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MWDMWDMWDMWDMWDMWDMWDMWD

IntroductionIntroductionIntroductionIntroductionIntroductionIntroductionIntroductionIntroduction

AndreaAndrea NavajasNavajas MWDMWD DrillingDrilling && MeasurementsMeasurements

Andrea Andrea Navajas Navajas MWD MWD Drilling Drilling & & Measurements Measurements

D&MD&MD&MD&MD&MD&MD&MD&M ServicesServicesServicesServicesServicesServicesServicesServices

DirectionalDirectionalDirectionalDirectional DrillingDrillingDrillingDrilling (DD)(DD)(DD)(DD) Tools to optimize directional control from kickoff to target PowerPak Motors PowerDrive Rotary Steerable System

MeasurementsMeasurementsMeasurementsMeasurements WhileWhileWhileWhile DrillingDrillingDrillingDrilling (MWD)(MWD)(MWD)(MWD) Mud Pulse Telemetry and Surveying Tools PowerPulse, IMPulse, SlimPulse, E-Pulse, Gyro-Pulse

Tools PowerPulse, IMPulse, SlimPulse, E-Pulse, Gyro-Pulse LoggingLoggingLoggingLogging WhileWhileWhileWhile
Tools PowerPulse, IMPulse, SlimPulse, E-Pulse, Gyro-Pulse LoggingLoggingLoggingLogging WhileWhileWhileWhile

LoggingLoggingLoggingLogging WhileWhileWhileWhile DrillingDrillingDrillingDrilling (LWD)(LWD)(LWD)(LWD) Provides formation evaluation measurements Resistivity (arcVISION, geoVISION) Density Neutron (adnVISION)

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Provides formation evaluation measurements Resistivity (arcVISION, geoVISION) Density Neutron (adnVISION) 2 12/27/2007 AN

1.1. IntroductionIntroduction

The MWD tools in use today are able to provide data for a variety of measurements such as

– real-time formation measurement (shown here) data for correlation and pore pressure analysis, including resistivity, density and porosity measurements of the formation,

– real-time surveys, including inclination, azimuth, and toolface, allowing the driller to steer the well for directional control, and

– real-time drilling mechanics data for drilling efficiency, including downhole weight-on-bit and downhole torque-at-bit.

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mechanics data for drilling efficiency, including downhole weight-on-bit and downhole torque-at-bit. 3 12/27/2007 AN
mechanics data for drilling efficiency, including downhole weight-on-bit and downhole torque-at-bit. 3 12/27/2007 AN

While drilling is taking place, the drilling fluid, or "mud", is pumped through drillpipe connecting the surface equipment to the bottomhole assembly (BHA).

Data from some of the MWD tools is transmitted uphole to the surface by mud pulse telemetry, while other tools transmit data to the surface electronically via a wire and are referred to as wireline MWD systems.

via a wire and are referred to as wireline MWD systems. • The pulses are converted

The pulses are converted to electrical voltages at the surface by a transducer mounted in the mud pump discharge piping. The surface equipment then decodes the information, which represents measurements by the tool.

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LoggingLoggingLoggingLogging whilewhilewhilewhile drillingdrillingdrillingdrilling (LWD)(LWD)(LWD)(LWD) is closely related to MWD. LWD provides formation measurements, while MWD provides drilling mechanics and survey measurements.

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Both MWD and LWD data are transmitted in real time to the surface. However, LWD provides better resolution than MWD because the LWD measurements are commonly stored in downhole memory. The MWD measurements have data transmission limitations, which hinder the resolution of the measurement values.

memory. The MWD measurements have data transmission limitations, which hinder the resolution of the measurement values.

2.2.2.2.2.2.2.2. MWDMWDMWDMWDMWDMWDMWDMWD SystemSystemSystemSystemSystemSystemSystemSystem componentscomponentscomponentscomponentscomponentscomponentscomponentscomponents

Anadrill manufactures a range of MWD tools and systems to meet the requirements of its customers. All of the MWD tools are made up of the same major surface and downhole components even though each type of tool is designed to meet a specific need.

