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C. U. P. Young
Cornell University Library
DE 5.S51 1895
Dictionary of classical antiquities

3 1924 028 214 652


Cornell University

The original of this book is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright restrictions in

the United States on the use of the text.

Classical Antiquities
Mythology, Religion, Literature and Art




Late Fellow of
Corpus Christ! College and Corpus Professor of Latin Literature in the University of Oxford

Fellow and Tutor of
St. John's College and Public Orator in the University of Cambridge


rriHE Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, whioli is here offered to the
public, is founded on a work by Dr. Oskar Seyffert, of Berlin, which
has deservedly attained a wide circulation in G-ermany,^ Dr. Seyffert
is already known iu England as one of the editors of a philological
periodical, entitled the Berliner Philologische Wochenschrift, and as a
distinguished Latin scholar, whosename is specially associated with the
criticism of Plautus. The departments of classical learning included id
his dictionary are the Mythology and Religion, the Literature and Art,
and the constitutional and social Antiquities of Greece and Eome.
Within the compass of a volume it comprises all the subjects
usually treated in a Bictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, while it
also supplies information on matters of Mythology and Literature which
has generally to be looked for in the pages of a Classical Dictionary.
Besides separate articles on Greek and Roman divinities, and on the lives
and works of the philosophers, the historians, the orators, the poets, and
the artists of Greece and Rome, it gives a general and comprehensive
view of such subjects as Greek and Roman Religion, Philosophy, History,
Rhetoric, Literature, Architecture, Paintiug, Sculpture, Music, and the
Drama. Similarly, in the department of Antiquities, besides separate
treatment of subordinate details, it deals with important topics, such as
the Boule and Ecclesia, the Comitia and the Senate, Commerce and War,
the Houses, the Ships, the Temples, and the Theatres of the ancients.
The original text has been largely supplemented and corrected by
Dr. Seyffert himself ; and the whole of the translation has been carefully
revised and, in many cases^ re-written or re-arranged by the editors.
The larger part of the letter A (Abacus to Astrology) was translated by
Mr. Stallybrass, owing to whose lamented death the remainder of the
work was put into other hands. The succeeding articles, from Astrology

* Lexikon der klassischen Alterthumskunde ; Kulturgeschichte der Griechen und

BSmer ; Mythologie und Religion, LUteratur, Kunst, und Alterthumer des Stoats- und
Privatldtens. (Leipzig : Verlag des Bibliographisohen Instituts, 1882.)
to Eercea, have been translated and prepared for the press by Professor
Nettleship; the second part {Hermes to Zosimus) has been translated
under the superrision of Dr. Sandys ; while the proof sheets of the
whole have been repeatedly read by both editors. The additions in-
serted by the by being placed within
editors are generally distinguished
square brackets, or printed as notes at the foot of the page. Most of the
notes and other additions bearing on Latin Literature, and a few bearing
on Latin Antiquities, are due to Professor Nettleship ; while Dr. Sandys
has supplied references to classical authors and modern authorities wher-
ever such references appeared either necessary or desirable. It is hoped
that these additions may serve to increase the usefulness of the book.
The references to Cicero and Pliny are by the shorter sections now in
general use. The ancient authorities quoted include Aristotle's newly
discovered Constitution of Athens, which has been cited under the head of
the Solonian Constitution and other articles which have passed through
the press since the publication of the editio princeps. In this and other
respects every endeavour has been made to bring the articles up to date.
Dr. Sandys has written articles on the following archaeological
subjects, which were either omitted in the original work or appeared
to deserve a fuller treatment than was there accorded them Mosaics, :

Pigments (under Painting), Gcelatura (under Toreutic Art), and Vases

{with 17 illustrations). He has also supphed brief notices of the Edict
•of Diocletian, the Olympieum, the artists Mentor, Mys, Pauson, and the

younger Polyclitus ; Philo, the architect, and three others of the same
name who were not included in Dr. Seyffert's Lexihon. The short article
on Fulcra is abridged from a valuable paper in the Classical Review
by Mr. "W. C. F. Anderson, Professor of Classics at Firth CoUege,
Sheffield; that on the Law of Qortyn has been kindly contributed by
Mr. C. A. M. Pond, Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge.
The number of the illustrations has been largely increased. These
have been selected mainly from the following works Schreiber's Kultur-

historischer Bilder-Atlas, ed. 1888, and Bilder-Atlas zur Ilias und Odyssee,

1889, both published by Seemann of Leipzig; Baumeister's Denkmaler

des Klassischen AUerthums, 1884-1888, by Oldenbourg of Munich ; G-uhl
and Koner's Life of the Greehs and Romans, English edition (Chatto &
Windus) and Perry's Gh-eeJe and Roman Sculpture (Longmans, 1882).

The publishers are also indebted to Messrs. George Bell & Sons for the
additional illustrations in the article on Gems, and for the portraits of


Horace, Lucretius, Plato, and Socrates, selected from King's Antique Gems
and and "Westropp's Handbooh of Archoeology (ed. 1878)
Bvrtgs (1872)
to Messrs. Maomillan & Co. for Dr. Dorpfeld's Plan of Olympia and of
the PropyloBa, and for the engraving of a vase by Hieron {Vases, fig. 12).

The two latter are from Miss Harrison's Mythology and Monuments of
Ancient Athens. The Plan of the Acropolis is copied from the Journal of
Hellenic Studies with the kind permission of the Council of the Hellenic
Society. That of the Eoman Fora is reproduced from Droysen's His-
torischer Handatlas, 1886. In the article on the Olympian Games, the
metope on page 430 is a reduced copy from Overbeck's Geschichte der
Griechischen Plastilc. In that on Vases, figs. 3 and 5 are borrowed from
the Catalogue of Pottery in the Jermyn Street Museum. The engraving of
the Maenads {Vases, fig. 13) is reproduced by permission from Dr. Sandys'
edition of the Bacchce of Euripides pubhshed by the University Press,
Cambridge. AH these additional illustrations (which are distinguished
by an asterisk) have been selected by Dr. Sandys, who has indicated, so
far as practicable, the original authority on which they rest, and, in the
case of works of art, the collections in which they are to be found.
In stating the English equivalents for Greek money, the editors
have adopted the estimate of Professor "W. W. Goodwin, in his article
On the Value of the Attic Talent in Modern Money published in the Trans-
actions of the American Philological Association, 1885, xvi, pp. 117-119,
according to which the intrinsic value of a drachma is approximately Sd.,

and that of a talent £200. In the case, of Roman money, they have
followed Marquardt's Handbuch der romischen Alterthiimer in reckoning
1,000 sesterces as equivalent to £10.^
For the convenience of students, as well as of general readers, the
quantities of Greek and Latin words have been marked once, but once
only, in every article in The Latin spelling of Greek
which they occur.
words has been generally adopted, but the Greek form has, in aU cases
where it appeared advisable, been added in brackets.

March, 1891.

' See Preface to Third Edition of this Dictiunarv



The favourable been accorded to this work has en-
recejptidn that has
abled the publishers to issue a second edition at an exceptionally early
date. The book has been revised by Dr. Sandys, and some minor in-
accuracies have been removed. References to Aristotle's Constitution of
Athens, which, in the former edition, could only be inserted in the last
two hundred pages, have now been added in the first five hundred, wher-
ever such addition seemed to be required. Lastly, an Index has been
supplied, which, it is hoped, will make the work still further useful as a
book of reference.
September, 1891.


The present edition has been further revised and corrected by Dr.
Sandys. The articles in which the most considerable changes have been
introduced are those on Gomitia, Music, and Theatre. The article on
Gomitia has been revised in accordance with the views of Mommsen ; that

on Music account of Mr. Monro's recent work on the Modes of

Ancient Music ; and that on Theatre gives some additional details re-
specting the architectural theories of Dr. Dorpfeld.
In stating approximate English equivalents for Roman money. Dr.
Sandys has thought it right to reconsider the choice made by the late
Professor Nettleship between the alternative estimates given ia Mar-
quardt's Handbuch, vol. ii., p. 71. The sum of 1,000 sesterces is there
reckoned as equivalent, under a gold- standard, to 217*52 marks, or
£10 17s. 6d. and, under a silver standard, to 175"41 marks, or

£8 15s. 6d. In the former editions the gold standard was adopted, and
1,000 sesterces taken as equivalent to £10; in the present, the silver
standard has been preferred, and the equivalent is accordingly £8 15s.
Under this estimate a Roman denarius is equivalent to S^d., or very little
more than a Grreek drachma, which is here set at 8d.
It should be added that the Index here reprinted from the Second
Edition is the work of the late Mr. H. D. Dai'bishire, Fellow of St.
John's College, Cambridge.
December, 1894.

cp. compare. ib. ibidem.
q.v. quod vide. ^w indicates a short syllable.
I.e. locus (or liber) citatuH. — indicates a long syllable.
gktbnarg of Cksskal ^gt]^0l0g2,

Abacus (Gr. dbax, cibdktdn). (1) A square and then found a kingdom called after the
plate, especially the stone slab that covers elder of them Acarnania. {See Alphe-
the capital of a column (see Architectuee, SIBCEA.)
Orders of, figs. 1 and 5). (2) A dice-board. Acastus (Gr. Akastos). Son of Pelias,
(3) A mathematician's table strewn with king of lolcos, who joined the Argonautic
fine sand, on which figures were drawn with expedition, though against his father's will,
a stilus. (4) A counting-board, on which as a friend of Jason. At his father's death
sums were worked for private and public he celebrated funeral games which were
accounts. The reckoning was done with the theme of ancient poets and artists, and
counters lying on the board (calculi) or in which Peleus was represented as par-
with beads sliding in vertical grooves. (On ticipating. He took part in the Calydonian
the sideboard called Abacus, see Tables.) boar-hunt. But his wife Astydameia fell
Abolla. A thick woollen cloak, worn by in love with Peleus [q.v.), and this brought
Roman soldiers and philosophers. ruin on the wedded pair. His daughter was
Absyrtus. Son of king iEetes, and bro- Laodameia, renowned for her tender love
ther of Medea, who, in her flight with Jason to Protesilaus {q.v.).
the Argonaut, cut Absyrtus into pieces, Acca Larentia. According to the com-
and threw them one by one into the sea, so mon legend, wife of the herdsman Faustulus,
that her father, stopping to pick them up, and nurse to Romulus and Remus ; accord-
might be delayed in his pursuit. ing to another, a favourite of Hercules, and
Academy (Gr, Akademla).grove on A wife to a rich Etruscan, Tarutius, whose
the Cephissus near Athens, sacred to the possessions she bequeathed to Romulus or
hero Academus, and containing a gymna- (according to another account) the Roman
sium. Here Plato, whose country-house people. She is said to have had twelve sons,
was near, delivered his lectures hence ; with whom she sacrificed once a year for the
the school of philosophy founded by him fertilizing of the Roman fields (arva), and
received the name of " The Academy." who were thence named Arval Brothers
Acamas (Gr. Akamas). Son of Theseus and (fratres arvales). One of them having died,
Phaedra, was brought up with his brother Romulus took his place, and founded the
Demophoon by Elephenor, king of Euboea, priesthoodso called. (&e ArvalBeothees.)
and sent with Diomedes as ambassador to She at last disappeared on the spot where,
Troy, to persuade Priam to send Helen afterwards, at the feast of Larentalia (Dec.
back in peace. After the fall of Troy, in 23), the flamen of Quirinus and the pontiffs
which he took a prominent part as one of sacrificed to her while invoking Jupiter.
the heroes concealed in the wooden horse, All this, together with her name, meaning
he with his brother recovered his father's " mother of the Lares," shows that she was
sovereignty over Attica, and then led a originally a goddess of the earth, to whose
colony from Athens to Cyprus, where he care men entrusted their seed-corn and their
died. {Comp. Demophoon, 2.) dead. (See Lares.) In particular she per-
Acarnan and Amphoterns (Gr. Akarnan, sonified the city lands and their crops.
Amphoteros). Sons of Alcmseon and Cal- Probably she is the Dea Dia worshipped
lirrhoe. Their mother, hearing of her hus- by the Arval 'Brothers.
band's murder by Phegeus and his sons, Accensi. In the older constitution of
prays Zeus, who loves her, to let her boys the Roman army, the accensi were men
grow up into men at once, so that they can taken from the lowest assessed class to fill
avenge their father. This done, they slay gaps in the ranks of the heavy -armed
the sons of Phegeus at Tegea and himself soldiers. They followed the legion un-
at Psophis, offer up at Delphi the Jewels of armed, simply in their clothes (veldtl, or
Harmonia, which they have thus acquired, accensi velnti). In action they stood in the
D. c. A. B
rear rank of the third line, ready to pick up name between .^Etolia and Acarnania ; eldest
the arms of the fallen and fill their places. of the 3000 sons of Oceanus and Tethys, and
They were also used as assistant workmen father of the Sirens by Sterope, the daugh-
and as orderlies. This last employment ter of Porthaon. As a water-god he was
may have caused the term accensus to be capable of metamorphosis, appearing now
applied to the subordinate oificer whom as a bull, then as a snake, and again as a
consuls and proconsuls, praetors and pro- bull-faced man. In fighting with HerScles
praetors, and all officers of consular and for the possession of Deianeira, he lost one
praetorian rank had at their service in ad- horn, but got it back in exchange for the
dition to lictors. In later times officers horn of Amaltheia (q.v.). As the oldest
chose these attendants out of their own and most venerable of river-gods, he was
freedmen, sometimes to marshal their way worshipped all over Greece and her colonies,
when they had no lictors or had them march- especially Rhodes, Italy, and Sicily. The
ing behind, sometimes for miscellaneous oracle of Dodona, in every answer which
duties. Thus the praetor's accensus had to it gave, added an injunction to sacrifice to
cry the hours of the day, 3, 6, 9, and 12. Aohelous and in religious usage his name

Unlike the subordinate officers named stood for any stream or running water.
apparitors, their term of office expired with Acheron. A river in the lower world.
that of their superior. (See Hades, Realm of.)
Accius, or Attius (Lucius). A Roman Achilles (Gr. Achilleus). (1) Son of Peleus
poet, who was born 170 B.C. of a freedman (king of the Myrmidons in Thessalian
and freedwoman, at Pisaurum in Umbria, Phthia) by the Nereid Thetis, grandson of
and died about 90 B.C. He was the most M&cus, great-grandson of Zeus. In Homer
prolific and, under the Republic, the most he is duly brought up by his mother to
highly esteemed of tragic poets, especially man's estate, in close friendship with his
for his lofty, impassioned style and power- older cousin Patroclus, the son of Menoetius,
ful descriptions. His talents seem to have a half-brother of .3]acus; is taught the
secured him a respectable position in Roman war and eloquence Ijy Phoenix (q.v.)
arts of
society, which he maintained with full con- and that of healing by the centaur Chiron,
sciousness of his merits. His poetical career his mother's grandfather. But later le-
can be traced through a period of thirty-six gends lend additional features to the story
years, from B.C. 140, when he exhibited a of his youth. To make her son immortal,
drama under the same aediles as the octo- Thetis anoints him with ambrosia bj' day,
genarian Pacuvius, to B.C. 104. Of his and holds him in the fire at night, to destroy
tragedies, the titles and fragments of some whatever mortal element he has derived
fifty are preserved. Two of these treat of from his father, until Peleus, coming in one
national subjects (see Pejetexta), viz., the night, sees the boy baking in the fire, and
Brutus and the Decius. The former dealt makes an outcry the goddess, aggrieved at

with the expulsion of the Tarquins ; the seeing her plan thwarted, deserts husband
latter with the heroic death of Decius at and child, and goes home to the Nereids.
Sentinum, B.C. 295. The rest, composed According to a later story she dipped the
after Greek models, embrace almost all child in the river Styx, and thus made him
cycles of legend, especially the Trojan, invulnerable, all but the heel by which she
which is treated in a great variety of aspects. held him. Then Peleus takes the mother-
Accius likewise handled questions of gram- less boy to Chiron on Mount Pelion, who
mar, literary history, and antiquities in the feeds him on the entrails of lions and boars,
Alexandrine manner and the fashion of his and the marrow of bears, and instructs him
own time, and in many different metres. in all knightly and elegant arts. At the
These works (the Didascdlica in at least age of six the boy was so strong and swift
nine books ; the Pragrndtlca on dramatic that he slew wild boars and lions, and
poetry and acting, etc.) have also perished. caught stags without net or hound. Again,
AchsBUS. A
Greek tragic poet of Eretria, as to his share in the expedition to Troy, the
born about 482 B.C., a contemporary of So- legends differ widely. In Homer, Achilles
phocles, and especially famous in the line and Patroclus are at once ready to obey
of satyric drama. He wrote about forty the call of Nestor and Odysseus, and their
plays, of which only small fragments are fathers willingly let them go, accompanied
preserved. Not being an Athenian, he only by the old man Phcsnix. In later legend,
gained one victory. Thetis, alarmed by the prophecy of Calchas
Acheioiis. The god of the river of that that Troy cannot be taken without Achilles.

and foreseeing his fall in such a war, con- chasing him three times round the city,
ducts the boy of nine to the island of Scyros, Achilles overtakes him, pierces him with
where in female dress he grows up among his lance, trails his body behind his chariot
the daughters of king Lycomedes, and by to the camp, and there casts it for a prey
one of them, Deidameia, begets Neoptolg- to the birds and dogs. Then with the
mus {q.v.). But Calchas betrays his where- utmost pomp he lays the loved friend of his
abouts, and Odysseus, in concert with Dio- 3'outh in the same grave-mound that is to
medes, unmasks the young hero. Dis- hold his own ashes, and founds funeral games
guised as a merchant, he spreads out female in his honour. The next night Priam comes
ornaments before the maidens, as well as secretly to his tent, and offers rich gifts to
a shield and spear ; suddenly a trumpet ransom Hector's body but Achilles, whom

sounds the call to battle, the maidens flee, the broken-down old king reminds of his
but Achilles clutches at the arms, and de- own father, gives it up without ransom, and
clares himself eager to fight. At the first grants eleven days' truce for the burying.
landing of the Greeks, on the Asian coast, After many valiant deeds {see Trojan Wae),
he wounds Telephus {q.v.) at their second,
he is overtaken by the fate which he had
on the Trojan shore, Cycnus {q.v.'). Before himself chosen ; for the choice had been
Troy, Homer makes him the chief of Greek given him between an early death with un-
heroes, whom the favour of Hera and Athena dying fame and a long but inglorious life.
and his own merit have placed above friend Near the Scasan Gate he is struck by the
and foe. He is graced with all the attri- shaft of Paris, guided by Apollo. Accord-
butes of a hero in birth, beauty, swiftness,
: ing to a later legend he was wounded in
strength, and valour, he has not his peer the one vulnerable heel, and in the temple
none can resist him, the very sight of him of Thymbrsean Apollo, whither he had gone
strikes terror into the foe. His anger may unarmed to be wedded to Priam's daughter
be furious, his grief immoderate but his
; Polyxena {q.v.). Greeks and Trojans fight
nature is at bottom kind, affectionate, and furiously all day about his body, till Zeus
generous, even to his enemies. Touching sends down a storm to end the fight. Seven-
is his love for his parents, especially his teen days and nights the Greeks, with
mother, and his devotion to his friends. In Thetis and the sea-goddesses and Muses,
the first nine years of the war he leads the bewail the dead then amid numerous sacri-

Greeks on their many plundering excursions fices the body is burnt. Next morning the
around Troy, and destroys eleven inland and ashes, with those of Patroclus and of Nestor's
twelve seacoast towns. The events of the son, Antilochus, whom Achilles had loved
tenth year, brought on by the deep grudge in the next degree, are placed in a golden
he bears Agamemnon for taking away pitcher, the work of Hephsestus, and gift of
Briseis (daughter of Brises), form the Dionysus, and deposited in the famed
subject of Homer's Iliad. When he and tumulus that crowns the promontory of
his men withdraw from the fight, the Tro- Sigeum. The soul of Homer's Achille?
jans press on irresistibly they have taken
; dwells, like other souls, in the lower world,
the camp of the Greeks, and are setting and is there seen by Odysseus together with
their ships on fire. In this extremity he the souls of his two friends. According to
lends Patroclus the arms his father {see later poets Thetis snatched her son's body
Peleus) had given him, and lets him lead out of the burning pyre and carried it to
the Myrmidons to battle. Patroclus drives the island of Leuke at the mouth of the
the Trojans back, but falls by Hector's Danube, where the transfigured hero lives
hand, and the arms are lost, though the on, sovereign of the Pontus and husband of
corpse is recovered. Grief for his friend Iphigeneia. Others place him in Elysium,
and thirst for vengeance at last overcome with Medea or Helena to wife. Besides
his grudge against Agamemnon. Furnished Leuce, where the mariners of Pontus and
by Hephaestus, at the request of Thetis, Greek colonists honoured him with offerings
with splendid new arms, including the and games, he had many other places of wor-
shield of wondrous workmanship, he goes ship the most venerable, however, was his

out against Hector, well knowing that he tomb on the Hellespont, where he appeared
himself must fall soon after him. He makes to Homer in the full blaze of his armour,
frightful havoc among the enemy, till at and struck the poet blind. In works of art
last Hector is the only one that dares Achilles was represented as similar to Ares,
await him without the walls, and even he with magnificent physique, and hair bristling
turns in terror at the sight of him. After up like a mane. One of his most famous

statues is that at Paris (from the Villa a son named Perseus. Then mother and chua
Borghese), though many take it for an Ares. are put in a wooden box and thrown into,
(2) Tatius, a Greek mathematician of the the sea, but they drift to the island of Seri-
3rd century A.d. He wrote an introduction phus, and are kindly received. Perseus,,
to the Phcenomena of Aratus. having grown into a hero, sets out with his
(3) Achilles of Alexandria, about 450 mother to seek Acrisius, who has fled from
A.D., probably a Christian; author of a Argos for fear of the oracle coming true
Greek romance in eight books, the story of he finds him at Larissa, in Thessaly, and
Cleitophon of Tyre and Leucippe of By- kills him unawares with a discu-s.
zantium, two lovers who pass through a Aero (IlelSnlus) A Roman grammarian
long train of adventures before they meet. of the end of the 2nd century A.D. He
As the whole story is put in the mouth of wrote commentaries (now' lost) on Terence,
the hero, many scenes, being told at second- Horace, and perhaps Persius. The collec-
hand, lose in liveliness ; and the flow of the tion of scholia bearing his name dates
narrative is checked by too many digres- from the 7th century.
sions, some interesting enough in them- Acroliths. Statues whose uncovered ex-
selves, by descriptions of places, natural tremities are made of stone, the covered!

^air to Qntto ofAglauros

(Eeduced from plan by Messrs. Penrose and Schultz, Journal o/HeUenic Studies^ 18S9, pi. viii.)

phenomena, works of art, feelings and parts of another material, such as wood.
passions, in which the author exhibits his Acr6p61is (Gr. Akroptjlis). Properly = Up-
vast reading. The style has considerable per Town. The Greek name for the citadel
elegance, though often marred by an affec- or stronghold of a town. The Acropolis of
tation of neatness and brevity. The novel Athens was situated on a plateau of rock,
continued to be popular until the fall of about 200 feet in height, 1,000 in breadth
Byzantium. from east to west, and 460 in length from
Acontius (Gr. Akont16s). See Cydippe. north to south. It was originally called
Acratisma (Gr. Akvutisma'). See Meals. CScrSpIa, after Cecrops, the ancestor of the
Acrisius (Gr. Akrlsioa). King of Argos, Athenians, whose grave and shrine were
great-grandson of D3,naus, son of Abas, and shown on the spot. On the north side
brother of PrcBtus. An oracle having de- of the Acropolis was the Erechtheum, the
clared that a son of his daughter Danae common seat of worship of the ancient
would take his life, he shuts her up in a gods of Athens, Athene PSlias, Hephsestus,
brazen tower but Zeus falls into her lap in
; Poseidon, and Erechtheus himself, who
the shape of a shower of gold, and she bears was said to have founded the sanctuary.

His house was possibly N.E. of the Erech- events in the imperial family, and state
theum. Pisistratus, like the ancient kings, and city affairs, contained regulations by
had his residence on the Acropolis, and may the magistrates, transactions and decrees
have added the stylobate to the temple of of the senate, accidents, and family news
Athene recently identified, S. of the Erech- communicated to the editors. They were
theum. The walls of the fortress proper publicly exhibited on a whitened board
were destroyed in the Persian wars, 480 (album), which any one might read and
and 479 B.C., and restored by Cimon. But copy; and there were men who made a
the wall surrounding the foot of the hill, business of multiplying and transmitting
called the PSlasgllcon or FclargtJcon, and. such news to the provinces. After a time
supposed to be a relic of the oldest inhabi- the originals were placed among the state-
tants, was left in ruins. Cimon also laid archives for the benefit of those who wished
the foundation of a new temple of Athene to consult them.
on the south side of the hill. This temple Actseou (Gr. Aktaion). Sonof Aristseusby
was begun afresh and completed in the Autonoe, the daughter of Cadmus of Thebes,
most splendid, style by Pericles, and called was trained by Chiron into a finished
the Parthenon. ((See Parthenon.) Pericles huntsman. Having either seen Artemis
at the same time adorned the approach to (Diana) when bathing, or boasted his su-
the west side of the Acropolis with the periority in the chase, he was changed by
glorious PrSpylcea, and began to rebuild her into a stag, and torn to pieces by his
the Erechtheum in magnificent style. {8ee own hounds on Mount Cithseron. The
Eeechtheum, Propyl/EA.) There were hounds looked everywhere for their master,
several other sanctuaries on the Acropolis, and would not be pacified till Chiron
that, for instance, of Artemis Brauronia, on showed them an image of him. His statue
the S.E. side of the Propylsea; the beautiful was often set up on hills and rooks as a
little temple of Athene Nike, to the S.W. protection against the dangerous heat of the
and the Pandroseum adjoining the temple dog-days, of which probably the myth itself
of Erechtheus. There were many altars, is but a symbol.
that of Zeus Hypatos for example, and Actoridse, Actoriones. See Moliones.
countless statues, among them that of Athene Actuarius. See Acta.
Promachos, with votive offerings. Among Acnsilaiis. See Logographi.
the numerous grottos in the rock, one on Admetus. Son of Pheres, king of Pherge
the north side was dedicated to Pan, another in Thessaly, who took part in the Caly-
to Apollo. donian boar-hunt and the voyage of the
A eta. The Latin term for official records Argo. Apollo served him for a time as a
of transactions, including Acta sSndtus and shepherd, either from love and as a reward
Acta popull Romdnl, both established by for his piety, or to expiate a capital crime.
Caesar in his first consulship, B.C. 59. (1) When Admetus wooed Alcestis, the daughter
Acta senatus. Csesar's law decreed that all of Pelias, and her father would only give her
transactions of the senate should be regu- to one who should yoke lions and boars to
larly written down and published, which had a chariot, he fulfilled the task with Apollo's
only been done hitherto in exceptional cases. help indeed, the god even prevailed on the

The written reports were continued under Moirai to release him from death, provided
the Empire, but Augustus put a stop to their that any one would volunteer to die for him.
publication. These documents were pre- He is at length seized with a mortal sickness,
served among the state archives and in the and his aged parents refusing to give up the
public libraries, where they could only be remnant of their days for him, Alcestis dies
inspected by permission of the city pre- for her husband, but is sent back to the
fect. At first a temporary duty imposed upper world by Persephone, or, according
on individual senators, the business of to another story, is rescued out of the hands
reporting grew into a separate office held of Hades by Heracles.
in rotation, with the title of Ab actis Adonis. Sprung, according to the com-
senatus, and the officer holding it had a mon legend, from the unnatural love of
considerable staff of writers under him, the Cyprian princess Myrrha (or Smyrna)
called Actudril. (2) The Acta {diurna) for her father Cinyras, who, on becoming
jpopuli (Romani), or Acta pvhlicd, urbana, aware of the crime, pursues her with a
urbis, diurna populi, or simply Acta or sword but she, praying to the gods, is

Diurna, were an official daily chronicle, changed into a myrtle, out of whose bark
which, in addition to official reports of springs the beautiful Adonis, the beloved
of Aphrodite. While yet a youth, he dies Adoption proper. The former could
wounded by a boar in hunting ; the god- take place where the person to be
dess, inconsolable, makes the anemone was independent (sui juris), and his adopter
grow out of his blood. As she will not had no prospect of male offspring at tHe

give up her darling, and Persephone has and after full pro(d
instance of the pontifex,
fallen in love with him, Zeus decrees of admissibility, it had to be
that he shall pass half the year with one by the comitia curiata. Adoption proper
and half with the other goddess. Adonis applied to those still under paternal rule
( = lord) was properly a Syrian god of nature, {patria potesiMs), the father selling his son
a type of vegetation, which after a brief by formal mancipatio (q.v.) to the adopter,
blossoming always dies again. The myth who then, the paternal power being thus
was embodied in a yearly Peast of Adonis abolished, claimed the son before the court
held by women, which, starting from Byblos as his own, and the father allowed him to be
m Syria, the cradle of this worship, came by adjudged to him. By either transaction the
way of Cyprus to Asia Minor and Greece, person adopted passed completely over intO'
then under the Ptolemies to Egypt, and the family and rank of the adopter, and
in the imperial age to Rome. When the river naturally took his name in full, but with the
Adonis by Byblos ran red with the soil addition of a second cognomen formed froiiL
washed down from Lebanon by the autumn his own former nomen gentile by the sufBx
rain, they said Adonis was slain by the boar -anus, e.g. Publius Cornelius Scipio iEmili-
in the mountains, and the water was dyed anus (son of Lucius iEmilius Paullus).
with his blood. Then the women set out Women too could be adopted, but not
to seek him, and having found a figure that arrogated neither could they adopt. At the

they took to be his corpse, performed his latter end of the Republic we find a testa-
funeral rites with lamentations as wild as mentary Adoption in existence, which at
the rejoicings that followed over his re- first likewise produced a change of name,
surrection were licentious. The feast was but not of status.
held, in the East, with great magnificence. Adrasteia. See Nemesis.
In Greece the celebration was much simpler, Adrastus. Grandson of Bias, son of Talaus
a leading feature being the little " Adonis- and Lysimache. In a quarrel between the
gardens," viz. pots holding all kinds of three houses reigning in Argos, theBiantidse,
herbs that come out quickly and as quickly MelampSdidse, and Prcetidse, he is driven
fade, which were finally thrown into the out by Amphiaraus, who also killed his-
water. At the court of Alexandria a father, flees to his mother's father, king
figure in costly apparel was displayed on a Polybus of Sicyon, and inherits his kingdom.
silver bier, and the next morning carried But, reconciled to Amphiaraus, to whom
in procession by the women to the sea, he gives his sister Eriphyle, he returns
and committed to the waves. In most and rules over Argos. During one stormy
places the feast was held in the hottest night a great scuffle is heard outside the
season. palace :two fugitives, Polyneices son of
Adoption. (1)At Athens adoption took (Edipus of Thebes, and Tydeus son of
place either in the adopter's lifetime or by (Eneus of Calydon (one wrapped in a lion's-
will; or again, if a man died childless and hide, the other in a boar-skin), have sought
intestate, the State interfered to bring into refuge in the front-court, and are fighting for
his house the man next entitled by the Attic a night's lodging. Adrastus, coming forth,
law of inheritance as heir and adoptive son, recognises the fulfilment of an oracle which
so that the race and the religious rites had bidden him marry his daughters to a
peculiar to it might not die out. None but lion and a boar. He gives Argeia to Poly-
the independent citizen of respectable char- neices and Deip5f^le to Tydeus, promising
acter could adopt, and he only while he to conduct those princes home and rein-
was as yet without male heirs. If there state them in their rights. Thus began
were daughters, one of them was usually under his lead the far-famed and fatal ex-
betrothed to the adopted son, and the rest pedition of the Seven against Thebes (g.v.).
portioned off with dowries. If after that a He alone escapes destruction by the help-
male heir was born, he and the adopted had of his divine winged steed Areion. Ten
equal rights. years after, with the sons of the slain, the.
(2) At Borne there were two kinds of Epigdni (q.v.), and his own son iEgi&leus,.
adoption, both requiring the adopter to he again marches upon Thebes, takes and
be a male and childless Arrogdtio and
: destroys the town, but loses his son, and

dies of grief on his way home at Mggara, beian goddess Ceres, in which their official
where, as well as at Sioyon and Athens, he archives were kept. Beside the custody
was worshipped as a hero. of the plebi-sclta, and afterwards of the
Advocatus. At Rome, under the Repub- senatus-consulta, it was their duty to make
lic, a competent friend who gave his advice arrests at the bidding of the tribunes to

in a law-suit and came into court in person, carry out the death-sentences which they
not to speak (the patronus causes did that), passed by hurlin g the criminal down from the

but to support the cause by his presence. Tarpeian rook to look after the importation

In the imperial age the term was applied of com to watch the traffic in the markets ;

to the counsel who pleaded in court in the and to organize and superintend the Plebeian
presence of the parties, for doing which and Roman Games. Like the tribunes, they
he was allowed, after the time of Olatidiiis, could only be chosen from the body of the
to take a moderate fee. Plebs, and wore no badge of office, not so
Adyton. In many Greek temples, a space much as the toga prcetexta, even after they
set apart, sometimes underground, and only became an authority independent of th(
entered by the priest, a holy of holies. tribunes. (2) The Curule ^diles, from B.C.
{See Temple.) 366, were taken at first from the Patrician
iEa. The realm of the mythic ^Eetes body alone, soon after from Patricians and
afterwards supposed to be Colchis on the Plebeians by turns, and lastly from either.
Euxine. Elected yearly in the comitia tributa under
.ffiacus (Gr .^idfcos). Ancestor of the heroic the presidency of a consul, they were, from
jEacidse son of Zeus by .^Egina, a daughter
; the first, officers of the whole people, though
of the river-god Asopus in Phlius, whom low in rank they sat in the sella curulis,

the king of gods, in the form of an eagle, from which they took their name, and wore
carried off to the island named after her, as insignia the toga prcetexta. As in rank,
where her son was bom. As king of .iEgina so in the extent of their powers they stood
he ruled the Myrmidons, whom Zeus at his above the Plebeian JUdiles, being entitled
request created out of ants (Gr. myrmSkes) to exercise civil jurisdiction in market busi-
to people his island, which, according to ness, where the latter could only impose a
one story, was uninhabited, according to fine. The functions of the two were very
another, stricken with pestilence. Beloved much alike, comprising (i) the superin-

by the gods for his piety, when a drought tendence of trade in the market, where they
desolated Greece, his intercession obtained had to test weights and measures, and the
rain from Zeus and the grateful Greeks
; quality of goods ; to keep down the price of
built him in iEgina a temple enclosed by provisions, both by prohibitive measures,
a marble wall. Pindar says he helped especially against regraters of corn, and by
Poseidon and Apollo to rear the walls of the purchase and liberal distribution of
Troy, erecting that very portion which was food {cura annonce) and, as regards the

afterwards scaled by his son Telamon, and money-market, to prosecute those who
his grandson Neoptolemus. His justice transgressed the laws of usury (ii) the

caused him after death to be made a judge care of the streets and buildings within
in the lower world. At ^gina and Athens the city and the circuit of a mile outside, by
he was worshipped as a demigod. His sons cleansing, paving, and improving the streets,
by Chiron's daughter Endeis were Telamon or stirring up those who were bound to do
and Peleus, the fathers of Ajax and Achilles ;
it ; by seeing that the street traffic was
another son Phocus,by the Nereid Psamathe, unimpeded ; by keeping in repair the
was slain by his half-brothers, for which temples, public buildings, and works, such
their father banished them. as sewers and aqueducts, and seeing that
.Sldiles. At Rome, two sets of magistrates, these latter and the fire-apparatus were in
the Plebeian (cediles plehis or plebeii) and working order (iii) a superintendence of

the Curule {cediles curules). (1) The two health and morals, including the inspec-
Plebeian ^diles were appointed B.C. 494 at tion of baths, taverns, and low houses, the
the same time with the Tribuneship of the putting down of all that endangered public
Plebs, as servants of the Tribunes, and at order and decency, e.g. games of hazard,
first probably nominated by them till 471, breaches of sumptuary laws, introduction
when, like them and under their presi- of foreign religions, etc. (iv) the exhi-

dency, they began to be elected by the bition of Games (of which the Roman and
whole body of the Plebs. They took their Megalensian devolved on the curule, the
name from the temple (eed^es'i of the ple- Plebeian on the plebeian sediles), the super-
vision of festivities at the ferioR Latinoe to secrecy on pain of death, presents her
and at games given by private men. The to his wife unrecognised as a slave. One
cost of the games given by themselves day Aedon overhears her sister lamenting
they defrayed partly out of a sum set apart her lot at a fountain, and concerts with her
by the State, but utterly inadequate to the to slay Itylus, cook him, and set him before
large demands of later times ; partly out of his father to eat. On learning the truth,
the proceeds of fines which were also spent Polytechnus pursues the sister to her home;
on public buildings, and partly out of their but there the gods, to prevent more horrors,
own resoiirces. Thus the sedileship became turn them all into birds, making Pandareos
an expensive luxury, and its enjoyment less an osprey, his wife a kingfisher, Poly-
and less accessible to men of moderate technus a pelican, Chelidonis a swallow,
means. Ambitious men often spent in- and Aedon a nightingale. {Comp. Peocxe.)
credible sums in getting up games, to win JEetes. Son of Helios and the Ocean
the people's favour with a view to higher nymph Perseis, brother of Circe and
honours, though the sedileship was not PasiphaS, king of M&, father of Medea and
necessary as a stepping-stone to these. In Absyrtus by the ocean nymph Idyia. {See
Cicero's time the legal age for the curule Argonauts and Medea.)
sedileship was thirty-seven. Prom B.C. 366 Eig&ns. Son of Pandion {q.v. 2) and
their number was unchanged, till Csesar Pelia. Having with the help of his brothers
in B.C. 44 added two more, the Plebeian Lycus, Pallas, and Nisus wrested Attica
JEdiles Ceriales, to whom alone the cura fi-om the sons of his uncle Metion, who had
annonce and the management of the ludi driven out his father, he seized the sole
Ceriales were entrusted. Under the sovereignty. Dethroned by his brother
Empire the office of sedile lost much in Pallas and his sons, he was rescued and
importance by some of its functions being restored by his son Theseus {q.v.). Having
handed over to separate officers, especially slain AndrSgeos, son of Minos {q.v.), he
by the transference of its jurisdiction and was conquered by that king, and compelled
its control of games to the prsetors; and it to send seven youths and seven maidens to
fell into such contempt, that even Augustus Crete every nine years as victims to the
had to make a tenure of it, or the tribune- Minotaur. When Theseus set out to free
ship, a condition of eligibility to the his country from this tribute, he agreed in
prsetorship; and succeeding emperors often case of success to exchange the black sail
had to fill it by compulsion. In the 3rd of his ship for a white ;but he forgot to
century a.d. it seems to have died out alto- do so, and ^geus seeing the old sail on the
gether. returning vessel, gave up his son for lost,
.ajdituus or iEditiimus. The overseer of and threw himself into the sea, which is
a temple that had no priest of its own (see supposed to have been named after him
Priests) also a major-domo. {See Slaves.)
; the .(Egean. He had a herOSn or shrine at
Aedon. Daughter of Panclareos,wife of the Athens. Childless by his first two mar-
Theban king Zethus, and mother of Ityltis. riages, and ascribing the fact to the anger
Envious at her sister-in-law, NiSbe, having of Aphrodite, he is said to have introduced
six sons, she tries to kill the eldest, but her worship into Athens. (Por his son
by mistake kills her own. She is changed Medus by Medea, see both.)
by Zeus into a nightingale, and for ever Mgikle (Gr. ^Eglalcia). Daughter of Ad-
bewails her son. Later legend makes her rastus of Argos, wife of Diomedes {q.v.).
the wife of an artificer Polytechnus at MglalBus. Son of Adrastus of Argos, and
CSlSphon in Lydia she stirs the anger of
; one of the EpigSni {q.v.), who fell before
Hera by boasting that she lives more happily Thebes.
with her husband than the goddess with .Slglna, a nymph, daughter of the river-
Zeus. Hera sends Eris ( = strife) to set on god Asopus, and, by Zeus, mother of ^Scus
foot a wager between husband and wife, that {q.v.).
whichever finishes first the piece of work .^ginetan Sculptures, The marble pedi-
they have in hand (he a chair, she a gar- ments of Athena's temple at .(Egina, dis-
ment) shall make the other a present of a covered in 1811, restored by Thorwaldsen,
slave-girl. By Hera's help Aedon wins, and preserved in the Glyptothek at Munich.
and Polytechnus in vexation fetches her Their great value consists in the full light
sister, ChSlJdCnis, on a false pretext, from they throw on the condition cf Greek art,
her father's house, and having reduced her especially of the ^Eginetan school, in b.c.
to submission on the way, and bound her 480. {Comp. Sculpture.) Both groups



present, with lifelike acci^racy and in strictly Atreus.) This position he loses again by
symmetrical distribution, combats of the his cousin Agamemnon's return from exile
Greeks before Troy, while Athena in the but during that hero's absence at Troy he
centre, as protectress of the Greeks, retains seduces his wife Clytsemnestra, and with
the rigid attitude of the ancient religious her help slays him treacherously on his
statues. Of the iigures, originally twenty- return. In the eighth year after this deed
two in number, ten in the west pediment comes young Orestes, and avenges his
representing the contest for the body of father's death by slaying ^gisthus.
Patroclus, are complete, while the eleventh Mg\e. One of the Hesperides (g.w.).
is preserved in fragments ;of those in the .ffigyptus. Son of Belus and twin-brother
«ast pediment representing Heracles and of Danaiis {q.v.)^ who subdued the land of
Telamon shielding the fallen Oicles from the Melampodes (Blackfeet), and named it
Laomedon, five remain and many fragments. after himself. Ignorant of the fate of his
iBgis. The storm-cloud and thunder- fifty sons, he comes to Argos and there dies
cloud of Zeus, imagined in Homer as a of grief at their death another account

shield forged by Hephaestus, blazing bright- represents his only surviving son as recon-
ly and fringed with tassels of gold, in its ciling him to his brother.
centre the awe-inspiring Gorgon's head. .Sllianus. (1) The Tactician, a Greek
When Zeus shakes the segis, it thunders writer on war, about 100 A.D., composed a
and lightens, and horror and perdition fall work dedicated to Trajan on the Greek
upon those against whom it is lifted. It is order of battle, with special reference to
borne not only by Zexis " the iEgis-bearer," Macedonian tactics ( Taldike ThcoHa) which ,

but by his daughter Athena, and occasionally is extant both in its original and in an
by Apollo. As the same word means a goat- enlarged form. The original used falsely
skin, it was explained in later times as the to be attributed to Arrian.
skin of the goat which had suckled Zeus (2) Claudius jMianus, called the Sophist,
in his infancy. At the bidding of the a Roman of Prseneste, who wrote in Greek,
oracle, he drew it over his thunder-shield lived at Rome in the 2nd century a.d. as
in the contest with the Giants, and fastened teacher of rhetoric. His surviving works
on it the Gorgon's head. When the segis are (1) 20 insignificant Peasants' Letters,

became a standing attribute of Athena, it so called because attributed to Attic pea-

was represented as a skin either shaggy or sants (2) Varies Historice or miscellanies,

scaly, with a fringe of snakes and the in 14 books, some preserved only in extracts,
Gorgon's head in the middle, and either and (3) De Natura Animalium. The two
serving the goddess as a breastplate, or last-mentioned are copious and valuable
hanging behind to screen the back and collections of all kinds of curiosities in
shoulders, or fastened like a shield on the human and animal life, mostly taken from
left arm. earlier writings now lost.
iSgistlms. Son of Thyestes and his daugh- iEliamim Jus. See Jurisprudence.
ter Pelopia. At his birth he was exposed .ailius.(1) .Mius Catus. See Jurispru-
by his mother, and brought up by shepherds. dence.
His uncle Atreus, husband to Pelopia, finds (2) Lucius JSlius Sttlo Prceconlnus, a
him and brings him to Mycenae, thinking Roman grammarian bom at Lanuvium,
him to be his own son but .SIgisthus and
about IBO B.C., an Sques, and friend of
his real father contrive to kill him and the poet Lucilius, to whom he dedicated
seize the sovereignty of Myoense. {See his first book of Satires : surnamed Stilo
(from stilus, pencil) because he -wrote from home; then they extended his
of Odysseus, always
speeches for public men, and Prseconinus ings to match those
" farther
because his father was a crier (prceco). He pushing the limit of his voyagmgs
was so strongly attached to the party of and farther west. The poet
Optimates, that in 100 B.C. he voluntarily (about 600 B.C.) is, so far as we know, tne
accompanied Metellus Numidicus into exile. first brings him to Italy. Later,
After his return he became the master of power of Rome, tHe
face of the fast rising
Varro and Cicero. Well versed in Greek and Greeks conceived the notion that
Latin literature, he applied himself chiefly must have settled in Latium and become
to studying the oldest relics of his native the ancestor of these Romans. This
tongue, commented on the Liturgies of the become a settled conviction in their mmds
Salian priests and the Laws of the Twelve by the beginning of the 3rd century B.C.,
Tables, and earned the honour of having when TimsBus, in the Roman interest, com-
rescued the ancient Latin language from pleted the Legend of ^neas, making room
oblivion, and preserved some knowledge of in it for Latian and Roman traditions ; and
it to posterity. Such scanty remnants of it at Rome it was soon taken up and developed
as have come down to us in glossaries and into a dogma of the state religion, repre-
the like seem to be taken chiefly from his senting the antagonism between Greece
writings, now all lost. and Rome, the new Troy. Erom that time
(3) and (4) Mlius Lampridius and verse and prose endeavoured to bring the
jSSlius Spartianus, Homan historians of the various places with which the name of
Empire. {See Sceiptoees Hist. Aug.) JEneas was connected into historic and
.ffimilius Probus. See Coenelids Nepos. geographic harmony, now building on a
iEneas (Greek Aineias). (1) Son of bare resemblance of names, now following
Anchises and Aphrodite. Born on the kindred fables and the holy places of
mountains of Ida, he is brought up till his Aphrodite Aineias, a goddess of sea and
fifth year by his brother-in-law Alcathous, seafaring, whose temples were generally
or, according to another story, by the foimd on the coasts. Thus by degrees the
nymphs of Ida, and after his father's mis- story took in the main the shape so
fortune becomes ruler of Dardanos. Though familiar to us in Vergil's ^ne'id. .tineas
near of kin to the royal house of Troy, he flees from the flames of Troy, bearing on
is in no hurry to help Priam till his own his shoulders the stricken Anchises with
cattle are carried off by Achilles. Yet he the Penates, leading his boy Ascanius and
is highly esteemed at Troy for his piety, followed by his wife Creusa (who is lost
prudence, and valour and gods come to his
; on the way), till he comes to Mount Ida.
assistance in battle. Thus Aphrodite and There he gathers the remnant of the
Apollo shield him when his life is threatened Trojans in twenty ships, and sails by way
by Diomed, and Poseidon snatches him out of Thrace and Delos to Crete, imagining
of the combat with Achilles. But Priam that to be the destination assigned him by
does not love him, for he and his are destined Apollo. But driven thence by pestilence,
hereafter to rule the Trojans. The story of and warned in a dream that Italy is his
his escape at the fall of Troy is told in goal, he is first carried out of his course to
several ways one is, that he bravely cut
: Epirus, and then makes his way to Sicily,
his way through the enemy to the fastnesses where his father dies. He has just set out
of Ida another, that, like Antenor, he was
; to cross to the mainland, when a hurricane
spared by the Greeks because he had always raised by his enemy Juno casts him on the
counselled peace and the surrender of coast of Carthage. Here Juno and Venus
HSl§na a third, that he made his escape in
; have agreed that he shall marry Dido but ;

the general confusion. The older legend at Jupiter's command he secretly quits
represents him as staying in the country, Africa, and having touched at Sicily, Cumse,
forming a new kingdom out of the wreck of and Caieta (Gaeta), arrives, after seven
the Teucrian people, and handing it down to years' wandering, at the Tiber's mouth.
his posterity. Indeed several townships on Latinus, king of Latium, gives him leave
Ida always claimed him as their founder. to build a town, and betroths to him his
The story of his emigrating, freely or under daughter Lavinia. Turnus, king of the
compulsion from the Greeks, and founding Rutiili, to whom she had been promised
a new kingdom beyond seas, is clearly of before, takes up arms in alliance with
poet-Homeric date. In the earlier legend Mezentius of Caere in twenty days tlie war

he is represented as settling not very far is ended by .iEneas defeating both. Accord-

^OLUS ^RA^roM. 11

ing to another version (not Vergil's), he dis- his voyage. But when the hero's comrades
appeared after the victory on the Numicius, open the bag, the winds break out and
and was worshipped as the-/ god Jupiter blow him back to the jEolian Isle then ;

