Vowels

ShVa

10

Daghesh

11

Accents

11

Article

12

Noun

13

Construct State

15

Adjective

16

Pronoun

17

Personal

18

Demonstrative

18

Interrogative

18

Noun, with Suffixes


Numeration, Cardinal

20

19

Ordinal

22

Verb, Regular

22

Irregular
Passive Pronouns of Verbs

26

Adverbs

27

25

Interjections

28

^Nouns
Construct State

29

Syntax

Peculiar use of the

30

Noun

Relation of Adjective, Adverb, and Verb to the

Pronouns

32

Noun

32
34

Relation of the Verb

36

Vav Conjunctive

38

Table I. Regular Verb no^


Verb, with Suffixes
Table II. Verb N''D, ^3K
Table III. Verb J"Q, :Ji
Table IV. Verb ''D (originally V'S)
Table V. Verb >"Q proper
py
Table VI. Verb V'V, Dip

40-49
49-52
53
54-56
56-58

58-60
60, 61

88
PAGE

Verb V"y, 320


Table VIII. Verb ^<"fJ, KV^
Table IX. Verb n"^, nh:
"
"
Table X. ^Substantive Verb " to be and Verb "to have
Table XL Irregular Verb -j'jn
Table XII. Irregular Verb Hp^
Table XIII. Double anomalous Verbs 3"Q and n''^ ^"D and
Table XIV. Double anomalous Verbs >'Q and T]"^
Table XV. Double anomalous Verbs J "'Q and K"!?
Table XVI. Verb Vy and H"^
Table XVII. Verb n"^ with Suffixes
Table XVIII. Verb )'y with Suffixes
Table XIX. Verb y"y with Suffixes
Table VII.

62, 63
64, 65
.66,

67

68, 69
70, 71
72, 73
K''^)

74, 75

76, 77
78, 79
80,

81

82, 83
84,

85
86

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