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major surface and downhole components even though each type of tool is designed to meet a
major surface and downhole components even though each type of tool is designed to meet a

2.12.12.12.1 MWDMWDMWDMWD SurfaceSurfaceSurfaceSurface SystemSystemSystemSystem ComponentsComponentsComponentsComponents

The MWD surface system components consist of:

The MWD surface system components consist of: – surface sensors for measuring surface drilling

– surface sensors for measuring surface drilling parameters, as well as the well’s depth,

– a transducer at the surface to receive the measurement signals from the MWD tool,

– a computer for decoding downhole data at the surface, and

– a computer for processing, storing, and using all of the data.

downhole data at the surface, and – a computer for processing, storing, and using all of

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2.22.22.22.2 MWDMWDMWDMWD DownholeDownholeDownholeDownhole SystemSystemSystemSystem ComponentsComponentsComponentsComponents

The MWD downhole tool components consist of:

– a component to supply the power needed to make downhole measurements,

– one or more components for making downhole measurements, and

– a component for producing and transmitting the measurement signals to the surface.

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measurements, and – a component for producing and transmitting the measurement signals to the surface. 8
measurements, and – a component for producing and transmitting the measurement signals to the surface. 8

3.3.3.3.3.3.3.3. MWDMWDMWDMWDMWDMWDMWDMWD SystemSystemSystemSystemSystemSystemSystemSystem ComponentComponentComponentComponentComponentComponentComponentComponent FunctionsFunctionsFunctionsFunctionsFunctionsFunctionsFunctionsFunctions

3.13.13.13.1 PowerPowerPowerPower SupplySupplySupplySupply

Batteries, or downhole alternators, supply power to the tools. The batteries allow the tools to operate without the flow of mud, but the operating time and sensor power output is limited. The alternators need mud flow to generate their power and can work in a wide range of flow rates

limited. The alternators need mud flow to generate their power and can work in a wide

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limited. The alternators need mud flow to generate their power and can work in a wide

3.23.23.23.2 MeasurementMeasurementMeasurementMeasurement

All MWD systems measure the direction and inclination (D&I) of the wellbore. The measurements are used to accurately map the well so the driller can guide the bit to its ultimate or intermediate targets, as well as avoid other wells. The well being drilled may require specific turn and build rates. The MWD tool may also have the ability to make secondary measurements, such as downhole weight on bit and annular temperature.

have the ability to make secondary measurements, such as downhole weight on bit and annular temperature.

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have the ability to make secondary measurements, such as downhole weight on bit and annular temperature.

3.33.33.33.3 SignalSignalSignalSignal ProductionProductionProductionProduction

The tool’s measuring device produces data signals that need to be sent to the surface.

Because the MWD tool is remote from the driller, it is necessary to transmit the data by way of a signal from the tool to the driller. This must be done in a manner that maximizes data transmission and reliability and minimizes the impact on drilling operations.

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manner that maximizes data transmission and reliability and minimizes the impact on drilling operations. 11 12/27/2007

3.43.43.43.4 TransmittingTransmittingTransmittingTransmitting andandandand TelemetryTelemetryTelemetryTelemetry

MWD systems use mud pulse telemetry to transmit survey data to the surface. Analog signals produced by the tool measuring devices are converted into digital signals (1 and 0). The digital signals are then converted into pressure pulses that carry the data to the surface through the column of drilling fluid.

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converted into pressure pulses that carry the data to the surface through the column of drilling
converted into pressure pulses that carry the data to the surface through the column of drilling

3.4.13.4.13.4.13.4.1 MudMudMudMud PulsePulsePulsePulse TelemetryTelemetryTelemetryTelemetry DownholeDownholeDownholeDownhole

Information is transmitted to the surface through the mud by way of a data signal created downhole. The surface equipment decodes the data signals of the measurements so that the driller can make adjustments. The three common types of signals generated are positive pulse telemetry, negative pulse telemetry and continuous wave telemetry.

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signals generated are positive pulse telemetry, negative pulse telemetry and continuous wave telemetry. 13 12/27/2007 AN

PositivePositivePositivePositive PulsePulsePulsePulse TelemetryTelemetryTelemetryTelemetry A flow restrictor produces positive pulses as illustrated in the graphic.

A flow restrictor produces positive pulses as illustrated in the graphic. 14 12/27/2007 AN

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A flow restrictor produces positive pulses as illustrated in the graphic. 14 12/27/2007 AN
A flow restrictor produces positive pulses as illustrated in the graphic. 14 12/27/2007 AN
A flow restrictor produces positive pulses as illustrated in the graphic. 14 12/27/2007 AN

NegativeNegativeNegativeNegative PulsePulsePulsePulse TelemetryTelemetryTelemetryTelemetry A diverter valve produces negative pulses as illustrated in the graphic.