Indiges. The Roman version, in its earliest tEoIus drives him from his door as one hate-
forms, as we see it in Nsevius and Ennius, ful to the gods. In the later legend he
brought -(Eneas almost into contact with dwells on one of the iEolian isles to the
the founders of Rome, Romulus and Remus north of Sicily, Lipara or Strongyle, where,
being regarded as children of his daughter throned on a mountain, he holds the winds
Ilia by the god Mars. In later times, to imprisoned in the hollow of the same yet ;

fill up duly the space between the Fall of he does not seem to have received real
Troy and the Founding of Rome, the line worship. He was, moreover, brought into
of Alban kings, descended from Silvius, his genealogical connection with jEoIus of
son by Lavinia, was inserted between him Thessaly, whose son Mimas begets Hippotes,
and Romulus. and he (by Melanippe) a. second JSolus, king
(2) ^neas, named "the Tactician" a of .ffiolis in iEtolia;this ./Eolus gives his
Greek military author, wrote about 350 B.C. daughter Arne, the beloved of Poseidon,
a book on the Art of War, of which only to a guest-friend from Metapontum in
a small part on siege-operations, usually Lucania, where she has two sons by the
entitled PoliorkStiktm, is preserved it is
; god, the third j&lus and Bceotus. 'These,
clear exposition, and contains
in much adopted by the Metapontian, kill his wife
valuable historical information. Autolyte and run away, Boeotus returning
(1) Grandson of Deucalion, son
.ffiolus. with Arne to his grandfather, and .iEolus
of Hellen by the nymph Orseis, brother of settling in the isles named after him, and
Dorus and Xuthus king of Magnesia in
; foimding the city of Lipara.
Thessaly, and mythic ancestor of tlie .Slora. Festival of the swing. See
being founders of the
-iEolian race, his sons ICAEIITS, 1.
jEolian settlements spread all over Greece. .ffiqultas.At Rome, the personification of
By his wife EnarSte he has seven sons : equity or fairness, as opposed to the justice
Cretheus, founder of lolcus, and father, by that decides by the letter of the law. She
Tyro, of ,(Eson (Jason's father), of Pheres was represented as a stately virgin with
(founder of Pherse in Thessaly, and father her left hand open, and often with a pair
of Admetus and Lycurgus), and .of Amy- of scales.
thaon (father of Bias and Melampus) .Xrarii. By the constitution of Servius
SlsyphUs, founder of Ephyra (Corinth), Tullius (see Oentuhia), the Ovarii were
father of Glaucus and grandfather of citizens not settled on land of their own,
Bellerophon Athdmas, king of Orchome-
; and therefore not included in any one of the
nus, father of Phrixus and Helle Sal-
; property-classes founded on landownership.
moneus, builder of Salmone in Elis, father The term was also applied to those standing
of Tyro De'ion, king of Phoci^, father of
; outside of the tribal union, who were ex-
Actor, Phylucus, and Cephalus; Magnes, cluded from the right of voting and from
father of Dictys and Polydectes, who military service, and were bound to pay
colonize the island of Seriphus (see Pee- a poll-tax in proportion to their means.
SEUS) Perieres, king of Messenia, father
; Citizens in the classes and tribes could be
of Aphareus and Leucippus. Also five expelled from their tribe by the censors in
daughters Canclce, mother by Poseidon
: punishment for any fault, and placed
of Epopeus and Aloeus (see Aloads) ;
among the jErarii. But when the latter
Alcyone (see Ceyx) Peisidice
; Cdlyce,
; were likewise admitted into the tribes (B.C.
mother of Endymion and PerimSde.
; 308), being enrolled in the city tribes (B.C.
(2) In Homer a son of HippStes, and a 304), which were on that account less
favourite of the gods, whom Zeus has ap- esteemed than the country ones, a penal
pointed keeper of the winds. On his transfer to the ./Erarii consisted in expulsion
.^olian island, floating in the far west, its from one's proper tribe and removal to one
steep cliff encircled by a brazen wall, he of the city tribes till at least the next
lives in unbroken bliss with his wife and census.
his six sons and six daughters, whom he .Slrarium. The state-treasury of Rome,
has wedded to one another. He hospi- into which flowed the revenues ordinary
tably -entertains Odysseus, gives him the and extraordinary, and out of which "the
unfavourable winds shut up in a leathern needful expenses were defrayed. It was
bag, and a kindly breeze to waft him on kept in the basement of the temple of Saturn,
Tinder the charge of the quaestors.. A
special time after the death of Socrates, to
in B.C.
reserve fund was the .MrariuTn sanctius, he had clung with faithful affection
in which the proceeds of receipts from the 399, ^schines, probably to
mend his tor-
manumission-tax (one twentieth of the freed tunes, removed Syracuse, and there found
slave's value) were deposited in gold ingots. a patron in the younger Dionysius.
On the
When Augustus divided the pro-
vinces into senatorial and impera-
i;orial, there were two chief treasuries.
The senatorial treasury, which was
still kept in the temple of Saturn,
was left under the control of the
senate, but only as a matter of formal
right. Practically it passed into the
hands of the emperors, who also
brought the management of the
treasuries under their own eye by
•appointing, instead of the quaestors,
two proefecti mrarii taken from those
who had served as praetors. Besides,
they diverted into their own JFiscus
•all the larger revenues, even those
that legally belonged to the .iErarium.
When in course of time the returns
from all the provinces flowed into
the imperial treasury, the senatorial
iErarium continued to exist as the city
treasury. The JErdriuni militare
was a pension -fund founded by
Augustus in a.d. 6, for disabled
soldiers. Its management was en-
trusted to three prcefccti cerarii
militaris. It was maintained out of
the interest on a considerable fund,
and the proceeds of the heritage and
sale duties.
AerSpe. Daughter to Catreus of
Crete (g.v.), who was given up by her
father to Nauplius to be sold abroad.
Married to Atreus (g.w.), she bore
Agamemnon and Menelaus, but was
thrown into the sea by her husband
for her adultery with his brother
Son of Priam by Arisbe,
who had learnt the art of interpreting
dreams from his maternal grandfather
Merops, and being consulted by his
father as to Hecuba's bad dreams
before the birth of Paris, advised
him to expose a child so clearly
doomed to be the destruction of
Troy. In despair at having caused the
death of his wife AstSrSpe (or Hes-
pgria) he threw himself into the sea, • .J'lSClUNKS THE OMATOU.
and was changed into a bird, the diver. (Niiplos, Niilioiial Museum.)
.ajschlnes. (1) The Socratic, son of a he returned to Athens,
fall of that tyrant,
sausage-maker at Athens, lived in the most and supported himself by writing speeches
pinching poverty, but would not let it dis- for public men. He composed Dialogues,
courage him in his zeal for learning. Some which were prized for their faithful de-
: "


scriptions of Socrates, and the elegance of False Embassy, Against Ctesiphon), we

their style. Three pseudo-Platonic dia- have under his name a collection of twelve
logues are conjecturally ascribed to him; letters professing to be written from Rhodes,,
That Virtue can he Taught; Axiochus, or but really forged by a later hand. Among
on Death, and Eryxias, or on Riches. But the orators of his time ^Eschines ranks next
it is doubtful whether they are really from to Demosthenes. His orations are elabor-^
his hand. ated with the utmost care and reflexion,,
(2) JEschines the Orator, born at Athens they have fulness, force, smoothness, and
B.C. 389, in a low station. As a youth, he grace; but .lack the terseness, the rhythm,
assisted his father in keeping an elementary and the moral inspiration of those of
school, then acted as clerk to several in- Demosthenes. They were spoken of in
ferior magistrates, was for a time an actor antiquity as the Three Graces.
in third-rate parts, till an accident removed .ffischylus. The earliest of the three great
him from the stage, when he became secre- tragic poets of Greece, son of Euphorion.
tary to the esteemed orators and statesmen He was born at Eleusis, near Athens, B.C.
Aristophon and Eubulus, at whose recom- 526, of an old and noble stock, fought at
mendation he was twice elected to a govern- Marathon, Salamis and Platsese, and in his.
ment clerkship. Having thus acquired a 25th year appeared as a writer of tragedies,
sound knowledge of the laws and of legal and rival of Pratinas and ChoBrilus, though
proceedings, and being gifted with consider- he did not win his first victory till 488 B.C.
able talent, fine elocution and a dignified About 476 he lived in Sicily, at the court
manner, to which his experience on the of Hiero of Syracuse, and composed his.
stage had contributed, he now came forward .^Stnceans for the consecration of the city
as a public speaker, and soon became an of ^tna, founded by that king in the place
important personage. As a member of the of the ancient Catana. On his return to
embassy sent to Philip of Manedon for the Athens he was beaten by the young Sophocles
conclusion of peace, B.C. 347, he was won with his very first play, but vanquished him
over by the king to second the plans which again the next year with the Tetralogy of
proved so fatal to Athens, and was therefore which the Seven against Thebes formed a
accused of high treason by Timarchus and part. After the performance of his Oresteia,
Demosthenes in B.C. 345 but he managed
; B.C. 459, he quitted home once more, per-
to clear himself by a triumphant attack on haps in disgust at the growing power of the
the private life of Timarchus. In B.C. 342 democracy; and after three years' residence
Demosthenes, who hated him, the head of at Gela in Sicily, was killed, says one story,,
the Macedonian party, as bitterly as he was by an eagle dropping a tortoise on his bare
hated by him, renewed the charge in his skull. The inhabitants of Gela buried his
oration On the Falsi Embassy. iEschines, remains, and honoured them with a splendid
however, met it successfully by an equally monument. At a later time the Athenians,
brilliant speech bearing the same title. His on the motion of the orator Lycurgus,
unpatriotic conduct occasioned the war with placed a brazen statue of him, as well as of
Philip, which led to the overthrow of the Sophocles and Euripides, in the theatre by;

Athenians and Thebans at ChEeronea, 338, a decree of the people a choru.s was granted
and set the seal to the Macedonian supre- for every performance of his plays, and the
macy over Greece. His own fall at last was garland of victory voted him as though he
brought on by his hatred of Demosthenes. were still living among them. His trage-
.Sischines had previously brought a charge dies, like those of the other two, were pre-
of illegality against Ctesiphon for proposing served in a special standard copy, to guard
the distinction of a golden crown for them against arbitrary alterations. His
Demosthenes. The charge was repeated son Euphorion was also an esteemed tragic-
B.C. 330, in a brilliant oration nominally poet, so was his sister's son Philocles and
directed Against Ctesiphon, but really aimed his descendants for several generations.
at his old rival
. He was completely crushed {See Tragedy.) The number of jEschylus's.
by Demosthenes' great speech On the Crown, plays is stated as 90, of which 82 are stilL
and being condemned to pay a fine of 1,000 known by title, but only 7 are preserved
drachmas, went into voluntary exile at (1) The Persians, performed in 473 B.C.,.
Rhodes, where he is said to have opened a was named from the chorus. Its subject
school of oratory. Thence he removed to was the same as that of Phrynichus'
Samos, and died B.C. 314. Beside the three PhoenissoR, the defeat of Xerxes at Salamis,
orations named (Against Timarchus, On the but was differently treated. (2) The Seven-

against Thebes, part of a Tetralogy, em- poet's individuality, which took delight in
bracing the cycle of Theban legend, of which all that is great and grand, and loved to

Latus and CEdlpus formed the first two express itself in strong, sonorous words, an
pieces, and the satyric drama Sphinx the accumulation of epithets, and a profusion
conclusion. (3) The Suppliants, the re- of bold metaphors and similes. His view
ception of DSnaus and his daughters at of the universe reveals a profoundly philo-
Argos, evidently part of another Tetralogy, sophic mind, so that the ancients call him
and, to judge by the simple plot and its a Py thagorean ; at the same time he is pene-
old-fashioned treatment, one of his earliest trated by a heartfelt piety, which conceives
works. (4) Prometheus Bound, part of a of the gods as powers working in the interest
Trilogy, the Prometheia, whose iirst and of morality. However simple the plot of
last pieces were probably Prometheus the his plays, they display an art finished to
Fire-hringer and Prometheus Unbound. the minutest detail. His Trilogies either
Lastly, the Oresteia, the one Trilogy which embraced one complete cycle of myths, or
has survived, consisting of the three united separate legends according to their
tragedies, (5) Agamemnon, the murder of moral or mythical affinity; even the satyric
dramas attached to the Tragedies stand
in intimate connexion with them. .Sschylus
is the true creator of Tragedy, inasmuch
as, by adding a second actor to the first,
he originated the genuine dramatic dialogue,
\.'hich he made the chief part of the play
by gradually cutting down the lyrical or
choral parts. Scenic apparatus he partly
created and partly completed. He intro-
duced masks for the players, and by gay
and richly embroidered trailing garments,
the high buskin, head-dresses, and other
means, gave them a grand imposing aspect,
above that of common men ; and he fitted
up the stage with decorative painting and
machinery. According to the custom of
the time, he acted in his own plays, practised
the chorus in their songs and dances, and
himself invented new dance figures.
.aisciilapius. See Asclepius.
iEson, son of Cretheus by Tyro (sec
.S;oLus,l),kingof lolcosinThessaly, was de-
posed by his half-brother Pelias, and killed
while his son Jason was away on the Argo-
nautic Expedition. (Comp. Argonauts.)
(Rome, Capitoline Museum.)
iEsopus (Gr Aisopos). The fame as writer

that hero on his return home; (6) The of fables, the first author who created an
Choephora, named from the chorus of independent class of stories about animals,
captive Trojan women offering libations so that in a few generations his name and
at Agamemnon's tomb, in which Orestes person had become typical of that entire
avenges himself on jEgisthus and Clytsem- class of literature. In course of time,
nestra and (7) The EumenMes, in which
thanks to his plain, popular manner, the
Orestes, pursued by the Furies, is acquitted story of his own life was enveloped in an
by the Areopagus at Athens. This Trilogy, almost inextricable tissue of tales and
composed B.C. 458, and probably the last traditions, which represent him as an ugly
work exhibited by iEsohylus at Athena, hunchback and buffoon. In the Middle
gives us an idea of the whole artistic con- Ages these were woven into a kind of
ception of the poet, and must be looked upon romance. A Phrygian by birth, and living
as one of the greatest works of art ever in the time of the Seven Sages, about 600
produced. The style is marked by sub- B.C., he is said to have been at first a slave
limity and majesty, qualities partly attri- to several masters, till ladmon of Samos set
butable to the courageous and serious temper him free. That he next lived at the court
of the time, but chiefly the offspring of the of Croesus, and being sent by him on an

embassy to Delphi, was murdered by the ished B.C. 100. In his pictures of Roman
priests there, is pure fiction. Under his lifehe took Menander for his model, and
name were propagated in all parts of Greece, with great success. Cicero calls him witty
at first only by tradition in the mouth of and a master of language. To judge bj'^
the people, a multitude of prose tales teach- the number of the titles of his comedies
ing the lessons of life under the guise of which have survived (more than forty, with
fables about animals. We know how scanty fragments), he was a prolific author;
Socrates, during his last days in prison, from them we gather that his subjects were
was engaged in turning the fables of ^sop mostly taken from family life. His plays
into verse. The first written collection ap- kept possession of the stage longer than
pears to have been set on foot by Demetrius those of most comic poets, being still acted
of Phalerum, B.C. 300. The collections of in Nero's time.
.^op^s Fables that have come down to us Agamedes. Son of Erginus of Orcho-
are, in part, late prose renderings of the menus, and a hero of the building art, like
version in choliambics by Babrius (5.^.), his brother Trophonius (q.v.).
which still retain here and there a scrap Agamemnon. The Atre'id, i.e. son of
of verse ; partly products of the rhetorical Atreus, and brother of Menelaus. Driven
schools, and therefore of very diiFerent from MycensB after the murder of Atreus
periods and degrees of merit. (q.v.) by Thyestes, the two young princes
.ffisymnetsB (" regulators," "judges"). A fly to Sparta, where king Tyndareos gives
name given in some Greek cities to the them his daughters in marriage, Clytsem-
ordinary magistrates and judicial function- nestra to Agamemnon, and Helena to
aries. In earlier times the term was also Menelaus. While the latter inherits his
applied to persons appointed for a definite father-in-law's kingdom, Agamemnon not
term (or until the completion of their task) only drives his uncle out of Mycenae, but
for putting an end, by legislation, to in- so extends his dominions that in the war
ternal quarrels. Sometimes an cesymnetes against Troy for the recovery of Helena the
was voluntarily chosen by the community chief command is entrusted to him as the
for life, and entrusted with supreme and mightiest prince in Greece. He contributes
unlimited power. The oflSce of cesymnetes one hundred ships manned with warriors,
may to a certain extent be compared with beside lending sixty to the Arcadians. (On
the Roman dictatorship, though the latter the immolation of his daughter Iphigeneia
was never conferred without a strict limi- at Aulis, see Iphigeneia.) In Homer he is
tation of time. one of the bravest fighters before Troy yet,

.ffithra, daughter of Pittheus, king of by arrogantly refusing to let Chryses, priest

Trcezen, mother of Theseus by Jilgeus or, of Apollo, ransom his daughter Chryseis,
according to another account, by Poseidon. who had fallen to Agamemnon as the prize
While Homer merely mentions her as a of war, he brings a plague on the Grecian
servant of Helen at Troy, later legend host, which he afterwards almost ruins by
adds that, when the Dioscuri took Aphidnse ruthlessly carrying off Briseis the prize of
and set free their sister whom Theseus Achilles, who henceforth sits sulking in his
had carried off, they conveyed jEthra to tents, and refuses to fight. After the fall
Sparta as a slave, whence she accompanied of Troy, Agamemnon comes home with his
Helen to Troy and that on the fall of that
; captive, the princess Cassandra ; but at
<5ity,they brought her grandsons Acamas supper he and his comrades are murdered
and Demophoon back to Athens. by his wife's lover iEgisthus, while the queen
Action. A Greek painter in the latter herself kills Cassandra. Such is Homer's
half of the 4th century B.C., especially account the tragic poets make Clytsem-

famed for his picture of Alexander the nestra, in revenge of her daughter's immo-
Great's wedding with the beautiful Eoxana, lation, throw a net over Agamemnon while
B.C. 328. bathing, and kill him with the help of
Aetius (Gt. Aetios). Of Amida in Mesopo- .iEgisthus. In Homer his children are
tamia, a Greek physician of the 6th century Iphianassa, Chrysothemis, Laodice, and
A.D., who lived at Constantinople as im- Orestes the later legend puts Iphigeneia

perial physician in ordinary. He was the and Electra in the place of Iphianassa and
author of a great miscellany on pathology Laodice. Agamemnon was worshipped as
and diagnosis in sixteen books. a hero.
Afranius {Lmcius). The chief master of Aganippe, a spring sacred to the Muses
xhe Fabula Togata. {See Comedy.) Flour- on Mount Helicon, near Thespise in Boeotia,
whose water imparted poetic inspiration. mixed wine were made at meals. '^'}
Also the nymph of the same, daughter of of art he is represented as a youth, holding
the river-god Permessus. in one hand a horn of plenty and a bowl, m
the other a poppy and ears of corn. (Comp.
Agathon. A
tragic poet of Athens, born
B.C. 448,a friend of Euripides and Plato,
universally celebrated for his beauty and
refined culture. The banquet he gave in
honour of his dramatic victory of B.C. 417
is immortalized in Plato's Sympostdn. He
was, together with Euripides, at the court
of Archelaus, king of Macedonia, and pro-
bably died there about B.C. 402. He appear;?,
to have carried still further the rhetorical
manner of Euripides, adopting entirely the
views of the sophist Gorgias; and his;
namby-pambj"- style is ridiculed by Aristo-
phanes. On the stage he introduced severr.l
innovations he was the first to make the

chorus a mere intermezzo, having nothing

to do with the action, and in his tragedy
of AntkSs (= flower) he invented both
characters and plot for himself, instead of
resorting to old myths.
Agave (Gr. Agaue). Daughter of Cadmus
(Paris, Louvre.)
and wife of Echion. She, with other women,
Agasias. A
Greek artist of Ephesus, in a bacchanalian frenzy
probably in the 1st century B.C. The tore to pieces her own son Gladiator in the Louvre is from Pentheus {q.v.).
his hand. {See Scdlptuee.) Agdistis. See Rhea.
Agatharchides. A Greek grammarian of Ages. Since the time of
Cnidus, who lived at Alexandria in the Hesiod, the Greeks, and the
2nd century B.C. as tutor, and afterwards Romans after them, gene-
guardian, of a prince. He composed several rally assumed the existence
historical works (one on the successors of of four ages.
Alexander), a well written performance, (1) The age of gold, in AGAVE WITU:
and a description of the Red Sea in five which Kronos or Saturnus THE HEAD Of
books. Of the former only a few fragments was king. During this PENTHEHS.
remain, of the last some considerable ex- period mankind enjoyed per- (G^m in Briush
tracts from the first and fifth books. petual youth, joy, and peace
Agatharchus. A
Greek painter of undisturbed, reaping in their fulness the-
Samos, the inventor of scene-painting. {8ee fruits which the earth spontaneously brought
Painting.) forth. Death came upon them like a soft
Ag&thias. Of Myrina Asia Minor, a
in slumber ; and after
they became good
Greek poet and born about 530
historian, dcemSnSs, watching men
like guardians in
A.D., lived at Constantinople as a jurist, and their deeds of justice and injustice, and
died about 582. By his Kyldos, a collec- hovering round them with gifts of wealth.
tion of his own and contemporary poems, (2) The golden age was succeeded by
topically arranged in eight books, he helped that of silver. This was inferior to the
to originate the Greek Anthology {q.v.), golden both in physical and mental force.
which still contains 101 epigrams by him. The people of the silver age remained for
In his last years he wrote, in a laboured a hundred years in the condition of children,
florid style, a history of Justinian in five simple and weakly. Even if they attained
books, treating of the years a.d. 6B2-8 in maturity, their folly and arrogance pre-
continuation of Procopius. vented their living long. They continued
AgathSdsemon ( = good dsemon). In Greek to exist after death as spirits, living be-
mythology a good spirit of the cornfields neath the earth, but not immortal.
and vineyards, to whom libations of un- (3) Zeus then created the brazen age, so.

named because in it all implements were State management, and was let by the
made of brass. The men, furnisbed witb censors. Of uncultivated districts, the
gigantic limbs and irresistible physical State, by public proclamation, gave a pro-
strength, destroyed each other by deeds of visional right of seisin, occupatio, with a
violence, and perished at their death. view to cultivation, in consideration of a
(4) The iron age succeeded. This was tithe of the corn raised and a fifth of the
the generation of work and laborious agri- fruit, and reserving its right of resumption.
culture. Care and toil fill up the day and Siich seisin was called possessio. It could
night ; truth and modesty are departed mis- ; be bequeathed or otherwise alienated, yet
chief alone survives, and there is nothing never became private property, but re-
to arrest the progress of decay. mained a rent-paying and resumable pro-
Agela. In Crete, an association of youths perty of the State. Though the Plebeians
for joint training ; Ageldtes, the captain of had as good a right to occupy lands won
an agela. (See Education, 1.) by their aid as the Patricians, yet in
AgSladas. A Greek artist of the first half the early times of the Republic this right
of the 5th century B.C., famed for his images was exercised by the latter alone, partly
of gods and Olympian victors, wrought in because they had the greater command
metal. His reputation was much enhanced of means and men, and partly because by
by the fact that Phidias, Myron, and Poly- the right of the stronger they excluded
olitus were his pupils. the Plebeians from benefiting by the Ager
Agema. The guard in the Macedonian Publicus. Against this usurpation the
army in which the cavalry were a troop
; Plebeians waged a bitter and unbroken
(tie) formed of noblemen's sons who had warfare, not only a share in newly
grown up as pages in the royal service, while conquered lands, but a wholesale redistri-
the infantry consisted of the hypaspistm bution of existing possessiones, while the
{q.v.), to whom the argyrasptdes (q.v.), were Patricians strained every nerve to maintain
added later as heavy infantry. their vested interests, and managed to
Agenor. (1) Son of Poseidon and Libya, thwart the execution of all the enactments
king of Phoenicia, brother to Belus, and passed from time to time in favour of the
father of Cadmus and Europa (q.v.). Plebeians. Even the law of the tribune
(2) Son of Antenor by Theano, a priestess Gains Licinius Stole (B.C. 377), limiting
of Athena, and one of the bravest heroes possessiones to 500 iugSra (acres) per man,
of Troy. In Homer he leads the Trojans in and ordering the distribution of the re-
storming the Greek entrenchments, rescues mainder, were from the first eluded by the
Hector when thrown down by Ajax, and possessores, who now included both Patri-
even enters the lists with Achilles, but is cians and well-to-do Plebeians. All possible
saved from imminent danger by Apollo. In means were employed, as pretended deeds
the post-Homeric legend he dies by the of gift and other similar devices. The
hand of Neoptolemus. threatened extinction of the Italian pea-
Agar Fublicus ( = common land). The santry by the great wars, and the rapid
Latin name for the State domains, formed growth of huge estates (latifundia) worked
of territory taken from conquered states. by slaves, occasioned the law of Tiberius
The Romans made a practice, upon every Gracchus (B.C. 133), retaining the Licinian
new acquisition of land, of adding a part limit of 500 acres, but allowing another
of it, usually a third, to the domain. So 250 for each son, and granting compensation
far as this land was under culture, por- for lands resumed by the State. The land
tions of it were sometimes assigned to thus set free, and all the Ager Publicus that
single citizens or newly-founded colonies in had been leased, except a few domains indis-
fee simple, sometimes sold by the qusestors pensable to the State, were to be divided
on the condition that, though the purchaser among poor citizens, but on the condition
might bequeath and alienate it, it still re- that each allotment paid a quit-rent, and
mained State property. In token of this was not to be alienated. But again, the
it paid a substantial or merely nominal the resistance of the nobility practically
rent (vectigal), and was called ager privdtus reduced this law to a dead letter and the

vectigalisque or qucestorius. The greater upshot of the whole agrarian movement

part was left to the old occupiers, yet not stirred up by Tiberius and his brother
as free property, but as rent-paying land, Gaius Gracchus was, that the wealthy
and was called ager puhlicus stipendiarius Romans were not only left undisturbed
datus assignatus ; the rest remained under in their possessiones,but were released
I> C. A. o
from paying rent. In the civil wars of seaside, in inland towns at the foot of the
Sulla the Ager Publicus in Italy, which castle hill. As the centre of the city life,
had been nearly all used up in assignations, commercial, political, and religious, it was
received so vast an increase by the ex- adorned with temples, statues, and public
termination of whole townships, by pro- buildings, and planted with trees, especially
scriptions and confiscations, that even after planes. Whennewly built or rebuilt in
all the soldiers had been provided for, there was generally square, and sur-
late times, it
remained a portion undistributed. Under rounded by colonnades. In most towns it
the Empire there was hardly any left in was the place for assemblies of the people.
Italy ; what there was, whether in Italy or Agoracritus. AGi-eek artist of Paros,
in the provinces, came gradually under the who lived in the latter half of the 5tli
control of the imperial exchequer. century B.C., and was a favourite pupil of
Agesander (Gr. Agesandros). A Greek Phidias. His noblest work was considered
Rhodes. The cele-
artist of the school of to be the statue of Nemesis, 40 feet in
brated group of the Laocoon is the joint height, which some judges, on account of
work of Agesander, Athenodorus, and Poly- its excellence, took for a production of the
dorus. (See Laocoon.) elder artist. In any case it was said that
Agger. In Roman siege-works, the mound Phidias had allowed the name of Agora-
or embankment raised against an enemy's critus to be inscribed on several of his
walls. (See Sieges.) works.
Aglaia. One of the Graces. {See Agoranomus ( = market-master). In many
Charites.) Greek towns a magistrate somewhat re-
Agnatio. The Latin name for the sembling the Roman sedile. At Athens ten
relationship ofreal or adoptive descent agordnomi were chosen by lot every year,
from one father, which was necessarily five for the city, and five for the port of
expressed by identity of clan-name (see Piraeus. They looked especially after the
Name, 2.) A
brother and sister were retail trade, gave strangers leave to engage
agndti, but her children were no longer in it, tested weights and measures, as well
agnati to his. At iirst agnati alone were as the quality of goods, confiscating and
entitled to inherit property or act as destroying what was spoilt; they settled dis-
guardians; it was but gradually that the putes between buyers and sellers on the spot,
cogndti (q.v.) came to have a place by their or, if a suit at law was necessary, presided
side, till Justinian abolished the right of over it [Aristotle's Const, of Athens, c. 51].
agnates, and brought that of cognates to Agraulos. Daughter of Cecrops {q.v.).
complete recognition. Agriculture. (1) Agriculture was in Greece
Agon. The Greek name for a musical a leading industry, at least as early as Homer.
( = artistic) or gymnastic contest. The um- The soil was stubborn, fertile plains being
pires who conducted them, and gave away comparatively few, and mountains and rocky
the prizes, were called Agondthctce. (On ground preponderating. But, favoured by
those who officiated at scenic games in a genial climate, agriculture was carried on
Athens, see Drama.) At Rome such con- almost everywhere with a zeal to which the
tests, modelled on those of the Greeks, wants of a dense population added their
became frequent before the fall of the Re- stimulus. That it was regarded as the
public under the Empire they came round
; very groundwork of social life is shown by
at periods of several years, like the great the fact that its guardian goddess Demeter
Grecian games. The most famous of all, (Lat. Ceres) presided also over wedlock and
which held its ground to the end of anti- law. It was looked upon as the most
quity, was the Agon Capitolinus, founded legitimate way of earning a livelihood. It
by Domitian in 86 A.D., and recurring every was carried to the highest pitch in the
four years. He had an Odeum (q.v.) built Peloponnesus, where every scrap of culti-
for the musical performances, and a Stadi6n vable soil was made to yield its crop, as
for the athletic combats, both in the may be seen to this day by the artificial
Campus Martins. Another great Agoii was terraces that scarp every mountain-slope.
held in 248 A.D. in honour of the city Much care was bestowed on irrigation.
having stood for a thousand years. Scarcity of water was supplemented by
AgonothStes. See Agon. artificialmeans; provision was made against
Agora ( = assembly). The Greek name for irregular bursts of mountain torrents by
the market-place, a consecrated open space, embanking and regulating the natural out-
which in coast towns usually lay on the lets, while moist lands were channelled and


stagnant waters drained. Water was dis- manual labour on the land was held in un-
tributed everywliere by ditches and canals, qualified esteem and as bringing no disgrace
under the supervision of State officials even upon persons in high place.
and laws of ancient date guarded against Husbandry was mainly directed to the
the unfair use of a water-course to a raising of grain, the ordinary cereal being
neighbour's damage. at first spelt, till, in the 6th century B.C.,
The land was mainly cultivated by slaves wheat began to take a place beside it. They
and serfs, though field-labour was not also cultivated barley, millet, and leguminous
deemed dishonourable to the freeman, ex- plants, as well as turnips, greens, and herbs
cept where law and custom forbade his for fodder. On irrigation and drainage the
engaging in any sort of handicraft, as at Italians bestowed much pains. They had no
Sparta. In some countries, especially Ar- lack of grass-lands, either for pasture or
cadia, the old-world plan of every man till- hajrmaking and from an early time these

ing his field with his own hand remained in were ar tifici ally watered. The cultivation of
force to the latest times and even eminent
; the vine and olive extended as that of grains
statesmen like Philopoemen would not give declined (see below); so did the growth
it up. Four kinds of grain were chieily of orchard-fruit, which, under the late
grown wheat, barley, and two kinds of
: Republic and the early Empire, received
spelt, to all of which the climate allowed a vast expansion both from the improve-
two sowings in the year, beside millet, ment of native kinds and the introduction
sesame, various leguminous plants, and and naturalization of many foreign fruits.
several sorts of herbage for fodder. With In earlier times the prime favourite among
no less diligence was Greek husbandry ap- fruit trees had been, as in Greece, the
plied to gardening, especially to the cultiva- nutritious fig. Agriculture proper was
tion of the vine. This, while steadily pur- ruined by the acquisition of the first extra-
sued on the mainland, was developed to an Italian possessions, Sicily and Sardinia for

extraordinary extent in the islands, most of the corn supplied by the provincials as tri-
which, owing to their mountainous character, bute in kind began to be used, not only in
did not afford their inhabitants sufficient provisioning the armies, but in feeding the
arable soil. In olive-culture no part of urban population. {See Annona.) As the
Greece competed with Attica, which also State, to humour the rabble of Rome, sold
produced the best figs, the fruit most widely this corn at the lowest possible prices,
cultivated. Kitchen-gardening was prac- sometimes even below its value, the growth
tised on the largest scale in BcBotia. Con- of cereals ceased to be profitable farmers

sidering the enormous consumption of kept it down to a minimum, and took to

flowers in wreaths, the rearing of them, es- cattle-breeding or raising wine and oil.
pecially of the rose, lily, narcissus, and violet, These branches of industry not only fiou-
must have been a lucrative business, at rished in the face of competition, but with
least in the neighbourhood of great towns. judicious management were highly remu-
Meadow-farming was of next to no import- nerative. The death-blow was given to the
ance, few districts having a soil adapted for Italian peasantry by the increasing employ-
it, and such meadows as there were being ment of slaves and the absorption of small
used for pasture rather than haymaking. farms in large estates (see Latefundidm).
(2) In Italy. In Italy also the existence On these, besides the growth of wine, oil,
of the community was regarded as based and fruit, the breeding of birds, game, and
upon agriculture. This is proved by the cattle was carried on, as well as woodcraft,
practice of marking the site of the future and special industries, pottery, charcoal-
walls of a new town by a furrow drawn burning, and others.
with the plough. At Rome especially, the Farming implements, in addition to the
body of irremovable peasantry long formed plough (q.v.) usually drawn by oxen, which
the core of the commonwealth. In political was much the same among Greeks and
life the free peasant was the only factor Romans, and always very imperfect, in-
held in account, and accordingly in war the cluded a great variety of spades, hoes, and
object was to increase the number of free mattocks, and among Romans the harrow,
peasants by planting them out on as much the use of which among the Greeks is
of borderland as could be wrested from the doubted. The season for sowing all cereals
enemy. In early times agriculture was was usually autumn. At harvest the stalks
-thought the only respectable calling in were cut with the sickle about half-way
^which a Roman citizen could engage ; and down, and the rest left standing as stubble,


to be either burnt or utilized for manure. the Itineraries {q.v.) and the Peutinger
The process of threshing {q.v.) was very Table. A book on the results of the sur-
defective. (For ancient works on hus- vey, which Agrippa had begun writing.
bandry, see Geoponici.)
Agriiuensores. The Latin name for land-
surveyors, otherwise called gromdtici, from
groma, their measuring instrument. This
consisted of two dioptric rods crossing each
other at right angles and fastened on an
iron stand so as to turn horizontally; on
the four arms stood four upright dioptrcB,
with threads stretched across the holes, and
in taking observations the threads of two
opposite dioptrce had to cover each other. * COIN OP ageippa's third CONSOLSHIP, B.C. 27.

The measuring was done on the same prin- (Berlin Museum.)

ciple as the marking-out of a templum by Ohv. Head of Agrippa, wearing the corona cUusica..
Beo. NeptuTie with Dolphin and Trident.
the Augiirs {q.v.), viz. by drawing in the S C=Sonatus oonsulto.
centre of the piece of land two lines inter-
secting at right angles, one from north to was continued and published, by order of
south (cardo maximus), the other from Augustus, under the title of Chorogrdphia.
east to west (dScUvidnus maximus) the ;
AgyieuB. A title of ApoUo (q.v.) as god
further division of the ground was effected of streets and highways.
by parallels to these lines (limUes). It Aias (Lat. Aiax). (1) Son of the Locrian
was not until the imperial period that land- king O'ileus, hence called the Locrian or
surveying became a separate profession. Lesser Aias in contrast to the Telamonian.
Then surveyors were prepared in special In forty ships he led the Locrians to Troy,
schools and appointed by the State, both where, notwithstanding his small stature
for quarter-master's duty in camp and for and light equipment, he distinguished him-
measurements under Government they
; self beside his gigantic namesake, especially
decided as judges in fixing boundaries, in the battle by the ships and that over the
and were consulted as specialists in dis- body of Patroclus. He was renowned for
putes affecting land. Thus a literature hurling the spear, and as the swiftest
arose, half mathematical, half legal, the runner next to Achilles. On his voyage home,
remains of which extend over the first six to appease the anger of Athena, he suffered
centuries A.D. The earliest of these gro- shipwreck on the Gyrsean rocks off the
matici, or writers on land-measurement, is island of Myconos or (according to another
Trontinus (q.v.), from whose work, written story) on the southernmost point of Euboea.
from 81-96 A.D., and dealing more with the Poseidon indeed rescued him on the rocks
legal side of the subject, extracts are pre- but when he boasted of having escaped
served in the commentary of Aggenus against the will of the gods, the sea-king
Urbicus. Hyginus, Balbus, and probably with his trident smote off the rock on which
Siciilus Flaccus, flourished in the time of he sat, and he sank in the waves. Later
Trajan; later still, Nipsus, Innocentius, and accounts say that the goddess's anger fell
Aggenus. upon him because, at the taking of Troy,
Agrippa {Marcus Vipsanius). Born B.C. when Cassandra had taken refuge at her
6c5, died B.C. 12. He was the friend, son-in- altar and embraced her image, he tore her
law, general, and minister of Augustus. He away by force, so that the statue fell.
was also a speaker and writer of some re- Though Agamemnon took the maiden from
pute. Under his supervision was carried him, the Greeks left the outrage on the
out the great survey of the Roman empire goddess unpunished, and on their way home
which Csesar had begun in 44 B.C. With she wreaked her wrath on the whole fleet.
the help of the materials thus obtained he He, like other heroes, was said to be still
constructed a circular Map of the World. living with Achilles in the island of Leuce.
About B.C. 7, Augustus had it engraved on a The Locrians worshipped him as a hero,
large scale in marble, and set up for public and always left a vacant place for him in
use in the colonnade built by Agrippa's the line of battle.
sister Polla {portions Police), It may be (2) Son of TSiamon of Salamis, and half-
regarded as the source and model of all brother of Teucer called the Great Aias

succeeding aids to geography, especially because he stood head and shoulders higher

than tlie other Greek heroes. He brings meant more especially, in contrast to the
twelve ships to Troy, where he proves him- cohorts that made up the infantry of the
self second only to Achilles in strength and allies, the cavalry of the contingent, viz.
"bravery; and while that hero holds aloof on an average 300 men (5 turmce, of 60
from the fight, he is the mainstay of the each). During the imperial period, when
Achseans, especially when the Trojans have all the cavalry was raised in the provinces,
taken their camp by storm and are pushing the name of ala was given to a cavalry
the battle to their ships. In the struggle division of 500 or else 1,000 men, the one
over the corpse of Patroclus, he and his divided into 16, the other into 24 turmce.
Tiamesake the son of Oileus cover Menelaiis The alee were commanded by prcefecti
and Meriones while they carry off their equitum.
fallen comrade. When Thetis offered the (2) A back room in a Roman house. See
arms and armour of Achilles as a prize for House.
the worthiest, they were adjudged, not to Alabastron. See Vessels.
Aias, but to his only competitor Odysseus. Alastor. The Greek term for an aveng-
Trojan captives bore witness that the ing daemon, who dogs footsteps of
•cunning of Odysseus had done them more criminals, visiting the sins of fathers on
harm than the valour of Achilles. Aias their offspring.
thereupon, according to the post-Homeric Album. The Latin word for a board
legend, killed himself in anger, a feeling he chalked or painted white, on which matters
still cherished against Odysseus even in the of public interest were notified in black
lower world. The later legend relates that writing. In this way were published the
be was driven mad by the slight, mistook yearly records of the pontifex(seeANNALES),
the flocks in the camp for his adversaries, the edicts of praetors {q.v.), the roll of
and slaughtered them, and on coming to his senators, the lists of jurors, etc.
senses again, felt so mortified that he fell Alcseus (Gr. Alkaids). A famous lyric
on his sword, the gift of Hector after the poet of Mytilene in Lesbos, an elder con-
•duel between them. Out of his blood sprang temporary of Sappho. Towards the end of
the purple lily, on whose petals could be the 7th century B.C., as the scion of a noble
traced the first letters of his name, Ai, Ai. house, he headed the aristocratic party in
His monument stood on the Ehoetean pro- their contests with the tyrants of his native
montory, where he had encamped before town, Myrsilus, Melanchrtis, and others.
Troy, and upon which the waves washed Banished from home, he went on romantic
the coveted arms of Achilles after the ship- expeditions as far as Egypt. When the
wreck of Odysseus. As the national hero of tyrants were put down, and his former
Salamis, he had a temple and statue there, comrade, the wise Pittacus, was called by
and a yearly festival, the Aianteia ; and he the people to rule the State, he took up
was worshipped at Athens, where the tribe arms against him also as a tyrant in dis-
Aiantis was named after him. He too was guise but attempting to force his return

supposed to linger with Achilles in the home, he fell into the power of his oppo-
island of Leuce. By Tecmessa, daughter nent, who generously forgave him. Of his
•of the Phrygian king Teuthras, whom he further life nothing is known. His poems
had captured in one of the raids from before in the jEolic dialect, arranged in ten books
'Troy, he had a son Eurysaces, who is said by the Alexandrians, consisted of hymns,
to have removed from Salamis to Attica political songs (which formed the bulk of
with his son or brother Philaeus, and founded the collection), drinking songs, and love
flourishing families, which produced many songs, of which we have but a few miser-
famous men, for instance Miltiades, Cimon, able fragments. In the opinion of the
Alcibiades, and the historian Thucydides. ancients, his poems were well constructed
Aides {Aidoneus). See Hades. while their tone tallied with the lofty pas-
Ajax. See Aias. sion and manly vigour of his character.
Ala. The Latin name for (1 ) a wing in The alcaic strophe, so much used by his
the line of battle. Till the extension of the admirer and not unworthy imitator, Horace,
citizenship to the Italian allies, the wings is named after him. [For a relief repre-
consisted of their contingents, viz. 10,000 senting Alcseus and Sappho, see Sappho.]
foot and 1,800 horse to every consular Alcam&ues (Gt. Alkdmenes) A Greek

army of two legions. Thus ala came to artist ofAthens or Lemnos, and a pupil of
mean the allied contingent that composed Phidias, who flourished towards the end of
•a wing (see Cohort and Legion). But it the 5th century B.C. Following his master's
Phseacians (q.v.), with whom Odysseus,
ideal tendency, he devoted himself mainly
to religious subjects, working like him in in later legend Jason and Medea, find shelter
various materials, gold and ivory, bronze and aid. (See Odysseus and Akgonauts.)
-winner Alciphron (Gr. AlkiphrSn). A- Greek
and marble. His statue of the
in the Pentatlilon was stamped as classic rhetorician of the 2nd century A.D., author
by the epithet of EnkrlnOmenos, as the of a collection of 118 fictitious Letters in
Doryphoros of Polyclitus was by that of three books. These, written in tolerably pure
Kdnon. About 436 B.C. he was employed style and tasteful form, profess to be from
with Phidias in decorating the temple of sailors, peasants, parasites, and hetcerae.
Zeus at Olympia. The marble groups of They are sketches of character, ingeniously
the battle of Centaurs and Lapithse in its conceived and carried out, which give us a
western pediment are his work. Of these vivid picture of the then state of culture,
considerable remains have been brought to especially at Athens; the letters from
light by the recent German excavations. hetmrce are particularly interesting, as their
(See Olympian Games, fig. 2.) plots are taken from the New Attic Comedy,
Alcatholis (Gr. Alkdthods). The son of especially the lost plays of Menander.
Pelops and Hippodameia. He slew the Alcmseon (Gr. Alkmaion),oi Argos. Son
lion of Cithseron, which had torn to pieces of Amphiaraiis (g.v.) and Eriphyle. As his
Euippus, the son of Megareus. Thus he father, in departing on the expedition of
won the daughter of Megareus, Eusechma, the Seven against Thebes, has bound him
and the sovereignty of Megara. With and his brother Amphilochus, then mere
Apollo for his friend and helper, he rebuilt boys, to avenge him on their faithless
the city walls, and reared one of the two mother, Alcmseon refuses to take part in
castles, Alcathoe, with temples to Artemis the second expedition, that of the Epigoni
and Apollo. A singing stone in the castle (g.v.), till he has first fulfilled that filial
was shown as the one on which the god laid duty ; nevertheless his mother, bribed by
down his lyre when at work. Alcathous' Thersander with the garment of Har-
eldest son, Ischepolis, fell in the Calydonian mOnia, persuades him to go. The real
hunt the second, Oallipolis, running in with
; leader at the siege of Thebes, he slays the
the news to his father when sacrificing to Theban king, Laodamas, and is the first to
Apollo, scattered the altar fire, and Alcathous enter the conquered city. On returning
struck him dead with a firebrand for the home, he, at the bidding of the Delphian
supposed sacrilege. By his daughters Auto- Apollo, avenges his father by slaying his
medusa and Peribcea, the wives of Iphicles mother, with, or according to some accounts,
and Telamon, he was grandfather to lolatis without, his brother's help but immediately,

and Aias (Ajax). like Orestes, he is set upon by the Erinyes,

Alcestis (Gr. AlMstis). Daughter of and wanders distracted, seeking purification
Pelias, renowned for her tender love for and a new home. Phegeus, of the Arcadian
her husband Admetus, and her voluntary PsSphis, half purifies him of his guilt, and
death on his behalf. {See Admetus.) gives him his daughter Arsinoe or Alphe-
Alcidamas (Gr. Alktddmas) .GreekA siboea to wife, to whom he presents the
rhetorician of Elsea in .^ESHs, pupil and jewels of Harmonia, which he has brought
successor of Gorgias, a contemporary and from Argos. But soon the crops fail in the
opponent of Isocrates. Two declamations, land, and he falls into his distemper again,
bearing his name, have come down to us, till, after many wanderings, he arrives at
one an imaginary indictment of Palamedes the mouth of the Achelous, and there, in an
by Odysseus, the other a speech on the island that has floated up, he finds the
Sophists but the latter only can with any
; country promised by the god, which had
probability be attributed to him. It is a not existed at the time of his dying mother's
cleverly written argument, intended to curse, and so he is completely cured. He
show that the culmination of rhetorical marries Achelous' daughter, CallirrhSe, by
training consists in the power of speaking whom he has two sons, Acarnan and Am-
extempore on any subject from mere notes phStSrus. Unable to withstand his wife's
of the arrangement ; not the practice of entreaties that she may have Ilarmonia's
carefully writing out speeches, and then necklace and robe, he goes to Phegeus
learning them by heart for public delivery. in Arcadia, and begs those treasures of
Aloides (Gr. Alkldes). A
surname of him, pretending that he will dedicate them
Heracles (q.v.). at Delphi for the perfect healing of his
Alclnbtis (Gr. Alktndds). Zing of the madness. He obtains thpm; but Phegeus,

on learning the truth, sets his sons to way- Pleuron in ^tolia, lived about 280 B.C. at
lay him on his road, and rob him of his Alexandria, being employed by Ptolemy in
treasure and his life and then Alcmseon's
; arranging the tragedies and satyric dramas
two sons avenge their father's death on in the Library. He was afterwards at the
these murderers. Alcmseon, like his father, court of AntigSnus Gonatas in Macedonia.
received divine honours after death he had ; As a writer of tragedies he was reckoned
a sanctuary at Thebes, and at Psophis a one of the so-called Pleiad. He also tried
consecrated tomb. his hand at short epics, at epigrams, elegies,
Alcman (Gr. Alkmdn). The founder of and the like, of which some graceful frag-
Dorian lyric poetry, a Lydian of Sardes. He ments are preserved.
came to Sparta in his youth as a slave, was (3) AGreek rhetorician of the 2nd cen-
set free, and seems even to have received tury A.D., son of the rhetorician Numenius.
the citizenship he flourished in the latter
; He composed a work on figures of speech,
half of the 7th century B.C. He abandoned of which one extract and a free Latin ver-
the old nomici or dithyrambic poetry, writ- sion by Aquila Romanus have survived.
ten in hesameters, and composed in various (4) Alexander of Aphrodtsias in Caria,
metres Hymns, Pseans, Prosodia, Parthenia, about 200 A.D., called ExSgetes for his
Scolia, and Erotics, the last of which he services in expounding the doctrine of
was supposed to have invented. His dialect Aristotle, wrote valuable commentaries on
was the Doric, softened by Epic and ^olic several Aristotelian treatises (especially
forms. Of his six books of poems a few the Metaphysics) as well as original works
fragments only are preserved one, a rather
; on. Pate and Free-will, on the Soul, and
long one, was found in Egypt. others.
Alcmene (Gr. AlkTnenS). Daughter of (6) Alexander of Tralles in Lydia, a
Electryon, wife of Amphitryon {q.v.), mother Greek physician, lived in the 6th century
of Heracles by Zeus. On her connexion with A.D. at Rome, and made a careful collection
Rhadamanthys, see Rhadamanthys. After from older writers on therapeutics, in
her son's translation to the gods she fled twelve books.
from the face of Eurystheus to Athens, but Alexandra. See Cassandra.
went back to Thebes, and died there at a Alexandrian Period. See Literature.
great age. She was worshipped at Thebes, Alexikakos (= warding off evil). An epi-
and had an altar in the temple of Heracles thet of Apollo and Heracles.
at Athens. Alexis. Alexis and Antiphanes were the
Alcyone (Gr. Alkydne). (1) Daughter of most prolific and important writers of the