A diverter valve produces negative pulses as illustrated in the graphic. 15 12/27/2007 AN

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A diverter valve produces negative pulses as illustrated in the graphic. 15 12/27/2007 AN
A diverter valve produces negative pulses as illustrated in the graphic. 15 12/27/2007 AN

ContinuousContinuousContinuousContinuous WaveWaveWaveWave TelemetryTelemetryTelemetryTelemetry Rotating plates produce continuous waves as illustrated in the graphic.

Rotating plates produce continuous waves as illustrated in the graphic. 16 12/27/2007 AN

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Rotating plates produce continuous waves as illustrated in the graphic. 16 12/27/2007 AN
Rotating plates produce continuous waves as illustrated in the graphic. 16 12/27/2007 AN
Rotating plates produce continuous waves as illustrated in the graphic. 16 12/27/2007 AN

3.4.23.4.23.4.23.4.2 WirelineWirelineWirelineWireline TelemetryTelemetryTelemetryTelemetry Data can also be sent to the surface through a wire attached to the MWD tool. This method was common with older types of tools (called steering tools). However, with an attached wire, the drillstring cannot be rotated. Today, wireline is used in conjunction with coiled tubing, where the drillstring is a continuous length of metal pipe fed into the wellbore from a drum and so cannot be rotated.

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is a continuous length of metal pipe fed into the wellbore from a drum and so
is a continuous length of metal pipe fed into the wellbore from a drum and so

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3.53.53.53.5 ReceivingReceivingReceivingReceiving andandandand DecodingDecodingDecodingDecoding

A transducer (or sensor) at the surface receives the pressure pulses and converts them to electrical signals. A surface sensor is not necessary for the wireline type of MWD.

Surface computers decode the electrical signals from the transducer and turn the digital information into engineering values and survey computations.

from the transducer and turn the digital information into engineering values and survey computations. 18 12/27/2007

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from the transducer and turn the digital information into engineering values and survey computations. 18 12/27/2007

3.63.63.63.6 DataDataDataData ProcessingProcessingProcessingProcessing andandandand UsageUsageUsageUsage

An important function of the surface computer is to process the data of the local

conditions, such as hole size and depth. The data produced by the MWD tool is

processed and used to provide information about the well. This information is used to

make critical decisions about the drilling process, such as the well direction.

An important function of the surface computer is to process the data of the local conditions, such as hole size and depth. The data produced by the MWD tool is processed and used to provide information about the well. This information is used to make critical decisions about the drilling process, such as the well direction.

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information is used to make critical decisions about the drilling process, such as the well direction.

3.73.73.73.7 DisplayDisplayDisplayDisplay

Monitors display data in

realtime on the drillfloor so that the driller can make well

decisions. Displays

are used in the Anadrill unit to allow for production of logs (a plot of data against depth) and making formation-evaluation interpretations. With remote data links, displays located at the client’s office allow them to view MWD data from the wellsite.

steering

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links, displays located at the client’s office allow them to view MWD data from the wellsite.
links, displays located at the client’s office allow them to view MWD data from the wellsite.

3.83.83.83.8 ControlControlControlControl DownholeDownholeDownholeDownhole

MWD allows the driller to control downhole drilling in real time. Directional information is sent to the surface continuously so that course corrections can be made. MWD tools make applications like geosteering possible. The driller can use the measurement data to maximize the productive length of a wellbore within a reservoir.

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driller can use the measurement data to maximize the productive length of a wellbore within a
driller can use the measurement data to maximize the productive length of a wellbore within a

4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4. HowHowHowHowHowHowHowHow MWDMWDMWDMWDMWDMWDMWDMWD ComponentsComponentsComponentsComponentsComponentsComponentsComponentsComponents WorkWorkWorkWorkWorkWorkWorkWork

4.14.14.14.1 PowerPowerPowerPower SupplySupplySupplySupply

Power is supplied to the tools by batteries or alternators. The batteries give power without the need for mud flow. An alternator uses mud flow to turn a turbine. The turbine generates enough current to power the MWD tools

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alternator uses mud flow to turn a turbine. The turbine generates enough current to power the
alternator uses mud flow to turn a turbine. The turbine generates enough current to power the

4.24.24.24.2 SignalSignalSignalSignal Production,Production,Production,Production, Transmitting,Transmitting,Transmitting,Transmitting, andandandand TelemetryTelemetryTelemetryTelemetry

PositivePositivePositivePositive PulsePulsePulsePulse TelemetryTelemetryTelemetryTelemetry

Positive pulse telemetry uses a flow restrictor (or plunger mechanism) that closes to increase standpipe pressure when activated. As the mud flows through the pipe, the pressure fluctuates as the plunger mechanism opens and closes. The highs and lows of pressure, as sensed by a transducer on the standpipe, are transmitted to the surface as ones or zeros and are decoded as data.

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a transducer on the standpipe, are transmitted to the surface as ones or zeros and are
a transducer on the standpipe, are transmitted to the surface as ones or zeros and are

NegativeNegativeNegativeNegative PulsePulsePulsePulse TelemetryTelemetryTelemetryTelemetry

Negative pulse telemetry uses a diverter (or flapper) valve. When the flapper valve is open the drilling fluid is diverted to the annulus, creating negative pulses as the pressure fluctuates. The pressure changes are identified and decoded at the surface as data.

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as the pressure fluctuates. The pressure changes are identified and decoded at the surface as data.
as the pressure fluctuates. The pressure changes are identified and decoded at the surface as data.
as the pressure fluctuates. The pressure changes are identified and decoded at the surface as data.

StandingStandingStandingStanding orororor ContinuousContinuousContinuousContinuous WaveWaveWaveWave PulsersPulsersPulsersPulsers

Standing or continuous wave pulsers, also known as mud sirens, are a type of positive pulse telemetry. Rotating baffled plates are used to temporarily interrupt mud flow, creating a pressure wave in the standpipe. A carrier wave is formed, allowing information to be embedded within the carrier wave by changing the wave’s phase or frequency. The information carried by the wave is identified at the surface and decoded.

phase or frequency. The information carried by the wave is identified at the surface and decoded.

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phase or frequency. The information carried by the wave is identified at the surface and decoded.
phase or frequency. The information carried by the wave is identified at the surface and decoded.
phase or frequency. The information carried by the wave is identified at the surface and decoded.

4.34.34.34.3 ReceivingReceivingReceivingReceiving andandandand DecodingDecodingDecodingDecoding

Pressure pulses are received and converted to electric voltages by a transducer installed in the mud pump discharge piping. The surface computers then perform the pressure pulse decoding and survey computations to convert the data into useful measurements.

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perform the pressure pulse decoding and survey computations to convert the data into useful measurements. 26
perform the pressure pulse decoding and survey computations to convert the data into useful measurements. 26

4.44.44.44.4 DataDataDataData ProcessingProcessingProcessingProcessing

Anadrill’s Integrated Drilling Evaluation and Logging (IDEAL*) system combines downhole directional drilling, drilling mechanics, and petrophysical data measurements within a few feet of the bit and transmits the data to the surface in real time. Downhole data is merged with relevant surface measurements and is automatically checked and translated into useful information. The information can be displayed simultaneously on the rig floor, in the surface unit, and in the company representative’s office.

simultaneously on the rig floor, in the surface unit, and in the company representative’s office. 27
simultaneously on the rig floor, in the surface unit, and in the company representative’s office. 27

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5.5.5.5.5.5.5.5. D&MD&MD&MD&MD&MD&MD&MD&M MWDMWDMWDMWDMWDMWDMWDMWD toolstoolstoolstoolstoolstoolstoolstools

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IMPulse

SlimPulse

PowerPulse

TeleScope

toolstoolstoolstools 28 12/27/2007 AN • IMPulse • SlimPulse • PowerPulse • TeleScope

5.15.15.15.1 SlimPulseSlimPulseSlimPulseSlimPulse

It is the latest retrievable and re-seatable slim tool

It provides inclination, azimuth, MFT, GTF, GR (optional), transverse shocks and tool temperature

It is combinable with various ARC tools, CDR and ISR

It supports flow rates from 35 to 1200 gpm

It is powered by lithium batteries, with supplementary power supplied from the pulser when the mud is flowing

Tool sizes are: 1 7/8”, 2 1/8”, 2 3/8”, 2 5/8” and 4 5/16”

It has an LCM tolerance of 50 ppb (medium nut plug)

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2 1/8”, 2 3/8”, 2 5/8” and 4 5/16” • It has an LCM tolerance of

5.25.25.25.2 PowerPulsePowerPulsePowerPulsePowerPulse

PowerPulse is the most common MWD tool system in the field.