^olus, wife of Ceyx (q.v. 2). (2) One of Middle Attic Comedy. Alexis was bom at
the Pleiades. Thurii, B.C. 392. He attained the age of
Alcyoneus (Gr. Alkyoneus). Son of Ura- 106, writing to the last, and is said to have
nus and Gffia, the eldest and mightiest of died on the stage with the crown on his
the giants, who could not be overtaken by head. He was the reputed author of 245
death in his own birthplace. Hence, in plays, of which numerous extracts are
the war with the giants, Heracles had to still extant, showing considerable wit and
drag him away from Pallene before he elegance of language. He was uncle to
could kill him with his arrows. Legend the poet Menander.
also tells of a giant Alcyoneus who stole Alimentarii. The Latin name, during
the oxen of Helios from the island of the imperial period, for children of needy
Erytheia, and as Heracles was crossing but free-born parents, who, out of the in-
the Thracian isthmus of Pallene, crushed terest of funds invested for the purpose,
twelve of his wagons and twenty-five men received monthly contributions to their sup-
with a huge piece of rock, which was port in goods or money up to a certain age
shown on the spot. When he hurled it (fixed in the case of boys at eighteen, in that
at Heracles himself, the hero struck it of girls at fourteen). This scheme, the object
back with his club, and killed Alcyoneus of which was to encourage people to marry,
with the same blow. and so to check the alarming decrease of the
Aldobrandini Marriage. See Painting. free population, was started by the Emperor
Alecto. One of the Greek goddesses of Nerva (a.d. 96-98),and extended by Trajan
vengeance. (See Eeintes.) to the whole of Italy.Succeeding emperors
Alexander (Gr. Alexandras). (1) See also, down Alexander Severus (222-235),
Paeis. founded such bursaries and private citizens

(5?) Alexander .JStdlus (the .^tolian) of in Italy and the provinces, as, for instance
the younger Pliny, vied with them in their were built out of the ashes of burnt-offer-
liberality. ings, as that of Zeus at Olympia. One at
AloadsB or Alotdce. Sons of Poseidon Delos was made of goats' horns. Their
by Iphimgdeia, the wife of Aloeus, son of shape was very various, the four-cornered
Canace (see ^olos, 1) and Poseidon; their being the commonest,
names were EpMaltes and Otus. They and the round less
grew every year an ell in breadth and a usual. A
fathom in length, so that in nine years' time usually had two
they were thirty-six feet broad and fifty- altars the one used

four feet high. Their strength was such for bloodless offer-
that they chained up the god Ares and kept ings standing before
him in a brazen cask for thirteen months, the deity's image in
till their stepmother Eribcsa betrayed his the cella, and the
whereabouts to Hermes, who came by other for Isurnt-offer-
stealth and dragged his disabled brother ings, opposite the
out of durance. They threatened to storm door in front of the
heaven itself by piling Ossa on Olympus temple. The latter
and PeliSn on Ossa, and would have done it, was generally a high KOJIAH(berlin Moseum.)
says Homer, had not Apollo slain them with altar, standing on a
his arrows ere their beards were grown. platform which is cut into steps. Being an
The later legend represents Ephialtes as in integral part of the whole set of building,
love with Hera, and Otus with Artemis. its shape and size were regulated by their
Another myth represents Artemis as slaying proportions. Some few of these high altars
them by craft in the island of Naxos. She were of enormous dimensions ; the one at
runs between them in the form of a hind ;
Olympia had a platform measaiing more
they hurl their spears, and wound each other than 12B feet round, while the altar itself,
fatally. In the later legend they expiate which was ascended by steps, was nearly
their sins in the lower world by being bound 25 feet high. In Italy as well as Greece,
with snakes to a pillar, back to back, while beside the altars attached to temples, there
they are incessantly tormented by the was a vast number in streets and squares,
screeching of an owl. On the other hand, in the courts of houses (see cut), in open
they were worshipped as heroes in Naxos, fields, in sacred groves, and other precincts
and in the Boeotian Ascra were regarded as consecrated to the gods. Some altars, like
founders of the city and of the worship of some temples, were dedicated to more than one
the Muses on Mount Helicon. deity we even hear of altars dedicated to all

Alope. Daughter of Cercyon of Eleusis, the gods. On altars to heroes, see Heroes.
and, by Poseidon, mother of HippothQon Althasa. Daughter of Thestius, wife of
(q.v.) ;after whose birth her father was (Eneus, king of Calydon, mother of Tydeus,
going to kill her, but the god changed her Meleager (g.u.), and Deianeira.
into a fountain. Altis. The sacred grove near Olympia
Alpheus. See Abethusa. iq.v.), in which the Olympic Games were
Alph6siboea (or ArsindU). Daughter of celebrated. {See Olympia.)
Phegeus and first wife of Alcmason, whom, Amalthea (Gr. Anialtheia). A figure in
though unfaithful, she continued to love, Greek mythology. The name was sometimes
and was angry with her brothers for killing applied to a goat, which suckled the newborn
him. Her brothers shut her up in a box, Zeus in Crete, while bees brought him honey,
and brought her to Agapenor, king of and which was therefore set among the stars
TSgea, pretending that she had killed her by her nursling sometimes to a nymph

husband. Here she came by her end, who was supposed to possess a miraculous
having compassed her brothers' death by horn, a symbol of plenty, and whose descent
the hand of Alcmaeon's sons. was variously given. According to one
Altar. Originally a simple elevation version she is the daughter of the Cretan
above the ground, made of earth, field- king Melisseus, and brings up the infant
stones, or turf; and such altars continued god on the milk of a goat, while her sister
to be used in the country parts of Italy. But Melissa (a bee) offers him honey. The horn
altars for constant use, especially in temple of the goat is given to her by Zeus, with
service, were, as a rule, of stone, though the promise that she shall always find in
in exceptional cases they might be made of it whatever she wishes. From her the
other materials. Thus, several in Greece pornuoouia passed into the possession of
; :


the river-god Achelous, who was glad to other version, beaten in a great battle.
exchange it for his own horn, which G?ave-mounds supposed to cover the bones
Heracles had broken off. It is also an of Amazons were shown near Meg3,ra, and
attribute of Dionysiis, of Plutus, and other in Euboea and Thessaly. In works of art
gods of earthly felicity. the Amazons were represented as martial
Amazons (Gr. Amazones ; = " breastless "). maids, though always with two breasts,
A mythical nation of women-warriors, whose and usually on horseback; sometimes in
headquarters are placed by early Greek Scythian dress (a tight fur tunic, with a
legend in Themiscyra, on the Thermodon, cloak of many folds over it, and a kind
on the southern shore of the Euxine. In of Phrygian cap), sometimes in Grecian (a
later accounts they also appear on the Dorian tunic tucked up and the right shoul-
Caucasus and on the Don, where the der bare), armed with a half-moon shield,
nation called Sauromatse was supposed to two-edged axe, spear, bow, and quiver, etc.
have sprung from their union with the The most famous statues of them in an-
Scythians. They suffered no men among tiquity were those by Phidias, Polyclitus,
them the sons born of their intercourse
; and Cresilas, to one or other of which, as
with neighbouring nations they either killed types, existing specimens are traceable.
or sent back to their fathers the girls they
; (See cut.) Among the surviving sculptures
brought up to 'be representing an Amazonian contest should
warriors, burning be especially mentioned the reliefs from
the right breast off the frieze of Apollo's temple at Bassse in
for the better Arcadia (in the British Museum, London).
handling of the Ambarvalia. The Italian festival of bless-
bow. Their chief ing the fields, which was kept at Rome on
deities were said May 29th. The country people walked in
to be Ares and the solemn procession three times round their
Taurian Artemis. fields in the wake of the su-ove-taur-iUa,
Even in Homer i.e.a hog, ram, and bull, which were sacri-
they are repre- ficed after a prayer originally addressed
sented as making to Mars, afterwards usually to Ceres and
long marches into other deities of agriculture, that the fruits
Asiatic territory of the fields might thrive. Comp. Arval
an army of them Beothees.
invading Lycia is Ambitus (lit., a going round) meant at

cut to pieces by Rome the candidature for a public office,

Bellerophon ;
because going round among the citizens was
Priam, then in his originally the principal means of winning
youth, hastens to their favour. When unlawful means began
help the Phrygians to be used, and bribery in every form was
against them. organized into a system, the word came to
They gained a firm mean obtaining of office by illegal means.
footing in Greek To check the growing evil, laws were
song and story passed at an early period, and from time
through Arctinus to time made more severe. The penalties,
of Miletus, in which ranged at different times from fines
whose poem their and inadmissibility to office to banishment
queen Penthe- for ten years and even for life, produced
sileia, daughter of AMAZOK AFTER POLYCLITUS. no lasting effect. At last a special stand-
(Berlin Museum.)
Ares, as Priam's ing criminal court was established for
ally, presses hard on the Greeks, till she trying such cases, till iinder the Empire
is slain by Achilles. After that they be- recourse was had to a radical change in
came a favourite subject with poets and the mode of election.
artists, and a new crop of fable sprang up Ambrosia. Anything that confers or
Heracles wars against them, to win the preserves immortality (1) the food of the

girdle of their queen, HippSlyte Theseus ; gods (as nectar was their drink), which
carries off her sister Antiope, they in doves, according to Homer, bring daily to
revenge burst into Attica, encamp on the Zeus from the far west (2) the anointing oil

Areopagus of Athens, and are pacified by of the gods, which preserves even dead men
Antiope's mediation, or, according to an- from decay (3) the food of the gods' horses.
Amburbium. The Latin name for a temple, with a far-famed oracle, stood
an oasis of the Libyan desert, twelve
solemn procession of the people, with the
various orders of priesthood led by the journey from Memphis. Between this
pontifex three times round the boundaries oracle and that of Zeus at Dodona a con-
of Rome. It was only resorted to at a nexion is said to have existed from very
time of great distress, and the animals ancient times, so that the Greeks early
destined to make atonement, vis. a hog, a identified the Egyptian god with their own
ram, and a bull (the so called suovetaurlUa, Zeus, as the Romans did afterwards with
see Ambaevalia), were sacrificed with their Jupiter; and his worship found an
special prayers outside the city. entrance at several places in Greece, at
Ameipsias. A Greek poet of the old Sparta, Thebes, and also Athens, whence
comedy, contemporary with Aristophanes, festal embassies were regularly sent to the
whom he twice overcame. Of his plays Libyan sanctuary (see Theoeia). When
only slight fragments remain. the oracle was consulted by visitors, the
Ammianus Marcellinus. The last Roman god's symbol, made of emerald and other
historian of any importance, born at Antioch, stones, was carried round by women and
in Syria, about 330 A.D., of noble Grecian girls, to the sound of hymns, on a golden
descent. After receiving a careful educa- ship hung round with votive cups of silver.
tion, he early entered military service, and His replies were given in tremulous shocks
fought under Julian against the Alemanni communicated to the bearers, which were
and Persians. In the evening of his days interpreted by a priest.
he retired to Rome, and about 890 began
his Latin history of the emperors (Rerum
Qestdrum Libri), from Nerva, A.D. 96, to
the death of Valens, in thirty-one books.
Of these there only remain books xiv.-xxxi.,
including the period from 353 to 378 A.D.,
which he relates for the most part as an
eye-witness. As his work may be regarded
as a continuation of Tacitus, he seems, on
the whole, to have taken that writer for
his model. He resembles Tacitus in judg-
ment, political acuteness, and love of truth.
A heathen himself, he is nevertheless fair
to the Christians. But he is far inferior
in literary culture, though he loves to dis-
play his knowledge, especially in describing
nations and countries. Latin was a foreign
language to him hence a crudeness and

clumsiness of expression, which is made

even more repellent by affectation, bom- AMMON AND "lUTH.
bast, and bewildering ornamental imagery.
Ammon (or Hammon ; Egyptian Amun, Amor. The god of love. Sec Eros.
the hidden or veiled one). A god native AmpSlius (Lucius). A Roman writer not
to Libya and Upper Egypt. He was re- earlier than the 2nd century A.D. He was
presented sometimes in the shape of a ram the author of a notebook, Liber Memori-
with enormous curving horns, sometimes in dlis, which contains a scanty collection of
that of a ram-headed man, sometimes as a astronomical, geographical, and historical
perfect man standing up or sitting on a jottings. Paltry as the book is, a state-
throne. On his head was the royal em- ment in its chapter on the wonders of the
blems, with two high feathers standing up, world has mainly led to the discovery (in
the symbols of sovereignty over the upper 1878) of the magnificent sculptures of Per-
and under worlds in his hands were the
; g^mum, now at Berlin.
sceptre and the sign of life. In works of Amphiaraiis, of Argos, the son of Oioles
art his figure is coloured blue. Beside him and Hypermnestra, great-grandson of the
stands the goddess Muth (the "mother," seer, MSlampus. In Homer he is a favourite
the "queen of darkness," as the inscriptions of Zeus and Apollo, alike distinguished as
call her), wearing the crown of Upper Egypt a seer and a hero, who takes part in the
or the vulture-skin (see cut). His chief Calydonian boar-hunt, in the voyage of the

Argonauts, and tte expeditisn of the Seven with the colonies of each. Though in later
against Thebes. Reconciled to Adrastus times their extent and power were very
after a quarrel, and wedded to his sister unequal, yet in point of law they all had
Eriphyle, he agrees that any future differ- equal rights. Beside protecting and pre-
ences between them shall be settled by her. serving those two sanctuaries, and cele-
She, bribed by Polyneices with the fatal brating from the year 686 B.C. onwards, the
necklace of his ancestress Harmonia, insists Pythian Games, the league was bound to
on her husband joining the war against maintain certain principles of international
Thebes, though he foresees that it will end right, which forbade them, for instance,
fatally for him, and in departing charges ever to destroy utterly any city of the
his youthful sons Alcmseon and Amphi- league, or to cut off its water, even in time
lochus (q.v.) to avenge his coming death. of war. To the assemblies, which met
His wise warnings are unheeded by the every spring and autumn, each nation sent
other princes ;his justice and prudence two MeromnSmones ( = wardens of holy
even bring him into open strife with the things) and several pylagorce. The latter
savage Tydeus yet in the fatal closing con-
took part in the debates, but only the
test he loyally avenges his death on the former had the right of voting. When a
Theban Melanippus. In the flight, just as nation included several states, these took
the spear of Periclymenus is descending by turns the privilege of sending deputies.
on him, Zeus interposed to save the pious But the stronger states, such as the Ionian
prophet and make him immortal by cleav- Athens or the Dorian Sparta were probably
ing the earth open with his thunderbolt, allowed to take their turn oftener than the
and bidding it swallow up Amphiaraus, rest, or even to send to every assembly.
together with his trusty charioteer Baton, When violations of the sanctuaries or of
like himself a descendant of Melampus. popular right took place, the assembly
Prom that time forth Amphiaraus was wor- could inflict fines or even expulsion ;and
shipped in various places as an oracular a state that would not submit to the punish-
god, especially at Oropus on the frontier ment had a " holy war " declared against
of Attica and Boeotia, where he had a it. By such a war the Phocians were ex-
temple and a famous oracle for the inter- pelled B.C. 346, and their two votes given
pretation of dreams, and where games were to the Macedonians ; but the expulsion of
celebrated in honour of him. the former was withdrawn because of the
Amphidromia. At Athens, a family fes- glorious part they took in defending the
tival, at which newborn infants received Delphian temple when threatened by the
religious consecration. See Education. Gaiils in 279 B.C., and at the same time
Amphictyons (Gr. AnvpMktyones). This the MtoW&n community which had already
Greek word meant literally " dwellers made itself master of the sanctuary, was
around," but in a special sense was applied acknowledged as a new member of the
to populationswhich at stated times met at league. In 191 B.C. the number of members
the same sanctuary to keep a festival in amounted to seventeen, who nevertheless
common, and to transact common business. had only twenty-four votes, seven having
The most famous and extensive union of two votes each, the rest only one. Under
the kind was that called par excellence the Roman rule, the league continued to
the AmpMctyonic League, whose common exist; but its action was now limited to
sanctuaries were the temple of Pythian the care of the Delphian temple. It was re-
Apollo at Delphi, and the temple of Demeter organized by Augustus, who incorporated
(Ceres) at Anthela, near Pylee or Thermo- the Malians, Magnetians, ^nianes, and
pylse. After Pylse the assembly was named Pythians with the Thessalians, and sub-
the Pylcean, even when it met at Delphi, stituted for the extinct Dolopes the city
and the deputies of the league pylagorce. of Nicopolis in Acarnania, which he had
The league was supposed to be very ancient, founded after the battle of Actium. The
as old even as the name of Hellenes for ; last notice we find of the league is in the
its founder was said to be Amphictyon, the 2nd century A.d.
son of Deucalion, and brother of Hellen, the Amphilochus. Son of Amphiaraus and
common ancestor of all Hellenes. It included Eriphyle, Alcmseon's brother. He was a
twelve populations :Malians, Phthians, seer, and according to some took part in
TEnianes or (Etceans, Dolopes, Magnetians, the war of the Epigoni and the murder of
Perrhoebians, Thessalians, Locrians, Dorians, his mother. He was said to have founded
Phocia,ns, Bosotians, and lonians, together the Amphilochian Argos (near Neokhori) in
Acarnania. Later legend represents him. fortify Thebes with walls and towers,
despite their strength,
as taking part in the Trojan War, and on cause (says Homer),
the fall of Troy going to Cilicia with they could no more inhabit the wide
Mopsus iq.v.), and there founding a famous without a wall to defend it. Zethus brings
oracle at Mallus. At last the two killed up the stones with his strong arm, while
each other while lighting for the possession Amphion, a harper of more than mortal
of it. skill, fits them together by the
music of his
Amphion and Zethns. The Boeotian Dios- lyre. Zethus marries Thebe, the daughter
curi, twin sons of Antiope (q.v.) by Zeus, of Asopus, or, according to another account,
though the later legend makes Zethus a son Aedon, daughter of Pandareos {q.v.) Am-;

of Epopeus. Exposed on Mount Cithssron, phion is the luckless husband of Niobe, and
they are found and brought up by a shep- after seeing the rain of his family, is said
herd when grown up, they recognise their
; to have killed himself, and to have been
been buried in one grave with his brother
at Thebes. The punishment of Dirce is
the subject of the marble group by ApoUo-
nius and Tauriscus, known as the Famese
Bull (now at Naples). (For cut, see DmCE,
and comp. Scdlptdbe.)
[In the Antiope of Euripides, and else-
where, the two brothers were sharply con-
trasted with one another, Zethus being the
rude and strong and active huntsman,
Amphion the gentle and contemplative
musician. This contrast is exemplified in
works of art, especially in the fine relief
in the Spada Palace. (See cut)].
Amphiprostylns. A temple with an open
colonnade at each end. See Temples.
Amphithalamos. A bedroom in a Greek
dwelling-house. See House.

Amphitheatron. A circular theatre, i.e.
a building in which the space for spectators
entirely surrounds that where the spectacle
is exhibited. These buildings, designed for
combats of gladiators and wild beasts
(venatidnes), were first erected in Italy,
but in Campania sooner than at Rome.
The first known at Eome were temporary
wooden structures, like that of Scribonius
Curio, who in B.C. 50 made an amphitheatre
out of two revolving theatres by joining
them back to back, or that of Csesar in 46.
The first stone amphitheatre, erected by
Statilius Taurus in B.C. 29, was burnt down
in the fire of Nero, who then built a
(Rome, Spada Palace.)
wooden one again. A second one of stone
mother, who has fled from imprisonment at was begun by Vespasian, consecrated by
Thebes, where she has been ill-treated by Titus, A.D. 80, and finished by Domitian
Dirce, the wife of Lycus who governs (all The ruins
three of the Flavian gens).
Thebes as guardian to Laius. They avenge of this Amphitheatrum Flavium, which
their mother by tying her tormentress to was 158 feet high, and accommodated
the horns of a bull, which drags her to 87,000 spectators, are the famous Colos-
death. They then cast her corpse into a sSum. In the provinces too the large
spring near Thebes, which takes from her towns had their amphitheatres, of which
the name of Dirce. Seizing the sovereignty the best preserved are those of Verona
by slaying Lycus, or, according to another and Capua in Italy, Aries and Nimes in
account, having it given up to them by France. Of this last our first two illustra-
Lycus at the bidding of Hermes, they tions give the elevation and the ground-plan,

An amphitheatre was usually an oval

building, surrounding an arSna of like
shape, which sometimes, as at Eome and
Capua, was a plank floor resting on deep
underground walls, the spaces underneath
containing cages and machinery for trans-
formations. The exterior was formed of
several arcades, one above the other, the
lowest one admitting to a corridor, which
ran round the building, and out of which
staircases led up to the various rows of
seats. In the Colosseum this first arcade
is adorned with Doric, the second with
Ionic, the third with Corinthian " engaged "
columns; the fourth is a wall decorated

Teleboans, and conquered their country. poet Simonides and Xanthippus, the father
Pterilaua' daughter Comsetto had first of Pericles. He is said to have died at
killed her father by plucking out the Abdera, in his eighty-sixth year, choked by
golden hair, to whose continual possession the stone of a dried grape. A
statue of
was attached the boon of immortality be- him stood in the Acropolis at Athens m
stowed on him by Poseidon. He slew the the guise of an aged minstrel inspired by
traitress, and, handing over the Taphian the wine-god. For Anacreon was regarded
kingdom to Cephalus, he returned to Thebes as the type of a poet who, in spite of age,
and married Alcmene. She gave birth to paid perpetual homage to wine and love.
twins Iphicles by him, and Heracles by
; Love and wine and merry company formed
Zeus. At last he falls in the war with. the favourite subjects of his light, sweet,
Erginus {q.v.), the Minyan king of Orcho- and graceful songs, which were cast in the
menus. metres of the .iEolic poets, but composed
Amphora, Lat. (Gt. Amphoreus). A two- in the Ionic dialect. Beside fragments of
handled, big-bellied vessel, usually of clay, such songs and of elegies, we have also a
with a longish or shortish neck, and a mouth number of epigrams that bear his name.
proportioned to the size, sometimes resting His songs weie largely imitated, and of
firmly on a foot, but often ending in a blunt such imitations we have under his name
point, so that in the store-room it had to lean a collection of about sixty love-songs and
Against the wall, or be sunk in sand, and drinking-songs of very various (partly
when brought out for use, to be put in a much later) dates, and of different degrees
basket, wine-cooler, or hollow stand. (See of merit.
Vessels, fig. 2, a and 6). It served to Anacrisis. In Attic law, the preliminary
keep oil, honey, and more especially the examination of the parties to a suit.
wine drawn off from the big fermenting Anaxagoras. A Greek philosopher, of
vats. It was fastened with a clay stopper, ClazomenaB in Asia Minor, born about 600
plastered over with pitch, loam, or gypsum, B.C. Sprung from a noble family, but wish-
and had a ticket stating the kind, the ing to devote himself entirely to science, he
year, and the quantity of the wine it con- gave up his property to his kinsmen, and
tained. The Greek amphoreus was a removed to Athens, where he lived in in-
large liquid measure, holding nearly 9 gal- timacy with the most distinguished men,
lons {see Metretes), the Roman measure above all with Pericles. Shortly before the
called amphora held 6 gallons and 7 pints. outbreak of the Peloponnesian War he
Amphoterus. See Acarnan. was charged by the political opponents of
Ampliatio. The Latin term for a delay Pericles with impiety, i.e. with denying the
of verdict pending the production of further gods recognised by the State and though

evidence in a case not clear to the judges. acquitted through his friend's influence, he
•Comp. COMPERENDINATIO. felt compelled to emigrate to Lampsacus,
Ampulla. See Vessels. where he died soon after, aged 72. He not
Amicus. Son of Poseidon a gigantic
; only had the honour of giving philosophy
king of the Bebrycians on the Bithynian a home at Athens, where it went on flourish-
•coast, who forced every stranger that landed ing for quite a thousand years, but he was
there to box with him. When the Argo- the first philosopher who, by the side of
nauts wished to draw water from a spring the material principle, introduced a spiritual,
in his country, he forbade them, but was which gives the other life and form. He
conquered and killed in a match with Poly- laid down his doctrine in a work On Nature
deuces (Pollux). in the Ionic dialect, of which only frag-
Amymone. A daughter of Danaus (q.v.), ments are preserved. Like Parmenides,
and mother of Nauplius by Poseidon. he denied the existence of birth or death;
Anacr66n. A Greek lyric poet, born about the two processes were rather to be de-
550 B.C. at Teos, an Ionian town of Asia, scribed as a mingling and unmingling. The
whose inhabitants, to escape the threatened ultimate elements of combination are in-
yoke of Persia, migrated to Abdera in divisible, imperishable primordia of infinite
Thrace B.C. 640. From Abdera Anacreon number, and diifering in shape, colour, and
went to the tyrant Polycrfttes, of Samos, taste, called by himself " seeds of things,"
after whose death (B.C. 622) he removed to and by later writers (from an expression
Athens on the invitation of Hipparchus, of Aristotle) hOmcedmSrS, i.e. particles of
•and lived there, till the fall of the Peisis- like kind with each other and with the
tratldse, on friendly terms with his fellow whole that is made up of them. At first

these lay mingled without order; but the Dardanus on Mount Ida. Aphrodite loved
divine spirit — simple, pure, passionless him for his beauty, and bore him a son,
reason — set the unarranged matter into jEneas. But having, in spite of her warn-
motion, and thereby created out of chaos an ings, boasted of her favour, he is (according
orderly world. This movement, proceed- to various versions of the story) paralysed,
ing from the centre, works on for ever, killed, or struck blind by the lightning of
penetrating farther and farther the infinite Zeus. Vergil represents the disabled chief
mass. But the application of the spiritual as borne out of burning Troy on his son's
principle was rather indicated than fully shoulders, and as sharing his wanderings
carried out by Anaxagoras ; he himself over the sea, and aiding him with his
commonly explains phenomena by physical counsel, till they reach Drepanum in Sicily,
causes, and only when he cannot find these, where he dies, and is buried on Mount
falls back on the action of divine reason. Eryx.
Anaxandrides. AGreek poet of the Ancile. The small oval sacred shield,
Middle Comedy, a Ehodian, flourished in curved inwards on either side, which was
376 B.C. He is stated to have been the said to have fallen from heaven in the reign
first who made love affairs the subject of of Numa. There being a prophecy that the
comedy. His plays were characterized by stability of Rome was bound up with it,
brightness and humour, but only fragments Numa had eleven others made exactly like
of them are preserved. it by a cunning workman, Mamurius Ve-
Anaximander (Grr. -mandros). A Greek turius, so that the right one should not be
philosopher of Miletus born B.C. 611 a
; ; stolen. The care of these arms, which
younger contemporary of Thales and Phere- were sacred to Mars was entrusted to the
cydes. He Kved at the court of Polycrates
of Samos, and died B.C. 547. In his philo-
sophy the primal essence, which he was the
£rst to call principle, was the immortal-
imperishable, all-including infinite, a kind
'of chaos, out of which all things proceed,
.and into which they return. He composed,
in the Ionic dialect, a brief and somewhat
-poetical treatiseon his doctrine, which may
be regarded as the earliest prose work on
philosophy but only a few sentences out

of it are preserved. The advances he had

made in physics and astronomy are evi- *ANCIHA BORNE BY TWO SALII, WITH
denced by his invention of the sun-dial, LEGEND IN ETEUSCAN CHARACTERS.
his construction of a celestial globe, and his Above=Gfc. ArKYAE, ancile; below=AAKE,
AlccBus, the owner's name. (Gem in Florence.)
rfirst attempt at a geographical map.
Anaximenes. (1) AGreek philosopher of who had to carry them through
Salii (q.v.),
Miletus, a younger contemporary and pupil the city once a year with peculiar cere-
of Anaximander, who died about 502 B.C. monies. At the conclusion of their songs
He supposed air to be the fundamental Mamurius himself was invoked, and on
principle, out of which everything arose by March 14th they held a special feast, the
rarefaction and condensation. This doctrine Mamuralia, at which they sacrificed to
he expounded in a work, now lost, written him, beating on a hide with staves, prob-
in the Ionian dialect. ably to imitate a smith's hammering. It

(2) A Greek sophist of Lampsacus, a is likely that the name Mamurius conceals

favourite of Philip of Macedon and Alex- that of the god Mars (or Mamers) himself.
ander the Great. He composed orations and Ancyranum Monumentum. The monu-
historical works, some treating of the ac- ment of Ancyra (now Angora), a marble
tions of those two princes. Of these but slab, of which the greater part is pre-
little remains. On the other hand, he is served. It belonged to the temple of
the author of the Rhetoric dedicated to Augustus at Ancyra, and contained the
Alexander, the earliest extant work of this Latin text of a Greek translation of the
kind, which was once included among the report drawn up by that emperor himself
vorks of Aristotle. on the actions of his reign {Index Eerum
Anchlses. Son of Capys, of the royal a se Gestarum). By the terms of his will
"house of Troy by both parents, ruler of this report, engraved in bronze, was set

up in front of his mausoleum at Rome, and tor. Achilles, in taking her native town,
copies were made of it for otter temples kills her father and seven brothers; he.-
of Augustus in the provinces. mother, redeemed from captivity, is carried
Andabatae. See Gladiators. off by sickness ;her husband falls by the
Andocides. The second in order of time hand of Achilles and when Troy is taken

in the roll of Attic orators. He was born she sees her one boy, Astyftnax (or Scaman-
B.C. 439, and belonged by birth to the der), hurled from the walls. She falls, as
aristocratic party, but fell out with it in the prize of war, to NeoptSlemus, the son
415, when he was involved in the famous of her greatest foe, who first carries her
trial for mutilating the statues of Hermes, to Epirus, then surrenders her to Hector's-
and, to save his own and his kinsmen's brother, Helenus. After his death she re-
lives, betrayed his aristocratic accomplices. turns to Asia with PergSmus, her son by
Having, in spite of the immunity promised Neoptolemus, and dies there.
him, fallen into partial atlmia (loss of civic Andromgda. Daughter of the .Slthiopian
rights), he left Athens, and carried on a
profitable trade in Cyprus. After two
fruitless attempts to recover his status at
home, he was allowed at last, upon the
fall of the Thirty and the amnesty of B.C.
403, to return to Athens, where he suc-
ceeded in repelling renewed attacks, and
gaining an honourable position. Sent to
Sparta in B.C. 390, during the Corinthian
War, to negotiate peace, he brought back
the draft of a treaty, for the ratification
of which he vainly pleaded in a speech
that is still extant. He is said to have
been banished in conseqnence, and to
have died in exile. Beside the above-
mentioned oration, we have two delivered
on his own behalf, one pleading for
his recall from banishment, B.C. 410;
another against the charge of unlawful
participation in the mysteries, B.C. 399
a fourth. Against AlcibiadSs, is spurious.
His oratory is plain and artless, and its
expressions those of the popular lan-
guage of the day.
Androgeos. Son of Minos, king of
Crete by Pasiphae. Visiting Athens
at the first celebration of the Pana-
thensea, he won victories over all the
champions, when king jEgeus, out of
jealousy, sent him to fight the bull of * ANDItOMEDA AND PEIISKDS.
Marathon, which killed him. Accord- (Rome, Capitoline Museum.)
ing to another account he was slain in
an ambush. Minos avenges his son by king Cepheus (a son of Belus) by Cassiopeia..
making the Athenians send seven youths Cassiopeia had boasted of being fairer than
and seven maidens every nine years as the Nereids, and Poseidon to punish the
victims to his Minotaur, from which profanity, sent a flood and a sea-monster.
Theseus at last delivers them. Funeral As the oracle of Ammon promised a rid-
games were held in the CeramJcus at dance of the plague should Andromeda be
Athens in honour of Androgens under the thrown to the monster, Cepheus was com-
name of Eurygjres. pelled to chain his daughter to a rock on
Andromache. The daughter of EStion, the shore. At this moment of distress Per-
king of the Cilician Thebes, is one of the seus appears, and rescues her, her father
noblest female characters in Homer, dis- having promised her to him in marriage.
tinguished alike by her ill-fortune and her At the wedding a violent quarrel arises
true and tender love for her husband. Hec- between the king's brother, Phineus, to-
— ;;


wbom she had been betrothed before, and are Cassius Hemina, soon after Cato

Perseus, who turns his rival into stone Calpuenius Piso Prugi, consul in B.C. 138 ;

with the Gorgon's head. Andromeda fol- Pannius, consul in B.C. 122 Gellius, who;

lows Perseus to Argos, and becomes an- wrote about the same time (ninety-seven
cestress of the famous line of Perseidse. books of AnnOles); Claudius Qdadeigaeius,
Athena set her among the stars. a contemporary of Sulla, author of at least
Andronitis. The men's apartments in a twenty-three books, from the Gallic confla-
Grreek house. See House. gration to his own time his younger con-

Androtion. A
Greek historian, an Athe- temporary Valeeius Antias (who treated
nian, and a pupil of Isocrates, who was all Roman history in seventy-five books)
accused of making an illegal proposal and LiciNius Macee, who died B.C. 66, author
went into banishment at Megara. (We of the earlier history, in twenty-one books.
have the speech composed by Demosthenes Some few writers, on the other hand, con-
for one of the accusers.) At Megara he fined themselves to the description of

wrote a history of Attica (see Atthis) in shorter periods: first, CiELius Antipatee,
at least 12 books, one of the best of that about B.C. 120 (whose history of the Second
class of writings but only fragments of it
; Punic War in seven books, was noted for its
have survived. accuracy) then Sempeonius Asellio, about

See Rhea.
Angdistis. B.C. 100, who, in his account of events he
Anius. Son of Apollo by Ehoeo or Creiisa, had taken part in (Berum Gestarum Libri^
whose father, Staphylus of Naxos, a son of fourteen at least), was the first who, not
Dionysus and Ariadne, committed her to content with barely relating facts, tried to
the sea in a box. She was carried to Delos, explain the reasons of them and Cornelius

and there gave birth to her son Anius. SiSENNA, who lived 120-67 B.C. and wrote at
Apollo taught him divination, and made least twenty-three books on the brief period
him his priest and king of Delos. His son between the Social War and Sulla's dicta-
Thasus, like Linus and ActBeon, was torn torship. To these works, in which history
to pieces by dogs, after which no dogs were has begun to assume the character of me-
allowed in the island. His daughters by moirs, we may add the autobiography of
the nymph Dorippe, being descendants of Cornelius Sulla the dictator {Berum
Dionysus, had the gift of turning anything Sudrum Commcntdrii in twenty- two books),
they pleased into wine, corn, or oil but ; which he wrote in self-justification at the
when Agamemnon on his way to Troy end of his career. He died B.C. 78. All
wished to take them from their father by these works are lost, except scanty frag-
force, Dionysus changed them into doves. ments but the later Greek and Roman

Annalists. A
series of writers on Roman writers had made full use of them.
history, older than those usually called Annals (Annales). Tear-books. From
the historians, beginning about 200 B.C., early times a record of all important events
and covering about a centurj' and a half. at Rome had been kept in chronological order
They related their country's story from its by the high priest (pontifex maxtmus)
firstbeginnings down to their own times, for the time, who every year exhibited in his
treating the former briefly, the latter in ofBoial residence a whited board {album),
full detail, and at first always in Greek, on which, after the names of the magistrates
like Eabius Pictok and CiNCius Alimen- for the year, occurrences of all kinds
TUS. With PoECius Cato {q.v.) com- war, dearth, pestilence, prodigies were set —
menced composition in Latin and a livelier down briefly according to their dates. These
interest in native history, which constantly annales pontiftcum or annates m.amnni
stimulated new efforts to celebrate the (supposed to be so called after the pontifex
deeds of their forefathers. Two main char- m,aximus), though destroyed at the burn-
acteristics of these annalists are the free ing of Rome by the Gauls, B.C. 389, were
use thej' of their predecessors, and an
made restored as far as possible, and continued
inclination to suppress unfavourable facts, till B.C. 130. Collected afterwards in eighty
which gradually grew into a habit of books, they were at once utilized and super-
flattering the national vanity by exaggera- seded by the so-called Annalists (q.v.).
tions. Anna Perenna. An ancient Italian god-
Works dealing in this manner with the dess, about whose exact attributes the
whole of Roman history, or large sections ancients themselves were not clear. She is
of continued to be written in Cicero's
it, probably the moon-goddess of the revolving
time. The leading annalists of this class year, who every month renews her youth,
D. O. A.

and was therefore regarded as a goddess and Africa, and with purchases tv
wiio bestowed long life and all that contri- the State. The expenses of the anncna
butes to it. About full moon on the Ides fell mainly on the [imperial trea.sury, bui
(fifteenth) of March (then the first month of partly on that of the senate. From Augus-
the year), in a grove of fruit trees at the first tus' time the cura annonce formed one of
milestone on the Flaminian Way,the Romans the highest imperial offices, its holder, the
held a merry feast under the open sky, prcsfectus annonce, having a large staff
wishing each other as many years of life scattered over Rome and the whole empire.
as they drank cups of wine. The learned The annona, like so many other things,
men of the Augustan age identified Anna was personified by the Romans, and became
with Dido's sister, who, on the death of that a goddess of the importation of corn, whose
queen, had fled from Carthage to jEneas attributes were a bushel, ears of wheat,
in Italy, but, having excited Lavinia's and a horn of plenty.
jealousy, threw herself into the Numicius, Antaeus. Son of Poseidon and Ge (the
and became the nymph of that river. earth) ; a huge giant in Libya, who grew
Anuona. A Latin word meaning the stronger every time he touched his mother
year's produce, especially in wheat, the Earth. He forced all strangers to wrestle
staple food of the city population it was
; with him, and killed them when conquered, till
afterwards applied to the corn provided by HerScles, on his journey to fetch the apples
the State to feed that population. As of the Hesperides, lifted him off the ground,
Italian agriculture decayed, and the city and held him aloft till he had killed him. His
population steadily increased, the question tomb was shown near Tingis in Mauretania.
of its maintenance became a constant care Antse. A
templum in antls was a temple
to the State, which, on the conquest of the in which the hall at either end was formed
first two provinces, Sicily and Sardinia, at by prolongations of the side-walls (Lat.
once doomed them, especially the former, antce), and a row of columns between the
to the task of victualling the armies and terminal pilasters of those prolongations.
feeding Rome, by imposing a tithe on corn, See Temples, fig. 1.
and forbidding its exportation to any country Anteia (otherwise Sthenohcea). Wife of
but Italy. The tenth paid as tribute, and Proetus of Tiryns by slandering Belle-

other corn bought up by the State, was sold rophon {q.v.), who had rejected her offers
by the sediles at a moderate price, usually of love, she caused her husband to attempt
on terms which prevented the treasury his life.
being a loser. Thus till the time of the Antenor. A
Trojan of high rank, husband
Gracchi the cura annoncB was confined to to Athena's priestess Theano, the sister of
the maintenance of a moderate price but ; Hecuba. "When Menelaiis and Odysseus,
the corn law of Gains Gracchus, B.C. 123, after the landing of the Greeks, came as
laid on the State the obligation to deliver envoys to Troy, demanding the surrender
to any Roman householder on demand 6j of Helen, he received them hospitably, pro-
bushels of wheat a month at a fixed price, tected them from Paris, and then as always
which even in cheap times was less than half advised peace. Because of this leaning to the
the cost price and Clodius in B.C. 58 went
Greeks, it was alleged in later times that
further, and made the delivery entirely he betrayed his native city by opening its
gratuitous. By the year B.C. 46, the number gates to the enemy in return for which his

of recipients had risen to 320,000, and the house, known by the panther's hide hung out
yearly outlay to a sum equivalent to £650,000. of it, was spared, and he and his friends
Csesar then reduced the recipients to 150,000 allowed to go free. One account was, that
but their number grew again, till Augustus he sailed with Menelaus, was driven out of
cut it down to 200,000, whose names were his course to Gyrene, and settled there,
inscribed on a bronze table, and who received where his descendants the AntenSridse were
their monthly portion on presentation of a worshipped as heroes. Another, which be-
ticket. This arrangement as a whole re- came the accepted tradition, represented
mained in force till about the end of the him as leading the HenSti, when driven
Empire, except that in the 3rd century out of Paphlagonia, by way of Thrace and
bread was given instead of grain. And, Illyria, to the Adriatic, and thence to the
side by side with these gratuitous doles, mouth of the Padus (Po), where he founded
grain could always be bought for a mode- Patavium (Padua), the city of the VSneti.
rate price at magazines filled with the Antfiros. The god of requited love,
supplies of the provinces, espeoiallj' Egypt brother of Eros {q.vX


Antesignani, A Latin word denoting vived unless enshrined in such a collection.

originally tlie soldiers fighting in front of Taken together with the rich store of epi-
the standards during a battle; afterwards grams found in inscriptions, the Anthology
a picked body in every legion, free of bag- opens to us a view of the development of
gage, and intended to advance in front of this branch of Greek literature such as we
the line of battle and seize important points, can scarcely obtain in the case of any other,
or to open the battle. besides affording valuable information on
Antevorta. See Cabmenta. Hellenic language, history, and manners, at
Anthesteria. Afeast at Athens held in the most different periods.
honour of Dionysiis. Gomp. Dionysia (4). Roman literature has no really ancient
Anthology ( = gar] and of flowers). The collection of so comprehensive a character,
Oreek word anthdlogia means a collection the so-called Latin Anthology having been
of short, especially epigrammatic poems, by gathered by modern scholars out of the
various authors; we still possess one such material found scattered in various MSS.
collection dating from antiquity. Collec- Among these, it is true, Saumaise's MS. of
tions of inscriptions in verse had more than the 7th century, now in Paris, has a col-
once been set on foot in early times for anti- lection of about 380 poems, but these, with
quarian purposes. The first regular antho- a few exceptions, are of very late author-
logy,- entitled StephdnSs (= wreath), was ship.
attempted by Meleager of Gadftra in the 1st Antidosis ( = exchange of properties). An
century B.C. it contained, beside his own
; arrangement peculiar to the Athenians, by
compositions, poems arranged according to which a citizen summoned to perform one
their initial letters, by forty-six contem- of those services to the State named lei-
porary and older authors, including Archi- tourgioe (q.v.), if he thought a richer than
lochus, Aloseus, Sappho, Anacreon, Simon- he had been passed over, could challenge
ides, etc., together with a prologue still him to exchange possessions, binding him-
extant. This collection was enriched, about self in that case to discharge the obliga-
100 A.D., by Philippus of Thessalonica, with tion. Each party could then have the
select epigrams by about thirteen later other's property put in sequestration and
authors. Other collections were under- his house sealed up and within three days

taken soon after by Diogenianus of Hera- they handed in, before the proper authority
•cleia and Straton of Sardis, and in the and under oath, an inventory of their goods.
6th century by Agathias of Myrina, in If no amicable agreement was come to, and
whose Kyklos the poems are for the first the judge's decision went against the plain-
time arranged according to subjects. Out tiff, he was bound to perform the public
of these collections, now all lost, Constan- service ; otherwise the defendant submitted
tinus Cephdlas of Constantinople, in the either to the exchange or to the service.
10th century, put together a new and com- Antigone. (1) Daughter of (Edipus and
prehensive anthology, classified according locasta, who accompanied her blind father
'to contents in fifteen sections. From this into exile. After his death in Attica she
•collection the monk Maxmius Flanudes, returns to Thebes, and, in defiance of her
in the 14th century, made an extract uncle Creon's prohibition, performs the last
of seven books, which was the only one honours to her brother Polyneices, fallen in
Tinown till the year 1606. In that year the single fight with Eteocles, by strewing his
French scholar Saumaise (Salmasius) dis- body with dust. For this she is entombed
covered in the Palatine Library at Heidel- alive in the family vault, and there hangs
berg a complete manuscript of the antho- herself ; and her betrothed, Hsemon, the son
logy of Constantinus Cephalas with sundry of Oreon, stabs himself beside her corpse.
additions. This MS., with all the other Such is the version of Sophocles. Another
treasures of the library, was carried oflT to tradition represents Antigone and Argeia,
Rome in 1623, whence it was taken to Paris the widow of Polyneices, as secretly burn-
in 1793, and back to Heidelberg in 1816. ing his body by night on the funeral pile
The epigrams of the Greek anthology, of Eteocles. When seized by the guards,
"dating as they do from widely distant ages Creon hands her over to Hsemon for execu-
down to the Byzantine, and being the pro- tion ; but he hides her in a shepherd's hut^
duction of more than three hundred dif- and lives with her in secret wedlock. Their
ferent authors, are of very various merit son, grown up and engaging in some funeral
but many of them are among the pearls of games at Thebes, is recognised by a birth-
drcrl- poetry, and could hardly have sur- mark peculiar to the family. To escape
Creon's vengeance, Hsemon kills both Anti- melancholyl The emperor honoured his;

gone and himself. memory by placing him among the heroes,

(2) Antigone, daughter of Eurytion and erecting statues and temples, and founding
wife of Peleus {q.v.), hanged herself for yearly games in his honour, while the
grief at the supposed infidelity of her artists of every province vied in pourtray-
husband. ing him under various forms, human, heroic,
Antlgdnus. A Greek writer of Carystus, and divine; e.g. as Dionysus, Hermes,
about 240 B.C., author of a collection of all Apollo. Among the features common to
kinds of curiosities and fictions in natural the many surviving portraitures of An-
history. The work is now extant only in tinous are the full locks falling low down
a much abbreviated form, and is of no the forehead, the large, melancholy eyes,
value but for its numerous quotations and the full mouth, and the broad, swelling
fragments from lost writings. breast. Some of these portraits are among
Autigrapheus. The name of a financial the finest works of ancient art, for instance,
ofB«eilat Athens. See Geammateus. the colossal statue in the Vatican, and the
Aimcleia. Daughter of Autolycus, wife half-length relief at the Villa Albani. (See
of Laertes, and mother of Odysseus (jl-v.). cut.) There is also a fine bust in the Louvre.
Antiloehus. The son of Nestor, who
accompanied his father to the Trojan War,
and was distinguished among the younger
heroes for beauty and bravery. Homer
calls him a favourite of Zeus and Poseidon.
The dearest friend of Achilles next to
Patroclus, he is chosen by the Greeks to
break the news to him of his beloved com-
panion's fall. When Memnon attacks the'
aged Nestor, Antiloclms throws himself in
his way, and buys his father's safety with
his life. He, like Patroclus, is avenged by
Achilles, in whose grave-mound the ashes
of both friends are laid even in the lower

world Odysseus beholds the three pacing

the asphodel meadow, and in after times
the inhabitants of Ilium offered to them
jointly xhe sacrifices due to the dead on the
{oreland of Sigeum.
Antimachus. A Greek poet and critic
of Colophon, an elder contemporary of
Plato, about 400 B.C. By his two princi- (Rome, Villa Albani.)

pal works the long mythical epic called
Theba'is and a cycle of elegies named after Antiope. (1) In Homer a daughter of
his loved and lost Lyde, and telling of the BcBotian river-god Asopus, mother by

famous lovers parted by death he became Zeus of Amphion and Zethus. In later
the founder of learned poetry, precursor and legend her father is Nycteus of Hyria or
prototype of the Alexandrians, who, on Hysise. As he threatens to punish her for
account of his learning, assigned him the yielding to the approaches of Zeus under
next place to Homer amongst epic poets. the form of a satyr, she flees to Epopeus
In striving to impart strength and dignity of Sicyon. This king her uncle Lycus
to language by avoiding all that was com- kills by order of his brother Nycteus, now
mon, his style became rigid and artificial, dead, and leads her back in chains. Ar-
and naturally ran into bombast. But we rived on Mount Cithseron, she gives birth lo
possess only fragments of his works. As twins, Amphion by Zeus, Zethus by Epopeus,
a scholar, he is remarkable for having set whom Lycus leaves exposed upon the moun-
on foot d critical revision of the Homeric tain. After being long imprisoned and ill-
poems. treated by Dirce, the wife of Lycus, she
Antinoiis. A beautiful youth of Claudio- escapes to Cithseron, and makes acquaintance
pSlis in Bithynia, a favourite and travelling with her sons, whom a shepherd has brought
companion of the emperor Hadrian. He up. She makes them take a frightful ven-
drowned himself in the Nile, probably from geance upon Dirce (see Amphion), for doing.