It is designed for hole sizes down to 8 1/2” (6 3/4” tool)

The PowerPulse can measure inclination, azimuth, GTF, MTF, transverse shocks and tool temperature. Formation gamma ray, DWOB, DTOR, and APWD are optional

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GTF, MTF, transverse shocks and tool temperature. Formation gamma ray, DWOB, DTOR, and APWD are optional

5.25.25.25.2 PowerPulsePowerPulsePowerPulsePowerPulse

PowerPulse is the most common MWD tool system in the field.

It is designed for hole sizes down to 8 1/2” (6 3/4” tool)

The PowerPulse can measure inclination, azimuth, GTF, MTF, transverse shocks and tool temperature. Formation gamma ray, DWOB, DTOR, MVC and APWD are optional

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MTF, transverse shocks and tool temperature. Formation gamma ray, DWOB, DTOR, MVC and APWD are optional

6.6. SurveySurvey DefinitionDefinition

A survey is simply three measurements made at a point below the surface of the earth:

– Measured Depth

– Inclination

– Azimuth

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made at a point below the surface of the earth: – Measured Depth – Inclination –
made at a point below the surface of the earth: – Measured Depth – Inclination –

A point along the path of a well is defined by a directional survey. The survey consists of:

A Measured Depth along the well path…

An Inclination at that measured depth…

An Azimuth at that measured depth

We use the survey to calculate the position of the point in space using one of the four survey calculation methods described at the end of this presentation.

Downhole surveys are taken by the MWD tool using accelerometers and magnetometers that measure the gravitational force and magnetic field strength at a survey point. These measurements are used to calculate the inclination and direction of the survey point.

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survey point. These measurements are used to calculate the inclination and direction of the survey point.

InclinationInclination

Inclination Inclination 34 12/27/2007 AN Inclination is the angle between a vertical line and the path

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Inclination is the angle between a vertical line and the path of the well bore at that point.

To determine the inclination of a survey point the MWD tool measures its orientation to the gravitational vector.

point. To determine the inclination of a survey point the MWD tool measures its orientation to

AzimuthAzimuth

Azimuth Azimuth Azimuth Azimuth is is the the angle angle between between North North Reference Reference

AzimuthAzimuth isis thethe angleangle betweenbetween NorthNorth ReferenceReference andand aa horizontalhorizontal projectionprojection ofof thethe currentcurrent SurveySurvey positionposition

ToTo determinedetermine thethe azimuthazimuth ofof aa surveysurvey point,point, thethe MWDMWD tooltool mustmust measuremeasure thethe MagneticMagnetic fieldfield (this(this allowsallows usus toto getget thethe NorthNorth reference).reference).

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field (this (this allows allows us us to to get get the the North North reference).

MeasuringMeasuring D&ID&I withwith MWDMWD toolstools

The MWD tool measures the Inclination of the well bore by measuring the direction of the earths Gravitational Field relative to the tool. The MWD tool measures the Azimuth of the wellbore by measuring the direction of the earth’s Magnetic Field relative to the tool. The depth measurement comes from our surface sensors

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the earth’s Magnetic Field relative to the tool. The depth measurement comes from our surface sensors

7.7. SignalSignal DemodulationDemodulation

7. 7. Signal Signal Demodulation Demodulation 37 12/27/2007 AN

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7. 7. Signal Signal Demodulation Demodulation 37 12/27/2007 AN

HSPMHSPM DemodulationDemodulation WindowWindow

Default DSPScope Receiver Frame ID Signal Strength Indicator and Signal Loss Threshold Pressure Recorder Receiver
Default
DSPScope
Receiver
Frame
ID
Signal Strength Indicator and
Signal Loss Threshold
Pressure
Recorder
Receiver
Input
Frame
Decoder
Status
Bit
Confidence
Utility Frame
Survey Frame
Repeating Frames
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DSPScopeDSPScope DisplaysDisplays (1/2)(1/2)

Select Bit Confidence (blue) Spectrogram Signal Strength (red) Power Spectrum Time 40 AN 12/27/2007 Frequency
Select
Bit Confidence
(blue)
Spectrogram
Signal Strength
(red)
Power
Spectrum
Time
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Frequency

LowLowLowLowLowLowLowLow SignalSignalSignalSignalSignalSignalSignalSignal StrengthStrengthStrengthStrengthStrengthStrengthStrengthStrength

CausesCausesCausesCauses ofofofof LowLowLowLow SignalSignalSignalSignal StrengthStrengthStrengthStrength Drilling conditions can cause low signal strength at the surface. The following are the most common causes of low signal strength.

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– Depth of the well

– High mud viscosity

– Mud flow rate

– Mud condition

– Signal frequency

– Pipe ID

– Radiation loss

of the well – High mud viscosity – Mud flow rate – Mud condition – Signal

DepthDepthDepthDepth ofofofof thethethethe WellWellWellWell The MWD signal always loses some energy as it propagates uphole to the surface. As the MWD tool goes deeper, the signal must travel over longer distances. The longer the distance, the more signal energy that is lost.

HighHighHighHigh MudMudMudMud ViscosityViscosityViscosityViscosity High mud viscosity produces more friction between the mud molecules. Friction weakens the signal as it propagates uphole through the mud. Viscosity is the biggest destroyer of the MWD signal. In colder climates, the mud cools and gels in the mud pits. This increases mud viscosity.

MudMudMudMud FlowFlowFlowFlow RateRateRateRate The mud flow rate is the major consideration when setting the MWD tool modulator gap. When the gap is too large for the flow rate, the tool produces a weak signal.

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the MWD tool modulator gap. When the gap is too large for the flow rate, the

MudMudMudMud ConditionConditionConditionCondition Gas or air in the mud has the effect of weakening the signal. For example, malfunctioning pumps can pump air into the mud, thereby reducing signal strength as the signal propagates uphole.

SignalSignalSignalSignal FrequencyFrequencyFrequencyFrequency Low frequency waves propagate through the mud better than higher frequency waves because the mud acts as a lowpass filter. Low frequency energy passes through the mud while the energy at higher frequencies is filtered out. This filtering effect is more pronounced with increasing depth. The severity of the filtering effect varies depending on mud type.

PipePipePipePipe IDIDIDID The drillstring can be made up from several different sizes of drillpipe. The smaller the internal diameter of the pipe, the greater the loss of signal energy (attenuation) due to friction as the signal propagates uphole inside the drillstring.

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of signal energy (attenuation) due to friction as the signal propagates uphole inside the drillstring. 43

DrillingDrilling NoiseNoise

Drilling Drilling Noise Noise • Drilling noise occurs at very low frequencies. • Some formation types

• Drilling noise occurs at very low frequencies.

• Some formation types and drill bits cause more drilling noise than others.

• With SlimPulse and IMPulse low frequency modes, choose the highest carrier frequency within the pump stroke rate limitations.

low frequency modes, choose the highest carrier frequency within the pump stroke rate limitations. 44 12/27/2007

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low frequency modes, choose the highest carrier frequency within the pump stroke rate limitations. 44 12/27/2007

MudMud MotorMotor StallsStalls

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• Mud motor stalls are

very bad for both the motor

itself and for telemetry.

• Repeated motor stalls

make drilling very inefficient.

Driller has to keep recovering from the stalls.

• Ensure mud motor is

matched to drilling conditions.

• Reduce WOB

Driller has to keep recovering from the stalls. • Ensure mud motor is matched to drilling

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IdentifyingIdentifying DownholeDownhole NoiseNoise Rotary Noise Drilling Noise Rotating
IdentifyingIdentifying DownholeDownhole NoiseNoise
Rotary Noise
Drilling Noise
Rotating

Sliding

Pump

Noise

AN IdentifyingIdentifying DownholeDownhole NoiseNoise Rotary Noise Drilling Noise Rotating ⇒ Sliding Pump Noise

ElectricalElectrical NoiseNoise (1/2)(1/2)

Electrical noise is broadband noise.

Electrical Electrical Noise Noise (1/2) (1/2) • Electrical noise is broadband noise. 47 12/27/2007 AN

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Electrical Electrical Noise Noise (1/2) (1/2) • Electrical noise is broadband noise. 47 12/27/2007 AN
Electrical Electrical Noise Noise (1/2) (1/2) • Electrical noise is broadband noise. 47 12/27/2007 AN