•which Dionysus drives her mad, and she dred. Then he went as ambassador to
wanders throught Greece, till Phocus, king Sparta, to purchase peace at any price in
cf Phocis, heals and marries her. the interest of the oligarchy. On the fall
(2) A sister of HippSlyte, queen of the of the Pour Hundred he was accused of
Amazons; who, according to one account, high treason, and in spite of a masterly
fall as a prize of war to Theseus for his —
defence the first speech he had ever made
share in Heracles' campaign against the in public —
was condemned to death B.C.
Amazons, according to another, was carried 411. Of the sixty orations attributed to
off by him and his friend Pirithoiis. him, only fifteen are preserved, all on trials
When the Amazons attacked Athens in re- for murder; but only three of them are
turn, she is variously represented as per- about real cases. The rest (named tetra-
suading them to peace, or falling in battle logies, because every four are the first and
against them by the side of Theseus; or, second speeches of both plaintiff and de-
again, as killedby Heracles, when she inter- fendant on the same subject) are mere
rupted the marriage of her beloved Theseus exercises. Antiphon's speeches exhibit the
with Phffidra. Her son by Theseus was art of oratory in its rudimentary stage as
Hippolytus. regards both substance and form.
Antiphanes. The most prolific and im- Antisthgnes. AGreek philosopher of
portant author, with Alexis, of the Attic Athens, born about 440 B.C., but only a half
Middle Comedy he came of a family which
; citizen, because his mother was a Thracian.
had migrated from Larissa in Thessaly He was in his youth a pupil of Gorgias,
was born B.C. 408, and died at the age of and himself taught for a time as a sophist,
74. He is said to have written 260 plays, till, towards middle life, he attached himself
of which over 200 are known to us by to Socrates, and became his bosom friend.
their titles and fragments, yet he won the After the death of Socrates in B.C. 399
prize only thirteen times. He is praised he established a school in the gymnasium
for dramatic ability, wit, and neatness of Kyn8sarges, the only one open to persons
form. of half-Athenian descent, whence his fol-
Antiphtlus. A
Greek painter born in lowers bore the name of Cynici (Eynikoi).
Egypt in the latter half of the 4th cen- He lived to the age of seventy. Like
tury B.C., a contemporary and rival of Socrates, he regarded virtue as necessary,
Apelles; he probably spent the last part indeed, alone sufficient for happiness, and
of his life at the court of the first Ptolemy. to be a branch of knowledge that could ^be
The ancients praise the lightness and dex- taught, and that once acquired could not
terity with which he handled subjects of be lost, its essence consisting in freedom
high art, as well as scenes in daily life. from wants by the avoidance of evil, i.e.
Two of his pictures in the latter kind of pleasure and desire. Its acquisition
were especially famous, one of a boy blow- needs no dialectic argumentation, only
ing a fire, and another of women dressing Socratic strength. His pupils, especially
wool. Prom his having painted a man the famous DiogenSs of Sinope, degraded
named Gryllos (=pig) with playfiil allu- his doctrine to cynicism by depreciating
sions to the sitter's name, caricatures in all knowledge and despising the current
general came to be called grylloi. [Pliny, morality of the time. His philosophical
H. N., 35. 114, 138]. and rhetorical works are lost, all but two
Antiphon. The earliest of the ten great slight declamations on the contest for the
Attic orators, born B.C. 480 at Ehamnus in arms of Achilles, the Aias and Odysseus;
Attica, son of the sophist Sophilus, to whom and even their genuineness is disputed.
he owed his training. He was the founder Antistius Laheo (Quintus). A
of political eloquence as an art, which he jurist of Augustus' time, a man of wide
taught with great applause in his own scholarship and strict republican views,
school of rhetoric and he was the first
; which lost him the emperor's favour. His
who wrote out speeches for others to deliver writings on law amounted to 400 books,
in court, though he afterwards published portions of which are preserved in the
them under his own name. He also played Pandects of Justinian's Corpus luris.
an active part in the politics of his time as Aiming at a progressive development of
& leading member of the oligarchical party, law, he became the founder of a school of
and the real author of the deathblow which lawyers named Pi-oculians after his pupil
was dealt to democracy in 411 B.C. by the Sempronius PrOculus. See Ateius Capito.
establishment of the Council of Pour Hun- Antoninus. (1) Marcus Aurelius, sur-
named Philosophus, born at Eome a.d. 121. ducted to the spot where the accused was
His real name was M. Annius Verus ; at staying, the process was called ephegesis.
the desire of the emperor Hadrian he was Apaturia. The general feast of the Phra-
adopted by his successor T. Aurelius An- TRIES (q-v.) held chiefly by Greeks of the
toninus Pius, married his daughter Faus- Ionian race. At Athens it lasted three days
tina,and became emperor in A.D. 161. in the month of Pyanepsion (Oct.-Nov.), and
During his benevolent reign the empire had was celebrated with sacrificial banquets.
to face dire distresses, famine, pestilence, On the third day the fathers brought their
and constant wars with the Parthians in children born since the last celebration
the east, and the Marcomanni and other before the members (phrators) assembled
Germans in the north, during which he at the headquarters of each phratria, and
proved himself a prudent and active sove- after declaring on oath their legitimate
reign. In the midst of a new war with birth, had their names inscribed on the roU
the already vanquished Marcomanni he of phratores. For every child enrolled a
died in A.D. 180, probably at Sirmium in sheep or goat was sacrificed, which went
Pannonia. In his youth he was a pupil of to furnish the common feast. On the same
the orator Pronto, and loved him warmly day the fathers made their children who
to the last, even after giving up rhetoric were at school give proofs of their progress,
and devoting himself to the Stoic philoso- especially by reciting passages from poets,
phy. The gentleness and amiability of and those who distinguished themselves
his nature comes out both in his letters were rewarded with prizes.
to Pronto {q.v.) and in his Self-contem- Apelles. The greatest painter of anti-
plations, which are the moral reflections quity, probably bom at Colophon or in the
of a Stoic in clumsy, over-concise, and Island of Cos, who lived in the latter haM
often obscure Gtreek. of the 4th century B.C. After studying at
(2) Antoninus Liberalis, a Greek gram- Ephesus, and receiving theoretical instruc-
marian of about 150 A.D., perhaps a freed- tion in his art from Pamphilus at Sicyon,
man of Antoninus Pius; he wrote a collec- he worked in different parts of the Greek
tion, called Metamorplioses, of forty-one world, but especially in Macedonia, at the
myths dealing with transformations, most court of Philip and that of Alexander, who
of which is based on ancient authorities would let no other artist paint him. While
now lost, and is therefore valuable as a doing ready justice to the merits of con-
source of mythological knowledge. temporaries, especially Protogenes, he could
Anubis. An Egyptian not but recognise that no one surpassed him-
god, son of Osiris, con- self in grace and balanced harmony. These
ductor and watcher of qualities, together with his wonderful skiU
the dead, whose deeds he in drawing and his perfect and refined
and HOEUS {q.v.) were mastery of colouring (however simple his
supposed to weigh in the means), made his works the most perfect
balance in presence of productions of Greek painting. Among the
their father Osiris. He foremost were the Alexander with lightning
was represented with in his hand, painted for the temple of
the head of a jackal or Artemis at Ephesus, in which the fingers
dog-ape. The worship of appeared to stand out of the picture, and
Anubis was introduced the thunderbolt to project from the panel;
among the Greeks and and the Aphrodite AnadydmSne {=Tisiag),
Romans (who represented painted for the temple of Asclepius at Cos,
him in the form of a dog), which Augustus brought to Rome and set
together with that of up in the temple of Csesar, and which,
Serapis and Isis, espe- anubis. when the lower part was damaged, no
cially in the time of the painter would attempt to restore. We owe
emperors, as he was identified with Hermes. to Lucian a description of an allegorical
Ap3;gdge. Atechnical term of Athenian picture of Slander by this painter. [Pliny,
law, meaning the production of a criminal H. N.,35. 79-97.]
taken in the act before the proper magis- Aphrfidite (Lat. VSnus). The Greek god-
trate, who then took him into custody, or dess of love. Her attributes combine, with
made him find bail. The name was also Hellenic conceptions, a great many features
given to the document in which the accuser of Eastern, especially Phoenician, origin,
stated the charge. But if the officer was con- which the Greeks must have grafted on to


their native notions in very old times. This as the fruitful and bountiful, she was wor-
double nature appears immediately in the shipped most of all at that season of the
contradictory tales of her origin. To the year in which her birth from the sea was
oldest Greeks she was the daughter of Zeus celebrated at Paphos in Cyprus {comp.
and Dione (and is sometimes called that cut). But to this, her time of joyful action,
name herself); yet from a very early time is opposed a season of sorrow, when her
she appears as Aphro-gSneia, the " foam- creations wither and die : a sentiment ex-
born " (see Ueanus), as AnadyomSne, " she pressed in her inconsolable grief for her
who rises " out of the sea, and steps ashore beloved Adonis (q.v.), the symbol of vege-
on Cyprus, which had been colonized by tation perishing in its prime.
Phoenicians time out of mind; even as far In the life of gods and men, she shows
back as Homer she is Kypris, the Cyprian. her power as the golden, sweetly smiling
The same transmarine and Eastern origin goddess of beauty and love, which she
of her worship is evidenced by the legend knows how to kindle or to keep away. She
of the isle of Cythera, on which she was outshines all the goddesses in grace and
supposed to have first landed out of a sea- loveliness in her girdle she wears united

shell. all the magic charms that can bewitch the

Again, the common conception of her as wisest man and subdue the very gods. Her
goddess of love limits her agency to the retinue consists of Eros (Cupid), the Hours,
sphere of human Ufa. But she is, at the the Graces, Peitho (persuasion), PSthos and
same time, a power of nature, living and Himeros (personifications of longing and
working in the three elements of air, earth, yearning). By uniting the generations in
and water. As goddess of the shifting the bond of love, she becomes a goddess of
gale and changeful sky, she is Aphrodite marriage and family life, and the conse-
Urania, the " heavenly," and at many places quent kinship of the whole community. As
in Greece and Asia her temples crowned such she had formerly been worshipped at
the heights and headlands witness the
; Athens under the name of Pandemos ( = all
citadels ofThebes and Corinth, and Mount the people's), as being a goddess of the
Eryx in Sicily. As goddess of storm and whole country. By a regulation of Solon,
lightning, she was represented armed, as the name acquired a very different sense,
at. Sparta and Cythera; and this perhaps branding her as goddess of prostitution
explains why she was associated with Are then it was that the new and higher mean-
(Mars) both in worship and in legend, and ing was imported into the word Urania.
worshipped as a goddess of victory. In later times, the worship of Aphrodite
The moral conception of Aphrodite Urania as the goddess of mere sensual love made
as goddess of the higher and purer love, rapid strides, and in particular districts
especially wedded love and fruitfulness, assumed forms more and more immoral,
as opposed to mere sensual lust, was but in imitation of the services performed to
slowly developed in the course of ages. love-goddesses in the East, especially at
As goddess of Corinth, where large bands of girls were
the sea and mari- consecrated as slaves to the service of the
time traffic, espe- gods and the practice of prostitution. And
cially of calm later still, the worship of Astarte, the
seas and prosper- Syrian Aphrodite, performed by eunuchs,
ous voyages, she spread all over Greece.
was widely wor- In the Greek myths Aphrodite appears
shipped by sailors occasionally as the wife of Hephaestus. Her
and fishermen at love adventures with Ares are notorious.
ports and on sea- From these sprang Eros and Anteros, Har-
coasts, often as monia, the wife of Cadmus, and Deimos
the goddess of CAKACALLA and Phobos (fear and alarm), attendants
calm, while With the sacred cone, or sym-
on their father. By Anchises she was the
Poseidon was the bol of Aphrodite, in a conven- mother of .iEneas. The head-quarters of
tional representation of the tem-
god of distur- ple at Faphos. her worship were Paphos, Amathus, and
bance. Next, as Idalion (all in Cyprus), Cnidus in Dorian
regards the life of the earth, she is the Asia Minor, Corinth, the island of Cythera,
goddess of gardens and groves, of Spring and Eryx in Sicily. As mother of Harmonia,
and its bounties, especially tender plants she was a guardian deity of Thebes. Among
and flowers, as the rose and myrtle ; hence. plants, the myrtle, the rose, and the apple


were specially sacred to her as goddess of lines Most renowned in ancient times were
(a copy
love ; amongst animals, the ram, he-goat, the statue at Cnidtis by Praxiteles
hare, dove, sparrow, and other creatures of
amorous nature (the ram and dove being
widely-current symbols of great antiquity)
as sea-goddess, the swan, mussels, and
dolphin as Urania, the tortoise.

In ancient art, in which Aphrodite is one

of the favourite subjects, she is represented
in a higher or lower aspect, according as
the artist's aim was to exhibit Urania or
the popular goddess of love. In the earlier
works of art she usually appears clothed,
but in later ones more or less undraped;
either as rising from the sea or leaving the
bath, or (as in later times) merely as an
ideal of female beauty. In the course of
time the divine element disappeared, and
the presentation became more and more
ordinary. While the older sculptures show

(Paris, Louvre).

of which is now at Munich, see fig. 2). and

the painting of Aphrodite Anadyomene by
Apelles. Of original statues preserved to
us, the most famous are the Aphrodite of
Melos (MiZo, see fig. 3) now at Paris, and that
of Capua at Naples, both of which bring out
the loftier aspect of the goddess, and the
Medicean Venus at Florence, the work of
a late Attic sculptor, CleSmenes, in the
delicate forms of face and body that pleased
a younger age. On the identification of
Aphrodite with the Roman goddess of love,
see Venus.
Aphthdnius. A Greek rhetorician of An-
tioch, about 400 A.D., a pupil of Libanius,
who wrote a schoolbook on the elements of
rhetoric, the Progymnasmdtd, or "First
Steps in Style," much used in schools down
to the 17th century. This book is really
an adaptation of the chapter so named in
HermSgSnes' RhetoHc. A collection of
BY PUAXITELES. by .SJsop also bears his name.
forty fables
(Munich, Glyptnthok.) Apiclus (Mxrcws Gavius). A glutton,
who lived under Augustus and Tiberius.
the sturdier forms, the taste of later times He borrowed the last name from an epicure
leans more and more to softer, weaker out- of the republican age, and wrote a book

upon cookery. He poisoned himself for fear either to sunny Lycia, or to the Hyper-
of starving, though at the time of his d eath boreans who dwell in perpetual light in the
he was still worth £75,000. His name be- utmost north, and returned in spring to
came a proverb, so that we find an Apicius dispel the powers of winter with his beams.
CcrUus, author of a collection of recipes in When the fable relates that immediately
ten books, Be Re CUlinaria, 3rd century a.d. after his birth, with the first shot from his
Aplon. A Greek grammarian of the 1st bow he slew the dragon Python (or
century a.d., a pupil of Didymus, and presi- Delphyne), a hideous offspring of Gsea and
dent of the philological school at Alexandria. guardian of the Delphian oracle, what seems
He also worked for a time at Eome under to be denoted must be the spring-god's
Tiberius and Claudius. A
vain, boastful victory over winter, that filled the land
man, he travelled about the Greek cities, with foul marsh and mist. As the god
giving popular lectures on Homer. Of his of light, his festivals are all in spring or
many writings we have only fragments left. summer, and many of them still plainly
The glosses on Homer that bear his name reveal in certain features his true and
are of later origin ; on the other hand, the original attributes. Thus the Delphlnia,
Homeric lexicon of the sophist Apollonius held at Athens in April, commemorated
is based on his genuine Homeric glosses. the calming of the wintry sea after the
His bitter complaint. Against the Jews, ad- equinoctial gales, and the consequent re-
dressed to Caligula at the instance of the opening of navigation. As this feast was
Alexandrians, is best known from Josephus' in honour of the god of spring, so was the
noble reply to it. Thargelia, held at Athens the next month,
Apodectae (apo<^efciaz= receivers). The in honour of the god of summer. That the
Athenian name for a board of ten magis- crops might ripen, he received firstfruits
trates yearly appointed by lot, who kept of them, and at the same time propitiatory
accounts of the moneys coming in to the gifts to induce him to avert the parching
State from various sources, took possession heat, so hurtful to fruits and men. About
in the council's presence of the sums raised the time of the sun's greatest altitude (July
by the proper officers, and after cancelling and August), when the god displays his
the entries in their register, handed the power, now for good and now for harm, the
money over to the several treasuries. Athenians offered him hecatombs, whence
Apographs (Gr.). An inventory, or the first month of their year was named
register; also, in Attic law, a copy of a HecatombcBon, and the Spartans held their
declaration made before a magistrate. Hyadnthia {see Htacinthus). In autumn,
Apollo (Gr. Apollon). Son of Zeus by when the god was ripening the fruit of their
Leto (Latona), who, according to the legend gardens and plantations, and preparing for
most widely current, bore him and his departure, they celebrated the Pyanepsia
twin-sister Artemis (Diana) at the foot of (q.v.), when they presented him with the
Mount Cynthus in the island of Delps. firstfruits of harvest. Apollo gives the crops
Apollo appears originally as a god of light, prosperity, and protection not only against
both in its beneficent and its destructive summer heat, but against blight, mildew,
effects ; and of light in general, not of the and the vermin that prey upon them, such
sun only, for to the early Grreeks the deity as field-mice and grasshoppers. Hence he
that brought daylight was Helios, with w£is known by special titles in some parts
whom it was not till afterwards that Apollo of Asia. He was also a patron of flocks and
was identified. While the meaning of his pastures, and was worshipped in many dis-
name Apollo is uncertain, his epithets of tricts under a variety of names referring
Phoebus and Lycius clearly mark him as to the breeding of cattle. In the story of
the bright, the life-giving, the former also Hermes (q.v.) stealing his oxen, Apollo is
meaning the pure, holy for, as the god
; himself the owner of a herd, which he gives
of pure light, he is the enemy of darkness, up to his brother in exchange for the lyre in-
with all its unclean, uncouth, unhallowed vented by him. Other ancient legends speak
brood. Again, not only the seventh day of him as tending the fiocks of Laomedon
of the month, his birthday, but the first and Admetus, an act afterwards repre-
day of each month, i.e. of each new-born sented as a penalty for a fault. As a god
moon, was sacred to him, as it was to Janus, of shepherds he makes love to the nymphs,
the Roman god of light and according to
; to the fair Daphne (q.v.), to Coronis (see
the view that prevailed in many seats of AsCLEPius), and to Cyrene, the mother of
his worship, he withdrew in winter time Aristseus, likewise a god of herds. Some

forms of his worship and some versions of fore of order, justice, and legality in humam
his story imply that Apollo, like his sister life. As such, he, on the one hand smites,

Artemis, was regarded as a protector of and spares not the insolent offender, Tityos
tender game and a slayer of rapacious for instance, the Aloid®, the overweening
beasts, especially of the wolf, the enemy of Niobe, and the Greeks before Troy ; but, on
flocks, and himself a symbol of the god's the other hand, to the guilt-laden soul, that
power, that now sends mischief, and now turns to him in penitence and supplication,,
averts it. Apollo promotes the health and he grants purification from the stain of
well-being of man himself. As a god of committed crime (which was regarded as-
prolific power, he was invoked at weddings a disease clouding the mind and crushing
and as a nurse of tender manhood and the heart), and so he heals the spirit, and
trainer of manly youth, to him (as well as readmits the outcast into civic life and
the fountain-nymphs) were consecrated the religious fellowship. Of this he had him-
first offerings of the hair of the head. In self set the pattern, when, after slaying
gymnasia and paloestrce he was worshipped the Delphian dragon, he fled from the
equally with Hermes and Herftcles for he ; land, did seven years' menial service to
gave power of endurance in boxing, with Admetus in atonement for the murder, and
adroitness and fleetness of foot. As
a war- when the time of penance was past had
like god and one helpful in the
fight, himself purified in the sacred grove of bay-
Spartans paid him peculiar honours in their trees by the Thessalian temple, and not till
Carneia (q.v.), and in a measure the Athe- then did he return to Delphi and enter on
nians in their JBoedromia. Another Athe- his office as prophet of Zeus. Therefore
nian festival, the Metageitnia, glorified him he exacts from all a recognition of the
as the author of neighbourly union. In atoning power of penance, in the teeth of the-
many places, but above all at Athens, he was old law of vengeance for blood, which only
worshipped as Agyieus, the god of streets bred new murders and new guilt. The
and highways, whose rude symbol, a conical atoning rites propagated by Apollo's wor-
post with a pointed ending, stood by street- ship, particularly from Delphi, contributed
doors and in courtyards, to watch men's exit largely to the spread of milder maxims of
and entrance, to let in good and keep out law, affecting not only individuals, but
evil, and was loaded by the inmates with whole towns and countries. Even without
gifts of honour, such as ribbons, wreaths of special prompting, the people felt from time
myrtle or bay, and the like. At sea, as well to time the need of purification and expi-
as on land, Apollo is a guide and guardian, and ation ; hence certain expiatory rites had
there, especially under the name DelpMnius, from of old been connected with his festivals.
taken from his friend and ally the dolphin, As the god of light who pierces through
the symbol of the navigable sea. Under all darkness, Apollo is the god of divination,
this character he was widely worshipped, which, however, has in his case a purely
for the most part with peculiar propitiatory ethical significance for he, as prophet and

rites, in seaports and on promontories, as minister of his father Zeus, makes known his
that of Actium, and particularly at Athens, will to men, and helps to further his govern-
being also regarded as a leader of colonies. ment in the world. He always declares the
While he is Alexicdcus (averter of ills) in truth but the limited mind of man cannot

the widest sense, he proves his power most always grasp the meaning of his sayings.
especially in times of sickness for, being
; He is the patron of every kind of prophecy,
god of the hot season, and himself the but most especially of that which he imparts
sender of most epidemics and the dreaded through human instruments, chiefly women,
plague, sweeping man swiftly away with while in a state of ecstasy. Great as was
his unerring shafts, he can also lend the the number of his oracles in Greece and
most effectual aid so that he and his son
; Asia, all were eclipsed in fame and import-
Asclepius were revered as the chief gods ance by that of Delphi (q.v.).
of healing. As a saviour from epidemics Apollo exercises an elevating and inspiring
mainly, but also from other evils, the pcean influence on the mind as god of MusiCf
(q.v.) was sung in his honour. which, though not belonging to him alone
In a _higher sense also Apollo is a healer any more than Atonement and Prophecy^
and saviour. From an early time a strong was yet pre-eminently his province. In
ethical tinge was given to his purely phy- Homer he is represented only as a player
sical attributes, and the god of light became on the lyre, while song is the province of
a god of mental and moral purity, and there- the Muses but in course of time he grows-


to be the god, as they are the goddesses, of the Ludi SceciildrSs (q.v.) to him and
song and poetry, and is therefore MusagStBs Diana.
(Leader of the Muses) as -well as master of The manifold symbols of Apollo corre-
the choric dance, which goes with music and spond with the multitude of his attributes.
song. And, as the friend of all that beau- The commonest is either the lyre or the
tifies life,he is intimately associated with bow, according as he was conceived as the
the Graces. god of song or as the far-hitting archer.
Standing in these manifold relations to The Delphian diviner, Pythian Apollo, is
nature and man, Apollo at all times held indicated by the Tripod, which was also the
a prominent position in the religion of the favourite offering at his altars. Among
Greeks; and as early as Homer his name plants the bay, used for purposes of expia-
is coupled with those of Zeus and Athena, tion, was early sacred to him (see Daphne).
as if between them the three possessed the It was planted round his temples, and
sum total of divine power. His worship plaited into garlands of victory at the
was diffused equally over all the regions Pythian games. The palm-tree was also
in which Greeks were settled but from
; sacred to him, for it was under a palm-tree
remote antiquity he had been the chief god that he was born in Delos. Among animals,
of the Dorians, who were also the first to the wolf, the dolphin, the snow-white and
raise him into a type of moral excellence. musical swan, the hawk, raven, crow, and
The two chief centres of his worship were snake were under his special protection;
the Island of Delos, his birthplace, where, the last four in connexion with his pro-
at his magnificent temple standing by the phetic functions.
sea, were held every five years the festive In ancient art he was represented as a
games called Delia, to which the Greek long-haired but beardless youth, of tall yet
states sent solemn embassies and Delphi,
; muscular build, and handsome features.
with its oracle and numerous festivals (see Images of him were as abundant as his
Pythia, Theoxenia). Toremost among the worship was extensive there was scarcely:

seats of his worship in Asia was Patara in an artist of antiquity who did not try his
Lycia with a famous oracle.
To the Romans Apollo became known
in the reign of their last king Tarquinius
Superbus, the first Roman who consulted
the Delphian oracle, and who also ac-
quired the Sibylline Books {q.v.). By the
influence of these writings the worship of
Apollo soon became so naturalized among
them, that in B.C. 431 they built a temple
to him as god of healing, from which the
expiatory processions {see Supplicationes)
prescribed in the Sibylline books used to set
out. In the Lectisternia (q.v.), first insti-
tuted in B.C. 399, Apollo occupies the fore-
most place. In 212 B.C., during the agony
of the Second Punic War, the Ludi ApolU-
nares were, in obedience to an oracular
response, established in honour of him.
He was made one of the chief gods of
Rome by Augustus, who believed himself
to be under his peculiar protection, and
ascribed the victory of Actium to his aid
hence he enlarged the old temple of Apollo
on that promontory, and decorated it with « jc- Ml a/-

a portion of, the spoils. He also renewed (1) THE BELVEDEKE APOLLO.
the games held near it, previously every (Rome, Vatican Museum.)

two years, afterwards every four, with

gymnastic and artistic contests, and hand upon some incident in the story of
regattas on the sea ; at Rome he reared Apollo. The ideal type of this god seems
a splendid new temple to him near his to have beeiv fixed chiefly by Praxiteles and
own house on the Palatine, and transferred Scopas. The most famous statue preserved
of him the Apollo Belvedere in the Vati-
is enumeration of the most important data m
can which represents him either as
(fig. 1), history and literature from the fall of Troy,
fighting with the Pythian dragon, or with which he places in B.C. 1183, down to his
liis segis frightening back the foes who own time, undoubtedly the most important
threaten to storm his sanctuary. Other of ancient works on the subject. Besides
great works, as the Apollo Musagetes in the fragments, we have under his name a book
Vatican, probably from the hand of Scopas, entitled Bibliotheca, a great storehouse of
show him as a Citharoedus in the long mythological material from the oldest theo-
Ionian robe, or nude as in fig. 2. The gonies down to Theseus, and, with all its
Apollo Sauroddnus (lizard-killer), copied faults of arrangement and treatment, a
from a bronze statue by Praxiteles, is es- valuable aid to our knowledge of Grreek
pecially celebrated for its beauty. It re- mythology. Yet there are grounds for
presents a delicate youthful figure leaning doubting whether it is from his hand at all,
against a tree, dart in hand, ready to stab whether it is even an extract from his great
a lizard that is crawling up the tree. It work, On the Gods, in twenty-four books.
is preserved in bronze at the Villa Albani (3) A Greek painter of Athens, about 420
in Rome, and in marble at Paris. B.C., the first who graduated light and shade
in his pictures, whence he received the name
of Sciagrdphus (shadow-painter). This in-
vention entitled him to be regarded as the
founder of a new style, which aimed at
producing illusion by pictorial means, and
which was carried on further by his younger
contemporary Zeuxis. [Pliny, H.N., 35. 60].
(4) A Greek architect of Damascus, who
lived for a time at Rome, where amongst
other things he built Trajan's Forum and
Trajan's Column. He was first banished
and then put to death under Hadrian, A.i>.
129, having incurred that emperor's anger
by the freedom of his rebukes. We have
a work by him on Engines of War, ad-
dressed to Hadrian.
Apollonius, (1) the Rhodian. A Greek
scholar and epic poet of the Alexandrian
age, born at Alexandria about 260 B.C., a
pupil of Callimachus, wrote a long epic.
The Argonautica, in four books, in which,
departing from his master's taste for the
learned and artificial, he aimed at all the
simplicity of Homer. The party of Calli-
machus rejected the poem, and Apollonius
retired in disgust to Rhodes, where his
labours as a rhetorician, and his newly re-
(2) APOLLO, WITH LYBE AND GBIFFIN. vised poem, won him hearty recognition and
(Rome, Capitoline Museum.)
even admission to the citizenship. Hence
his surname. Afterwards, returning to
ApoUSdorus. (1) A Greek poet of the New Alexandria, he recited his poem once more,
Comedy, born at Carystus, between 300 and and this time with universal applause, so
260 B.C. He wrote forty-seven plays, and that Ptolemy Epiphftnes, in B.C. 196, ap-
won five victories. Prom him Terence bor- pointed him to succeed Eratosthenes as
rowed the plots of his Phormio and HScyra. librarian. He probably died during the
(2) A Greek grammarian and historian, tenure of this office. His epic poem, which
of Athens, about 140 B.C., a pupil of Aris-
has survived, has a certain simplicity, though
tarchus and the Stoic Pansetius. He was a falling far short of the naturalness and
most prolific writer on grammar, mythology, beauty of Homer its uniform mediocrity

geography, and history. Some of his works often makes it positively tedious, though it
were written in iambic senarii e.g. a geo-
, is constructed with great care, especially in
ffraphy, and the Chrdnicd, a condensed its versification. By the Romans it was much


prized, and more than once imitated, as by systematic form. His extant works are the
Varro of Atax and Valerius Placcus, A treatises on Pronouns, Adverbs, Conjunc-
valuable collection of scholia upon it testi- tions, and the Syntax of the parts of speech,
fies the esteem in which it was held by the in four books. He was followed especially
learned of old. by the Latin grammarians, above all by
(2) Apollonius of Tralles. AGreek sculp- Priscian. His son Herodianus accomplished
tor of the school of Rhodes, and joint author even more than he did.
with his countryman Tauriscus of the cele- (6) Apollonius the Sophist, of Alexandria.
brated group of Dirce (q.v.). Among His precise date A.D. is unknown. He was
other artists of the name, the worthiest of author of an extant Lexicon of Homeric
mention is Apollonius of Athens, of the 1st Glosses, based on Apion's lost glossarial
century B.C. Prom his hand is the Hercules, writings,
now only a torso, preserved in the Belve- (7) Apollonius, king of Tyre, the hero of
dere at Rome. a Greek romance (now lost), composed in
(3) Apollonius of Perga in Pamphylia. A Asia Minor, in the 3rd century A.D., on the
Greek mathematician named " the Geome- model of the Ephesian History of Xenophon
ter," who lived at Pergamus and Alexandria {q.v. 2). We have a free Latin version
in the 1st century B.C., and wrote a work on made by a Christian, about the 6th century,
Conic Sections in eight books, of which we probably in Italy, which was much read in
have only the first four in the original, the the Middle Ages, and translated into Anglo-
fifth, sixth, and seventh in an Arabic trans- Saxon, English, French, Italian, Middle
lation, and the eighth in extracts. The Greek and German, in prose and verse. Its
piethod he followed is that still in use. materials are used in the pseudo-Shak-
(4) Apollonius of Tyana in Cappadocia, spearian drama of Pericles Prince of Tyre.
the most celebrated of the Neo-Pythago- Aporraxis. See Ball, Games of.
reans, lived about the middle of the 1st cen- Apotheosis (Lat. Consecratio). The act
tury A.D. by a severely ascetic life on the
; of placing a human being among the gods,
supposed principles of Pythagoras, and by of which the Greeks have an instance as
pretended miracles, he obtained such a hold early as Homer, but only in the single case
on the multitude that he was worshipped as of Leucothea. The oldest notion was that
a god, and set up as a rival to Christ. The of a bodily removal ; then arose the idea of
account of his life by the elder Philostratus the mortal element being purged away by
{q.v.) ismore romance than history, and fire, as in the case of Heracles. There was
olfers little to build upon.Having received a kind of deification which consisted in the
his philosophical education, and lived in the decreeing of heroic honours to distinguished
temple of Asclepius at iEgse till his twen- men after death, which was done from tho-
tieth year, he divided his patrimony among time of the Peloponnesian War onwards^
the poor, and roamed all over the world even in the case of living men [see Heroes).
he was even said to have reached India and The successors of Alexander the Great, both
the sources of the Nile. Twice he lived at the Seleucidse and still more the Ptolemies,,
Rome first under Nero till the expulsion of
; caused themselves to be worshipped as gods.
the philosophers, and again in Domitian's Of the Romans, whose legend told of the
reign, when he had to answer a charge of translation of ^neas and Romiilus into
conspiring against the emperor. Smuggled heaven, Csesar was the first who claimed
out of Rome during his trial, he continued divine honours, if not by building temples
his life as a wandering preacher of morals to himself, yet by setting his statue among
and worker of marvels for some years longer, the gods in every sanctuary at Rome and in
and is said to have died at a great age, the empire, and by having a special flamen
master of a school at Ephesus. Of his assigned to him. The belief in his divinity
alleged writings, eight-five letters have was confirmed by the comet that shone
alone survived. several months after his death, as long as
(5) Apollonius, surnamed Dyscdlus{ = th.e his funeral games lasted; and under the
surly). AGreek scholar, of Alexandria, triumvirate he was formally installed among
where he had received his education, and the deities of Rome, as Divus lulius, by a
where he ended his days a member of the decree of the senate and people. His adop-
Museum, after having laboured as a teacher ted son and successor Octavian persistently
at Rome under Antoninus Pius, about 140 declined any offer of public worship, but he-
A.D. He is the father of Scientific Gram- accepted the title of Augustus (the conse-
mar, having been the first to reduce it to crated), and allowed his person to be adored
in the provinces. On his death the senate against his colleagues and aU magistrates
decreed divine honours to him under the whatsoever. Another thing altogether was
title of Divus Augustus, the erection of a the Provocatio {q.v.) under the Eepublic, an
temple, the founding of special games, and appeal from a magistrate's sentence to the
the establishment of a peculiar priesthood. People as supreme judge. During the im-
After this, admission to the number of the perial period the two processes run into one,
Divi, as the deified emperors were called, for the emperor held united in his person
becomes a prerogative of the imperial both the supreme judicial function and the
dignity. It is, however, left dependent on plenai-y power of all magistrates, particu-
a resolution of the senate moved in honour larly the tribunician veto, so that an appeal
of the deceased emperor by his successor. to him was at once an appellatio and a
Hence it is not every emperor who obtains provocatio. This appeal, in our sense of
it, nor does consecration itself always lead the word, was only permitted in important
to a permanent worship. Empresses too cases it had to be made within a short

were often consecrated, first Augustus' time after sentence was passed, and always
wife Li via as Diva Augusta, and even addressed to the authority next in order,
•other members of the imperial house. so that it only reached the emperor if no
The ceremony of Apotheosis used from the intermediate authority was competent. If
time of Augustus was the following. After the result was that the disputed verdict was
the passing of the senate's decree a waxen neither quashed nor awarded, but confirmed,
image of the dead, whose body lay hidden the appellant had to pay a fine. As the
below, was exhibited for seven days on an power of life and death rested with the
ivory bed of state in the palace, covered with emperor and senate alone, governors of pro-
gold-embroidered coverlets; then the bier vinces were bound to send up to Home any
was borne by knights and senators amidst a citizen appealing on a capital charge.
brilliant retinue down the Via Sacra to the , Appianus. A Greek historian, of Alex-
ancient Eorum, where the funeral oration andria, who lived about the middle of the
was delivered, and thence to the Campus 2nd century A.D. At first he pursued the
Martins, where it was deposited in the calling of an advocate at Rome ; in later
second of the four stories of a richly life, on the recommendation of his friend
decorated funeral pile of pyramid shape. the rhetorician Tronto, he obtained from
When the magistrates sacred and secular, Antoninus Pius the post of an imperial pro-
the knights, lifeguard, and others concerned, curator in Egypt. He wrote an extensive
had performed the last honours by proces- work on the development of the Roman
sionsand libations, the pile was set on fire, Empire from the earliest times down to
and as it burned up, an eagle soared from Trajan, consisting of a number of special
the topmost storey into the sky, a symbol histories of the several periods and the
of the ascending soul. several lands and peoples till the time when
Apparitor. The general name in Latin they fell under the Roman dominion. Of
for all public servants of the magistrates. the twenty -four books of which it originally
The}' all had to be Roman citizens, and consisted, only eleven are preserved complete
were paid a fixed salary out of the public beside the Preface: Spain (book 6), Hannibal
treasury. Though nominated by the re- (7), Carthage (8), Syria (11), Mithridates
spective officers for a year at a time, they (12), the Roman Civil Wars (13-17) and
were usually re-appointed, so that practic- Illyria (23), the rest being lost altogether,
ally their situations were secured for life, or only surviving in fragments. Appian's
-and they could even sell their places. The style is plain and bald, even to dryness, and
most important classes of these attendants his historical point of view is purely Roman.
were those of scrlbce, lictores, viatOres and The book is a mere compilation, and dis-
prceconSs (q.v.). These were divided into figured by many oversights and blundera, es-
decuricB of varying strength, which enjoyed pecially in chronology nevertheless the use

corporate rights, and chose foremen from made by the writer of lost authorities lends
their own body. {Comp. Accensi.) it considerable worth, and for the history
Appellatio. The Latin term for an appeal of the Civil Wars it is positively invaluable.
to a magistrate to put his veto on the Apslnes. A Greek rhetorician, of Gadira,
decision of an equal or inferior magistrate. who taught at Athens in the first half of
Thus a consul could be appealed to against the 3rd century A.D., and wrote a valuable
his colleague and all other magistrates treatise on Rhetoric.
•except the tribunes, but a tribune both Apuleius {Lucius). Born about 1,"0 a.d.


.at Madaura in NiMnidia, of a wealtliy and Polycrates (in the 6th century B.C.). The —
iionourable family; the most original Latin Roman aqueducts are among the most
writer of his time. Educated at Carthage, magnificent structures of antiquity. Some
he went to Athens to study philosophy, of these were likewise constructed under-
'especially that of Plato ;then he travelled ground ; others, latterly almost all, con-
far and wide, everywhere obtaining initiation veyed the water, often for long distances,
into the mysteries. For some time he lived in covered channels of brick or stone, over
in Rome as an advocate. After returning lofty arcades stretching straight through
to Africa, he married a lady considerably hill and valley. They started from a well-
older than himself, the mother of a friend, head (caput dquarum) and ended in a reser-
^Emilia Pudentilla, whereupon her kinsmen voir (castellum), out of which the water ran
charged him with having won the rich in Rome into three chambers, lying one above
widow's hand by magic, and of having another, the lowest chamber sending it
contrived the death of her son; a charge through leaden or clay pipes into the pub-
to which he replied with much wit in his lic fountains and basins, the middle one
•oration D6 Mdgia (earlier than a.d. 161). into the great bathing establishments, the
He afterwards settled down at Carthage, uppermost into private houses. Private
and thence made excursions through Africa, citizens paid a tax for the water they ob-
•delivering orations or lectures. Of the rest tained from these public sources. Under
-of his life and the year of his death nothing the Republic the construction and repair of
is known. Beside the Apologia above- aqueducts devolved upon the censors, their
m.entioned, and a few rhetorical and philo- paanagement on the sediles, but from the
;sophic writings, another work, his chief one, time of Augustus on a special curator aqua-
also survives, which was composed at a ripe rum assisted by a large staff of pipe-mas-
age, with hints borrowed from a book of ters, fountain-masters, inspectors, and others,
Lucian's. This is a satirical and fantastic taken partly from the number of the pu.blic
moral romance, itfetamorpTioseow libri XI {de slaves. The amount of water brought into
Asino Aureo), the adventures of one Lucius, Rome by its numerous aqueducts, the first
"who is transformed into an ass, and under of which, the aqua Appia, was projected B.C.
that disguise has the amplest opportunities 312, may be estimated from the fact that the
of observing, undetected, the preposterous four still in use aqua virgo (now Acqua
•doings of mankind. Then, enlightened by Vergine, built by Agrippa B.C. 20), aqua
this experience, and with the enchantment Marcia (now Acqua Pia, B.C. 144), aqua
taken off him by admission into the mys- Claudia (now Acqua Felice, finislied by
teries of Osiris, he becomes quite a new man. Claudius a.d. 52), aqua Trniana (now Acqua
Of the many episodes interwoven into the Paola, constructed by Trajan a.d. Ill) are —
story, the most interesting is the beautiful sufficient to supply all the houses and innu-
allegorical fairy tale of Cupid and Psyche, merable fountains of the present city in
so much used by later poets and artists. superfluity. Among the provincial aque-
Throughout the book Apuleius paints the ducts, one is specially well preserved, that
moral and religious conditions of his time known as Pont du Gard, near Nimes, in the
with much humour and in lifelike colours, south of France (see cut on p. 48).
though his language, while clever, is often Arachne ( = spider). Daughter of the Ly-
affected, bombastic, and disfigured by obso- dian purple-dyer Idmon, challenged Athena,
lete and provincial phrases. of whom she had learnt weaving, to a weav-
Aquselicium. The Roman name for a ing match. When the offended goddess
•ceremony for bringing on rain. (See tore up Arachne's web, which represented
Jupiter.) the loves of the gods, Arachne hung herself,
Aqueducts were not unfrequently con- but Athena changed her into a spider.
structed by the Greeks, who collected the Aratus. A
Greek poet, of Soli in Cilicia,
spring-water of neighbouring hills, by chan- about 270 B.C., contemporary of Callimachus
nels cut through the rook, or by under- and Theocritus. At the request of the
ground conduits of brick and stone work, Macedonian king Antigonus Gonatas, at
into reservoirs, and thence distributed it by whose court he lived as physician, he wrote,
a network of rills. An admirable work of without much knowledge of the subject,
this kind is the tunnel, more than a mile but guided by the works of Eudoxus and
in length, which was bored through the Theophrastus, an astronomical poem, Phae-
mountain now called Kastri, by the archi- nomSna and PrognSstica (aspects of the sky
teot Eupalinus of MegSra, probably under and signs of weather). Without genuine

poetic inspiration, Aratus manages his in- at his tomb a story which expresses the

tractable material with considerable tact, high value set on his art by the ancients,
and dignified simplicity. The language, who placed him on a level with Homer,
-while not always free from stiffness, is Pindar and SophScles. For Archilochus
choice, and the versification correct. The had an extraordinary poetical genius, which
poem enjoyed a high repute with the general enabled him to invent a large number of
with poets and specialists
public, as well as : new metres, and to manipulate them with
the great astronomer Hipparchus wrote
thiis the ease of a master. He brought Iambic
a commentary on it in four books. The poetry, in particular, to artistic perfection.
Romans also took pleasure in reading and The many misfortunes of his stormy life
translating it, e.g. Cicero, Csesar Germanicus, had bred in his irritable nature a deeply-
and Avienus. settled indignation, which, inpoems perfect
Arbiter. An umpire ; especially a judge in form and alive with force and fury,
who decides according to equity, while a vented itself in bitter mockery even of
index decides according to law. his friends, and in merciless, unpardonable
Arcadius (Gr. Arkadibs. A Greek gram- abuse of his foes. Such was the effect of
marian of Antiocb, who probably flourished his lampoons, that Lycambes, who had first
in the 2nd century A.D. He was the author promised and then refused him his daughter
of a Doctrine of Accents in 20 books, an Neobtile,hanged himself and his family in
abstract of a work by the famous Herodian. the despair engendered by the poet's furious
Areas (Gr. Arkds). Son of Zeus by the attacks. Of his poems, which were written
nymph Callisto, and ancestor of the Ar- in the Old-Ionic dialect, and taken by
cadians, who was translated to the sky by Horace for his model in his Epodes, only a
Zeus as .Preterits = Watcher of the Bear. number of short fragments are preserved.
{See Callisto.) Archimedes. One of the greatest mathe-
ArchSmorus ( = leader in fate, i.e. the first maticians and natural philosophers of anti-
to die). A
surname given to Opheltes, the quity, bom B.C. 287 at Syracuse. He lived
infant son of Lycurgus king of Nemea, who at the court of his kinsman, king Hiero,
was killed by a snake during the march of and was killed (B.C. 212) by a Roman soldier
the Seven against Thebes {q.v.). It was at the taking of the city which he had
given him by the seer Amphiaraiis, who largely aided in defending with his engines.
foresaw the destruction awaiting himself Of his inventions and discoveries we need
and his confederates and by it the child
; only say, that he ascertained the ratio of the
was invoked at the Nemean Games origin- radius to the circumference, and that of the
ally founded in memory of him. cylinder to the sphere, and the hydrostatic
Archestratus, of Gela, in Sicily, flourished law that a body dipped in water loses as
about 318 B.C., and composed the humorous much weight as that of the water displaced
didactic poem HedypdtJieia ( = good cheer), by it that he invented the pulley, the end-

supposed to describe a gastronomic tour less screw, and the kind of pump called the
round the then known world, with playful " screw of Archimedes " and that he con-

echoes of Homer and the dogmatic philoso- structed the so-called " sphere," a sort of
phers. The numerous fragments display orrery showing the motions of the heavenly
much talent and wit. bodies. Of his works, written in the Doric
Arohilochus. A
Greek lyric poet, especi- dialect, the following are preserved: On the
ally eminent as a writer of lampoons. Born sphere and cylinder, On the measurement
at Paros, he was the son of Telesicles by a of the circle, On conoids and spheroids. On
slave-woman, but was driven by poverty to spiral lines, The psammltss (or sand-reck-
go with a colony to Thasos B.C. 720 or 708. oner, for the calculation of the earth's size
From Thasos he was soon driven by want in grains of sand). On the equilibrium of
and by the enmities which his unrestrained planes and their centres of gravity, and
passion for invective had drawn upon him. On floating bodies.
He seems to have roamed restlessly from Architecture : (1) of the Greeks. Of the
place to place, until, on his return to Paros, earliest efforts of the Greeks in architecture,
he was slain in fight by the Naxian Calondas. we have evidence in the so-called Cyclopean
Long afterwards, when this man visited the Walls surrounding the castles of kings in
Delphian temple,the god is said to have driven the Heroic Age at Tiryns, Argos, Mycense
him from his threshold as the slayer of a ser- and elsewhere. They are of enormous
(fig. 1),

vant of the Muses, and refused to admit him thickness, some being constructed of rude
tiU he had propitiated the soul of the poet colossal blocks, whose gaps are filled up
D. C. A.
with smaller stones ; while others are built sure-house of Atreus at Mycenae. The
of stones more or less carefully hewn, their usual form of these buildings is that of a
circular chamber vaulted over by the hori-
zontal courses approaching from all sides
till they meet. Thus the vault is not a
true arch (fig. 3). The interior seems
originally to have been covered, with metal
plates, thus agreeing with Homer's descrip-
tions of metal as a favourite ornament of
princely houses. An open-air building pre-
served from that age is the supposed Temple
of Hera on Mount Ocha (now Hagios Elias)
in Euboea, a rectangle built of regular square
blocks, with walls more than a yard thick,
two small windows, and a door with leaning
posts and a huge lintel in the southern side-
WALL OP POLYGONAL wall. The sloping roof is of hewn flagstones
resting on the thickness of the wall and
interstices exactly fitting into each other. overlapping each other ; but the centre is
Gradually they begin to show an approxi- left open as in the hypsethral temples of a
later time.
From the simple shape of a rectangular
house shut in by blank walls we gradu-
ally advance to finer and richer forms,
formed especially by the introduction of
columns detached from the wall and serv-
ing to support the roof and ceiling. Even
in Homer we find columns in the palaces to
support the halls that surround the court-
yard, and the ceiling of the banqueting-room.
The construction of columns (see Ahchitec-
TUEE, Obdees of) received its artistic de-
velopment first from the Dorians after their
migration into the Peloponnesus about
1000 B.C., next from the lonians, and from
each in a form suitable to their several
characters. If the simple serious character
mation to buildings with rectangular blocks. of the Dorians speaks in the Doric Order,
The gates let into these walls are closed at
no less does the lighter, nimbler, and more
the top either by the courses of
stone jutting over from each side
till they touch, or by a long straight
block laid over the two leaning side-
posts. Of the latter kind is the
famous Lion-gate at Mycence, so-
called from the group of two lions
standing with their forefeet on the
broad pedestal of a pillar that tapers
rapidly downwards, and remarkable
as the oldest specimen of Greek
sculpture. The sculpture is carved
on a large triangular slab that fills
an opening left in the wall to lighten
the weight on the lintel (fig. 2).
Among the most striking relics of
this prin^itiveage are the so-called
ThSsauroi, or treasuries (now re- (8)
garded as tombs) of ancient dynasties Awall of entranoe-passacre (dvffmffa), 30 ft. long. B entrance 19fc
the most considerable being the Trea- ft. high. C large chamber, 60 ft. high. D entrance (9 ft. hieM
small chamber. ° ' to

showy genius of the Ionian race come out period, in addition to many ruined temples
in the Order named after them. By about in Sicily (especially at Selinus and Agri-
650 B.C. the Ionic style was ilourishing side gentum), should be mentioned the Temple
by side with the Doric. of Poseidon at Psestum (Poseidonia) in South
As it was in the construction of Temples Italy, one of the best preserved and most
(g.v.) that architecture had developed her beautiful relics of antiq^uity (figs. 4, 5).
favourite forms, all other public buildings The patriotic fervour of the Persia,n Wars
borrowed their artistic character from the created a general expansion of Greek life,
temple. The structure and furniture of in which Architecture and the sister art of
private houses (see House), were, during Sculpture were not slow to take a part. In
the best days of Greece, kept down to the these departments, as in the whole onward-
simplest forms. About 600 B.C., in the movement, a central position was taken by
Greek islands and on the coast of Asia Athens, whose leading statesmen, Cimon and
Minor, we come across the first architects Pericles, lavished the great resources of the
known to us by name. It was then that State at once in strengthening and beauti-
Bhoscus and TheodSrus of Samos, cele- fying the city. During this period arose a


brated likewise as inventors of casting in group of masterpieces that still astonish us

bronze, built the great temple of Hera in in their ruins, some in the forms of a softened
that island, while Chersiphron of Cnosus Doric, others in the Ionic style, which had
in Crete, with his son Metagenes, began now found its way into Attica, and was here
the temple of Artemis (Diana) at Ephesus, fostered into nobler shapes. The Doric
one of the seven wonders of the world, order is represented by the Temple of
which was not finished till 120 years Theseus (fig. 6), the Propylsea built by
after. In Greece Proper a vast temple to Mnesicles, the Parthenon, a joint produc-
Zeus was begun at Athens in the 6th cen- tion of Ictinus and Callicrdtes while the ;

tury B.C. {see Oltmpiedm), and two more Erechtheum is the most brilliant creation of
at Delphi and Olympia, one by the Cor- the Ionic order in Attica. Of the influence of
inthian Spinthdrus, the other by the Blean Attic Architecture on the rest of Greece we
Libon. Here, and in the Western colonies have proof, especially in the Temple of Apollo
the Doric style still predominated every- atBassse in South- Western Arcadia,built from
-where. Among the chief remains of this the design of the above-mentioned Ictinus.

The progress of the Drama to its per- increasingly fashionable. In the first half
fection in this period led to a correspond- of the 4th century arose what the ancients
ing improvement in the building of The- considered the largest and grandest temple
atres iq.v.). A stone theatre was begun in the Peloponnesus, that of Athena at
at Athens even before the Persian Wars Tegea, a work of the sculptor and archi-
and the Odeum of Pericles served similar tect Scdpds. During the middle of the
purposes. How soon the highest results century, another of the "seven wonders,"
were achieved in this department, when the splendid tomb of Mausolus at Halicar-
once the fundamental forms had thus been nassus was constructed (see Mausoleum).
laid down in outline at Athens, is shown Many magnificent temples arose in that
by the theatre at Epidaurus, a work of time. In Asia Minor, the temple at
Polyclitus, unsurpassed, as the ancients Ephesus, burnt down by Herostratus, was
testify,by any later theatres in harmony rebuilt by Alexander's bold architect
and beauty. Another was built at Syracuse, Deinocr&tes. In the islands the ruins of
before B.C. 420. Nor is it only in the the temple of Athena at Priene, of Apollo
erection of single buildings that the great at Miletus, of Dionysus at Teos, and others.


advance then made by architecture shows even to this day offer a brilliant testi-
itself. In laying out new towns, or parts mony to their former magnificence. Among
of towns, men began to proceed on artistic Athenian buildings of that age the Monu-
principles, an innovation due to the sophist ment of Lysicrfttes (q.v.) is conspicuous
Hippod&mus of Miletus. for its graceful elegance and elaborate de-
In the 4th century B.C., owing to the velopment of the Corinthian style. In the
change wrought in the Greek mind by the succeeding age Greek architecture shows
Peloponnesian War, in place of the pure and its finest achievements in the building of
even tone of the preceding period, a desire theatres, especially those of Asiatic towns,,
for effect became more and more general, in the gorgeous palaces of newly-built royal
both in architecture and sculpture. The capitals, and in general in the luxurious-
sober Doric style fell into abeyance and completeness of private buildings. As an
gave way to the Ionic, by the side of which important specimen of the last age of Attic
a new Order, the Corinthian, said to have architecture may also be mentioned the
been invented by the sculptor Callimdchus, Tower of the Winds (q.v.) at Athens.
with its more gorgeous decorations, became (2) Architecture of the Etruscans and

Jiomans. In architecture, as well as sculp- A more vigorous advance in Roman archi-

ture, the Romans were long under the tecture dates from the opening of the 3rd
influence of the Etruscans, who, though century B.C., when they began making great
denied the gift of rising to the ideal, military roads and aqueducts. In the first
united wonderful activity
and inventiveness with a pas-
sion for covering their build-
ings with rich ornamental
carving. None of their tem-
ples have survived, for they
built all the upper parts of
wood ; but many proofs of
their activity in building re-
main, surviving from various
ages, in the shape of Tombs
and WaUs. The latter clearly
show how they progressed
from piling up polygonal
blocks in Cyclopean style to THESEUM " (4ti ft. X 105 ft.) ; see p. 51.
regular courses of squared
stone. Here and there a building still half of the 2nd century they built, on Greek
shows that the Etruscans originally made models, the first Basilica, which, besides its
vaultings by letting horizontal courses jut practical utility served to embellish the
'Over, as in the ancient Greek thSsauroi above Forum. Soon after the middle of the cen-
mentioned ; on the other hand, some very
old gateways, as at Volterra (fig. 7) and
Perugia, exhibit the true Arch of wedge-
shaped stones, the invention of which is
probably due to Etruscan ingenuity, and
from the introduction of which a new
and magnificent development of archi-
tecture takes its rise. The most impos-
ing monument of ancient Italian arch-
building is to be seen in the sewers of
Rome laid down in the 6th century B.C.
(See Cloaca Maxima.)
When all other traces of Etruscan
influence were being swept away at
Home by the intrusion of Greek forms
of art, especially after the Conquest of
Oreece in the middle of the 2nd cen-
tury B.C., the Roman architects kept
alive in full vigour the Etruscan
method of building the arch, which
they developed and completed by the
inventions of the Cross-Arch (or groined
vault) and the Dome. With the Arch,
which admits of a bolder and more varied
management of spaces, the Romans
combined, as a decorative element, the
columns of the Greek Orders. Among
these their growing love of pomp gave ^
the preference more and more to the (7)
Corinthian, adding to it afterwards a still f After Canina.)
more gorgeous embellishment in what is
called the Roman or Composite capital (see tury, appeared the first of their more am-
Aechitectuke, Oeders op). Another ser- bitious temples in the Greek style. There
vice rendered by the Romans was the intro- is simple grandeur in the ruins of the
duction of building in brick (see Potteey). Tdbuldrium, or Record-Office, built B.C. 78
on the slope of the Capitol next the Forum. aided by his son-m-la,w Agrippa, a man who
These are among the few remains of Roman understood building, not only completed his
republican architecture but in the last de-
; uncle's plans, but added many magnificent
cades of the Republic simplicity gradug,lly structures— the Forum Augusti with its
disappeared, and men were eager to displaj' Temple to Mars Ultor, the Theatre of Mar-


SBB p. 55.
(Cooke, Views of the Coliseum, pi. 13.)

a princely pomp in public and private build- cellus with its Portico of Octavia, the Mau-
ings witness the first stone theatre erected
; soleuTn, and others. Augustus could fairly
by Pompey as early as 55 B.C. Then all boast that" having found Rome a city of brick,
that went before was eclipsed by the vast he left it a city of marble." The grandest
works undertaken by Cwsar, the Theatre, monument of that age, and one of the loftiest


(9) * INTEKIOB OP COLOSSEUM ; See p. 55.

{Cooke, Tiflios 0/ t?ifl ColiBeum, pi. 4.)

Amphitheatre, Circus, Basilica Iulia,Forum creations of Roman art in general, is the

CcESdris with its Temple to Venus Grenetrix. Pantheon (q.v.) built by Agrippa, adjacent to,
These were finished by Augustus, under but not connected with, his Thermce, the first
whom Roman architecture seems to have of the many works of that kind in Rome.
reached its culminating point. Augustus, A still more splendid aspect was imnarted

to the city by the rebuilding of the Old The progress made under the Flavian em-
Town burnt down in Nero's fire, and by the perors is evidenced by Vespasian's Amphi-
" Golden House " of Nero, a gorgeous pile, theatre iq.v.) known as the Colosseum (figs.


(After Fontaiip and Hirt.)

the like of which was never seen before, but 8, 9, 10), the mightiest Roman ruin in the
which was destroyed on the violent death of world, by the ruined Thermcp., or Baths, of
its creator. Of the luxurious grandeur of Titus, and by his Triumphal Arch {q.v.\ the
oldest specimen extant in Rome of this class
of monument, itself a creation of the Roman
mind (tig. 11). But all previous buildings
were surpassed in size and splendour when
Trajan's architect Apollodorus of Damas-
cus raised the Forum Traianum with its
huge Basilica JJlpia (fig. 12) and the still
surviving Column of Trajan. No less
extensive were the works of Hadrian, who,
besides adorning Athens with many mag-

nificent buildings, bequeathed to Rome a

Temple of Venus and Roma, the most
colossal of all Roman temples (fig. 13),
and his own Mausoleum {q.v.), the core of
which is preserved in the Castle of St.
Angelo. While the works of the Antonines
already show a gradual decline in archi-
tectural feeling, the Triumphal Arch of
Severus ushers in the period of decay that
set in with the 3rd century. In this clos-
ing period of Roman rule the buildings
grow more and more gigantic, witness the
Baths of Caracalla (fig. 14), those of Dio-
cletian, with his palace at Salona (three
%fr* fa' ^ miles from Spalatro) in Dalmatia, and the
AECI-I OF TITUS. Basilica of Constantine breathing the last
private buildings we ha^% ocular proof in feeble gasp of ancient life. But outside of
the dwelling-houses of Pompeii', a paltry Rome and Italy, in every part of the enor-
country-town in comparison with Rome. mous empire to its utmost barbarian borders,

bridges, numberless remains of roads and height of the shaft is usually 5j times, the
aqueducts and viaducts, ramparts and diatamce between the columns If times the
gateways, palaces, villas, market-places diameter of the base of the column. The
and judgment-halls, baths, theatres, amphi- architrave is a quadrangular beam of stone,
theatres and temples, attest the versatility, reaching from pillar to pillar. On this again
majesty, and solidity of Roman architecture, rests the frieze, zophdros, so called from the
most of whose creations only the rudest metopes which are adorned with sculptures
shocks have hitherto been able to destroy. in relief. These metopes are square spaces
Architecture, Orders of. In Greek between the triglyphs: the triglyphs are
architecture there were three orders of surfaces cut into three concave grooves, two
columns the Doric, Ionic, and Corin-
: whole grooves in the centre, and two half
grooves at the sides. One is placed over
each pillar, and one between each pair of
pillars. The entablature is completed by a
S Cornice
projecting cornice, a slab crowned with a
simple heading-course, the lower surface of

a. Matales. d, Amiiilets.
b. TriglyphB. e. Flutings.
c. Metopes.

(1) From the Temple ot (2) From the Parthenon,

FoseiddD, FEestuin. Athens.

thian. (I) Doric: Figures 1 and 2 give

instances of the Doric style from the temple
at Psestum and the Parthenon at Athens.
The Doric column consists (a) of the shaft,
which increases in diameter almost invisibly
up to about one-quarter of its height, and
diminishes slightly after that point. It has
no base, but rests immediately on the sty-
lobate. It is surrounded with semi-circular
flutings, meeting each other at a sharp
angle. These were chiselled with a cedar- I

wood tool after the separate drums had been

put together. (6) The capital (Lat. capi-
tulum). This consists of three parts, (a) the (3)From the Temple on (4) From the Monument
hypotrdchelion, or neck of the column, a the llissuB, Athens. of Lysicrates, Athens.

continuation of the shaft, but separated by IONIC OBDER. COBINTHIAN OBDER.

an indentation from the other drums. It
is wider at the top than at the bottom, which is ornamented with sloping corbels

and is generally ornamented with several (Gk. stdgOnes, Lat. mUtulz).

parallel and horizontal rings. (6) The (II) Ionic Columns. An instance is given
echinus, a circular moulding or cushion, in fig. 3 from the temple on the Ilissus at
which widens greatly towards the top. (c) Athens. These are loftier than theDoric, their
The abax or dbdcus, a square slab sup- height being 8f-9| times the diameter of the
porting the architrave or epistylion. The lower part. The enlargement of the lower

, part is also less than in the Doric .columns, column, but not always in their pure form.
the distance between each column greater They were fondest of the Corinthian, which
(two diameters), the flutings (generally 24 they laboured to enrich with new and often
in number) deeper, excessive ornamentation. For instance, they
and separated by crowned the Corinthian capital with the
small flat surfaces. l
]l MmMm^^° Cornice, a Ionic, thus forming what is called the Roman
The Ionic column or composite capital.
has a base, consist- The style known as Tuscan is a degenerate
ing of a square slab form of the Doric. The Tuscan column has
a smooth shaft, in height =7 diameters of
{plinthos), and
several cushion- the lower part, and tapering up to three-
like supports sepa- quarters of its lower dimensions. Its base
rated by grooves. consists of two parts, a circular plinth, and
The capital, again, a cushion of equal height. The capital is
is more artistically formed of three parts of equal height.
developed. The In other styles, too, the Romans sometimes
neck, instead of adopted the smooth instead of the fluted
flutings, has five shaft, as for instance in the Pantheon (fig. 5).
leaves worked in Single columns were sometimes erected
relief. The echinus by the Greeks, and in imitation of them by
is very small and |
the Romans, as memorials to distinguished
ornamented with
an egg pattern. Shaft.

Over it, instead of

the abacus, is a
cushion ending be-
fore and behind in
spiral volutes, sup-
porting a narrow
square slab, which
is also adorned with
an egg pattern.
The architrave is
divided into three a. Oyma recta, k. Volutcs.
I J b Corona.

i.* ii. Astragal.
bands, projecting „. Modiiiions. i. Toras
one above the a- o™io. t. Trochiius.
, T , - , e. Cymation. 1. Quadra,
other, and upon it f. Abacus. m. Plinth.
rises, in an unin- (5) From the PantheoB, Rome.
terrupted surface, corinthian order.
the frieze, adorned
with reliefs continuously along its whole
length. Finally, the cornice is composed of
different parts.
(Ill) The Corinthian column (fig. 4, from
the monument
of LysicrS,tes, at Athens).
The base and shaft are identical with the
Ionic, but the capital takes the form of
an open cdlix formed of acanthus leaves.
Above this is another set of leaves, from
between which grow stalks with small
leaves, rounded into the form of volutes.
On this rests a small dbdcus widening to-
wards the top, and on this again the entab- (0) * COLU.MJi OF MARCOS AURKLIUS.
lature, which is borrowed from the Ionic (With its surroundinss as restored by Canina, Arch. Rom,
tar. 201.)
order. On the human figures emplo3'ed
instead of columns to support the entabla- persons. A
good example is the Columna
, ture,, see Atlas, Canephoei, Caryatides. Eostrata, or column with its shaft adorned
The Romans adopted the Greek styles of with the beaks of ships, in the Roman


Forum. This was set up in commemora- and judicial functions, relics of their once
tion of the naval victory of Duilius over regal power.
the Carthaginians (261 B.C.). Among the The titles and duties of the several Ar-
columns which survive, the most magnifi- chons are as follows: (1) Their president,
cent is that of Trajan, erected in the Forum named emphatically Archon, or Archon
of Trajan 113 a.d. It rises on a quadran- EponymSs, because the civil year was
gular pediment to the height of 124 feet named after him. He had charge of the
its diameter below is about 10 feet, and a Great Dionysia, the Thargelia, the embas-
little less in the upper part. An interior sies to festivals (theorice), the nomination of
spiral staircase of 185 steps leads to the choregi / also the position of guardian in
summit. The shaft, formed of twenty-three chief, and the power to appoint guardians,
drums of marble, is adorned with a series the presidency in all suits about family rights
of reliefs, 3 feet 3 inches high and 200 feet (such as questions of divorce or inherit-
long, in a series of twenty-two spirals. ance), and in disputes among the choregi.
They represent scenes in Trajan's Dacian — (2) The Archon Basileus (king), called
campaigns, and contain 2,500 human figures, so because on him devolved certain sacred
with animals, engines, etc. On a cylindrical rites inseparably connected with the name
pedestal at the summit there once stood a of king. He had the care of the Eleusinian
gilded statue of the emperor, which, since Mysteries (and was obliged therefore to be
the year 1587, has made way for a bronze an initiated person), of the Lencea and
figure of St. Peter. A similar column is Anthesteria, of gymnastic contests, to which
that of Marcus Aurelius, 122 feet high, on he appointed a superintendent, and of a
the Piazza Oolonna. Since 1589 the statue number of antiquated sacrifices, some of
of St. Paul has been substituted for that of which fell the share of his wife, the
the emperor. The reliefs, in twenty spirals, Basilissa (queen) and lastly, the position

represent events in the emperor's war with of president in all suits touching religious
the Marcomanni. law, including those trials for murder that
Architheoria. One of the public services came within the jurisdiction of the EphStm
called liturgice at Athens it was the obli-
; (q.v.). (3) The Archon Polemarchos
gation to furnish forth the sacred embassies (leader in war) was originally entrusted
(theorice) to the four great national festivals, with the war-department, and, as late as the
also to Delphi and other holy places. (See battle of Marathon, had the right of voting
Leitoubgia.) with the ten generals, and the old royal
Archon (= ruler), the Athenian name for privilege of commanding the right wing.
the supreme authority established on the Afterwards he only had charge of the state
abolition of royalty. On the death of the sacrifices offered to the gods of war and to
last king, Codrus, B.C. 1068, the headship of the shade of Harmodius, the public funerals-
the state for life was bestowed on his son of those who fell in war and the annual
Medon and his descendants under the title feasts in honour of them; finally, the juris-
of Archon. In 752 B.C. their term of office diction in all questions concerning the
was cut down to ten years, in 714 their personal and family rights of resident aliens
exclusive privilege was abolished, and the {metaeci) and strangers. All this rested on the
right to hold the office thrown open to all old assumption that foreigner meant enemy.
the nobility, while its duration was dimin- Each of these three superior Archons had two
ished to one year; finally in B.C. 683 the assessors chosen by himself, but responsible.
power was divided among nine archons. By (4) The Six 'Z'Tieswd^fte tee (literally law-
Solon's legislation, his wealthiest class, the givers) administered justice in all cases not
pentacosio-medimni, became eligible to the pertaining to the senior Archons or some
office and by Aristides' arrangement aftor
; other authority, revised the laws once a
the Persian Wars it was thrown open to all year, and superintended the apportioning
the citizens, Cleisthenes halving previously, of public offices by lot. The several Ar-
in the interests of the democracy, substituted chons exercised their jurisdiction at different
the drawing of lots for election by vote. spots in the city; that of the Polemarch
[See Note on p. 706.] The political power alone lay outside the walls. Duties common
of the office, having steadily decreased with to all nine were: the yearly appointment
time, sank to nothing when democracy was by lot of the Heliastce {q-v.), the choice of
established its holders had no longer even
; umpires in the Panathensea, the holding of
the right to deliberate and originate motions, elections of the generals and other military
their action being limited to certain priestly officers, jurisdiction in the case of officials

suspended or deposed by tlie people, and defined ; often acted in the name of, and

latterly even in suits which had previously with fullpowers from, the people, which
been subject to the nautOdtcce. {See Nau- also accepted its decisions on all possible
TODic^.) If they had discharged their subjects. Under the Roman rule it was
office without blame, they entered the still regarded as the supreme authority.
Areopagus as members for life. The office Then, as formerly, it exercised a most
of Archon lasted even under the Roman rule. minute vigilance over foreigners.
Archytas of Tarentum. Distinguished Ares (Lat. Mars). The Greek name for
as a general, statesman and mathematician, the god of war, son of Zeus by Hera, whose
a leading representative of the Pythagorean quarrelsome temper Homer supposes to have
philosophy, who flourished about 400-365 passed over to her son so effectively that
B.C. {See Pythagoeas.) he delighted in nothing but battle and blood-
Arctlnus (Gr. Arktlnos). A Greek epic shed. His insatiable thirst for blood makes
poet. See Epos. him hateful to his father and aU the gods,
Areitholis. King of Arne in Bosotia, especially Athena. His favourite haunt is
called the " club-swinger " because he the land of the wild and warlike Thracians.
fought with an iron mace. Irresistible in In form and equipment the ideal of warlike
the open field, he was waylaid by king heroes, who are therefore called "Ares-like"
Lycurgus of Arcadia in a narrow pass and " darlings of Ares," he advances, ac-
where he could not swing his club, and cording to Homer, now on foot, now in a
killed. His son Menesthius fell by the chariot drawn by magnificent steeds, at-
hand of Paris, before Troy. tended by his equally bloodthirsty sister
Areopagus (Gr. Areids pdgds). An ancient Eris (strife), his sons Deimds and Phdbos
criminal court at Athens, so named because (fear and fright), and Enyo, the goddess of
it sat on Ares' Hill beside the Acropolis, where battle and waster of cities (he himself being
the god of war was said to have been tried called Eny&lios), rushing in blind rage
for the murder of Halirrothius the son of through indiscriminate slaughter. Though
Poseidon. {See Ares.) Solon's legislation fighting on the Trojan side, the bloodshed
raised the Areopagus into one of the most only is dear to his heart. But his unbridled
powerful bodies by transferring to it the strength and blind valour turn to his dis-
greater part of the jurisdiction of the Ephetse advantage, and always bring about his
(q.v.), as well as the supervision of the entire defeat in the presence of Athena, the god-
public administration, the conduct of ma- dess of ordered battalions he is also beaten

gistrates, the transactions of the popular by heroes fighting under her leadership, as
assembly, religion, laws, morals and disci- by Her&cles in the contest with Cycnus, and
pline, and giving it power to call even private by Diomedes before Troy. And this view
people to account for offensive behaviour. of Ares as the bloodthirsty god of battles
The " Court of Areopagus," as its full name is in the main that of later times also. As
ran, consisted of life-members (Areopagites), early as Homer he is the friend and lover
who supplemented their number by the of Aphrodite, who has borne him Eros
addition of such archons as had discharged and Anteros, Deimos and Phobos, as well
their duties without reproach. Not only as HarmSnia, wife of Cadmus the founder
their age, but their sacred character of Thebes, where both goddesses were wor-
tended to increase the influence of the shipped as ancestral deities. He is not
Areopagites. They were regarded as in named so often as the gods of peace, but,
a measure ministers of the ErinySs or as Ares or Enyalios, he was doubtless
EumSnXdSs (Furies), who imder the name worshipped everywhere, notably in Sparta,
of SemncB (venerable) had their cave im- in Arcadia and (as father of (Enomaiis) in
mediately beneath the Areopagus, and Elis. At Sparta young dogs were sacrified
whose worship came under their care. The to him under the title of TherU&s. At
Areopagus proving too conservative for the Athens the ancient site of a high court of
headlong pace of the Athenian democracy, justice, the AreSpSgus, was consecrated to
its general right of supervising the admi- him. There, in former days, the Olympian
nistration was taken from it by the law gods had sat in judgment on him and
of Ephialtes, in 462 B.C., and transferred to absolved him when he had slain Halir-
a new authority, the Ndmophyldkfs (guar- rhothius for offering violence to Alcippe,
dians of the laws); but it recovered this his daughter by Agraulus. His symbols
right on the fall of the Thirty. Its political were the spear and the burning torch.
powers seem never to have been clearly Before the introduction of trumpets, two

priests of Ares, marohing in front of the of springs, especially of one in Elis, and
armies, hurled the torch at the foe as the one on the Island of Ortygia in the port of
signal of battle. Syracuse, which was supposed to have a
subterranean communication with the river
Alpheus in Elis. The two fountains were
associated by the following legend. As the
nymph of Elis, tired with the chase, was
bathing in the Alpheus, the river-god fell
passionately in love with her she fled from

him to Ortygia, where Artemis hid her in

the ground, and let her gush out of it in the
form of a fountain but Alpheus flowed on

under the sea to Ortygia, and so united

himself with his beloved one. The story is
explained by the likeness of name in the
fountains, by the circumstance that Artemis,
was worshipped both in Elis and Ortygia
as AlpJiecea, and by the fact that in some
places the Alpheus actually does run un-
(2) One of the {q.v.).
Argei. The name of certain chapels at.
Rome, probably twenty-four in number,
each of the four tribes of the city having
six. To these chapels a procession, was
made on March 16 and 17, at which the
wife of the Elamen Dialis walked with
unkempt hair as a sign of mourning. On
May 16 the Pontiffs, Vestal Virgins, Prse-
tors, and all citizens who had a right to
AKES. assist at sacrifices, marched to the wooden
(Rome, Villa Ludovisi.) bridge over the Tiber {Pons SuhUcvus),
and after sacrificing, threw into the river
In works of art he was represented as a twenty-four men of straw, likewise named
young and handsome man of strong sinewy Argei, which had probably been hung up
frame, his hair in short curls, and a some- in the chapels at the first procession, and
what sombre look in his countenance in ; were fetched away at the second. The
the early style he is bearded and in ar- sacrifice was regarded as expiatory, and the
mour, in the later beardless and with only puppets as substitutes for former human
the helmet on. He often represented in
is victims. The meaning of the name was
company with Aphrodite and their boy unknown to the ancients, and so was the-
Eros, who plays with his father's arms. deity to whom the sacrifice was offered.
One of the most famous statues extant is Argentarii. See Monet-Changers.
that in the Villa Ludovisi, which displays Argenteus. A Roman silver coin current
him in an easy resting attitude, with his from the end of the 3rd century a.d. and
arms laid aside, and Eros at his feet. (See onwards. See Coinage.
cut.) On his identification with the Italian Argo. The ship of the Argonauts {q.v.),.
Mars, see Maes. named after her builder Argos.
ArStSBUs. A Greek physician, born in Argonauts. Those who sailed in th&
Cappadocia, towards the end of the 2nd cen- Argo with Jason, son of ^son and grandson
tury A.D. He was the author of two valu- of Cretheus {see JEoLUS, 1), a generation
able works (each in four books), written in before the Trojan war, to ^a, which in
the Ionic dialect, on the causes and symp- later times was understood to be Colchis,
toms of acute and chronic pains, and on lying at the farthest end of the Black Sea..
their cure. The object of the expedition was to fetch
Arete. Wife of
Alcinoiis king of the back the golden fleece of the ram on which.
Phseacians (see both), and protectress of Phrixus the son of Athamas (q.v.) ha4
Odysseus (q.v.). fled, from his father and his stepmother
ArSthiisa. (1) In Greece a frequent name Ino, to the magician .^etes, king of ^a..
Hospitably received by him, and married cluded among the number of the Argonauts,
to his daughter Chalciope, he had sacrificed e.g. Her&cles, Castor and Polydeuces, Idas
the ram, and hung its fleece up in the grove and Lynceus, Calais and Zetes the sons of
of Ares, where it was guarded by a sleep- Boreas, Peleus, Tydeus, Meleager, Amphiar
less dragon. The task of fetching it back rails, Orpheus, Mopsusi and Idmon the pro-
was laidupon Jason by his uncle Pelias, phets of the expedition, and even the hunt-
son of Poseidon and Tyro, who had deprived ress Atalante. Jason takes the command,
his half-brother .iEson of the sovereignty and Tiphys manages the helm. Setting sail
of lolcSs in Thessaly. ^Eson, to protect from PSg3,sse the port of lolcos, the Argo-
his son from the plots of Pelias, had con- nauts make the Island of Lemnos, where
veyed him secretly to the centaur Chiron only women dweU, and after some con-
on Mount PeliQn, who brought him up till siderable stay there {see Htpsipyle) go past
he was twenty years of age. Then Jason Samothrace and through the Hellespont to
came home, and without a shoe on his left the island of Cyzicus, where they are hos-
foot, having lost it in wading through a pitably received by Cyzicus, the king of
mountain torrent, presented himself before the Doliones, but attempting to proceed,
Pelias, demanding his father's restoration are beaten back by a storm at night, and
to his sovereignty. The crafty Pelias, being taken by their late friends for pirates,
whom an oracle had warned against a one- are attacked, and have the ill-fortune to kill
shoed man, promised on his oath to do their young king. On the coast of Mysia
what he asked, if Jason would go instead they leave Heracles behind to look for Hylas
of himself to fetch the golden fleece. This {q.v.) who has been carried off by nymphs.
task the oracle had imposed upon himself, On the Bithynian shore Polydeuces van-
but he was too old to perform it. Another quishes the Bebrycian king Amycus {q.v.)
version of the story is, that Jason, after in a boxing match. At Sahnydessus in
completing his education with Chiron, pre- Thrace the blind seer Phineus, whom Calais
ferred to live in the country that he
; and Zetes had rid of the Harpies, his tor-
came, with one shoe on, to a sacrifice that mentors, instructs them with regard to the
Pelias was offering to Poseidon on the sea- rest of their journey, and especially how to
shore; that Pelias asked him what he sail through the Symplegades, two floating
would do if he were king and had been rocks that clash together at the entrance to
forewarned of his death at the hand of a the Black Sea. By his advice Jason sends
subject and that, upon Jason answering
; a dove before him, and as she has only her
that he would make him fetch the golden tail-feathers cut off by the colliding rocks,
fleece, Pelias gave him the commission. they venture on the feat of rowing the Argo
Hera had put that answer in Jason's through. By Hera's help, or, according to
mouth, because she regarded him with another account, that of Athena, they do
favour, and wished to punish Pelias for what no man has done before; they pass
having slain Sidero in her temple. {See through, the ship only losing her rudder.
Salmoneus.) Skirting the southern shore of the Pontus,
The vessel for the voyage, the fifty-oared they meet with a friendly reception from
Argo, is said to have been named after its Lycus, king of the Maryandini, though here
builder Argos, a son of Phrixus, after his the seer Idmon is killed by a wild boar in
return to OrchOmenus, the home of his hunting, and the helmsman Tiphys dies of a
fathers. The ship was built of the pines of disease, whereupon Ancseus takes his place.
Pelion under the direction of Athena, like Past the land of Amazons they come to the
Hera, a protectress of Jason, who inserted Island of Aretias, whence they scare away
in the prow a piece of the speaking oak of the Stymphalian birds (see Heracles), and
Dodona. The heroes who at Jason's call take on board the sons of Phrixus, who had
took part in the expedition, fifty all told been shipwrecked there on their way to
according to the number of the oars, were Greece. At length they reach the mouth of
originally, in the version to which the the Phasis in the land of the Colchians.
Minyan family gave currency, Minyans of Upon Jason's demand, .iEetes promises to
lolcos, Orchomenus, Pylos, and other places. give up the golden fleece, on condition that
Among them were Acastus the son of Pelias, Jason catches two brazen-hoofed, fire-breath-
a close friend of Jason, Admetus, Erglnus, ing bulls, yokes them to a brazen plough,
Euphemus, Periclymenus, and Tiphys. But, and ploughs with them the field of Ares,
as the story spread, all the Greek heroes that sows the furrows with dragons' teeth, and
could have been living at the time wei-e in- overcomes the mail-clad men that are to

spring out of them. The hero has given up Jason's mother has taken her own life.
all hope of success, when Aphrodite kindles Medea sets to work to avenge them. Before
in the breast of the king's daughter Medea the eyes of Pelias' daughters she cuts up
an irresistible love for the stranger. Medea an old he-goat, and by boiling it in a magic
gives him an ointment to protect him from cauldron, restores it to life and youth.
the fiery breath of the bulls, as well as the Promising in like manner to renew the
strength to harness them, and advises him youth of the aged Pelias, she induces them
to throw a stone in among the earth-born to kill their father, and then leaves them in
giants, who will then kill each other. But the lurch. Driven away by Acastus, the
when all this done, jEetes does not give up son of the murdered king, Jason and Medea
the fleece. Then Jason with the help of take refuge with Creon king of Corinth.
Medea, whom he promises to take home But, after ten years of happy wedlock, Jason
with him as his wife, throws the dragon resolves to marry Croon's daughter Creusa
that guards it into a sleep, takes it down, or Glance. On this Medea kills the bride
and escapes with Medea and his comrades. and her father by sending the unsuspecting
jEetes sends his son Absyrtus in pursuit, maiden a poisoned robe and diadem as a
whom Jason kills by stratagem. Another bridal gift, murders her own two sons Mer-
story is, that Medea takes her little brother merus and Pheres in her faithless husband's
Absyrtus with her, cuts him to pieces, and sight, and escaping in a car drawn by ser-
throws the limbs one by one into the sea, pents, sent by her grandfather HeliSs,
that her father, while pursuing her, might makes her way to .Slgeus king of Athens.
be delayed in picking them up and laying {See Medea.) Jason is said to have come
them out. by his death through the Argo, which he
As to the Return of the Argonauts the had set up and consecrated on the Isth-
legends differ considerably. One of the mus. One day, when he was lying down
oldest makes them sail up the Phasis into to rest under the ship, the stern fell off and
the river Oceanus, and over that to Libya, killed him.
where they drag the ship twelve days' The legend of the Argonauts is ex-
journey overland to Lake Tritonis, and get tremely ancient ; even Homer speaks of
home across the Mediterranean. Other ac- it as tmiversally known. We first find it
counts agree with this in substance, while treated in detail in Pindar then the Alex-

others again mix up the older tradition with andrian poet ApoUonius of Ehodes tried to
the adventures of Odysseus the heroes sail
: harmonise the various versions, and was fol-
up the Danube into the Adriatic, and are lowed by the Latin poet Valerius Elaccus
within hail of Oorcyra (Corfu), when a storm and the late Grreek Pseudo-Orpheus.
breaks out, and the piece of oak from Dodona Argus. (1) Son of InSchus, Agen5r or
foretells their ruin unless they have the Arestor or, according to another account,

murder of Absyrtus expiated by Circe. an earthborn giant, who had eyes all over
Then they sail up the Eridanus into the his body, whence he was called Panoptes,
Ehone, and so into the Tyrrhenian sea to the or all-seeing. Hera set him
to watch lo
island of Circe, who purifies them. They go (q.v.) when transformedinto a cow; but
past the island of the Sirens, against whose Hermes, at Zeus' bidding, sent all his eyes
magic the songs of Orpheus protect them. to sleep by the magic of his wand and flute,
All but Elites {q.v.) pass in safety between and cut his head off with a sickle-shaped
Scylla and Charybdis with the help of the sword, whence his title Argeiphontss was
gods, and reach the isle of the Phseacians, explained to mean " slayer of Argus." Hera
where Jason marries Medea to evade the set the eyes of her dead watchman in the
sentence of their host Alcinoiis, who, in his tail of her sacred bird the peacock.
capacity as umpire, has given judgment Son of Phrixus and Chalciope, the
that the maid Medea be delivered up to her daughter of ^etes. He is said to have come
Colchian pursuers. Already within sight of to OrchSmenus, the home of his father, and to
the Peloponnesus, a storm drives them into have built the Argo, which was named after
the Libyan Syrtes, whence they carry their him. According to another account he was
ship, saved by divine assistance, to Lake shipwrecked with his brothers at the Island
Tritonis. Thence, guided by Triton (see of Aretias on their way to Greece, and
EuPHEMUs) into the Mediterranean, they thence carried to Colchis by the Argonauts.
return by way of Crete to lolcos. Argyraspides (silver-shielded). In the
During their absence Pelias has put to later army of Alexander the Great, the
death .Sison and his son Prom&chus, and remnant of the Macedonian heavy-armed
infantry,who had crossed the Hellespont tortoiseshell {testUdo arietina), and resting
with the king, were formed into a corps of on a framework that ran upon wheels. To
Guards in the heavy infantry of the line, protect the roof and sides of the shell
and named frciui their shields being over- against fire thrown from the walls, they
laid with Indian silver. After Alexander's were coated with raw or well soaked hides,
death the corps was disbanded by AntlgSnus or other similar contrivances. The loos-
on account of its overweening pretensions. ened stones were picked out of the wall
Ariadne. The daughter of Minos and with a strong iron hook at the end of a pole,,
Pasiphae, who fell in love with Theseus the wall-sickle {falx muralis) as it was called.
when he came to Crete to kill the Minotaur, Single holes we-e punched in the wall with
and gave him a clue of yarn, to help him the wall-borer {tSrSbra), a ram with a sharp-
to find his way back to the light of day point,which was pushed forward on rollers.
monster in the Labyrinth.
after slaying the The besieged tried to knock the ram's
She then fled away with him. Homer head off by dropping heavy stones on it, or
represents Ariadne as slain by Artemis in to catch it in a noose and turn the blow
the Island of Dia, close to Crete, at the aside or upwards, or to destden the force of
request of Dionysus. But the later legend its blows with sandbags and mats. If the
shifts the scene to the Isle of Naxos, where town wished to secure indulgent treatment,
the slumbering Ariadne is deserted by it had to surrender before the ram touched
Theseus. Waking up, she is on the brink the walls. {See Sieges.)
of despair, when Dionysus comes and raises Ariou. A Greek poet and musician, of
her to the dignity of a god's wife. Zeus Methymna in LesbSs, who flourished about
grants her immortality, and sets her bridal 625 B.C. In the course of a roving Hfe he
gift, a crown, among the stars. She re- spent a considerable time at the court of
ceived divine honours at Naxos her festivals
: Periander, tyrant of Corinth. Here he flrst
were held, now with dismal rites recalling gave the dithyramb (q.v.) an artistic form,
her abandonment, now with bacchanalian and was therefore regarded as the inventor
revelry becoming the happy bride of Dio- of that style in general. He is best known
nysus. At Athens in the autumn they by the story of his rescue on the back of a
held a joj'ous festival to her and Dionysus, dolphin. Returning from an artistic journey
which Theseus was supposed to have through Lower Italy and Sicily to his patron,
founded on his return from Crete. In he trusted himself to a crew of Corinthian
Italy, where they identified Dionysus with sailors, who resolved to kill him on the open
their wine-god Liber, they also took Ari- sea for the sake of his treasures. As a last
adne for the wine-goddess Libera. favour he extorted the permission to sing
Aries (Gr. krios). The Battering-ram, his songs once more to the lyre, and then
one of the most effective engines used by to throw himself into the sea. His strains
the ancients to make a breach in the walls drew a number of dolphins around him, one
of a besieged town. Originally it con- of which took him on its back, and carried
sisted of a strong pole, with iron-mounted him safe to land at the foot of the foreland
head, brought up to the wall in earlier of Tsen&rum. Thence he hastened to Cor-
times by hand, in later times on wheels. inth, and convicted the sailors, who were
In its final form it was constructed in the tellingPeriander they had left the minstrel
following manner. Astout beam, sometimes safe at Tarentum. A bronze statue of a
composed of several pieces, and measuring man on a dolphin, which stood on the top-
from 65 to 100 feet long or more, was hung of Tsenaron, was supposed to be his thank-
by ropes on a strongly mounted horizontal offering to Poseidon. [Herodotus, i 24.]'
beam, and swung backwards and forwards, A Thanksgiving Hymn to the god of the
so as to loosen the stones of the wall, and sea, preserved under his name, belongs to a
make it fall. As the engine stood close to later time.
AristsBugtus. A
Greelc grammarian and
rhetorician, of Nicsea in Bithynia, friend of
Libanius, who praises him in the highest
terms ; he was killed in an earthquake at
Nicomedia, a.d. 358. His name is erroneously
attached to a collection, probably composed
in the 5th or 6th century, of Erotic Epistles,
the wall, the men working it were sheltered feeble imitations of Alciphron, loose in tone-
by a roofed shell of boards, called the ram- and declamatory in style.
AristSBUB. A beneficent deity worshipped the notes, and the reasons for appending
in varioua parts of Greece, especially in them, were explained in separate commen-
Thessaly, Boeotia, the African colony of taries and excursuses, founded on a mar-
Gyrene, and the Islands of Ceos, Corcyra, vellously minute acquaintance with the
Sicily and Sardinia. He gives his blessing language and contents of the Homeric
to herds, hunting, bee-keeping, wine, oil poems, and the whole of Greek literature.
and every kind of husbandry. In particular He was the head of the school of Aristar-
he defends men, animals and plants from cheans, who continued working on classical
the destructive heat of the dog-days. Ac- texts in his spirit till after the beginning
cording to the story most in vogue, he of the Empire. Of his numerous gram-
is the son of Apollo by the Thessalian matical and exegetical works only fragments
nymph Gyrene, whom the god carried off remain. An idea of his Homeric studies,
to the country named after her. She is and of their character, can best be gathered
the daughter of Hypseus, and granddaugh- from the Venetian scholia to the Iliad, which
ter (another story says daughter) of the are largely founded on extracts from the
river-god Peneus. After his birth Hermes Aristarcheans Didymus and Aristonicus.
took AristsBus to the Hours and Gsea, the god- Aristlas. See Pkatinas.
dess of the earth, who brought him up and, (1) of Thebes. A celebrated
made him an immortal god. Sometimes Grreek painter, the pupil of his father or
he is called the son of Uranus (Heaven) brother Nicomachus. He flourished about
and Gsea (Earth). In the Theban legend he 350 B.C., and was distinguished for his
and Autonoe the daughter of Cadmus are mastery in the expression of the feelings.
represented as the parents of Actseon. He His most celebrated picture was that of a
brought destruction upon the nymph Eury- conquered city. Its central group repre-
dice, the beloved of Orpheus ; for in fleeing sented a mother dying of a wound, and
from his persecutions she was killed by a holding back her infant, who is creeping
snake. [Vergil, Qeorg. iv 315-558.] to her bosom, that it may not drink blood
Aristarchus. (1) A tragic poet of Tegea, instead of milk. Notwithstanding the
a contemporary of Euripides ; he is said to hardness of their colouring, his works com-
have lived more than a hundred years. Of manded very high prices. Thus for one
his 70 dramas only two titles remain. representing a scene in the Persian wars,
(2)A mathematician and astronomer of containing 100 figures, he received 1,000
Samos, who lived and studied at Alexandria minse (about £3,383). [Pliny, N. H. xxxv
about 270 B.C., and with his ptipil Hip- 98-100.]
parchus greatly advanced the science of (2) Aristides of Miletus, of the 1st or
astronomy. He was the first who main- 2nd century B.C., was the author of a series
tained the earth's motion round the sun of love-stories, called Milesidca, from Mi-
and on its own axis. We still possess a letus, the scene of the events. These, so
fragment of a treatise by him on the size far as we know, are the first examples of
of the sun and moon, and their distances the prose romance. They were widely read
from the earth. in antiquity, especially among the Romans,
(3) A scholar, born in Samothraoe, and a for whose benefit they were translated into
pupil of Aristophanes of Byzantium. He Latin by the historian Sisenna. Only a
lived at Alexandria in the first half of the few fragments of them have survived.
2nd century B.C. as tutor to the royal (3) Publius ^lius Aristides, sumamed
princes, and keeper of the library. In the Theodorus, was a Greek rhetorician, born at
tyrannical reign of his pupil Ptolemy VII Hadriani in Bithynia A.D. 117 or 129. He
(Physcon) he fled to Gyprus, and there died was educated by the most celebrated rheto-
of dropsy about B.C. 153, aged 72. He is ricians of the time, Polemon of Pergamus,
the most famous of the Alexandrian Critics, and Herodes Atticus of Athens, and made
and devoted his attention mainly to the long journeys through Asia, Egypt, Greece
Greek poets, especially Homer, to whom he and Italy. On his return he was seized
rendered essential service by his critical with an illness that lasted thirteen years,
edition of the text, w;hich remains in sub- but which he never allowed to interrupt
stance the groundwork of our present recen- his studies. His rhetoric, in which he
sion. This edition had notes on the margin, took Demosthenes and Plato for his models,
indicating the verse's which Aristarchus was immensely admired by his contempor-
thought spurious or doubtful, and anything aries he also stood in high favour with

else worthy of remark. The meaning of the emperors, especially Marcus Aurelius,
D. c. A. F
who at his appeal caused Smyrna to be re- dialect, which have come down under his
built after an earthquake in 178 A.D. The , name, are undoubtedly spurious.
chief scenes of his activity were Athens Aristobulns. A.Greek historian, who in
and Smyrna, where he died about a.d. 190. his youth accompanied Alexander th? Great
Beside two treatises of rhetorical and tech- on his campaigns. In his eighty-fifth year,
nical import, we still possess -fifty-five of wheiji living at Cassandrea in Thrace, he
his orations, which he took great pains wrote a work upon Alexander, in which

to elaborate. They are characterized by he recorded his careful observations on geo-

depth and fulness of thought, and are graphy, ethnography, and natural science.
written in powerful, concise^ often difficult The book is highly praised for its trust-

and obscure language. Some are eulogies worthiness, but only fragments of it have
on deities and cities (Rome, for instance, reached us. He and Ptolemy were the
and Smyrna), others are declamations after chief authorities for Arrian's Anabdsis.
ancient- models, as the Panathendicus after Aristocles. (1) A Greek artist, and like
IsocrStes, and the speech against Leptines his brother Canachus, a sculptor in bronze at
after Demosthenes. Others treat of his- Sicyon. He flourished about 480 B.C. and;

torical subjects taken from the times of founded a school at Sicyon that lasted for a
Greek independence. A peculiar interest long time. (2) There was an Athenian
attaches to the six Sacred Orations, so sculptor of the same name and of the same
named because they treat of hints given period, author of a relief known as The
by Asclepius on the cure of his illness, Athenian Hoplite, one of our oldest monu-
which he received in a state of somnam- ments of Attic art. {See cut underHoPLiTEs).
bulism, and imparted aloud to his friends. Ariston. The second breakfast of the
(4) Aristides Quintilianus. A
Greek Greeks. {See Meals.)
musician, who lived probably in the 2nd Aristophanes. (1) The comedian, who
century a.d., and composed an encyclopsedia lived at Athens, B.C. 444-388. His father
of music (De Mustca) in three books. The Philippus is said to have been not a native
first gave a concise account of harmony, Athenian, but a settler from Rhodes or
rhythm, and metre, the second dealt with Egypt, who afterwards acquired the citi-
the educating influence of music on the zenship. However this may be, the de-
soul, and the third described, on Pythago- magogue Cleon, whose displeasure Aristo-
rean principles, the doctrine of arithmetic phanes had incurred, tried to call in ques-
intervals,- and the harmony of the universe tion his right to the citizenship. His first
as resting on the same relations. Notwith- comedy came out in B.C- 427, but was not
standing many defects, the work has the performed under his own name because of his
merit of being the completest of its kind youth and several more of his plays were

which has come down to us from anti- brought on the stage by Callistratus and
quity. Philonldes, till in 424 he brought out the
Aristippus. AGreek philosopher, a na- Knights in his own person. Forty-four
tive of Gyrene, and a pupil of Socrates, of his plays were known in antiquity, though
after whose death in B.C. 399 he travelled four of them were considered doubtful.
about the Greek cities, imparting instruc- Of these we possess eleven, the only com-
tion for money. He was the founder of the plete Greek comedies which have survived,
Cyrenaic school, or the system of HedSnism besides the titles, and niimerous fragments,
(from 7igd5nff= pleasure). His doctrine of twenty-six others. The eleven are (1):

was, that as a basis for human knowledge the The Acharnians, which gained him the
only things real and true are our sensations, victory over Cratinus and EnpSlis B.C. 425,
not the external objects that produce them ;
written during the great Peloponnesian war
that the aim of life is what all living things to induce the Athenians to makepeace. (2)
strive after, pleasure; and that virtue is ITie Knifjhts mentioned above, B.C. 424, also
only so far a good thing as it tends to crowned with the first prize, and aimed
the production of pleasure. The wise man directly against Cleon. (3) Tlie Clouds,
shows his wisdom in governing his de- B.C. 428, his most famous and, in his own
sires; mental training, indeed, being the opinion, his most successful piece, though
only thing which can qualify us for real when played it only won the third prize.
enjoyment. In pleasure there is no differ- We have it only in a second, and apparently
ence of kind, only of degree and duration. unfinished, edition. It is directed against
Aristippus' writings seem to have disap- the pernicious influence of the Sophists,
peared early; five letters in the Doric as the representative of whom Socr&tes is

attacked. (4) The Waspn, brought out in with perfect mastery of language and tech-
B.C. 422 and, like the two following, re- nical skill. If his jokes are often coarse
warded with the second prize it is a
; and actually indecent, the fact must be im-
satire .upon the Athenian passion for law- puted to the character of the Old Comedy
suits. (5) The Peace, of the year B.C. 421, and the licentiousness of the Dionysiac fes-
recommending the conclusion of peace. (6) tival, during which the plays were acted.
The Birds, actedin B.C. 414, and exposing No literature has anything to compare
the romantic hopps built on the expedition with these comedies. Ancient scholars, re-
to Sicily. This i's unquestionably the hap- cognising their great importance, bestowed
piest production of the poet's genius, and infinite pains in commenting on them, and
is marked by a careful reserve in the em- valuable relics of their writings are enshrined
ployment of dramatic resource. (7) The in the existing collections of Scholia.
Lysistrdte, B.C. 411, a Women's Conspiracy (2) Aristophanes the Grammarian (or
to bring about peace the last of the strictly
; Scholar) of Byzantium, born about 260 B.C.,
political plays. (8) Thesmophoriazusm, went in his early youth to Alexandria, and
probably to be dated 410 B.C. It is written was there a pupil of Zen5d8tus and Calli-
against Euripides' dislike of women, for machus. On the death of Apollonius of
which the women who are celebrating the Rhodes, Aristophanes, when past his sixtieth
Thesmophoria drag him to justice. (9) year, was appointed to be chief librarian,
The Frogs, which was acted in 405, and and died at the age of 77. His fame was
won the first prize- It is a piece sparkling eclipsed by that of his pupil Aristarchus,
with genius, on the Decay of Tragic Art, but he still passed for one of the ablest
the blame of which is laid on Euripides, grammarians and critics of antiquity, dis-
then recently deceased. (10) EcclSsiazusce, tinguished by industry, learning and sound
or The National Assembly of Women, B.C. judgment. In addition to the Homeric
392. It is levelled against the vain at- poems, which formed his favourite study,
tempts to restore the Athenian state by cut- and of which he was the first to attempt a
and-dried constitutions. (11) Plutus, or the really critical text, he devoted his labours
God of Wealth. The blind god is restored to Hesiod, the lyric poets, especially Alcaeus
to sight, and better times are brought and Pindar, and the tragic and comic poets,
about. This play was acted first in 408, Aristophanes and Menander in particular.
then in 388 in a revised form suitable to The received Introductions to the plays of
the time, and dispensing with chorus and the Tragedians and Aristophanes are in
pardbdsis. This play marks the transi- their best parts derived from him. He was
tion to the Middle Comedy. also the author of a large and much quoted
In the opinion of the ancients Aristophanes work of a lexicographical character, con-
holds a middle place between Cratinus and siderable fragments of which still survive.
Eupolis, being neither so rough as the Aristotle (Greek AristotSles). One of the
iormer nor so sweet as the latter, but com- two greatest philosophers of antiquity, bom
bining the severity of the one with the grace B.C. 384 at Stageira, a Greek colony in
of the other. What was thought of him Thrace. He was the son of Nicomachus,
in his own time is evident from Plato's 8ym- who died while acting as physician in
pdsium, where he is numbered among the ordinary to Amyntas II at Pella in Mace-
noblest of men; and an epigram attributed donia. In B.C. 367, after the death of his
to that philosopher says that the Graces, parents and the completion of his seventeenth
looking for an enduring shrine, found it in year, Aristotle betook himself to Athens,
the soul of Aristophanes. He unites under- became a pupil of Plato, and remained twenty
standing, feeling, and fancy in a degree pos- years, latterly working as a teacher of
sessed by few poets of antiquity. His rhetoric. About his relations with Plato
keen glance penetrates the many evils of unfavourable rumours were current, which
his time and their most hidden causes his; may have had their origin in his subsequent
scorn for all that is base, and his patriotic opposition to the Platonic doctrine of ideas.
spirit, burning to bring back the brave That he arrived pretty early at opposite
days of Marathon, urge him on, without opinions, and gave emphatic expression to
respect of persons or regard for self, to them, is quite credible. This may have been
drag the faults he sees into daylight, and the occasion of Plato's comparing him (so it
lash them with stinging sarcasm while his
; is said) to a colt that kicks his mother;
inexhaustible fancy invents ever new and yet Plato is also said to have called him
original materials, which he manipulates " the inteUe.ct " of his school, and " the

reader," on account of his habit of incessant continued till his death to respect and love
^udy. Comparing him with Xenocrates, him, though the affair of Callisthenes {q.v.)
he remarked, that the one wanted a spur, occasioned some coolness between them.
the other a bridle. On the other hand, When the king undertook his expedition
Aristotle, in one of his writings, combating in Asia, Aristotle betook himself once _

his former master's theory of ideas, lays more to Athens, and taught for thirteen
down the maxim that friendship, especially years in the Gymnasium called the Lyceum.
among philosophers, must not be allowed to In the mornings he conversed with his
violate the sanctity of truth and in a frag-
maturer pupils on the higher problems of
ment of an elegy he calls Plato the first man philosophy, walking up and down the
who showed in word and deed how a man shady avenues, from which practice the
is to become good and happy. school received the name of Peripatetics.
After Plato had handed over his school to In the evenings he delivered courses of
his sister's son Speusippus, Aristotle quitted lectures on philosophy and rhetoric to
a larger audience. After Alexander's
death, when all adherents of the Mace-
donian supremacy were persecuted at
Athens, a certain Demophilus brought
against him a charge of impiety, where-
upon Aristotle, " to save the Athenians
from sinning a second time against philo-

sophy " so he is reported to have said,
alluding to the fate of Socrates— retired
to Chalcis in Euboea. There he died
late in the summer of the next year,
B.C. 322.
Of the very numerous writings of
Aristotle, some were composed in a
popular, others in a scientific form. A
considerable number of the latter kind
have come down to us, but of the former,
which were written in the form of
dialogues, only a few fragments. The
strictly scientific works may be classed
according to their contents, as they treat
of Logic, Metaphysics, Natural Science
or Ethics. (1) Those on Logic were
comprehended by the later Aristotelians
under the name of Orgdndn ("instru-
ment"), because they treat of Method,
the instrument of research. They in-
clude the Categories, on the fundamental
*AHISTOTI,E. forms of ideas the De Interpretdtioru;

(Rome, Spada Palace.) on the doctrine of the judgment and on

the proposition, important as an authority
Athens, B.C. 347, and repaired to his friend on philosophical terminology; the Analytica
Hermeias, despot of Atarneus in Mysia. Prinra and PosteriOra, each in two books,
When that prince had fallen a prey to Persian the former on the syllogism, the latter on
intrigues he withdrew, B.C. 346, with his wife demonstration, definition, and distribution y
Pythias, his friend's sister, to Mitylene in the TOplca in eight books, on dialectic in-
Lesbos and two years later accepted an in-
; ferences (those of probability); on Sophisms,
vitation to Macedonia to be tutor to Alex- the fallacies of sophists, and their solu-
ander, then thirteen years old. He lived at tion.— (2) The Metaphysics as they were
th,e court eight years, though his tenure of called by late writers, in fourteen books,
office seems to have lasted barely half that consist of one connected treatise and several
time. Both Philip and his son esteemed shorter essays on what Aristotle himself
him highly, and most liberally seconded his calls " first philosophy," the doctrine of
studies in natural science, for which he in- Being in itself and the ultimate grounds of
herited his father's predilection. Alexander Being a work left unfinished by Aristotle-

and supplemented by foreign ingredients. notwithstanding the ruinous condition in
(3) The works on Natural Science are which its text has come down to us. [The
headed by the Physics in eight books, treat- Rhetoric is a masterly treatise on oratory,
ing of the most general bases and relations regarded as an instrument for working
of nature as a whole. This is followed up ' upon- the various passions and feelings of
by four books on the Heavens or Universe, humanity.] Sundry other prose writings
two on Beginning to be and Perishing, and are preserved under Aristotle's name, e.g.,
the MetSordlOgica in four books, on the phe- that on Colours; the so-called MiraMles
nomena of the air. A short. treatise On the Auscultdtiones, a collection of memoranda
Cosmos is spurious that on the Directions
: on all sorts of strange phenomena and occur-
and Names of Winds is a fragment of a rences, mostly bearing on natural science ;

larger work on the signs of storms and the ; on Melissus, ZenO, and Gorgids; six Letters,
Problems (physical) is a collection gradually which however are not regarded as genuine,
formed out of Aristotelian extracts. Of any more than the 63 epigrams out of a
mathematical import are the Mechanical supposed mythological miscellany entitled
Problem,s (on the lever and balance) and the Peplos. But we may safely assign to him
book about Indivisible Lines. Natural his- the beautiful Scolion, or impromptu song,
tory is handled in the ten books of Animal on his friend Hermeias, which takes the
History, and in four books on the Parts, form of a Hymn to Virtue.
five on the Generation, and one on the m,ode A story dating from antiquity informs us
of Progression of Animals. The work on that Aristotle bequeathed his own writings
The Motion of Animals is probably spurious, and his very considerable library to his
certainly so the one on Plants in two books. pupil and successor in the office of teacher,
Aristotle's treatise on this subject is lost. Theophrastus, who again made them over
Turning to Psychology, we have the three to his pupil Neleus, of Scepsis in the Troad.
books On the Soul and a number of smaller After his death his relations are said to
treatises (on the Senses and the Objects of have buried them in a cellar, to guard them
Perception ; on Memory and Recollection / against the mania for collecting books which
ou Sleep and Waking ; on Dreams ; on characterized the Pergamene princes. At
Divination by Sleep on the Length and
• last they were unearthed by Apellicon of
Shortness of Life ; on Youth and Age, Life Teos,a rich bibliophile, who brought them to
and Death ; on Breathing on Sound and •
Athens about 100 B.C., and tried to restore
Voice, etc. that on Physiognomy is proba-
; them from the wretched state into which
bly spurious). — (4) Of the
works on Ethics, the NicomachSan Ethics
three general they had fallen through the neglect of 130
years. Soon after, at the taking of Athens
in ten books, the JEudemian Ethics in seven, by the Romans, they fell into Sulla's hands,
and the so-called Magna Moralia in two, who brought them to Rome. Here the
the first alone, addressed to his son Nico- grammarian Tyrannion took copies of them,
m^aohus, and of marked excellence in matter and on this basis the Peripatetic An-
and manner, is by Aristotle himself. The dronicus of Rhodes prepared an edition
second is by his pupil Eudemus of Rhodes; of Aristotle's works. This would indeed
and the third a mere abstract of the other partly account for the wretched condition in
two, especially of the second. The essay on which some of them are preserved. At the
Virtues and Vices is spurious. Closely con- same time it can be proved that the prin-
nected with the Ethics is the Politics in cipal works were known during the 3rd
eight books, a masterly work in spite of and 2nd centuries B.C., so that the story
its incompleteness, treating of the aim and affects only the author's original MSS.,
elements of a State, the various forms of among which a number of works till then un-
Oovernment, the ideal of a State and of Edu- published may have come to light. Though
cation. A valuable work on the Constitu- the writings preserved form rather less than
tion of 158 states is lost, all but a few half of the number which he actually wrote,
fragments.^ Of the two books on (Econo- there is quite enough to show the univer-
mics the first is spurious. Corresponding '
sality of Aristotle's intellect, which sought
partly with the Logic, and partly with the with equal ardour and acumen to explore
Ethics, is the Phetoric in three books,^ and and subdue the entire domain of research.
the Poetics, a work' of inestimable worth, He was the originator of many lines of study
' The Constitution of Alliens has, however, been
unknown —
before him, Logic,, Grammar,
recovered (ed. prinoeps, 1891). Rhetoric in its scientific aspect, Literary
2 The Rhetorica ad Alexandrum is prohably by Criticism, Natural History, Physiology,
AnaxlmBnes, g.v. 2.

Psychology he was the first to atte'nlpt a.
; to- prover the "sincerity of his conversion,,
History of Philosophy and of the, fprpis of he wrote (about 295 a.d.) the extant work
government then existing. His method, of Adversus GentSs. This is a superficial and
which he must be considered the creator, is rhetorical defence of Christianity and attack
critical and empirical at once. In all qases on Polytheism, but it is full of instruction
he starts from facts, which he collectSj sifts with regard to the con temporary heathenism,
and groups as completely as he can, so as. and its various worships, • ,

to get some general leading points of view, Arrhephoria or Errhephoria. The Athe-
and with the help of these to arrive at a [
nian term for a mystic festival in honour of
systematic arrangement of the subject, and '
Athena as goddess of the fertilizing night-
a knowledge of its inmost being, its cause. '

dew, held in the month of Scirophorion

Por to him the Cause is the essential paj-t of (June-July), in connection with the Sciro-
knowledge, and the philosophy that searches phoria. It was named after the Hers-
into ultimate causes for the mere sake of p7ioroi = dew-bearers, four maidens between
knowing is the best and freest science. seven and eleven years of age, who were
The form of Aristotle's works is by no chosen yearly from the houses of noble
means equal to their contents. Of the citizens, and had to spend several months.
beautiful harmony between style and sub-
. at the temple of Athena in the Acropolis,,
ject, that so charms us in Plato, there is and take part in its services. Two of
not a trace in Aristotle ; his manner of them had the task of commencing the
expression, though scientifically exact, lacks cloak or shawl which the women of Athens-
flavour, art, and elegance. But of exact wove and presented to the goddess at the
scientific terminology he is the true founder. Panathensea. The other two, on the night
When the ancients celebrate the "golden of the festival, received from the priestess
stream" of his writing, the opinion can of Athena certain coffers, with unknown,
only refer to his lost popular works. contents, which they carried in procession
Aristotle's personality is one of those on their heads to a natural grotto beside
which have affected the history of the the temple of " Aphrodite in the gardens,"
world. His writings, like those of Plato, and delivering them there, received some-
were to the Christian centuries of antiquity thing equally mysterious in exchange, which
a most stimulating incentive to scientific they carried to the temple on the Acropolis.
inquiry; in the Middle Ages they were With this ceremony their office expired.
for the Christian nations of the West and Arrianus {Flavins). AGreek author, who-
the Arabs the chief guide to philosophical wrote chiefly on philosophy and history,
method and in the province of logic his
; born at Nioomedea in Bithynia towards the
authority remains unshaken to this day. end of the 1st century A.D., and a pupil of
AristoxSnus. A Greek philosopher and the Stoic philosopher Epictetus. He lived
musician, a native of Tarentum, and a under the emperors Hadrian, Antoninus-
pupil of Aristotle, lived about 330 B.C., and Pius and Marcus Aurelius, enjoying a high
was a prolific writer on various subjects, reputation for culture and ability, which
but most particularly on Music. In con- procured him the citizenship of Rome and
trast with the Pythagoreans, who referred Athens, and high offices of state, such as the
everything to the relations of numbers,' he governorship of Cappadocia under Hadrian
regarded music as founded on the differ- a.d.^ 136, and the consulship under An-
ence of tones as perceived by the ear. Of toninus. His last years were spent in his
his Elements of Harmony, three books are native town, where he filled the office of
preserved, but they are neither complete, priest to Demeter, and died at an advajiced
nor in their original shape. Only a part Prom the likeness of his character to
of his Elements of Rhythm has survived. that of the famous Athenian, he was nick-
Arms. 8ee Weapons. named " XgnSphon Junior." Of his philo-
Army. (1) Greek. See Warfare. sophical works we have still the first half
(2) Roman. See Legion, DilSctus, (four books) of the Discourses of Epictetus,
Sacramentum,,Stipendicm, Castra. a leading authority for the tenets of that
Arneis. The festival of lambs. See Linos. philosopher and the Stoical ethics; and the'
Arndblus. An African, who won a high hand-book called the EncheirMidn of Epic-
reputation as a master of rhetoric at Sicca tetus, a short manual of morality, which on
in Numidia, in the reign of Diocletian. He account of its pithy and practical precepts
was at first a heathen and an assailant of became a great favourite with Pagans and
Christianity; but on becoming a Christian,' Christians, had a commentsiry written on

it ty Simplicius in the 6tli century, and tically arranged according to the several
after the revival of learning was long used stages of human life. An appendix, counted
as a sohoolbook. Of his numerous his- as a fifth book, gives a collection of dreams
torical writings we possess the chief one, that have come true. Eor the light thrown
the AnaMisis of Alexander in seven books. on the mental condition of antiquity, espe-
This is a complete history of that, conqueror cially in the 2nd century after Christ, and
from his accession to hisi death, drawn from for many items of information on religious
the best . sources,; especially Etolemy and rites and myths relating to dreams, these
Aristobulus, and modelled on Xenophon, writings are of value.
of whom we are reminded by the very title Artemis (Lat. Diana). The virgin daugh-
and the number of books, though it has ter of Zeus and Leto (Latona), by the common
none of Xenophon's charm. It is the best account born a twin-sister of Apollo, and
work on Alexander that has survived from just before him, at Del6s. The Ortygia (see
antiquity. To this we should add the . AsTERiA) named in another tradition as-her
Jndica, a short .work on India, written in birthplace, was interpreted to mean Delos,
the Ionic dialect, and especially valuable though several other places where the wor-
for its abstract of Nearchus' report of his ship of Artemis had long prevailed put
voyage from the mouth of the Indus to the , forward pretensions to that name and its
Persian Gulf ;. also the description of another mythological, renown, especially the well-
coasting voyage, the PSnplus PontiiEuxlnij known island of Ortygia oif Syracuse. She,
and a trifling treatise on hunting, the as well as her mother, was worshipped jointly
CynSgeKcus. A work on tactics wrongly with her brother at Delos, Delphi and all
ascribed to him is probably from the hand the most venerable spots where Apollo was
of ^lian the Tactician. Of his other His- honoured. She is armed, as he is, with
tories, e.g. of the Successors of Alexander,
, bow and arrow, which, like him, and often
of Trajan's battles with the Parthians, of together with him, she wields against mon-
his own native country till its absorption in sters and giants hence the pcean was chanted

the Empire, and the campaign against the to her as well as to him. Like those of
Alani during his command in Cappadocia, Apollo, the shafts of Artemis were regarded
we have only abstracts or fragments. , as the cause of sudden death, especially to
Arrogatio, one of the kinds of adoption maidens and wives. But she was also a
known to the Eomans. (For further infer-, beneficent and helpful deity. As Apollo is

mation see Adoption.) the luminous god of day, she with her torch
Arrows. See Bows. is a goddess of light by night, and in course
Arslnoe. See Alphesibcea. of time becomes identified with all possible
Art. See Arghitectuee, Aechitectuee goddesses of moon and night. (See Selene,
(Orders op). Painting, and Sculpture; Hecate, Bendis, Britomartis.) Her pro-
and comp. Coinage and Gems. <per domain is that of Nature, with its hills
Artemidorus, (1) The Geographer, of and valleys, woods, meadows, rivers and
Ephesus, who travelled about 100 B.C. fountains ;
there amid her nymphs, her-
through the countries bordering on the self the fairest and tallest, she is a mighty

Mediterranean and part of' the Atlantic huntress, sometimes chasing wild animals,
coast, and, wrote a long work on his re- sometimes dancing, playing, or bathing with
searches, the Oeographumena in eleven her companions. Her favourite hattnt was

books, as well as an abstract of the same. Of thought to be the mountains and forests of
both works, which were much consulted by Arcadia, where, in many spots, she had
later geographers, we have only fragments. sanctuaries, consecrated hunting-grounds,
(2) Artemidorus the Dream-Interpreter, and sacred animals. To her, as goddess of
born at Ephesus at the beginning. of the the forest and the chase, all beasts of the
2nd century A.D., surnamed " the Daldian " woods and fields, in fact all game, were
from his mother's birthplace, Daldis in dear and sacred but her favourite animal

Lydia, wrote a work on the Interpretation was held all oyer -Greece to be the hind.
of Dreams, the Oneii-ocrttica, in four books. Prom this sacred animal and the hunt-
He had gathered his materials from the ing of it, the month which the other
works of earlier authors, and by oral in- Greeks called Artcmiswn or Artemislds
quiries during his travels in Asia, Italy arid (March- April) was- named by the Athenians
Greece. The book is an acute exposition of ElaphS-bdlion (deer-shooting), and her
the theory of inteiBpreting- dreams, and its festival' as goddess of game and hunting,
practical application Ito examples systema- at which deer or :<iak«s in the shape of
deer were efFered up, Elaphebdlia. As the yearly custom observed at Sparta, of
goddess of tke chase, she had also some flogging the boys till they bled, at the
inflttence in war, and the Spartans before altar of a -deity not unknown elsewhere,
battle sought her favour by the gift of a and named Artemis Orthia (the upright)
she-goat. Miltiadgs too, before the battle probably from her stiff posture in the
of Marathon, had vowed to her as Jnany antiquated wooden image. At Sparta, as
goats as there should be enemie^ fallen on in other places, the ancient image was
the field ; but the number proving so great looked upon as the same which Iphigenia
that the vow could not be kept, 500 goats and Orestes brought away from Tauris
were sacrificed at each anniversary of the (the Crimea), viz., that of the Tauric Ar-
victory in the month of Boedromion. Again, temis, a Scythian deity who was identified
she was much worshipped as a goddess of with Artemis because of the human sacri-
the Moon. At Amarynthus in Eubcea, the fices common in her worship. The Artemis
whole island kept holiday to her with pro- of Ephesus, too, so greatly honoured by
cessions and prize-fights. At Munychia in all the lonians of Asia [Acts xix 28] is
Attica, at full moon in the month of Muny- no Gtreek divinity, but Asiatic. This is
chion (April-May), large round loaves or sufficiently shown by the fact that eimuchs
cakes, decked all round with lights as a were employed in her worship; a practice
symbol of her own luminary, were borne quite foreign to Greek ideas. The Greek
in procession and presented to her and at ; colonists identified her with their own Ar-
the same time was solemnized the festival temis, because she was goddess of the moon
of the victory of Salamis in Cyprus, be- and a power of nature, present in moun-
cause on that occasion the goddess had tains, woods and marshy places, nourish-
shone in her full glory on the Greeks. An ing life in plants, animals and men. But,
ancient shrine of the Moon-goddess at unlike Artemis, she was not regarded as a
Brauron in Attica was held in such vene-
ration, that the Brauronia, originally a
merely local festival, was afterwards made
a public ceremony, to which Athens itself
sent deputies every five years, and a precinct
was dedicated to " Artemis of Brauron" on
the Acropolis itself. (See plan of Acro-
polis.) At this feast the girls between
five and ten years of age, clad in saffron-
coloured garments, were conducted by their
mothers in processibn to the goddess, and
commended to her care. For Artemis is
also a protectress of youth, especially those
of her own sex. As such she patronized
a Nurses' festival at Sparta in a temple
outside the town, to which little boys were
brought by their nurses while the lonians

at their Apaturia presented her with the

hair of boys. Almost everywhere young
girls revered the virgin goddess as the
guardian of their maiden years, and before
marriage they offered up to her a lock of
their hair, their girdle, and their maiden
garment. She was also worshipped in
many parts as the goddess of Good Repute,
especially- in youths and maidens, and was
regarded as an enemy of all disorderly
doings. With her attributes as the god-
dess of the moon, and as the promoter of AUTEMIS : "DIANA OF VERSA tl.T.ES."
(Paris, Louvre.)
healthy development, especially in the female
frame, is connected the notion of her assist- virgin, but as a mother and foster-mother,
ing in childbirth (see Eileithyia). In as is clearly shown by the multitude of
early times human sacrifices had been breasts in the rude effigy. Her worship,
offered to ArtemiM. A relic of this was i
frantic and fanatical after the manner of

Asia,'was traced back to the Amazons.

' tion, a set of strong elastic cords, made of
A number of other deities native to Asia the sinews of animals, or the long hair
was also worshipped by the Greeks under of animals or of women. These were
the name of Artemis. stretched tight, and between each of them
Artemis appears in works of art as the was fixed a straight unelastic arm of wood.
ideal of austere maiden beauty, tall of sta- The arms were joined by a cord, which
ture, with bow and quiver on her shoulder, was pulled back by a winch applied at
or torch in her hand, and generally leading the end of the groove. On letting this
or carrying a hind, or riding in a chariot go, the arms, and with them the string
drawn by hinds. Her commonest character and the object in front of it, were driven
is that of a huntress. In earlier times the forward by the twisting of the vertical
figure is fuller and stronger, and the cloth- cords. The effectiveness of the engine
ing more complete ; in later works she is thus depended on the power and twist of
represented as more slender and lighter of the cords, which may be said roughly to
foot, the hair loose, the dress girt up high, express its calibre. The engines were
the feet protected by the Cretan shoe. The divided into two kinds. (1) Catapultm, or
most celebrated of her existing statues is scorpions (fig. 2). In these the groove for
the Diana of Versailles {see cut). On the the shot was horizontal and they projected

identification of Artemis with the Italian missiles of length and thickness varying
Diana, see Diana. according to the calibre. (2) Ballistce (fig. 3),
Artillery. The machines used for send- which shot stones, beams, or balls up to
ing large missiles to a great distance were 162 lbs. weight, at an angle of 50 degrees.
The calibre of the ballista was at least
three times as great as that of the catapult.
The average range of the catapult was
about 383 yards, that of the ballista from
about 295 to 503 yards.
After Cons tan tine we hear no more of
catapults, but only of ballistce and the
onager. The ballista now shot arrows,
and is described either as a huge cross-bow
with an elastic bow of iron, or as virtually
identical with the old catapult. The onager,
(1) APPARATUS FOB PROJECTILES. also called scorpio (fig. 4) was a sling for

supposed to have been invented

in the East, and appear in Greece
since 400 B.C. or thereabouts.
They attained their highest
perfection in the age of the
Diadochi, and were adopted by
the Romans after the Punic
wars. There were two chief
varieties, both imitations of the
crossbow but the elasticity of

the bow is exchanged for elasti-

city in the twist of the cord.
Consequently all pieces of heavy
artillery were called by the
Romans tormenta. The ma-
chine consisted of three parts:
the stand, the groove for the
shot, and the apparatus repre-
senting the bow. This con-
sisted of a frame in three
divisions, through the midmost (2) CATAPULT.
of which passed the groove for
the shot (fig. 1). In each of the lateral stones. It consisted of a frame, in which
divisions was stretched, in a vertical direc- was fastened a wooden arm with a sling at

the end, standing upright when at rest, and alphabetical collection, for school use, of
furnished with two horizontal cords to pull words that admit Of various constructions,
it up and down.. This was drawn back by a with examples fromVergil, Sallust, Terence
winch into a nearly horizontal position, and and Cicero, under the title Exempla EUt-
Arval Brpthers (Fratres ArvalSs=oi the
fields). The Latin name for a college of
priests consisting of twelve life-members,
who performed the worship of DSa Z>fa,a
goddess not otherwise mentioned, but prob-
ably identical with the old Roman gpddess
of cornfields, Acca Larentia ig^.v.)\ who also
is said to have founded this fraternity. Our
more accurate knowledge of it we owe to
on the marble
its ajinual reports inscribed
tablet?, ninety-six in number, which have
been dug up (1570-1869) on the site of its
meeting-place, a grove at the fifth mile-
stone from Rome, and which extend from
A.D. 14-241. About its condition under
the Republic we have no information but ;

under the Empire its members were persons

of the highest rank. The emperors them-
selves belonged to it, either as ordinary
members, or, if the numbers were filled up,
as extraordinary. The election was by
co-optation on the motion of the president
(magister), who himself, together with a
Jlamen, was elected for one year ; their
badge was a white fillet and a wreath of
ears of corn. The Arvales held their chief
then released. It started up, and meeting festival on three days in May, on the 1st
with a check-aboard fixedbehind the engine, and 3rd in Rome, on the 2nd in the grove,
hurled the stones out of the sling. As a with a highly complicated ceremonial, in-
cluding a dance in the temple of the god-
dess, to which they sang the written text
of a hymn so antiquated that its meaning
could scarcely be understood. This Arval
Hymn, in which the Lares and Mars are
invoked, is one of the oldest monuments
we possess of the Latin tongue. Amongst
other duties of this priesthood should es-
pecially be mentioned the expiatory sacri-
fices in the grove. These had to be offered
(4) ONAOEB (SCOEPIO). if any damage had been done to it through
the breaking of a bough, the stroke of light-
rule, the heavy artillery was only employed ning, or other such causes ; or again if any
in sieges ; but artillery accompanied armies labour had been performed in it, though
in the field for purposes of conquest or ever so necessary, especially if iron tools
defence. The legions and the cohorts of had been used. The Arval brothers had
the Prsetorian Guard had their own artil- also to offer solemn vows on behalf of the
lery. And at the end of the 4th century Imperial House, both statedly on January
every centuria in the legion had a ballista 3rd, and on extraordinary occasions, and
of the later kind drawn on wheels by mules were bound to fulfil them.
(carroballista), and served by eleven men.
As. In Latin, signifies any unit, which
Every cohort had an onager, carried on a determines the value of fractional quantities
- cart drawn by two oxen.
in coins, weights and measures, or interest,
Arusianus Messius. A
Latin grammarian inhBritance and the like. The as was
who lived about 396 A.D., and made an divided duodecimally into uncice. The


names of its parts are deunx ^i, dex- Homer and Pindar, Asclepius is still but
tans ^, dodrans f, bes I, septunx a hero, a cunning leech, and father of two
semis i, quincunx ^, Mens i quadrans heroes fighting before Troy, Machaon and
sextans i, sescuncia |, uncia ^. la ques- PSdaleirius. But he was afterwards uni-
ti9Dapf inheritance, a sole heir was entitled versally worshipped as the god of healing,
herSs ex asse, an heir to half the pstate, in groves, beside medicinal springs, and oh
heres ex semisse, and so on. As a coin, mountains. The seats of his worship served,
the copper as weighed a Roman pound also as places of cure, where patients left,
(nominally 12, but practically only 10 unci'ce), thank-offeripgs and votive tablets describ-
and was worth, previously to B.C. 269, nearly ing their complaint and the manner of its
Gd. In the year 217 it was reduced to 1 cure. Often tlje cure was effected by the
uncia, and in later times to ^ and_
J uncia.
In Cicero's time the as was = rather less
than a halfpenny. Comp. Coinage.
Ascanius. The son of jEneas and Creusa.
According to the ordinary account, he ac-
companied his father to Italy, and, thirty
years after the building of Lavinium,
founded Alba Longa, where, after his
death, his stepbrother Silvius reigned. To
him, by his name of lulus, the gens lulia
traced its origin.
Asclepiades. AGreek poet, a native of
Samos, and a younger contemporary of
Theocritus. He was the author of thirty-
nine Epigrams, mostly erotic, in the Greek
Anthology. The well-known Asclepiadean
Metre was perhaps named after him.
Asclepiodotus. A Greek writer, pupil of
the Stoic Posidonius of Rhodes (who died
B.C. 61). On the basis of his lectures
Asclepiodotus seems to have written the
military treatise preserved under his name
on the Macedonian military system.
Asclepius (Lat. JEsciilaplus). The Greek
god of Medicine, according to the common
account a son of the healing god Apollo
by Coronis, daughter of a Thessalian prince
Phlegyas. Coronis was killed by Artemis
for unfaithfulness, and her body was about
to be burnt on the pyre, when Apollo
snatched the boy out of the flames, and
handed him over to the wise centaur
Chiron, who instructed him in the cure
of all diseases. According to the local
legend of Epidaurus, Coronis, having ac- ASCLEPIUS.
companied her father on a campaign to (Paris, Louvre.)
the Peloponnesus, is secretly delivered of
the child, and exposes it on a mountain dreams of the patients, who were required
near that town, where it is nourished by to sleep in the sacred building, in which
a herd of goats. Such was the skill of there sometimes stood, as might be ex-
Asclepius that he brought even dead men pected, a statue of Sleep or Dreaming.
to life ; so that Zeus, either for fear of His worship extended all over Greece with
his setting men altogether free from death, its islands and colonies; his temples were
or at the complaint of Hades, killed him especially numerous in the Peloponnesus,
with his thunderbolt. Apollo in revenge the most famous being that of Epidaurus,
slew all the Cyclopes who forged the where a great festival with proceggions and
thunderbolts, as a punishment for which combats was held in his honour every five
he had to serve Admetus for a tims. In years. Next in estimation stood the temple

at Pergamus, a colony from Epidaurus; pearance by bringing an impeachment in
that of Tricca in Thessaly enjoyed a re- B.C. 54; in the Civil Wars he fought on
putation of long standing, and in the Caesar's side at Pharsalus and in Africa
islands that of Cos, the birthplace of the and Spain. After the murder of Caesar he
physician Hippocrates. at first inclined to the Eepublicans, but in
At Eome, the worship of the deity there B.C. 43 joined Antony, and on the break-up
called jEsculapius was introduced by order of the Triumvirate obtained Gallia Trans-
of the Sibylline books, on occasion of the padana for his province. In the redis-
plague of 293 B.C., and the god was brought tribution of lands there he saved the
from Epidaurus in the shape of a snake. poet Vergil's paternal estate for him.
Eor in the form of a snake, the symbol of After negotiating the Peace of Brundisium
rejuvenescence and of prophecy, he was between Antony and Octavian, B.C. 41, he
wont to reveal himself, and snakes were became consul in 40, conquered the Parthini
accordingly kept in his temples. He had in Dalmatia in 39, and celebrated a triumph.
a sanctuary and a much frequented sana- He then retired from political life, and
torium on the island in the Tiber. With devoted himself to the advancement of
him were worshipped his wife EpwnS ( learning. He served the cause of literature
soother), his two sons mentioned above, not only by his own writings, but by setting
and several daughters, especially Jlygieia, up the first public library at Eome, and by
iq.v.); also Telesphdrds ( = fulness-bringer) introducing the custom of reading new works
the deity of Recovery, who was pictured aloud to a circle of experts, before publica-
as a boy. In later times Asclepius was tion. {See Recitatio.) He was himself
often confounded with the Egyptian Serapis. a stem critic of others, as we see by his
He is among the most favourite subjects strictures on Cicero, Sallust and Livy,
of ancient art at several places where he
; though it was remarked that he was not
was worshipped he had statues of gold always so severe upon himself. He was
and ivory. He is commonly represented especially celebrated as an orator yet his

with a beard, and resembling Zeus, but speeches, in spite of careful preparation,
with a milder aspect, sometimes with Teles- were devoid of elegance, and, as Quintilian
phoros, in a thick veil, or little Hygieia, remarks, might be supposed to have been
at his side ; his usual attribute is a staff written a century earlier than Cicero's. He
with a serpent coiled round it. The cock wrote tragedies also, in which the same
was sacrificed to him. stiffness and dryness are complained of.
Asconius Pfidianus (Quintus), a Eoman And he composed a history of the Civil
grammarian and historian, probably born at Wars in seventeen books, from the first
Patavium about the year 3 a.d. He lived Triumvirate to the battle of Philippi, which
latterly at Eome, where he enjoyed the seems not to have been published in a
favour of men in high place. During the complete form till after his death. Not
reigns of Claudius and Nero, having care- one of his works has survived. [The his-
fully studied the literature of the Ciceronian tory of Csesar's African campaign, Bellum
age, and availing himself of state-papers then Africum, has recently been attriljuted to
existing, he composed for the use of his own him, but on insufBcient grounds.] He died
sons his valuable historical Commentaries 80 years old, a.d. 4.
on Cicero's Orations, of which only those Ascolia. The second day of the rural
on five orations (In PlsSnem, Pro Scauro, Dionysia {q.v.).
Pro Mildne, Pro Cornelio, In tdga Candida) Aspis. The Greek name for a long shield.
are preserved, unfortunately in a very frag- (For further information, see Shield.)
mentary condition. The commentaries on AsaS.rS,cus, son of Tros, and founder of
the Verrine Orations, which bear his name., the collateral line to which Anchises and
belong probably to the 4th century a.d. iEneas belong in the royal house of Troy.
They treat chiefly of grammatical points. {Comp. Dardands.)
No other works by Asconius have survived. Assignatio. The Latin term for the
He died, after twelve years' blindness, about assignment of public lands to single citizens
88 A.D. or to colonies. See Colonies and Ager
Aselllo (C. Sempronius). A Eoman anna-

list. See Annalists. AstSria, daughter of the Titan Coeus and
Aslnius PoUlo (Gains). A celebrated the Titanid Phcebe sister of Leto, and

Roman poet, orator, and historian. He was mother of HgcSte by Perses, son of the Titan
born B.C. 75, and made his first public ap- I
Crius. She is said to have turned into an

qrtyx ( = quail) and plunged into the sea to service to the progress of the science ].

escape the love of Zeus. After her the thus he came very near to determining the
Island of Deles was named Asteria, and exact obliquity of the ecliptic. The true
then Ortygia, till it received its ordinary- fotmder of scientific Astronomy, and the-
name. greatest independent observer of antiquity^
AstrsBa ( = star-maiden), was daughter of was Hipparchus of Nic8ea(in the 2nd century
Astrseus and Eos, or, according to another B.C.), who discovered the precession of the
account, of Zeus and Themis, and as such equinoxes, and determined the length of the
was identified with Dike. (SeeHoxiRS.) She solar year (at 365 days 5 hours 55' 12") as
lived among men in the golden age, and well as the time of the moon's revolution, and
in the brazen age was the last of the gods the magnitude and distances of the heavenly
to withdraw into the sky, where she shines bodies. The last important astronomer of
as the constellation of the Virgin with her antiquity, and the greatest after Hipparchus,,
scales and starry crown. is Claudius PtolSmceus (in the 2nd century
Astrseus (= star-man), son of the Titan A.D.). In his chief work, commonly known
Crius and Eurybia, father by Eos of the by its Arabic name of Almagest, he digested
winds Argestes, Zephyrus, Boreas and the discoveries of his predecessors, especially
Notus, as well as of Heospli5rus and the Hipparchus, and his own, into a formal
other stars. In the later legend he is also system, which passed current all through
represented as father of Astrsea. the Middle Ages. According to it the earth
Astrology and Astronomy were at first is a sphere resting motionless in the middle
synonymous expressions among the ancients, of the equally spherical universe, while the
both signifying " the science of the stars." sun, moon, planets and fixed stars roll at
But afterwards Astrology came to mean that various distances around her.
part of the science which deals with the The Romans regarded Astronomy as an
supposed influence of the on the
stars idle speculation, and gave little attention
destinies of men, Among Greeks,
the to it. When Csesar reformed the Roman
Astronomy, the origin of which they them- Calendar, he had to bring an astronomer
selves ascribed to the Assyrians, Baby- from Alexandria, Soszgenes, to help him.
lonians and Egyptians, was for centuries Astrology ia the narrower sense of the-
the subject of philosophical speculation word, meaning prediction on the faith of
without a sufficient groundwork in obser- signs given by the stars, was an invention
vation, because mathematics and mechanics of the Chaldgeans. All but unknown to-
had not reached the requisite degree of the Greeks in their best days, it did not
perfection. The list of observing astro- come into vogue until after the time of
nomers opens with Eudoxus of Cnidus in Alexander the Great. In Rome the pro-
the first half of the 4th century, B.C., who fessional astrologers were called Chaldan or
assumed that the earth was spherical, and Mdthemdtici, the latter name referring to-
tried to explain the phenomena of the the astronomical calculations which they
heavens by a complicated theory of con- made. In the republican period they were
centric spheres. Aristotle too maintained known, but held in utter contempt. In
and proved the spherical form of the earth, 139 B.C. their unpopularity was so great
which he took to be the immovable centre that they were expelled from Rome and
of the universe. Astronomy was first Italy. But in the turbulent times of the
raised into a real science after B.C. 300 at civil wars their reputation rose considerably,,
Rhodes and Alexandria, in the Museum of and still more under the Empire, when the
which town the first observatory was built, most extensive demands were made upon
and Aristyllus and Tvmochdres determined their science. They were, indeed, re-
the places of the fixed stars with compara- peatedly driven out of Italy and involved
tive accuracy, though as yet with very rude in trials for treason (maiestas) ;
but this
apparatus. A great step in advance was only enhanced the consideration in which
taken by Aristarchus of Samos, who ob- they were held, the more so as they were
served the summer solstice at Alexandria frequently taken into counsel by the emperors,
in B.C. 279, maintained the earth's rotation and the members of the imperial family. In
on her axis and revolution round the sun, later times, all that the Chaldaeans were for-
and made an attempt, by no means con- bidden to do was to consult the stars on
temptible, to ascertain the size and dis- questions referring to the emperor's life.
tance of the sun and moon. His succes- This was a criminal offence. The Christian,
sor Eratosthenes also rendered essential emperors (but none before them) issued
repeated prohibitions against all consulta- asylum was especially applied to such
-tion of astrologerswhatever. shrines as secured to the suppliants abso-
In the practice of their art they used lute security within their limits, which were
calendars written on tablets, in which were often considerable.. The priests and the

set down, for every day, the motion and community in each case watched jealously
relative distances of the stars, whether over this right.- The sanctuary of Zeus
lucky or unlucky.
- With the fhelp of Lycseus in Arcadia, of Poseidon in the
another set of tablets they proceeded to island of Calauria, and of Apollo ii^ Delos,
make their calculations for every hour in are excellent examples of such asylums.
detail. They would, for instance, note the These sanctuaries were exceptionally nuiner-
liour of a person's birth, ascertaining the ous in Asia. In Rome there was an asylum
relative position of the constellation domi- of great antiquity,, said to have been founded
nant at the time. According to this they by Eomulus, in a grove of oaks on the >

determined the fortunes of the individual C'apitoline Hill. {See Veiovis.) The erection
who was boi;n at the hour in question. In .
of buildings in its neighbourhood gradually
-the same way they ascertained the time rendered it inaccessible. During the Roman
favourable to any given undertaking. period the right of asylym attatehing to
Ampng the lucky stars we may mention Greek sanctuaries was, at first, maintained
Venus, Jupiter, and Luna Saturn and Mars
; and even confirmed by Roman commanders.
were unlucky ;Mercury was lucky or But its abuse led to a considerable reduc-
lunlucky according to the other circum- tion of the number of asylums under
stances of the case. Tiberius. The right of asylum was now
Astyanax. Son of Hector and Andro- confined to such shrines as could found their
mache. After the fall of Troy he was claims upon ancient tradition. During the
thrown down from the wall by the Greeks, imperial period, however, the custom arose
because the prophet Calchas had pointed' of making the statues of the emperors re-
him out as destined to become the avenger fuges against momentary acts of violence.
of Troy. Armies in the field used the eagles of the
Astj^damas. A
Greek tragedian, son of legions for the same purpose.
Morsimus. {See Philocles.) His first ap- Atalante. A Greek heroine of the type
pearance was in 399 B.C., and he won the of Artemis. There were two slightly differ-
prize fifteen times. He wrote 240 pieces, ent versions of her story, one current in
but p, few titles are all that remains of them. Arcadia and the other in Boeotia.
His sons Astydamas and PhilScles were (1) The Arcadian version. Atalante,
:also tragic poets. daughter of Zeus and Clymene, was ex-
Ast^dameia. Wife of Acastus of lolcSs. posed by her father, who had desired male
Teleus had rejected her advances, and Asty- offspring only. She was suckled by a bear,
dameia accordingly slandered him to Acas- until she was found and brought up by a
tus, who made an attempt on the life of party of hunters. Under their care she
Peleus, to her own destruction and that of grew up to be a huntress, keen, swift and
her husband. {See Acastds and Peleus.) beautiful. She took part in the Calydonian
Astjrnomi (Gr. astunomoi). The title boar-hunt, was the first who struck the boar,
•of ten functionaries at Athens, drawn an- and received from Meleager the head and
nually by lot from the ten tribes, five for skin of the beast as the prize of victory. {See
the city and five for Piraeus. They were Meleagee.) She is also associated with
a kind of city police, responsible for keeping the voyage of the Argonauts. She turned a
-the streets clean, for decency and quiet deaf ear to the entreaties of her numerous
among the public, and probably for the pro- suitors; but at last she propitiated the
tection of buildings. They had such powers wrath of AphrSdite by returning the faith-
of jurisdiction as were necessary to enforce ful love of the beautiful Milanion, who had
their authority. Flute-girls and female per- followed her persistently, and suffered and
formerson theharp orclthara were subject to struggled for her. Their son was Partheno-
their control. [ Arist., Const, of Athens, o.50.] psBus, one of the Seven against Thebes. {See
Asylum. A Greek word meaning an Seven against Thebes.)
inviolable refuge for persons fleeing from (2) The Boeotian version. Atalante was
pursuit. Among the Greeks all holy shrines the daughter of Schoeneus, son of AthSmas,
were Asylums, and any pursuer who should and distinguished for beauty and swiftness
remove a suppliant by force was regarded as of foot. An oracle warns her against mar-
a transgressor against the gods. The term riage, and she accordingly lives a lonely

life-in the forest. She meets the addresses father"), Maccus ("The fool") always oc-
of her suitors by challenging them to race , curred in it ; (3) that it contained puzzles
with her, overtaking them in the race and to explain, either in the plot or in single
spearing them in the back. She is at length lines.] The Atellance came into fashion at
beaten by Hippomenes, who during the Rome as after-pieces (exOdia) about the end
race'! drops on the ground three golden of the 3rd century B.C., displacing the
apples given him by Aphrodite. Atalante s&twrce. (See Satura). Till the beginning
stoops down to pick up the apples, and thus of the last century of the Republic the
loses the race. Hippomenes forgets to ren- Atellana was probably an improvisation;
der thanks to Aphrodite, and the goddess but, in the hands of Pomponius of Bononia
in anger causes the pair to wander into a and Novius, it was raised to the position
sanctuary of Cybele, where they are changed of a regular comedy on the Greek model.
into lions. Trom about the middle of the 1st century
Atargatis. See Dea Syeia. B.C., the Atellana went out of fashion in
Ate- According to Homer, the daughter favour of the mtmus, but was revived, pro-
of Zeus ; according to Hesiod, of Eris or bably in the reign of Tiberius, by a certain
Strife. She personifies infatuation ;
the Mummius. It lived on for some time under
infatuation being generally held to imply the Empire, till at last it became undis-
guilt as its cause and evil as its consequence. tinguishable from the mimus.
At first she dwelt on Olympus but after
; Athamas. Son of jEoIus, king of Thessaly,
she had entrapped Zeus himself into his and Enarete ; brother of Cretheus, Sisyphus,
rash oath on the occasion of the birth of and Salmoneus ; king of the Minyae in the

Heracles (see Heracles), he hurled her BcBotian Orchomenus. He was the husband
down to earth. Here she pursues her mis- of the cloud-goddess Nephele, mother of
sion of evil, walking lightly over men's Phrixus and HeUe, who left him on his
heads, but never touching the ground. Be- union with a mortal, Ino the daughter of
hind her go the Lltai ("Prayers"), the Cadmus. Nephele in anger visited the
lame, wrinkled, squinting daughters of land with a drought, upon which Ino en-
Zeus. The Litai, if called upon, heal the deavoured, by means of a pretended oracle,
hurts inflicted by Ate but they bring fresh
; to have her stepson Phrixus sacrificed on
evil upon the stubborn. In later times Ate the altar of Zeus Laphystius. But Nephele
is transformed into an avenger of unright- conveyed the children away through the
eousness, like Dike, Erlnys and Nemesis. air on a golden-fleeced ram. During the
Ateius Capito (Oaius). A Roman jurist passage Helle fell into the sea, which was
of the age of Augustus and Tiberius, who afterwards, from her name, called the Helles-
was born about 30 B.C., and died about 22 pontus. But her brother arrived safely at
Ji.D. Unlike his contemporary Antistius the palace of ^etes, king of .ffia, who gave
Labeo (q.v.), he recommended himself to him his daughter Chalciope in marriage.
the ruling powers by his submissive atti- Afterwards Athamas was himself about to
tude. He was rewarded by many tokens be sacrificed by his people to Zeus Laphy-
of distinction; among others, by the con- stius ; but he was saved by the appearance
sulship, to which he was elected in 5 A.D., of Phrixus' son Cytissorus, who brought
before attaining the legal age. As a jurist the news that Phrixus was still alive. His
{again unlike Antistius) he represented the escape, however, only brought down the
conservative tendency, and so became the wrath of the god upon his descendants.
founder of a special school called the Sabz- The first-born of his race was ever afterwards
nidn%, after his pupil Masurius Sabinus. liable to be sacrificed to Zeus Laphystius,
Atellana (i.e. AtelMna fabUla). [A farce if he entered the council-chamber and did
or comedy, which the ancients supposed was not get out of the way in time. Later
originally acted or invented q,t the Oscan on Athamas was visited with madness by
town of Atella in Campania. Modern Hera, because Ino brought up her nephew
scholars incline to the opinion that it Was a Dionysus, the son of her sister Semele. In
species of Latin drama representing scenes his frenzy he killed his son Learchus, and
at Atella, or scenes of country-town life. persecuted Ino, who with her other son
Its characteristics were (1) that itwas per- Melicertes leaped into the sea. Here she
formed by free-born youths, not by pro- became the sea-goddess Leucothea, and her
fessional actors ; (2) that certain conventional son the sea-god Palsemon. On recovering
characters, as Bucc5 (" Patchaps"), Dossen- from his madness, Athamas was commanded
nus ("The Glutton"), Pappus ("The old by an oracle to settle in a place where he

should be hospitably treated by wild beasts. According to the story most generally cur-
In the part of Thessaly which was named, rent, she was the daughter of Zeus, who
after him, the Athamanian plain, he came had swallowed his first wife Metis (" Coun-
upon some wolves, who fled from him, and sel "), the daughter of Oceanus, in fear that
left him the sheep-bones on which they she would bring forth a son stronger than
were feeding. He settled here, and wedded himself. Hephaestus (or, according to an-
Themisto. (/Sfee Themisto.) The story is no other version, Prometheus) clave open the
doubt founded upon the old custom which head of Zeus with an axe, on which Athene-
the MinysB had of offering the lirst-born of sprang forth in full armour, the goddess
the race of Athamas to Zeus Laphystius, in of eternal virginity. But her ancient epi-
case he failed to make good his escape as thet TrltdgSneia (" born of Triton," or
Phrixus did. the roaring fiood) points to water (that
Athenseus. (1) The engineer, a con- is, to Oceanus) as the source of her being.

temporary of Archimedes, who flourished Oceanus was, according to Homer, the

about 210 B.C. He was the author of a origin of all things and of all deities. The
work, still preserved, on engines of war. worship of Athene, and the story of her
(2) The Greek scholar, a native of Nau- birth, were accordingly connected with
cratis in Egypt. He was educated at Alex- many brooks and lakes in various regions,
andria, where he lived about 170-230 A.D. especially in Boeotia, Thessalia, and Libya,
After this he lived at Rome, and there to which the name Triton was attached.
wrote his DeipnosopMstce (or " Doctors at Prom the first, Athene takes a very pro-
Dinner "), in fifteen books. Of these the minent place in the Greek popular religion.
first, second, and part of the third, are The Homeric hymns represent her as the
only preserved in a selection made in the favourite of her father, who refuses her
11th century the rest survive in a
; nothing. When solemn oaths were to be
tolerably complete state. The work shows taken, they joined her name with those of
astonishing learning, and contains a num- Zeus and Apollo, in a way which shows
ber of notices of ancient life which would that the three deities represent the em-
otherwise have been lost. The author gives bodiment of all divine authority. With
us collections and extracts from more than the exception of the two gods just men-
1,500 works (now mostly lost), by more than tioned, there is no other deity whose-
700 writers. His book is thrown into the original character as a power of nature
form of a conversation held in the year 228 underwent so remarkable an ethical de-
A..D. at a dinner given by Larensius, a rich velopment. Both conceptions of Athene,,
and accomplished Roman, and a descendant the natural and the ethical, were intimately
of the great antiquarian Varro. Among connected in the religion of Attica, whose
the guests are the most learned men of the capital, Athens, was named after Athene,,
time, including Galen the physician and and was the most important seat of her
Ulpian the jurist. The conversation ranges worship. Athene was originally the maiden
over numberless subjects connected with daughter of the god of heaven the clear,

domestic and social life, manners and cusr transparent sether, whose purity is always-
toms, trade, art, and science. Among the breaking forth in unveiled brilliancy through
most valuable things in the book are the the clouds that surround it. As a deity
numerous passages from prose-writers and of the sky she, with Zeus, is the mistress
poets, especially from the masters of the of thunder and lightning. Like Zeus, she-
Middle Comedy. carries the oigis with the Gorgon's head,
Athenaeum. The name of the first public the symbol of the tempest and its terrors.
educational institution at Rome, built by In many statues, accordingly, she is repre-
Hadrian about 135 a.d. The building was sented as hurling the thunder-bolt. But.
in the form of a theatre, and brilliantly she also sends down, from sky to earth, light
fitted up. There rhetoricians and poets and warmth and fruitful dew, and with
held their recitations, and salaried pro- them prosperity to fields and plants. A>
fessors gave their lectures in the various whole series of fables and usages, belong-
branches of general liberal education, philo- ing especially to the Athenian religion,
sophy and rhetoric, as well as grammar represents her as the helper and protector
and jurisprudence. This continued until of agriculture. The two deities Erech-
late in the imperial age. theus and ErichthSnius, honoured in Attica
Athene or Pallas Athene. A
Greek god- as powers of the fruitful soil, are her
dess, identified with the Roman Minerva. foster-children. She was worshipped with.

Erechtheus in the temple named after him outstretched hand. The occupations of
(%h.e~Erechtheum), the oldest sajictuary on peace, however, formed the main sphere of
the Athenian Aor6p5lis. The names of her activity. Like all the other deities
her earliest priestesses, the daughters of who were supposed to dispense the bless-
Cecrops, Aglaurus, Pandrosus, and Herse, ings of nature, she is the protectress of
signify the bright air, the dew, and the growing children and as the goddess of

rain, and are mere personifications of their the clear sky and of pure air, she bestows
qualities, of such value to the Athenian health and keeps off sickness. Further,
territory. she is (with Zeus) the patroness of the
The sowing season was opened in Attica Athenian Phrdtnce, or unions of kinsfolk.
by three sacred services of ploughing. Of At Athens and Sparta she protects the
these, two were in honour of Athene as popular and deliberative assemblies; in
inventress of the plough, while the third many places, and especially at Athens, the
took place in honour of Demeter. It was whole state is under her care {Athene
Athene, also, who had taught men how to Pdltds, Poliitchus). Elsewhere she presides
attach oxen to the yoke above all, she had
; over the larger unions of kindred peoples.
given them the olive-tree, the treasure of The festival of Athene Itonia at Coronea
Attica. This tree she had made to grow out was a confederate festival of all Bcsotia.
of the rock of the citadel, when disputing Under the title of Pandchdis she was wor-
the possession of the land with Poseidon. shipped as the goddess of the Achaean
Several festivals, having reference to these League.
functions of the goddess, were celebrated Speaking broadly, Athene represents
in Attica ; the Callynteria and PlyntSria, human wit and cleverness, and presides
the Scirdphdrla, the ArrhSphdria or over the whole moral and intellectual side
Hersephdrta, and the OscJidphSria, which of human life. Prom her are derived all
were common to Athene with Dionysus. the productions of wisdom and understand-
{See DiONTSiA.) Even her chief feast, the ing, every art and science, whether of war
Panathencea, was originally a harvest festi- or of peace. A
crowd of discoveries, of the
val. It is significant that the presentation most various kinds, is ascribed to her. It
of the pgplds or mantle, the chief oifering has been already mentioned that she was
at the celebration, took place in the sowing credited with the invention of the plough
season. But afterwards more was made and the yoke. She was often associated
of the intellectual gifts bestowed by the with Poseidon as the inventress of horse-
goddess. taming and ship-building. In the Athenian
Athene was very generally regarded as story she teaches Erichthonius to fasten
the goddess of war ; an idea which in his horses to the chariot. In the Corinthian
ancient times was the prevailing one. It story she teaches Bellerophon to subdue
was connected with the fact that, like her Pegasus. At Lindus in Rhodes she was
father Zeus, she was supposed to be able worshipped as the goddess who helped
to send storms and bad weather. In this Danatis to build the first fifty-oared ship.
capacity she appears in story as the true In the fable of the Argonauts it is she who
friend of all bold warriors, such as Perseus, instructs the builders of the first ship, the
Bellerophon, Jason, Hera,cles, Diomedes, Argo. Even in Homer all the productions
and Odysseus. But her courage is a wise of women's art, as of spuming and weaving,
courage, not a blind rashness like that are characterized as "works of Athene."
of Ares ; and she is always represented, Many a Palladwn or statue of Pallas bore
accordingly, as getting the better of him. a spindle and distaff in its left hand. As
In this connection she was honoured in the mistress and protectress of arts and
Athenian worship mainly as a protector handiwork, she was worshipped at the
and defender ; thus (to take a striking ex- Chalkeia (or Eeast of Smiths) under the
ample) she was worshipped on the citadel title of Ergdne. Under this name she is
of Athens under the name of ProrndchOs mentioned in several inscriptions found on
(" champion," " protector.") But she was the Acropolis. Her
genius covers the field
also a goddess of victory. As the personi- of music and dancing. She is inventor of
fication of victory {Athene Nike) she had the flute and the trumpet, as well as of the
a second and especial temple on the Athe- Pyrrhic war-dance, in which she was paid
nian Acropolis. {See Plan of Acbopolis.) to have been the earliest performer, at the
4.nd the great statues in the temples repre- celebration of the victory of the Gods over
sented her, like Zeus, with Nike in her the Giants.
S. C. A. a


It was Phidias who finally fixed the (3) The Lemnian Pallas, so named becausa
typical representation of Athene in works it had been dedicated by the Athenian
of art. Among his numerous statues of her, ClerUchi in Lemnos. The attractions of
three, the most celebrated, were set up on this statue won for it the name of "the
the acropolis of Athens. These were (1) Beautiful." Like the second, it was of
The colossal statue of Athene Parthgnos, bronze ; as a representation of Athene as
wrought in ivory and gold, thirty feet the goddess of peace, it was without a
in height (with the pedestal), and standing helmet.
in the Parthenon. {See Paet^enon.) The Throughout the numerous and varying
goddess was represented wearing a long representations of her, Athene has an im-
robe falling down to the feet, and on her posing stature, suggesting a masculine
breast was the segis with the Gorgon's rather than a feminine form ; an oval face,
head. A
helmet was on her head; in one with a brow of great clearness and purity
hand she bore a Victory, six feet in height, thoughtful eyes, compressed lips, firm chin,
and hair carelessly thrown back. (See cut.)
Her ordinary attributes are the helmet, the
segis covering the breast or serving as a
shield for the arm, the lance, the round
shield with the Gorgon's head, the olive
branch, and the owl. (On her identification
with Minerva, see Minerva.)
Athenodortis. A Greek sculptor, of the
Rhodian school. He was associated with
Agesander and Polydorus in the production
of the celebrated group of Laocoon. (See
Athletse. This was the name given by
the Greeks to the professional competitors
for the prizes in gymnastic contests, such as
boxing and the pancrdtidn, a combination
of boxing with wrestling. The athletce prac-
tised gymnastics as a means of livelihood,
whereas in general Greek society it was
regarded as a liberal art, useful for the
harmonious development of the body, and
as a training for military service. The pro-
fessional athletes adopted a special regimen,
which produced an exceptional development
of bodily strength and muscle, but unfitted
them for any other kind of life or pursuit.
The profession of athlete was accordingly
adopted mainly by men of low birth, and
was more popular with the multitude than
with persons of intelligence and educa-
tion. Greek athletes did not make their
ATHENE. appearance in Rome before 186 B.C. In
(From Velletri Paris, Louvre.)
the republican age thej' were not regarded
with great favour ; but under Augustus
in the other a lance, which leaned against their contests became quite popular. No
a shield adorned with scenes from the battles social stigma attached to them, as to actors
of the Amazons with the Giants. (2) The and gladiators, and under the Empire they
bronze statue of Athene Promachos, erected formed themselves into regular societies,
from the proceeds of the spoils taken at each with its own president, travelling from
Marathon, and standing between the Pro- place to place at the festivals, at which the)'
pylsBa and the Erechtheum. The propor- would appear in pairs, arranged by lot, for
tions of this statue were so gigantic, that a high remuneration. In 86 a.d. Domitian
the gleaming point of the lance and the established a contest on the Capitol for
crest of the helmet were visible to seamen, musicians and athletes, to recur every four
on approaching the Pirseus from Sunium. years and erected a special race-course for

the athletes on the Campus Martins. The full possession of civic rights and privileges
Capitoline contest survived during the

was called SpUimia.{See Infamia.)
-whole of antiquity. Atlas (the " bearer " or " endurer "). The
Athloth^tsB. The persons who arranged, son of the Titan iSpStus and Clymgne (or,
and acted as umpires in, the various public according to another account, Asia), brother
games of Greece. They were also called of MencBtius, Prometheus, and Epimetheus.
AgOndthStce, and at Olympia ffellan6dtkcB. In Homer [Od. i. 52] he is called " the
{See also Panathen^a.) thinker of mischief," who knows the depths^
Atilius Portunatianus. A
Latin gram- of the whole sea, and has under his care i

marian who flourished in the first half of the pillars which hold heaven and earth
the 4th century A.D., and was the author asunder. In Hesiod [Theog. 617] he stands
of a school manual of prosody. at the western end of the earth, near where
Atlmia. This Greek word does not im- the Hesperides dwell, holding the broad
-p\y dishonour in the modem sense, hut de- heaven on his head and unwearied hands.
privation of civil rights, whether partial, To this condition he is forced by Zeus,
complete, temporary, or perpetual. Partial according to a later version as a punishment
atimia at Athens might consist, for in- for the part which he took in the battle
stance, in depriving a citizen of the right to with the Titans. By the Ocean nymph
appear again as prosecutor, in case he had, Pleione he is father of the Pleiades, by
in this capacity, failed to obtain a fifth part
of the votes or of the right to propose a law

again to the assembly, if he had been three

times condemned for making illegal proposi-
tions. In cases of complete atimia, a per-
son was excluded from taking part in any
public proceeding whatever. He was for-
bidden access to the agora and the public
sanctuaries he was incapacitated from ap-

pearing in court as a prosecutor. In case

of very serious offences the atimia might
be followed by confiscation of property, and
might even be extended to a man's chil-
dren. Atimia might also be inflicted on
debtors to the State, if the debt was not
paid within the appointed time. It was
then accompanied with a fine equivalent to
the amount already owed. The payment of
the debt brought the atimia to an end.
But where it was inflicted for other offences, ..ILAS (restored).
it was seldom removed, and then only after (From the temple of Zeus at
a vote of at least six thousand citizens.
In Sparta complete atimia was mostly
inflicted on persons who had been guilty of iEthra of the Hyades. In Homer the nymph
cowardice in war. The offender was not Calypso is also his daughter, who dwells
only cut off from all civil rights, and from on the island Ogygia, the navel of the sea.
the common meals and exercises, but had Later authors make him the father of the
to submit to every kind of insult. At the Hesperides, by Hesperis. It is to him that
public festivals he had to take a low place. Amphitrite flies when pursued by Poseidon.
He was obliged to wear a patchwork cloak, As their knowledge of the West extended,
to have his hair cut on one side to give
the Greeks transferred the. abode of Atlas
-way in the street to every one, even to to the African mountain of the same name.
young men no one would give him light
Local stories of a mountain which supported
for his fire, marry his daughter, or give him : the heaven would, no doubt, encourage the
his daughter to wife. [Plutarch, Agesilaiis identification. In later times Atlas was
30.] Bachelors were also subject to a kind represented as a wealthy king, and owner
of the garden of the Hesperides. Perseus,
of atimia. They were not allowed to be
present at certain festivals, and had no claim with his head of Medusa, turned him into
to the marks of respect which the young, in a rocky mountain for his inhospitality. In
other cases, were expected to show. The works of art he is represented as carrying

the heaven ; or (after the earth was dis- into her own breast. ^Egisthus takes the
covered to be spherical), the terrestrial globe. bloody sword to Atreus as a proof that
Among the statues of Atlas the Famese, in he has executed his commission, and after-
the Museum at Naples, is the best known. wards falls upon him with Thyestes, while
{See also Olympic Games, fig. 3.) he is engaged in making a thank-offering
In Greek architecture, the term AttantSs on the sea-shore. Thyestes and ^Egisthus
was employed to denote the colossal male thereupon seize the government of Mycenae,
statues sometimes used in great buildings and drive Agamemnon and Menelaus out of
instead of columns to support an entabla- the country.
ture or a projecting roof. The older story knows nothing of these
Atreus. Son of Pelops and Hippodamia, horrors. In Homer Pelops receives the
grandson of Tantalus. {See Pelops.) With sceptre from Zeus by the ministration of
the help of his brother Thyestes he mur- Hermes he leaves it to Atreus, and Atreus

dered his step-brother Chrysippus. To to Thyestes, who hands it down to Agar

escape the wrath of their father, the pair memnon. Hesiod alludes to the wealth of
of brothers took refuge with their brother- the Pelopidse, but is silent as to the rest.
in-law Sthenelus, king of Mycense, who AtridsB (Gr. Atretdce, Atreidce). The sons
gave them Media to live in. Eurystheus, Agamemnon and Menelaus.
of Atreus,
the brother of their protector, was killed Atrium. The original name for a Boman
in battle with the Heracleidse. Atreus house, the interior of which consisted of a
kept possession of the kingdom of Mycenae, single chamber open at the front. After-
which had been given him in charge by wards the term was applied to the large
Eurystheus, and maintained it in virtue of hall which extended along the whole
possessing a golden lamb, which had been breadth of the house, and was lighted by
given him by Hermes for the purpose of an opening in the roof. The atrium, was
exciting discord in the house of Pelops and entered by the floor of the house, and the
avenging the death of his son Myrtilus. other chambers were attached to it. {See
Thyestes debauched his brother's wife House.) Other buildings, sacred or pro-
Aerope, daughter of the king of Crete, and fane, possessing halls of this kind with
with her aid got possession of the golden dwelling-rooms attached, were known by

lamb and the kingdom. But, as a sign the name of atria, from the resemblance
that right and wrong had been con- of their form to that of an ordinary house.
founded, Zeus turned the sun and the The Atrium Vestce, or abode of the Vestal
moon back in their course. Atreus accord- Virgins, is an example of a consecrated
ingly recovered the kingdom and expelled atrium. The Atrium Libertatis was secu-
Thyestes. To revenge himself, Thyestes lar. This was the official residence of the
sent Pleisthenes, a son of Atreus whom he censor, and it was here that Asinius Pollio
had brought up as his own, to Mycense to established the first public library known
murder Atreus. But Atreus slew Pleis- to have existed at Rome. Auction-rooms
thenes, not knowing that he was his son. were also called atria, and halls of this
Atreus replied by bringing back Thyestes description were often attached to temples,
and his family from exile, and serving up to and used for the meetings and festivals of
Thyestes at table the limbs of his own societies.
sons. Thyestes fled away; the land was AtrSpns. One of the three Eates. {Scii
visited with barrenness and famine. In
obedience to an oracle, Atreus goes forth Atta {T. Quinctlus [or Quinticius\). A
to seek him, but only finds his daughter
Roman dramatic poet, author of togStoe
Pelopia, whom he takes to wife. iEgisthus,
{see Comedy), who died B.C. 77, and was a
her son by her father Thyestes, who is
contemporary of Afranius. He was cele-
destined to avenge him, Atreus adopts and
brated for his power of drawing character,
rears as his own child. Thyestes is after-
especially in conversational scenes in which
wards found by Agamemnon and Menelaus, women were introduced. Of his comedies
who bring him to Mycense. He is impris- only twelve titles remain, with a few insig-
oned, and ^gisthus ordered to murder him.
nificant fragments.
By the sword which .iEgisthus carries Atthis. A chronicle of Attic history, in
Thyestes recognises him as his son, and
which special attention was paid to occur-
proposes to him to slay Atreus. Meanwhile
rences of political and religious significance.
Pelopia, in horror at the discovery of her
After the last half of the 4th century a.d.,
son's incestuous origin, drives the sword
chronicles of this kind were composed by

a number of writers {AtthidOgrdphi), among from his blood sprang violets to garland the
whpm Androtion and PhilochOrus {q.v.) tree. Agdistis besought Zeus that the
deserve special mention. These writings body of her beloved one might know no
were mjuch quoted by the grammarians. corruption. Her prayer was heard a tomb;

Atticus. (1) T. Porhppnius. A Roman of to Attis was raised on Mount Dindymus

an old and wealthy equestrian family, bom in the sanctuary of Cybele, the priests of
109 B.C. He received a good education in which had to undergo emasculation for
boyhood and youth, and went in the year Attis' sake. A festival of several days
88 B.C. to Athens, where he lived until 65, was held in honour of Attis and Cybele
•devoting himself entirely to study, and much in the beginning of spring. A pine-tree,
respected by the citizens for his generosity felled in the forest, was covered with
and cultivated refinement. In 66 he returned violets, and carried to the shrine of Cybele,
to Rome, to take possession of the inherit- as a symbol of the departed Attis. Then,
ance left him by his uncle and adoptive amid tumultuous music, and rites of wildest
father, Q. Csecilius. He now became Q. sorrow, they sought and mourned for Attis
Csecilius Pomponianus. From this time on the mountains. On the third day he
onward he lived on terms of intimacy with was found again, the image of the goddess
men like Cicero, Hortensius, and Cornelius was purified from the contagion of death,
Nepos, who wrote a life of him which we and a feast of joy was celebrated, as wild
stillpossess. He avoided public life and as had been the days of sorrow.
the strife of parties. This fact, in addition Attius. See Accius.
to his general amiability and good nature, Atys. See Attis.
enabled him during the civil wars to keep Auge. Daughter of Aleus of Teg6a, and
on the best of terms with the leaders of the mother of Telephus by Herades.
conflicting parties, Cicero, Brutus, and Augeas or Augias. (Gr. Augeias in verse,
Antonius. He died after a painful illness, AugSas in prose). Son of Helios, or, accord-
of voluntary starvation, in the year 32 B.C. ing to another account, of Phorbas, and
Atticus was the author of several works, HermiSne. He was king of the Epeians
the most considerable of which was a history in Elis, and one of the Argonauts. Besides
(Wber annalis) dedicated to Cicero. This his other possessions, for which Agamemnon
gave a short epitome of the bare events and Trophonius built him a treasure-house,
of Roman history down to B.C. 54, arranged he was the owner of an enormous flock of
according to the series of consuls and other sheep and oxen, among which were twelve
magistrates, with contemporaneous notices. white bulls, consecrated to the Sun. When
But his most important contribution to Heracles, at the command of Eurystheus,
Latin literature was his edition of the came to cleanse his farmyard, Augeas pro-
letters which he had received from Cicero. mised him the tenth part of his flock.* But,
He also did great service by setting his the task completed, he refused the reward,
numerous slaves to work at copying the on the ground that the work had been done
writings of his contemporaries. in the service of Eurystheus. Heracles
(2) Herodes Atticus. See Hebodes. replied by sending an army against him,
Attis (or Atys). A mythical personage which was defeated in the passes of Elis by
in the worship of the Phrygian goddess Eurytus and Cteatus, sons of Molione. But
Cybele-Agdistis. The son of this goddess, Heracles appeared on the scene, and slew
80 ran the story, had been mutilated by the the Molionidse, and with them their uncle
gods in terror at his gigantic strength, and Augeas and his sons. {See Molionidje.)
from his blood sprang the almond-tree. Augpires [not probablj', from avis, a bird,
After eating its fruit, Nana, daughter of but from a lost word, aug-o, to tell; so
the river Sangarius, brought forth a boy, " declarers " or " tellers "]. A priestly
whom she exposed. He was brought up collegium at Rome, the establishment of
first among the wild goats of the forests, which was traditionally ascribed to Ro-
and afterwards by some shepherds, and mulus. Its members Were in possession
grew up so beautiful that Agdistis fell of the knowledge necessary to make the
in love with him. Wishing to wed the arrangements for taking the auspices, and
daughter of the king of Pessinus in for their interpretation when taken. Their
Phrygia, he was driven to madness by the assistance was called in on all those oc-
goddess. He then fled to the mountains, casions on which the State had to assure
and destroyed his manhood at the foot of a itself, through auspices, of the approval of
pine-tree, which received his spirit, while the gods. The collegium originally con-
sisted of three Patricians, 6'f whom the king two straight lines cutting one another
was oiie.During the regal period the the one from north to south, the other
hiim'ber was doubled; in B.C. 300 it was from east to west. Then to each of
raised'to'^, nine ,';(iour Patricians and five these straight lines he drew two parallel
Plebeiaiis);'and'in the last century of the lines, thus forming a rectangular figure,
Repufclifc, under Sulla, to fifteen, and finally which he consecrated according to a pre-

by Julius Caesar to sixteen, a number which scribed form of words. This .space, as weE
continued unaltered under the Empire. It as the space corresponding to it in the sky,
can be shown that the college of augurs was called a templum. At the point of
continued to exist until the end of the 4th intersection in the centre of the rectangle,
century A.D. The office was, on account was erected the taberndcUlum. This was-
of its political importance, much sought a square tent, with its entrance looking
after, and only filled by persons of high south. Here the augur sat down, asked
birth and distinguished merit. It was the gods for a sign according to a pre-
held for life, an augur not being precluded scribed formula, and waited for the answer.
from holding other temporal or spiritual Complete quiet, a clear sky, and an absence
dignities. Vacancies in the collegium of wind were necessary conditions of the
were originally filled up by cooptation ; but observation. The least noise was sufficient
after 104 B.C. the to disturb it, unless indeed the noise was
office was elective, occasioned by omens of terror (dircB), sup-
the tribes choosing posing the augur to have observed them or
one of the candi- to intend doing so. As he looked south,
dates previously the augur had the east on his left, the west
nominated. An on his right. Accordingly, the Romans
auguriwn had to regarded signs on the left side as of pros-
be taken before the perous omen, signs on the right side as-
augur entered upon unlucky the east being deemed the region

his duties. In all of light, the west that of darkness. The

probability the reverse was the case in ancient Greece,
augurs ranked ac- where the observer looked northwards. In
cording to senior- his observation of birds, the augur did not
ity, and the senior confine himself to noticing their flight. The
augur presided over birds were distinguished as dlltes and
the business of the oscines. The dlites included birds like
collegium. eagles and vultures, which gave signs by
Tigp insignia of " AUGUK WITH LITUUS. their manner of flying. The oscines were
the office were the (Bas-relief in Museum, birds which gave signs by their cry as well
trdbSa, a state dress as their flight, such as ravens, owls, and
with a purple border, and the litUus, a crows. There were also birds which were
staff without knots and ctirved at the top. held sacred to particular gods, and the mere
The science of Roman augury was based appearance of which was an omen of
chiefly on written tradition. This was good or evil. The augur's report was
contained partly in the Libri AugUrales, expressed in the words aves adviittunt,
the oldest manual of technical practice, " the birds allow it ; or dlio die, " on
partly in the Comme.ntarii Augurales, a another day," i.e. " the augury is post-
collection of answers given in certain cases poned." The magistrate was bound by
to the enquiries of the senate. In ancient this report. The
science of augury in-
times the chief duty of the augurs was to cluded other kinds of auspices besides the
observe, when commissioned by a magistrate observation of birds, a cumbrous process
do so, the omens given by birds, and to which had dropped out of use in the
mark out the templum or consecrated space Ciceronian age. {See Adspicia.)
within which the observation took place. The augurs always continued in possession
The proceeding was as follows. Imme- of important functions. In certain places
diately after midnight, or at the dawn of in the city, for instance on the arx, and at
the day on which the official act was to take the meeting place of the comitta, there were
place, the augur^ in the presence of the permanent posts of observation for taking
magistrate, selected, an elevated spot with the regular auspices. These places were put

as wide a view as was obtainable. Taking under the care of the augurs. Their boun-
his station here, he drew with his staff daries might not be altered, nor the view


which they commanded iaterfered with. Augustas consecrated by augury "].

The augurs had authority to -prevent the An honorary given in the year 27 B.C.-
erection of buildings which would do this. to Octavianus, the founder of the Roman
They had also the power of oonsecratiag empire. It was not hereditary, but was
priests, as well as of inaugurating a part of taken by the succeeding emperors at the
the localities intended for religious purposes, instance of the senate, a formality which
and the places where public business was was afterwards dispensed with. Thus it
carried on. They were always present at gradually became an official title. Properly
the comitia, and were authorized, if the signs speaking, it could only be assumed by the
which they saw or which were reported to actual holder of the imperial dignity, not
them justified the proceeding, to announce by his colleague. Marcus Aurelius was the
the fact and postpone the business. If the first who broke through this rule. In
constitutional character of a public act was 161 A.D. he conferred the entire imperial
called in question, the college of augurs had authority, with the title of Augustus, upon
the exclusive power of deciding whether Lucius Verus, after whose death he elevated
there was a flaw {vUium) in it, or not. If his son CommSdus to the same position.
there were, the act was necessarily annulled. This arrangement had the advantage of
By the end of the republican period the dispensing with the necessity of a further
augurs, and the whole business of th-e recognition of the colleague by the senate
auspices, had ceased to be regarded as and people after the death of the reigning
deserving serious attention. emperor. It was frequently adopted, until,
Augustales. A religious association at under Diocletian, it developed into the
Eome, formed for the maintenance of the division of the empire into an eastern
worship paid to the deified Caesars. {See and western portion, each under its own
MuNiciPiuM and Sodalitas.) Augustus.
Augustimis {Aurelius). The greatest of The title of Augustus was reserved
the Latin Christian fathers. He was born exclusively for the emperor but the cor-

354 A.D. at Tagaste in Numidia. His responding feminine style of Augusta was
father was a pagan, his mother, MSnica, a assumed, as the highest of all honours, by
zealous Christian. After a wild life as a the great ladies of the imperial house. The
young man, he became professor of rhetoric first of those who bore it was Livia, on
in Tagaste, Carthage, Rome, and Milan, whom her husband Octavianus conferred
where he was converted to Christianity it by wUl. She was followed by Antonia,
through the influence of Ambrose, and who received it from her grandson Caligula.
baptized in 387. He returned to Africa, The first lady who took it as consort of the
and was ordained presbyter in 391, and reigning Caesar was Agrippina, the third
bishop of Hippo in Numidia in 396. He wife of Claudius. After IDomitian's time
died there in 430, after doing much good in it became the rule to confer the title of
the city during its siege by the Vandals. Augusta not only on the consort of the
His literary activity was extraordinary. reigning emperor, but on others among
Four years before his death he reckons up their near relations, especiallj' their
the number of his works, exclusive of letters daughters. This was generally done upon
and sermons, as 93, making up 233 books. some appropriate occasion, and never with-
Among them are six books De Mustca, and out the special consent of the Csesar. In
essays on rhetoric, dialectic, and grammar. later times it was generally the senate who
These productions, which testify to his took the initiative in the matter.
interest in learning, were instalments of an Aulseum. See Theatre.
encyclopsedic work on the seven liberal arts, Aule. See House (Greek).
modelled upon the DiscipllncB of Varro. Aulos, Auletike, Aulodike. See Music.
Among his other writings two attracted Aurelianus (Ccelius). A
Latin writer on
especial notice on accoiint of the extra- medicine, a native of Sicca in Numidia, who
ordinary effect which they produced in after flourished in the 5th century A.D. He was
times. These are The Confessions, a history the author of two works on Acute and
of his inner life in thirteen books, written Chronic Diseases, the first in three, the
in the form of a confession to the Almighty second in five books. These are translations,
and the De Civitdte Dei, a work in twenty- fairly literal, but abridged, of works by the
two books, demonstrating the providential Greek physician Soranus, who lived in the
action of God in the development of human last half of the 2nd century A.D. Cselius
history. "also wrote a compendium of the whole


science of medicine, in the form of a cate- cellaneous pieces, » qjic of which (Mosella)

chism (ilfedfcJndli^s EesponsidnSs) Of this

. is the narrative of a tour from 'Bingen on
considerable fragments remain. the -Rhine to -JBe^ncastel {Tabernce) on/*he
Aurelius, Marcus. See Antoninus. Moselle and then up the Mo'selle past Neu-
Aurelius Victor (Sextus). A Roman his- magen (Ndvidmdgum) to Treves. Its sub-
torian, born in Africa. He was probably ject has secured the poem some renown.
governor of Pannonia under Julian in 361 Ausonius is not a real poet ; but he tries
A.D., and in 389 prefect of Rome. There is to make up for lack of genius by dexterity
a history of the Csesars from Julius to Con- in metre and the manipulation of words,
stantine, written about 360 A.D., which bears and by ornaments of learning and rhetoric.
his name. This appears, however, to be no The consequence is, that his style is gener-
more than an extract from a more compre- ally neither simple nor natural.
hensive work. The same is the case with Ausplcia (" observations of birds "). In
an EpitdmS, continued down to the death its proper sense the word means the
of Theodosius. There is also a short but watching of signs given by birds. But it
not altogether worthless book, entitled De was also applied to other signs, the observa-
Virls IllustHbus Urbis Romce, which is at- tion of which was not intended to obtain
tributed to Aurelius Victor. It begins with answers about future events, but only to
the Alban king PrScas, and conies down to ascertain whether a particular proceeding
Cleopatra. It is not by Aurelius Victor, was or was not acceptable to the deity
nor again is little book which has been
a concerned. It must be remembered that,
attributed to him, called Ongo Gentis according to Roman ideas, Jupiter gave
RomancR. This is full of forged quotations, men signs of his approval or disapproval in
and belongs to a much later period. every undertaking; signs which qualified
AurSus. A Roman coin of the imperial persons could read and understand. Any
period, originally weighing Jg of a Roman private individual was free to ask for, and
pound, and worth from the time of Julius to interpret, such signs for his own needs.
Csesar to Nero, 25 denarii, or 100 sestertii; But to ask for signs on behalf of the State
from 23 to 20 shillings. {See Coinage.) was only allowed to the representatives of
Auriga. See Cibcensian Games. the community. The auspicia publlca
Aurora. See Eos. pdpVili BOmdni, or system of public aus-
Aurum Coronarium. See Cokona. picia, were under the superintendence of
Ausdnins (Deciinus Magnus). The most the college of augurs. {See AvGUR.) This
remarkable Latin poet of the 4ih century body alone possessed the traditional know-
A.D. ; born about 310 at Burdigala (Bor- ledge of the ceremonial, and held the key
deaux). He was son of the private phy- to the correct interpretation of the signs.
sician of Valentinian I, and afterwards pre- The signs from heaven might be asked for,
fect of Illyria. Educated thoroughly in or they might present themselves unasked.
grammar, rhetoric, and law, he practised as They fell into five classes (1) Signs given

an advocate in his native city, where he by birds {signa ex avibiLs). These, as the
afterwards became professor of grammar name auspicia shows, were originally the
and rhetoric. He was then invited by commonest sort, but had become obsolete as
Valentinian to undertake the education early as the 1st century B.C. (For the
of his son Gratian, who, after he had ceremonial connected with them, see AuGUE.)
ascended the throne, conferred upon him (2) Signs in the sky {ex ccelo). The most
the consulship and other distinctions. After important and decisive were thunder and
the assassination of Gratian he retired to lightning. Lightning was a favourable
his estate near Burdigala, where he con- omen if it appeared to the left of the augur,
tinued to reside, in full literary activity, and flashed to the right ; unfavourable, if it
till 390. He became a Christian, probably flashed from right to left. {See Augur.)
on accepting the office of tutor to the prince. In certain cases, as, for example, that of
Besides composing a turgid address of the-assembling of the comUia, a storm was
thanks to Gratian, delivered at Treves, taken as an absolute prohibition of the
Ausonius wrote a series of poems, including meeting. (3) Signs from the behaviour of
verses in memory of deceased relatives chickens while eating, It was a good omen
(Parentdlia), verses commemorating his if the chicken rushed eagerly out of its cage
colleagues {CommemorMio ProfessOrum at its food and dropped a bit out of its beak
Burdigalensium) Epitdphia, Ecldgce, Epi-
, an unfavourable omen if it was unwilling,
stUlcB, Epigrammdta, and a number of mis- or refused altogether, to leave its cage, or

flew away, or declined-its food. This clear dignity — supposing, for instance, that a con-
and simple method of getting omens was sul and prgetor were in the same camp the —
generally adopted by armiBS in the field, the higher officer alone had the right of taking
chickens being taken about in charge of a the auspices. If the collegce.. were equal,
special functionary (pulMrius). (4) Signs the auspices passed from one to the other
given by the cries or motion of animals, as at stated times. No public act, whether of
reptiles and quadrupeds, in their course peace or war (crossing a river, for instance,
over a given piece of ground {signa pedestria or fighting a battle), could be undertaken
or ex quadrupSdtbus). (6) Signs given by without auspices. They were specially
phenomena of terror {signa ex dlris). These necessary at the election of all officials, the
might consist in disturbances of the act of entry upon all offices, at all com.itia, and at
the departure of a general for war. They
had, further, to be taken on the actual day
and at the actual place of the given under-
The whole proceeding was so abused that
in time it sank into a mere form. This
remark applies even to the auspices taken
from lightning, the most important sign of
all. For the flash of lightning, which was
in later times regularly supposed to appear
when a magistrate entered upon office, was
always (after the necessary formalities) set
down as appearing on the left side. More-
over, the mere assertion of a magistrate who
had the right of auspicium, that he had
taken observations on a particular day, and
seen a flash of lightning, was constitution-
ally unassailable ; and was consequently
often used to put off a meeting of the
* AUSPICf A PUI-LAKIA (bAS-KELIEF, ROME). comitia fixed for the day in question.
(From Zoega'8 Bassirilievi^ I tav. svi.)
, Augustus, it is true, tried to rehabilitate
the auspicia, but their supposed religious
auspicatio, such as the falling of an object, foundation had been so thoroughly shaken,
a noise, a stumble, a slip in the recitation that they had lost all serious significance.
of the formula ; or a disturbance occurring Autolycus. Son of Hermes and Chifine,
in the course of public business, such as, for or (according to another account) Philonis,
instance, an epileptic seizure taking place father of Anticleia, the mother of Odysseus.
in the public assembly; an event which In Greek mythology he figured as the prince
broke up the meeting. of thieves. Trom his father he inherited
The two last-mentioned classes of signs the gift of making himself and all his stolen
were generally not asked for, because the goods invisible, or changing them so as to
former were usually, the latter always, un- preclude the possibility of recognition. He
lucky. If they made their appearance
was an accomplished wrestler, and was said
unasked, they could not be passed over, if to have given HerScles instruction in the art.
the observer saw them or wished to see Autdmgdou. Son of Diores the comrade ;

them. Every was expected to take

official and charioteer of Achilles.
auspices on entering upon his office, and on AuzIUa (auxiliary troops). This name
every occasion of performing an official act. was given in the Roman army to the foreign
Thus the words impSrium and auspicium troops serving with the legions, and to the
Were often virtually synonymous. The contingents of Italian allies. In some cases,
auspicia were .further divided, according to especially that of the slingers and archers,
the dignity of the magistrate, into maxima they were raised by free reciniiting, in others
(" greatest ") and minora (" less "). The by a levy in the provinces in others they

greatest auspicia were those whidi were were sent as contingents by kings or com-
taken by the king, dictator, consuls, prae- munities in alliance with Rome. Under the
tors, and censors the lesser were taken by
; Empire the term auxilia was extended to
aediles and quaestors. If two magistrates, j
all the corps stationed in the provinces and
though collegce (colleagues) were of unequal '
not included in the legions ; as, for example.


the divisions of veterans called vexMlarii, Theodosius MacrSbius. The dedication is
and ihe cohorts called Italian, formed ori- in prose,and states that the author's model*
ginally of free Italian volunteers. It was, were Phsedrus and Babrius. The book was
however, employed especially of the corps largely used in schools, and consequently
levied in the provinces, which furnished was much enlarged, paraphrased, and imi-
the material not only of the whole- cavalry tated in the Middle Ages. The result may
of the Roman army, but of a number of be seen in the Novus Avianus of Alexander
infantry detachments (coliortes auxiliarice). Neckam, written in the 13th century.
Of these, some were armed and trained in Avienus {Bufius Festus). A Latin poet,
Roman fashion, others retained their na- native of Volsinii in Etruria, pro-consul of
tional equipment. Consequently, a striking Africa in 366 and of Achaia in 372 A.D. He
variety of troops might be observed in the was the author of a tasteful and scholarly
provincial armies of Rome. {See Ala and translation, in hexameters, of the Phceno-
COHORS.) mSnd of Aratus, and of the Geography
Auzo. One of the two Chdrtt8s, or of Dionysius Periegetes {Descriptio Orbis
Graces, worshipped at Athens. {See Terrarum) ; as well as of a piece called Ora
Charites.) mantima, or a description of the coasts of
Avianus. A Latin writer of fables. We the Mediterranean, Black, and Caspian Seas.
have a collection of forty-two fables in This was based on very ancient authorities,
elegiac metre, written by him, it may be and written in iambics. Only a fragment
conjectured, in the 4th century A.D. The of the first book remains, describing the
work is dedicated to a certain Theodosius, Mediterranean coast from the Atlantic as
with compliments on his acquaintance with far as Marseilles.
Latin literature. He is perhaps to be Axamenta. The ancient hymns sung by
identified with the well-known scholar the Salii. {See Salii.)

Bahrlns (Greek). The compiler of a styles hymns, pseans, dithyrambs drinking-

comprehensive collection of ^sop's fables songs, love-songs, and epigrams.

in choliambic metre. The book is probably Bakers and Baking. The original custom
to be assigned to the beginning of the 3rd in Greece and Italy was to grind the corn
century A.D. Until 1844 nothing was known and bake the necessary supplies at home
of Babrius but fragments and paraphrases, a usage which maintained itself in large
bearing the name of ^Esopus {see .33SOPUS). houses even after grinding and baking (for
But in that year a Greek, Minoides Minas, the two went together) had become a sepa-
discovered 123 of the original fables in a rate trade. Bakers first appear in Greece as
monastery on Mount Athos. In 1867 he a distinct class in the 5th century B.C. in ;

brought out 95 more, the genuineness of Rome there is no sign of them till about B.C.
which is disputed. The style of Babrius 171. The millers or "pounders" {pistores)
is simple and pleasing, the tone fresh and at Rome were usually either freedmen or
lively. citizens of a low class ; but the position of
Bacchanalia, Bacchus. See Dionysus. the trade was improved by the care taken
Bacch;^Udes. AGreek lyric poet who by the State to provide good and cheap
flourished in the middle of the 5th century bread of full weight. As early as the time
B.C. He was a native of lulls in the island of Augustus the State was served by a
of Ceos, the nephew and pupil of Simonides, collEgium or guild of bakers, which was
and a contemporary of Pindar. For a long subsequently organized by Trajan. In his
time he lived with his uncle at the court of time it consisted of 100 members nomi-
Hiero, tyrant of Syracuse. He also resided nated by the emperor, with special privi-
for a considerable time at Athens, where leges, and subordinate to the prcefecttis
he won many victories in the dithyrambic annOnce {see Annona). In the 3rd cen-
contests. Later on his home was in the tury A.D. the monthly distribution of bread
Peloponnese. It would appear that he at- was succeeded by a daily one. This natu-
tempted to rival the many-sided talent of his rally led to a considerable increase in the
uncle, but fell behind him in sublimity and number of public bakeries. At the begin-
force. Only a few fragments of. his poems ,ning of the 4th century, A.D. there were
remain. He attempted a great variety of 264, distributed through the fourteen rS-

giSnes oi Rome. Side by side with these left hand. The game of episkyrds, at first
there existed a number of private bakeries, peculiar to Sparta, was played by a large
which made it their business to provide number. It took its name from the line
the finer sorts of bread, so numerous in (skyron) which separated the two sides.
antiquity. On this line the player took his stand to
Baking was carried on sometimes in fur- throw the ball ; another line, behind the
naces (such as are found in Pompeii), some- players, marked the point beyond which
times in the kllbdnos or kribdnos (Latin you might not go back in catching it. If
cllbdnus). This was a clay vessel with a you failed to catch the ball when standing
lid on the top and small holes in the sides, within this line, you lost the game. Another
wider at the bottom than at the top. To game played by a large number was the
heat it they surrounded it with hot ashes. harpastum (Latin) or phaininda (Greek).
The ancients were unacquainted with rye, In this the player made as though he were
and made their bread mostly of wheat, with going to send the ball to a particular man
several varieties depending on the quality on the other side, and then suddenly threw
of the flour and the mode of preparation. it in another direction. The korykos was
The loaves were generally round, and not so much a game as a trial of strength.
divided into four parts, to facilitate break- The korykos was a large leather bag fiilled
ing them. with flour, sand, or fig-seeds. It hung from
Ball {Games of). Games of ball were the ceiling so as to reach to about the middle
among the commonest and most popular of the player's body. His business was to
forms of exercise in antiquity, among the keep the bag in increasingly violent motion,,
young and old alike. Playing went on beating it back with breast and hands.
in public places, such as the Campus Ballista. See Artillery.
Martins at Rome; and in gymnasia and Banks and Banking. Bankers were called
tlierTncB a room (sphcBristerium,, from the by the Greeks trdpezitce, because they sat
Greek sphaira^ a ball) was set apart for the at tables in the market-places, the centre of
purpose, in which a professional attended to all business transactions. They acted as
give instruction in the art (sphairistike). money-changers, exchanging for a commis-
During the imperial period country-houses sion heavy money or gold into smaller coin,
often had a sphceristerium attached to and the moneys of different systems with
them. The balls (Lat. pUce) were made of each other. In commercial cities they would
hair, feathers, or fig-seeds, covered with do a considerable trade in this way; the
leather or many-coloured cloth. The largest difference of standards and the uncertainty
(as, for instance, the Roman follis) were of the stamping of coins in Greece creating
filled with air. At this time there were a great demand for their assistance. They
five sorts of ball: the small, the middle- also acted as money-lenders, both on a small
sized, the large, the very large, and the and a large scale. Tinally, they received
inflated ball. In throwing the little ball money on deposit. People placed their
the rule was that the arm should not rise money with them partly for safe custody,
above the shoulder. There were games for partly to facilitate the management of it.
one, two, three, or a larger number of The depositors, according to their conven-
players. In many of these several small ience, either drew out sums of money them-
balls were used at once. Two of the games selves, or commissioned their banker to
with the little ball may be mentioned, called make pa3rments to a third person. In this
by the Greeks Urdma and Aporraxis. In line the business of the banks was con-
the urania (" sky-high ") the player threw siderable. If a citizen had a large sum of
the ball as high as possible, to be caught money circulating in business, he probably
either by himself or his antagonist. In preferred to put it in a bank, and to hand
the aporraxis (" bounce-ball ") the ball was over to the banker the business of making
thrown obliquely to the ground, and its his payments. Strangers too found that the
several rebounds were scored up until banks offered them such facilities that they
another player caught it with the flat of were glad to make considerable use of them.
his hand and threw it back. In another The bankers kept strict accounts of all the
form of the game the point was to keep monies in their charge. If a person were
tossing the ball up, as long as possible, with making a payment to another who was a
the open hand. A very favouritefgame at depositor at the same bank, the banker
Rome was the trigon (" three-corner "), would simply transfer the reqiiisite' sum
which required special dexterity with the from one account to the other. The bankers
were generally well known from the public duced for purposes of legal proof. The
character of their. 'oceinpation, and. they .Roman bai^i?s, like the Greek, usually
naturally gained great experience in busi- managed payments from one client to
ness. Consequently theif advice and as- another by alteration of the respective
sistance were often asked for in the ordinary accounts.
affairs of life. They would be called in Barbarians. Barbdrds was originally the
to attest the conclusion of contracts, and Greek epithet for a people speaking any
would take charge of sums of money, the language but Greek. It was not until after
title to which was disputed, and of im- the Persian wars that the word began to
portant documents. Business of this kind carry with it associations of hatred and
was generally in the hands of resident contempt, and to imply vulgarity and want
aliens. Wq hear, in isolated instances, of of cultivation. The national feeling of the
State-banks. But this business was carried Greeks had then risen to such intensity,
on in the vast majority of cases by the that they deemed themselves above all
f;reat sanctuaries, such as those of Delphi, other peoples in gifts and culture, and
l)elos, Ephesus, and Samos, which were looked down upon them with a sense of
much used as banks for loans and deposits, superiority.
both by individuals and governments. The Romans were originally, like other
The Romans had, in some exceptional non-Hellenic peoples, included by the
cases. State-banks under the superintendence Greeks under the name of barbaroi. But
of public officials. The nummuldrit and after the conquest of Greece, and the trans-
argentdrit occupied the same position among ference of Hellenic art and culture to Rome,
them as the trapezitce among the Greeks. the Romans took up the same position as
The taberruE argentarke, or banks, were set the Greeks before them, and designated as
up in the forum, especially about or under barbarians all the nations who differed in
the three arched buildings called Idnl. language and manners from the GrsBco-
The nummularii had a two-fold function. Romau world.
(1) They were officers of the mint, charged Basil (GtT. Bdstleids, Latin Basillus),
with assaying new coins, holding a bank surnamed the Great, of Caesarea in Cappa-
(mensa) for putting new coins into circula- docia. He was bom of a noble family in
tion, taking old or foreign coinage into 329 A.D., was educated in rhetoric at Athens
currency, and testing the genuineness of by Libanius and Himerius, and subsequently
money on occasion of payments being made. took up the profession of advocate. But it
(2) They carried on the business o:f exchange was not long before he dedicated himself to
on their own account, at the same time the service of the Church. He distinguished
acting as argentarii. In other words, they himself especially by his resistance to Ari-
received money on .deposit, put out capital anism, and the measures he adopted for
at interest for their clients, got in outstand- regulating the monastic system. He died,
ing debts, made payments, executed sales, the bishop of his native city, in A.D. 379.
especially auctions- of property left to be Besides his writings on points of doctrine,
disposed of by will, lent money or negotiated we have an address by him to young men
loans, and executed payments in foreign on the uses of Greek literature, the study
places by reference to bankers there. The of which he earnestly recommended, in
argentarii and nummularii were alike opposition to the prejudices of many Chris-
subject to the superintendence of the state tians. He has also left a collection of four
authorities. In Rome they were responsible hundred letters, which are models in their
to the Prcefectus Urbi, in the provinces to way. Among them are those addressed to
the governors. They were legally bound Libanius, his pagan instructor.
to keep their books with strict accuracy. Basileus. The Greek word for king. On
The books were of three kinds: (a) the the ArchOn Basileus see Archontes. The
cOdex accepti et expensi, or cash book, in name was also given to the toast-master in
which receipts and payments were entered, a drinking-bout. {See Meals.)
with the drtte,'- the person's- name, and the Basilica (Gr. hasittke or "King's
occasion of the transaction; (6) the liber House"). A state-building, used by the
ratlSnum, in which every client had a Romans as a hall of justice and a public
special page setting out his debit and credit meeting-place. The earliest basilica built
account; and (c) the adversaria, or diary at Rome was called the basilica Porda,
for the entry of business still in hand. In after the famous M. Porcius Cato Censorius,
cases of dispute these books had to be pro- who built it in B.C. 184, probably on the

model of the 8t6a Basileids (" royal colon-

nade ") at Athens. It stood in the Torum
near the Curia. The later basilicas usually
bore the name of the persons who built
them. Buildings of the same kind were
constantly erected in the provinces to serve
as halls of exchange or courts of justice.
The form of the basilica was oblong; the
interior was a hall, either without any divi-
sions or divided by rows of pillars, with a
main nave, and two or sometimes four side-
aisles. Galleries for spectators were often
added above. If the basilica was used as a

The Romans were so fond

•of the bath that if the em-
peror or a rich citizen pre-
:Sented the people with a free
bath for a day, a longer
period, or in perpetuity, he
won the credit of exceptional
liberality. It was not un-
common for a person to
leave a sum of money in
his will for defraying the
-costs of bathing. Some
towns applied their public
/funds for this purpose.
The accompanying cuts
.give the ground-plan of the
hot baths at Pompeii, and of
:a private Roman bath found
at Caerwent (Venta Silu-
Tum) in South Wales. (For
a restoration of the Baths a, a, a. Women's Bath. g, g. Waiting Rooms.
of Caracalla, see Aechitec- b, b. Men's Bath.
c, c, c. Colonnade.
Ti.h. Shops.
Chief Entrance.
.TURE, fig. 13.) cl, d, d, (2, d. Single Baths. Icj k. Heating Apparatus.
e, e. Entrance to Women's Bath, I. Portions.
f. Side Entrance.

(1) Millingen, Pemfures d. Vases gracs, pi. ix.

(2) Micali, lionumenti Jnedttt, tav. xxiii.

a. Entrance. d. Furnace-room.
b. b. Pipes. e. Stove.
c. Warm Bath. /. Cold Bath.


(O. Morgan, Archaologia, xxvi 2, p. 432, pi. 36.)

Batrach6my6machla. The Battle of the

Trogs and the Mice. This was the title of
an epic poem falsely bearing the name of
Homer. It was a parody of the Iliad, and
was probably written by Pigres. {See
Homer 1, end.)
Baucis. See Philemon 2.
Beds (Gk. Mine, Lat. lectus). The (4) Lenormant et De Wltte, Monnm, o^ramogr. II
Greek and Latin words were applied not pi. xxxiii A.
only to beds in the proper sense of the BEDSTEADS, FROM GREEK VASES.

.term,but to any kind of couoh, as, for in- and his daughter to wife. The children of
stance, to the sofas used at meals (see this marriage are Isander, Hippolochus, the
Triclinium) or for reading and writing. father of Glaucus and Laodamia, and the
The frame rested on four feet, and some- mother of Sarpedon by Zeus. Afterwards
times had no support at all, sometimes one Bellerophon was hated by all the gods, and
for the head, sometimes one at each wandered about alone, devouring his heart
«nd for head and feet, sometimes one at in sorrow. His son Isander was killed by
the side. It was made of wood or bronze, Ares in battle against the Solymi, while
and was usually richly adorned on the Laodamia was sacrificed to the wrath of
parts exposed to view. If of wood, these Artemis. This is the Homeric version but, ;
ornaments would consist of inlaid -sr-ork according to Pindar, Bellerophon's high for-
of fine metal, ivory, tortoisesheU, amber,
and rare coloured woods ; if of bronze,
they would be sculptures in relief. The
mattress {Gk.knSphallon,tyleidn,'La,t. torus,
culcitd) was supported on girths stretched
across the frame, and was stuffed with
vegetable fibre, woollen flock, or feathers,
and covered with linen, wool, or leather.
Cushions were added to support the head or
elbow (Gk. proskephdlaion, Lat. pulvlnus
or cervical). Coverings for the sleeper
were spread over the mattrass, which in
wealthy houses would be dyed purple, or
adorned with patterns and embroidery. If
'.the bed was high, it would have a foot-
stool attached. At Pompeii couches have
often been found built up in the niches
of the sleeping apartments. (For various
forms of Greek bedsteads, see the engrav-
ings.) Cp. Fulcra.

BellSrophou or BellSrophontes. Son of

Glaucus of Corinth (or according to another
account, of Poseidon), and grandson of
Sisyphus. His proper name is said to have
been Hipponoes; the name Bellerophontes
implies that he was the slayer of some now
unknown monster. In later times his name BELLEKOPHOK.

was wrongly explained as the slayer of a THE DEPARTURE OP BELLEROPHON.

certain Corinthian, Belleros, on account of (From a mural painting, Pompeii.)
which he was supposed to have fled to
Proetus at Tiryns, or (as Homer has it) at tune made him so overweening that he
Corinth. The wife of Proetus, Anteia (or wished to mount to heaven on Pegasus but ;

Stheneboea), falls in love with the beautiful Zeus drove the horse wild with a gadfly,
youth he is deaf to her entreaties she
: : and Bellerophon fell and came to a miser-
slanders him to her husband, who resolves able end. He was honoured as a hero in
on his destruction. He sends Bellerophon Corinth, an enclosure being consecrated to
to Lycia, to his father-in-law lobates, with him in the cypress grove of Craneion.
a tablet in cypher, begging him to put the Belloua. (1) The Roman goddess of
bearer to death. lobates first commissions war. An old Italian divinity, probably of
Bellerophon to destroy the fire-breathing Sabine origin. She was supposed to be
monster Chimsera, a task which he executes wife or sister of Mars, and was identified
with the help of his winged horse Pegasus with the Greek Enyo. Her temple, which
(see Pegasus). Thereupon, after a fierce was situated in the Campus Martius, outside
battle, he conquers the Solymi and the Ama- the old pomerium, was used for meetings of
.zons, on his return slays an ambush of the the senate when it was dealing with the
boldest among theLycians, and lobates now ambassadors of foreign nations, or Roman
recognises his divine origin, keeps him with generals who claimed a triumph on their
lim, and gives him the half of his kingdom, return from war. It must be remembered
that tinder such circumstances a general is fully attested by the -fragments that
might not enter the city. The pillar of war remain, in spite of their scanty number
{Columna BelUca) stood hard by. It was and disordered arrangement.
from this, as representing the boundary of Bestiarii. See Circus.
the enemy's territory, that the Fetidlis Bias. See Adrastus and Melampus.
threw his lance on declaring war. Bibliopola. See Book-trade.
(2) Quite a different goddess is the Bellona Bidental {Roman). A
consecrated spot
whom the Roman government brought from where lightning had passed into the ground.
Comana in Cappadooia towards the begin- {See PuTEAL.)
ning of the 1st Bidj^ae {Spartan).See Education.
century B.C., dur- BigSB. See Circus, Games of.
ing the Mithridatic Bikos (Greek.) See Vessels.
war. This Bellona Bion. A Greek bucolic poet, who flour-
was worshipped in ished in the second half of the 2nd cen-
a diiFerent locality, tury B.C. He lived mostly in Sicily, where
and with a service he is said to have died by poison. Besides
conducted by Cap- a number of minor poems from his hand, we
padocian priests have a long descriptive epic called The
and priestesses. Dirge of Adonis. His style is more remark-
These Bcllonarii able for grace than for power or simplicity.
(such was their Boedromia. Afestival held at Athens
name) moved in honour of Apollo Boedrdmios, the god
through the city who gave aid in battle. It was celebrated
in procession at on the 6th day of the month Boedromion,
the festivals of the so named after the god (September-Octo-
goddess in black ber). The origin of the festival was traced
raiment, and shed * PltlEST OP BELLONA. back in antiquity to the victory of Ion over
their blood at the From a Koman sepnlcbral Eumolpus, or to that of Theseus over the
relief (Guigniant, Nov/v. Gall.
sacrifice, wounding Myth., p. 120, 368 b.) Amazons. After 490 B.C. it was converted
themselves for the into a commemoration of the battle of
purpose in the arms and loins with a two- Marathon.
edged axe, and prophesying amid a wild Boeotarchi. The highest officials of the
noise of drums and trumpets. Boeotian confederacy, two of whom were-
Belus. Son of Libya, granddaughter of always chosen by Thebes, as the chief town
lo and Poseidon. Father of jEgyptus, in it, and one by each of the other towns..
Danalis, Cepheus, and Phineus. They held the post only for a year, but were
Bendis. A goddess of the moon among capable of re-election in successive years.
the Thracians. She was invested with Their chief duties were to command the-
power over heaven and earth, and identified troops of the confederacy in time of war,
by the Greeks with Artgmis, Hecftte, and and execute the decrees of its council.
Persephone. The worship of this goddess Bdethins {Anlciiis Manlius Torquatu^
was introduced into Attica by Thracian Severlnus). Boethius was born in Rome,
aliens and was so popular that in Plato's
; about 475 a.d., and belonged to the dis-
time it became a state ceremonial at tinguished family of the Anicii, who had
Athens. A public festival was instituted for some time been Christians. Having-
called the Bendideia, at which there were been left an orphan in his childhood, he
torch-races and a solemn procession of was taken in his tenth year to Athens,
Athenians and Thracians at the Piraeus. where he remained eighteen years and ac-
Berosus. A Greek writer, born in quired a stock of knowledge far beyond
Bithynia, and a priest of Belus. He lived the average. After his return to Rome,
as early as the time of Alexander the Great, he was held in high esteem among his con-
and about B.C. 280 wrote a work, dedi- temporaries for his learning and eloquence.
cated to king Antiochus Soter, on Babylo- He attracted the attention of TheodSric,
nian history, in three books {BahylOnlca who in 510 A.D. made him consul, and, in
or ChaldM<:a). The work must have been spite of his patriotic and independent atti-
of great value, as it was founded on ancient tude, gave him a prominent share in the
priestly chronicles preserved in the temple government. The trial of the consul Al-
of Belus at Babylon. Its importance as an biDus, however, brought with it the ruin
authority for the ancient history of Asia of Boethius. Albinus was accused of main-


taining a secret understanding with the prayers were offered up to her for the
Byzantine court, and Boethius stood up averting of earthquakes. Besides this, a
boldly in his defence, declaring that if secret festival was held to her on behalf of
Albinus was guilty, so was he and the the public welfare, in the house of the
whole senate with him. Thus involved in officiating consul or preetor of the city, by
the same charge, he was sentenced to death matrons and the Vestal Virgins, on the
by the cowardly assembly whose cause he night of May 3-4. The mistress of the
had represented. He was thrown into house presided. No man was allowed to be
prison at Pavia, and executed in 52B. present at this celebration, or even to hear
The most famous work of Boethius, his the name of the goddess. After offering
Consolation of Philosophy, was written in a sacrifice of sucking pigs, the women per-
prison. It was much read in the Middle formed a dance, accompanied by stringed
Ages, and translated into every possible and wind instruments. Under the Empire
language. The book is thrown partly into the festival degenerated into a mystic per-
the form of a dialogue, in which the inter- formance of extravagant character.
locutors are the author, and Philosdphia, Bonorum emptlo. The technical term in
who appears to him to console him. As in Roman jurisprudence for the seizure of
the Menippean sdtUra (see Satura), the goods. If a man sentenced to pay a certain
narrative is relieved by the occasional in- sum did not perform his obligation within
sertion of musical verses in various metres. thirty days, the creditor obtained permis-
The consolatory arguments are strictly sion from the prsetor to attach his goods.
philosophical. After a renewed respite of thirty days the
Boethius was at great pains to make Greek sale followed by auction to the highest
learning accessible to his contemporaries, bidder, the intending purchaser bidding for
by means of translations of, and commen- the whole property, with its assets and
taries upon, Greek books on philosophy, liabilities. The former proprietor might
mathematics, rhetoric, and grammar. For intervene and promise payment at any
this the following ages were much indebted time before the faU of the hammer. The
to him. His writings, ^hich were used as propertj' once knocked down to him, the
manuals throughout the Middle Ages, were buyer became the absolute owner. A
the main storehouse of secular knowledge son against whom these proceedings were
during that period. This is eminently true taken incurred infdmia.
of his numerous philosophical works, and Bonus Eventus. 8e.e Eventds.
especially of his translations of Aristotle, Books and Book-trade. The Greeks were
which exercised immense influence upon early familiar with the practice of multiply-
the scholastic philosophy. ing copies of books by transcription, either
Bona Dea (" the good goddess "). An to private order or for public sale. As far
Italian deity, supposed to preside over the back as the 5th century B.C. the Athenians
earth, and all the blessings which spring had a special place in their market-place for
from it. She was also the patron goddess selling books, and it is clearly established
of chastity and fruitfulness in women. The that a regular book-fair existed at Athens
names Fauna, Maia, and Ops, were origin- by about 300 B.C. In Rome, towards the
ally no more than varying appellations given end of the republican age, the business
by the priests to the Bona Dea. She is of copying books and the book-trade in
represented in works of art with a sceptre general developed on a large scale, and it
in her left hand, a wreath of vine leaves on became a fashionable thing to possess a
her head, and a jar of wine at her side. library. The book-trade, in the proper sense
Near her image was a consecrated serpent of the term, owes its existence to Atticus,
indeed a number of tame serpents were kept the well-known friend of Cicero. He kept
in her temple, which was situated in Rome a number of slaves skilled in shorthand and
on the slope of the Aventine. All kinds of calligraphy (librarii), whom he set to copy
healing plants were preserved in her sanc- a number of Cicero's writings, which he then
tuary. She was regarded in B,ome as an disposed of at a considerable profit in Italy
austere virgin goddess, whose temple men and Greece. His example was soon fol-
were forbidden to enter. She belonged, lowed, especially as the interest in new
accordingly, to the circle of deities who literary productions, and the love of reading,
were worshipped by the Vestal Virgins. greatly increased after the time of Augustus.
The anniversary of the foundation of her To facilitate the appearance of a great
temple was held on the 1st of May, when number of copies at the same time, the
D. C. A. n

scribes were often set to write from dicta- prayer and sacrifice by destroying a part
tion. Muchuse was made of the abbrevia- of the enemy's fleet on the promontory of
tions (nStce) invented by Tiro, the freedman Sepias ; whereupon they built him an altar
of Cicero. The binding was done, as well on the banks of the Ilissus.
as the writing, by the librarii / and as the Boule or Biile (" Council"). The Council
brittle papyrus was the usual material, the instituted at Athens by Solon consisted of
book was generally made up in the form of 400 members {bouleutai), 100 being taken
a roll (see Writing Materials). The from each of the four Ionic tribes {phylai).
ends of the roll were strengthened with By Cleisthenes the number was increased to
thin strips of bone or wood, which were 500, 50 being taken from each of the ten
either provided at top and bottom with a newly constituted tribes, and chosen by lot
knob {umbilicus), or finished off in the whereas up to his time the councillors had
shape of a horn. Previously to this, the been elected from the number of candidates
upper and lower edges were carefully clip- who offered themselves for the position. In
ped, smoothed with pumice-stone, and tinted 306 B.C. two new tribes were added, and the
with black. To protect it from moths and number of the council was accordingly in-
worms, the roll was dipped in cedar oil, creased to 600, at which figure it remained,
which gave it a yellowish tinge. The title with some variations, down to the times of
of the work (titulus or index) was written the Roman empire. But in the 2nd century
in red on a strip of parchment attached to A.D. it again fell to 500. In ancient times
the end of the roll. Expensive copies, no one was eligible as a councillor who did
especially in the case of poems, had a gilt not belong to one of the three wealthiest
umbilicus, as well as a parchment cover of classes ; but after the time of Aristides the
purple colour. The books were then ex- position was open to any free Athenian of
posed for sale in the bookseller's shops, and thirty years of age, and in possession of full
sold at what appear, considering the cir- civic rights. In choosing councillors by lot,
cumstances, reasonable prices. The book- two candidates were presented for each
sellers were called librarii or hibliopolce / vacancy. The same person might hold the
their shops were situated in the most fre- office several times, though not for two
quented parts of the city, and much used, years in succession. Every councillor had
both as reading-rooms and rendezvous for to take a special oath, strictly formulated,
learned discussion. As a general rule there on entering the Boule. At the meetings of
was a good sale for books, especially such the Council its members wore myrtle crowns
as had won popularity before publication in as insignia of their office. They had the
the public recitations {see Recitations). further privilege of a place of honour at
Books were also much bought in the pro- the festivals, and were excused, during their
vinces, whose inhabitants were anxious to term of office, from military service. They
keep abreast with the intellectual life of also received a payment of five obols (nearly
the capital. Even works which were little Id.) for every sitting they attended. Their
thought of in Rome sometimes found an place of meeting was called the bouleu-
easy sale in other parts of the empire. It tSrion (" council-chamber ") ; here they met
does not appear that the author received every day except on public holidays, each
any honorarium from the publisher. ^ member having his numbered seat. When
Bdr@as. In Greek mythology, the North assembled, the Council was divided into ten
Wind, son of Astrsea and Eos, brother of sections of 50 members each, each represent-
Zephyrus, Eurus, and Nottis. His home ing one of the tribes. These sections were
was in the Thracian Salmydessus, on the called Prytdneis (" Presidents "), and offici-
Black Sea, whither he carried Orithyia ated in succession, as arranged at the be-
from the games on the Ilissus, when her ginning of each year, for 35-36 days, or in
father, Erechtheus king of Athens, had re- leap-years for 38-39. This period was
fused her to him in marrage. Their chil- called a Pi'ytaneia, and during its continu-
dren were Calais and Zetes, the so-called ance the prytaneis for the time being pre-
Bore&doe, Cleopatra, the wife of Phineus, sided over the full sittings of the Council
and ChiSne, the beloved of Poseidon (see and of the public assembly. At other times
EuMOLPUS). It was this relationship which they remained the whole day at their office
was referred to in the oracle given to the {ThOlds or " dome ") near the council-cham-
Athenians, when the fleet of Xerxes was ber, where they usually dined at the ex-
approaching, that " they should call upon pense of the State. Apresident {EpistdtSs)
their brother-in-law." Boreas answered their was chosen every day by lot from among the
* Cp. Marquardt, Privatlehen der Bamer. p. 829, ed. 1886.

prytaneis to act as chairman in the Council Bouleuteridn. See Boule.

and the public assembly, to keep the keys of Bows. (Gr. toxdn, Lat. arcus). Two
the fortress and the archives, and the seal kinds of bow were known to antiquity. One
of state. From 378 b.o. the presidency of consisted of the two horns of a kind of ante-
the public assembly was committed to a lope, or an arm of wood shaped like them,
special chairman, elected from among the joined together by a bridge which served
nine proedroi (" presidents "), who were both as a hold for the hand and as a rest
chosen by lot by the epistates of the pry- for the arrow. The string, made of plaited
taneis from the remaining nine tribes at horse-hair or twisted ox-gut, was fastened
each sitting of the Council. to each end (fig. 1). The other, called the
The first duty of the Council was to pre- Scythian or Parthian bow, was made of a
pare all the measures which were to come piece of elastic wood, the ends of which
before the public assembly, and to draw up were tipped with metal, and bent slightly
a preliminary decree {prdbouleuma). Ac- upwards to hold the string (fig. 2). The
cordingly it was its business to receive the arrow (Gk. o'istds, or toxeuma, Lat.
reports of the generals and of foreign am- sagitta) was made of a stem of reed or
bassadors. Foreign affairs always stoof.
first in the order of daily business. Besides
this, the Council exercised a general superin-
tendence over all public business, and
especially over the financial administration.
It gave the authority for the farming of the (1)

taxes, contracts for public works, sales of

confiscated property, for adopting new
lines of expenditure or modes of raising
^ ^
income, for arresting tax-gatherers and tax- (2) From Museum Hunter., pi. 23 L.
farmers if they fell into arrear. The
treasurers of the temples were also re-
sponsible to it. The cavalry and the navy
were placed under its special supervision,
and it had, in particular, to see that a
•certain number of new ships of war was
built every year. It examined the quali-
fications of the newly elected archons. In
many cases it acted as a court of justice,
and had the power of inflicting fines up to
the amount of 500 drachmae (£16 13s. Ad.).
But more serious cases it had to pass on to
the Heliastai, or to the public assembly (see
Heliastai). The assembly would sometimes
entrust the Council with absolute power to (4) Museo Fio Clementino,
•deal with cases which, strictly speaking, IV tav". sliii.

lay outside its jurisdiction. The decrees BOWS AND QUIVEES.

passed by the Council on matters affecting
the public administration ceased to be bind- light wood, one end furnished with a three-
ing on the expiration of its year of office, in cornered point, sometimes simple and some-
-case they were not adopted % its successors times barbed ; the other end with feathers.
[Aristotle, Const, of Athens, 43-49]. A notch in the shaft served to place it on^
The voting took place by show of hands the string. The arrows (and sometimes the
(cheirdtonia) voting pebbles and other de-
; bow) were kept in a quiver (phdretra) made
vices being only used for judicial decisions. of leather, wood, or metal, fitted with a
Private citizens could transact business with suspender, and sometimes open, sometimes
the Council only after previous application having a lid. The quiver was worn either
for an audience, generally made in writing. on the back,'according to the Greek manner,
'The official correspondence was transacted or in Oriental fashion, on the left hip. The
by three secretaries (called grammdteis or Cretans had the reputation of being the
" writers ") appointed from among the mem- best archers among the Greeks. They
bers, and assisted by a number of subordi- generally served among the light-armed
nate functionaries. auxiliaries as a special corps. Mounted

bowmen were employed by the ancient in Greek, purporting to represent correspon-

Athenians (see Hipfeis); but it was not dence between Brutus and the Greek cities

until after the Punic wars that archers

formed a regular part of the Roman army.
They were then furnished by the allies, or
raised by recruiting, and were mostly taken
from Crete and the Balearic Islands.
Brauronia. See Aetemis.
Brlareus. See Hecatoncheieoi.
Head Brntns: bbctd» Bev Cap of Liberty betweeu two
Briseis. The favourite slave of Achilles. 061.., o<
imi-uratoe: l. pilstobius ces-

daggers, bid. bub.

Agamemnon took her from him, and thiTS TIAMUS (one of his partlaaDe).


kindled the wrath of the hero, to the ruin
of the Greeks. {See Teojan Wae.) (Cohen, M4d. Corns., pi. xxiv. Jnnia ]6.)

Britomartis (" sweet maid "). A Cretan

goddess, supposed to dispense happiness, ofAsia Minor but this is no more than

whose worship extended throughout the patchwork of a rhetorician.

islands and along the coasts of the Mediter Bua, Buagor. See Edu-
ranean. Like Artemis, with whom she i
was sometimes identified, she was the Bucina (properly " a
patroness of hunters, fishermen and sailors, cow-horn ") was the name
and also a goddess of birth and of health. of a tin trumpet, shaped
Her sphere was Nature, in its greatness and like a serpent, and blown
its freedom. As goddess of the sea she bore by a trumpeter called
the name of Dictynna, the supposed deriva- hucinator. The bucina
tion of which from' the Greek diktyon (" a gave the signal called
net ") was explained by the following classicum, and also the
legend. She was the daughter of a hun- call for relieving guard
tress, much beloved by Zeus and Artemis. at night. * BUCINATOB.
Minos loved her, and followed her for nine Bucolic (or pastoral)
Prom a mnral
months over valley and mountain, through Poetry. Prom very an- painting of gladia-
was the tors (Gell and
forest and swamp, till he nearly overtook cient times it
Gandy, Pompeiann,.
her, when she leaped from a high rock into habit of the Dorian shep- pi. 75).

the sea. She was saved by falling into herds in Sicily to practise
some nets, and Artemis made her a goddess. a national style of song, the inventor of
She would seem originally to have been a which was supposed to be Daphnis, the hero^
goddess of the moon, her flight symbolizing of shepherds (see Daphnis). The subject of
the revolution of the moon round the earth, their song was partly the fate of this hero,
and her leap into the sea its disappearance. partly the simple experiences of shepherds'
Brizo. A goddess localized in Delos, to life, especially their loves. There was a
whom women, in particular, paid worship good deal of the mimic element in these
as protectress of mariners. The}' set before poems, the shepherds contending with each
her eatables of various kinds (fish being other in alternate verses, particularly at the
excluded) in little boats. She also presided town and country festivals held in honour
over an oracle, the answers of which were of Artemis. Pastoral poems, relating the
given in dreams to people who consulted it story of Daphnis' love and of his tragic-
on matters relating to fishery and naviga- end, had been written by the Sicilian poet
tion. StesichSrus (about 600 B.C.). But it was^
Bromius. See Dionysus. Theocritus of Syracuse (about 270 B.C.) who-
Brontes. See Cyclopes. developed pastoral poetry into something
Brutus {Marcus Junius). The well-known like an epic style, often with a strong
friend of Cicero, and murderer of Ceesar. dramatic tinge. This was in the Alex-
He was born in 85 B.C., and died by his own andrian period, when, as in all over- civilized
hand after the battle of Philippi, B.C. 42. ages, men found pleasure and relief in the
As an orator and a writer on philosophy contrasts afforded by the simple ways of
he held a prominent position among his con- country life. Theocritus' sketches of rural
temporaries. Two books of correspondence life, and indeed of the ways of the lower
between Brutus and Cicero have come down orders in general, are true to nature and ex-
to us, the authenticity of which is disputed. quisitely fmished. He called them eidyllia
There is also a collection of seventy letters or little pictures. Theocritus was unsur-


passed in his ownstyle, wiiicli was cultivated the laws of war to refuse to the conquered
after him by Bion and Moschus. the truce necessary for this purpose and ;

The pastoral style was introduced into if the conquered were unable to fulfil the
Latin poetry by Vergil, who, while closely duty, the responsibility fell upon the con-
imitating Theocritus, had the tact to per- querors. There were certain circumstances
ceive that the simple sketches of ancient under which, according to Athenian law,
rural life in Sicily given by his master children, during the lifetime of their fathers,
-would not be sufficient to satisfy the taste were held free from all obligations to them;
of his countrymen. Under the mask of but the obligation to give them burial after
:shepherds, therefore, he introduced con- death was never cancelled.
temporary characters, thus winning atten- The usages of the Athenians, and proba-
tion by the expression of his personal feel- bly of the other Greeks, were as follows.
ings, and by covert allusions to events of the The eyes of the dead having been closed,
day. Two poems falsely attributed to him, an dbdlos was put in the mouth as passage-
the Moretum (" Salad ") and Cdpa (" Hos- money for Charon. The body was then
tess "), are real idylls true and natural
; washed and anointed by the women of the
studies from low life. Vergil's allegorical family, who proceeded to adorn it with
style was revived in later times by Cal- filletsand garlands (commonly of ivy), to
purnius in the age of Nero, and Nemesianus clothe it in white garments, and lay it out
at the end of the 3rd century A.D. on a couch in the hall, with its face turned
Biile. See Boule. to the door. The kinsfolk and friends stood
Bulla. A round or heart-shaped box by, mourning but the laws of Solon forbade

containing an amulet, worn round the neck all exaggerated expressions of grief. Hired
by free-born Roman children. The fashion women were sometimes introduced, singing
was borrowed from the Etrurians. To wear dirges to the accompaniment of the flute.
a golden bulla was originally a privilege Near the couch were placed painted earthen-
of the patricians, which was in later times ware vases containing the libations to be
extended to the equites, and generally to afterwards offered. Before the door was
rich and distinguished families. Leather a vessel of water, intended for the purifica-
bulla were worn by the children of poor tion of all who went out. This water might,
families and of freedmen. Boys ceased to not be brought from another house in
wear the bulla when they assumed the which a dead body lay. The corpse was
toga virllis. It was then dedicated to the laid out on the day following the death
Lares, and hung up over the hearth. Girls and on the next day before sunrise (lest the
most probably left it off on marriage. It sun should be polluted by the sight) was
was sometimes put on by adults as a pro- carried out to the place of burial, attended
tection against the evil eye on special oc- by kinsmen and friends, who sometimes
casions, as, for instance, on that of a triumph. acted as bearers. This office, however, was
(<S'ee Fascinum). usually performed by freedmen or hired
Btiphonia. See Diipolia. assistants in the case of men of mark, it

Burial. (1) Greek. The Greeks regarded would be undertaken by j'oung Athenian
the burial of the dead as one of the most citizens. The procession was headed by
sacred duties. Its neglect involved an men singing songs of mourning, or women
offence against the dead for, according to
playing the flute; then came the male
the popular belief,' the soul obtained no moamers in garments of black or grey,
rest in the realms of the dead, so long as and with hair cut short; and these were
the body remained unburied. It involved, followed by the bier. Behind the bier fol-
further, an offence against the gods, both lowed a train of women, including all who
of the upper and the lower world. The were related to the dead as far as to the
Tinburied corpse was an offence to the fifth degree. No other women might attend
eyes of the former, while the latter were but those who were more than sixty years
deprived of their due. Any one finding of age.
an unburied corpse was expected at least In the heroic age the bodies are always

to throw a handful of dust over it. If a burnt, biirial being unknown ; but in later
general neglected to provide for the burial times burial and burning are found existing
of the slain in war, he was deemed guilty side by side, burial being prefen-ed by the
of a capital offence. Burial of the dead poor on the ground of expense. In case of
was not refused even to the enemy, whether burial, the body was placed in a coffin of
Greek or barbarian. It was a violation of wood, clay, or stone, or in a chamber in a

wall, or in a grave hollowed out in a rock. campaigns of the year were sometimes
If burning was resorted to, tlie corpse was buried together at the public expense in the
laid on a pyre, which, in the case of rich outer Ceramicus, the most beautiful suburb
families, was sometimes very large, splendid of the city. On these occasions a funeral
and costly. It was kindled by the nearest
relative the mourners threw into the flame

locks of hair, and objects of all kinds in

which the dead person had taken pleasure
during his life. When the fire was extin-
guished, the relations collected the ashes and
put them in an urn, which was set up in a
building constructed on a scale large enough
for whole families or clans. So, too, in case
of burial, the coffins which belonged to one
family or clan were laid together in a
common tomb. Near the urns and coffins
were placed a variety of vessels and other
objects which had been the property of the
dead. (Comp. fig. 1.)
The funeral was succeeded by a meal par- DECOKATED GKAVE COLUMN.
(2) *
taken of by the mourners in the house of ffrom an Athenian vaae (Stackelberg, I.e., Tat rlT.)
mourning. The virtues of the dead were
orationwas delivered by a speaker of mark,
chosen by the government. In later times
a memorial festival was observed, even in
time of peace, in honour of the dead thus
publicly buried. A
special service was
held annually at Marathon in memory of
the heroes who had fallen there, and been
buried on the spot in recognition of their
valour. (Comp. fig. 3.)
The ashes of persons who had died in a
foreign country were, if possible, brought
(1) *A child's coffin, ATTICA. home and laid in a tomb. There were cases
(Stackelberg, Grdher dcr Hellenen, Taf. vii.)
in which this was impossible, or in which

spoken of, and his faults passed over, to

the body could not be removed if, for —
instance, the deceased had been lost at sea.
speak evil of the dead being regarded as an
Then a kSnotdpMon, or empty tomb, would
impiety. Then came the purification of the
be erected to his memory. It was only to
house. On the third, ninth, and thirtieth
very heinous offenders that a tomb in their
day after the funeral, libations of honey,
own country was refused. If a man's guilt
wine, oil, and milk or water, with other
was proved after his death, his remains
offerings, were brought to the tomb. On were disinterred and sent across the fron-
the ninth day, in particular, peculiar prep-
arations of food were added. The outward
signs of mourning were laid aside at Athens
on the thirtieth, at Sparta as early as the
twelfth, day after the funeral. The kinsfolk
visited the graves at certain seasons of the
year, adorned them with garlands and
and brought offerings to them. This
was done more especially on the anniver- (3) *THE MOUND AT HARATHON.
saries of births and deaths, and at the (Bodwell's Travels in Greece, ii 160.)
general festival of the dead {NSkysia) in
September. (Comp. fig. 2.) —
As a rule though there were exceptions,
After the time of Soloii, a public burial as at Sparta— burial - places. were .situated
was sometimes given at Athens to men of outside the city, and in the neighbourhood
great mark. In time of war, too, the bones of the great roads. This was also the
of all the citizens who had fallen in the favourite place for private tombs standing
; ;


on their own ground, apart from the com- was never discontinued, even when the
mon cemeteries-. The body was generally ceremony took place by day. It was held
buried with the feet turned towards the indispensable at every funeral, and became,
road. Monuments took the form of mounds, in fact, the symbol of burial. The usual
pilasters, columns, and flat grave-stones. time at which funerals took place among
We often find buildings in the style of the upper classes was the forenoon of the
temples, with very costly adornments, eighth day after death. In the laws of the
sculptures, and inscriptions in verse and Twelve Tables an attempt was made to
prose. These inscriptions often give more check excess in funeral expenses, but with
than the name of the deceased, and con- as little success as attended later enactments.
tain notices of his life, sometimes with was one of unusual ceremony,
If the funeral
proverbs, sometimes with curses directed the citizens were publicly invited by a
against any one violating the tomb and herald to attend it. The arrangements
disturbing the rest of its occupants. The were entrusted to a special functionary,
violation of a tomb, which was regarded who was assisted by lictors. The proces-
with reverence as a consecrated spot, was sionwas headed by a band of wind instru-
a serious offence. One of the most aggra- ments, the number of which was limited
vated forms of it was the intrusion into by the Twelve Tables to ten. In ancient
the family sepulchre of a body which had times, and at least down to the Punic wars,
no right to be there. these musicians were followed by professional
(2) Roman. The worship of the dead female singers, chanting the praises of the
among the Romans had, characteristically dead {see Nenia). Then came a company
enough, a legal tinge, and formed a part of dancers and actors to amuse the specta-
of the pontifical law, which regulated the tors with their antics. Supposing the
place and manner of the interment. The family was honorata, in other words, had
theory of the Romans, like that of the it had one or more members who had held
Greeks, was that there was an obligation OLirule offices, and the consequent right of
to bury every dead body, except those of setting up masked statues of its forefathers
felons, suicides, and persons struck by light- in its house, the central point of the cere-
ning. Any one finding a corpse was ex- mony was the procession of ancestors. This
pected at least to throw some earth upon consisted of persons dressed to represent
it as a symbol of burial. The first duty of the ancestors in their wax masks, their
a man's survivors was to bury his body official robes, and other insignia. The in-
if he died in a foreign country, the act had direct lines of relationship were represented
to be performed symbolically. If this duty as well as the direct, Each figure was
was neglected, the offender incurred a taint mounted on a high carriage and preceded
of guilt from which he had to purify himself by lictors. The train included memorials
by an annually repeated atonement. After of the deeds done by the deceased, torch-
death the eyes and mouth were closed, the bearers, and lictors with lowered fascSs.
body bathed in hot water and then anointed, The body followed, uncovered, on an ele-
fully dressed, and adorned with the fitting vated couch ; sometimes in a coffin inside the
insignia in case of the deceased having bier. Awooden figure, clothed, and wear-
held high office. The corpse was then laid ing the wax mask representing the dead,
out on a state-bed in the atrium^ the feet sat upright beside it in the attitude of life.
turned towards the door. Near the bed The bearers were usually the sons, relations
were pans with burning odours, while in and friends of the deceased in the case

the vesVauiumhizsLchBs of pine and cypress of emperors, they were senators and high
were put up as signs of mourning. The officials. Behind the bier came the other
custom of putting a coin in the mouth is mourners, men and women, the freedmen in
not mentioned in literature before the im- mourning and without any ornaments. Ar-
perial period but the relics found in tombs
; rived at the Forum, the bier was set down
show that it is much older. It was, how- before the rostrum. The representatives of
ever, only under the Empire that it became the ancestors sat down on wooden chairs
general. the rest arranged themselves in a circle
In ancient times funerals took place after round, while a son or kinsman ascended the
nightfalland by torchlight and this was; rostrum andd'elivered a panegyric upon the
always the case with second burials, and dead. If the funeral was a public one, the
' if the deceased -.was a child; or a person of -orator' was appointed by the senate. In the
slender means. Hence the use of torches "case of deceased lacKfes such speeches were

not usual, until the last century of the Re- mals. ThB followers threw m a. variety of

public. After the speech, the procession gifts as a last remembrance. The pyre was
moved on in the same order to the place of then kindled by the nearest kinsman»«aid
burial, which, according to the law of the friends, who performed the office with
Twelve Tables, must be situated outside the averted faces. The ashes were extinguished
city. No one could be buried within the with water or wine, and the procession, after
city but men of illustrious merit, as, for saying a last farewell, returned home, while
instance, generals who had won a triumph, the nearest of kin collected the ashes in a
cloth and buried the severed limb. After
and Vestal Virgins. By a special resolu-
tion of the popular assembly, these persons some days, the dry ashes were put by the
were allowed the honour of burial in the nearest relations into an urn, which was
Eorum. The tombs were in some cases deposited in deep silence in the sepulchral
situated on family estates, but the greater chamber, which they entered ungirt and
number formed a line extending from the bare-footed. After the burial or burning
gates of the city to some distance along the there was a funeral feast at the tomb. A
great roads, and especially the Via Appia. Lares purified the family
sacrifice to the
(Comp. fig. 4.) and the house from the taint entailed by
Burial was, among the Romans, the oldest death. The mourning was ended on the


(Gell and Gaudy, Pompaiana, pi. 3.)

form of disposing of the corpse. In certain ninth day after the burial by a sacrifice
families (e.g. the gens Cornelia), it long con- offered to the Manes of the dead, and a
tinued the exclusive custom. Infant chil- meal of eggs, lentils and salt, at which the
dren, and poor people in general, were always mourning attire was laid aside. It was on
buried. Even when the body was burnt, this day that the games held in honour of
an old custom prescribed that a limb should the dead generally took place. {See Manes.)
be cut off and buried, otherwise the family Everything necessary for the funeral was
was not regarded as having discharged its provided by contract by the libUln&rii or
obligations. The body was laid in its tomb officials of the temple of Llbltina, at which
in full dress, and placed in a special sarco- a notification was made of all cases of death
phagus. When the body was to be burnt, (see Libitina). There were public burial-
a pyre was erected on a specified place near places, but only for slaves and those who
the grave. The pyre was sometimes made were too poor to buy burial-places for
in the form of an altar, and adorned in the themselves. The bodies were thrown pro-
costliestmanner. The couch and the body miscuously into large common graves, called
were laid upon it, and with them anything putlcUli, or wells, on account of their depth.
which the deceased person had used or been There was a burial place of this sort on the
i'ond of, sometimes one of his favourite nni- Esqniline, where the bodies of criminals

were thrown to the dogs and birds, until made his counsellor his first victim. When
Mseoenas laid out his park there. Cheap Heracles came to Egypt during his quest
and promiscuous burial was also provided for the apples of the Hesperidgs, he allowed
by the so-called " dove-cots " or columbaria, himself to be bound and taken to the altar
a place in which could be purchased by per- as a victim. Then he broke his bonds, and
sons of scanty means (see Columbarium). slew Busiris, with his sons and his whole
The graves of individuals and families were following.
subterranean chambers, or buildings in the Butes. (1) A Thracian, the son of BSreas.
style of houses. Freedmen, and probably His brother Lycurgus, whose life he had
also clients and friends, were often buried attempted, banished him, and he settled on
with the family. The grave was regarded the island of Strongyle or Naxos. Finding
by the Romans and Greeks alike as the here no wives for himself and his compan-
dwelling-place of the dead, and was accord- ions, he carried off some women from
ingly decked out with every imaginable Thessaly, while they were celebrating a
kind of domestic furniture. It is to this sacrifice to Dionysus. One of these, Coronis,
custom that we owe the preservation of so whom he had forced to be his wife, pra5'ed
many remains of this sort. The monument to Dionysus for vengeance. The god drove
often had a piece of land, with field and him mad, and he threw himself into a well.
garden attached to it, surrounded by a (2) An Athenian hero, son of the Athenian
wall, and intended to supply flowers, herbs, Pandion and Zeuxippe. A tiller of the
and other things necessary for the decora- soil, and a neatherd, he was a priest of
tion of the tomb and maintenance of the Athene the goddess of the stronghold, and
attendants. Other buildings would often of Poseidon Erechtheus, and thus ancestor
be attached, for burning the corpses, for of the priestly caste of the Butadse and
holding the funeral feast, and for housing EteobutadsB. He shared an altar in the
the freedmen who had the care of the spot. Erechtheum with Poseidon and Hephaestus.
Inscriptions in verse and prose, giving in- The later story represented him as the son of
formation about the dead, would also be Teleon and Zeuxippe, and as taking part in
found there. the expedition of the Argonauts.
Busiris. The son of Poseidon and a (3) A Sicilian hero, identified in fable
daughter of Epaphus. The Greek mytho- with the Athenian Butes. Butes the Argo-
logy made him king of Egypt. The land naut was enticed by the song of the Sirens,
was afflicted for nine years with a series of and leaped into the sea, but was rescued
bad harvests, and a prophet named Phrasius, and brought to Lilybseum in Sicily, by
of Cyprus, advised Busiris to sacrifice a Aphrodite, by whom he became the father
stranger every year to Zeus. The king of Eryx.

C3.blri (Grr. Kdbeiroi). The name of cer- donian and Roman periods, being regarded,
tain deities, supposed to represent the bene- indeed, as inferior only to the Eleusinian
ficent powers of Nature, and worshipped in mysteries in sanctity. The initiated were
certain parts of Greece, in Boeotia, for in- supposed to have secured special protection
stance, and in the islands of Imbros, Lemnos against mishaps, especially by sea.
and Samothrace. Nothing certain is known Cacus (a figure in Italian mythology). A
of their real character, or the forms of their fire-spitting giant, the son of Vulcan, who
worship. The name is perhaps Phoenician, lived near the place where Rome was after-
and, if so, means " the great or mighty wards built. When Hercules came into the
ones." It would seem that they were neighbourhood with the cattle of Geryon,
originally imagined as possessing similar Cacus stole some of them while the hero was
powers to those of the Telchines, CuretSs, sleeping. He dragged them backwards into
Corybantes and Dactyli ; and that they his cave under a spur of the Aventine, so
were confused sometimes with the Dioscuri, that their footsteps gave no clue to the direc-
sometimes with Demeter and Hermes, and tion in which they had gone. He then closed
sometimes (especially in Lemnos) with the entrance to the cave with a rock, which
Hephaestus. Their worship was secret. ten pairs of oxen were unable to move.
The mysteries of the Cabiri of Samothrace But the lowing of the cattle guided the hero,
stood in high consi'' oration during the Mace- in his search, to the rignt track. He tore

open the cave, and, after a fearful struggle, terrible doom which weighed upon his
slew Cacus witii his club. Upon this he home, afterwards sought retirement
built an altar on the spot to Jupiter, under among the Enchelei in lUyria, a country
the title of Pater Inventor {"the discoverer"), which he named after his son Illyrius, who
and sacrificed one of the cattle upon it. The was bom there. He resigned the kingdom
inhabitants paid him every honour for free- to Illyrius and then he and his daughter

ing them of the monster, and Evander, who Harmonia were changed into serpents, and
was instructed by his mother Carmentis in carried by Zeus to Elysium.
the lore of prophecy, saluted him as a god. Hermes was worshipped in Samothrace
Hercules is then said to have established as the ancestral god of the inhabitants
his own. religious service, and to have in- under the name of Cadmus or Cadmilus
structed two noble families, the Potltii and {Kadmilds) and it is therefore natural to

the Pinarii, in the usages to be observed conjecture that the Theban Cadmus was
at the sacrifice. This sacrifice was to be originally an ancestral god of the Thebans,
offered on the Ara Maxima, which he him- corresponding to the Samothracian deity.
self had built on the cattle market (Forum He was regarded as the inventor of agri-
Boarium) where the cattle had been pas- culture, of working in bronze, and of civili-
tured. zation in general ; and it is to be remarked
Cadmus (Gr. Kadmds). (1) Son of Agenor at the same time that the oldest Grreek
king of Phoenicia, and of Telephassa. His poets know nothing of his migration from
sister Europa being carried off by Zeus, the East or from Egypt, or of the Phcenician
Cadmus, with his brothers Phoenix and origin of Thebes. When once the later
Cilix, was sent out with the command to story of his Phoenician descent had taken
look for her and not to return without shape, his name was naturally connected
her. In the course of his wanderings he with the introduction of the alphabet, for
came to Thrace. Here his mother, who which the Greeks weU knew that they
had accompanied him so far, breathed her were indebted to the Phoenicians.
last ;and Cadmus applied for counsel to (2) A Greek historian. See Logogeaphi.
the Delphic oracle. He was advised not Caducous. See Hermes (conclusion).
to seek his sister any more, but to follow a Cadus. See Vessels.
cow which would meet him, and found a CsBcilius Statins or Statins CsBcilius.A
city on the spot where she should lie down. writer of Latin comedy. He was a Gaiil,
The cow met him in Phocis, and led him of the race of the Insubrians, who were
into Boeotia. He was intending to sacrifice settled in Upper Italy. He was brought to
the cow, and had sent his companions to a Rome, probably about 194 B.C., as a prisoner
neighbouring spring to bring the necessary of war. He was set free by one of the
water, when they were all slain by a ser- Csecilii, became very intimate with Ennius,
pent, the offspring of Ares and the Erinys and died not long after him, B.C. 166. It
Tilphosa, which guarded the spring. After was long before he could obtain a footing on
a severe struggle, Cadmus destroyed the the stage but, this once achieved, he won

dragon, and, at the command of Athene, a considerable reputation, and was numbered
sowed its teeth over the neighbouring among the masters of his craft. The influ-
ground. A host of armed men sprung up, ence of Ennius seems to have been apparent
who immediately fought and slew each in the comparative care and regularity with
other, all except five. The survivors, who which were constructed. Cicero,
his pieces
were called Spartoi (" sown "), helped Cad- however, finds fault with his defective
mus to build the Cadmea, or the stronghold Latinity and we must therefore infer that,

of what was afterwards Thebes, which bore being of Gaulish extraction, he never suc-
his name. They were the ancestors of the ceeded in fully mastering the niceties of
Theban aristocracy; and one of them, colloquial Latin. The titles of some forty
Echion, or " the serpent's son," became the of his plays have survived ; the contents he
husband of Cadmus' daughter Agave. Cad- mostly bon-owed from Menander.
mus did atonement to Ares for eight years CsBlius. (1) Cmlius Antipdter ; see
for the slaughter of the dragon. Then Annalists.
Zeus gave him to wife HarmSnIa, the (2) Marcus Ccelius RUfus, a Roman
daughter of Ares and Aphrodite, who bore orator, born 82 B.C. He was a man of
him, a son Polydorus, and four daughters, great gifts, but dissolute life, as even his
AutonSe, Ino, Agave, and S6mSle. {See advocate Cicero was forced to admit in
Harmonia and Semele.) Crushed by the the speech which he made in his defence.


He belonged originally to the party of most celebrated advocates of the day, Cotta
tlie optimSiSs but on the outbreak of
and Hortensius. Prom that time his fame
the Civil War, attached himself to Caesar was established as that of an advocate of
then, thinking himself slighted by the the first rank.
latter, he tried, during his prsetorship, The faculties of which he had given
to stir up disorder in Rome. He was de- evidence he cultivated to their highest
prived of his office by the senate, fled from point under the tuition of the rhetorician
Rome, and, in the year 48 B.C., attempted Molo in Rhodes, and attained such success,
to excite a rising in Lower Italy, in which
he met with a violent death. Accordiug to
Cicero, his strong point as an orator was
his power of haranguing the people in the

courts he shone mostly when on the side

of the prosecution. His style was, ii
Cicero may be believed, brilliant, dignified,
and witty. Several of his letters to Cioerc
are preserved in the eighth book ol
Cicero's Epistulce ad FamiliarSs. They
constitute an important contribution to the
history of the time.
Cseneus (Gr. Eaineus). The son of Elatus
and Hippia, one of the LSpithse of Gyrton
in Thessaly. The story was that he was
originally a girl named Caenis (Kainis),
whom her lover Poseidon changed, at her
own request, into a man, and at the same
time rendered her invulnerable. Cseneus
took part in the Argonautic expedition and
the Calydonian boar-hunt. At the marriage
of Pirithoiis, the Centaurs, finding him in-
vulnerable, crushed him to death with the
trunks of trees, and he was afterwards
changed into a bird. {See Pieithous.)
Csesar was for centuries the cognomen of
the ancient patrician family of the lulii.
From the dictator Gaius lulius Csesar it
passed to his adopted son Octavianus, the
founder of the Roman empire, and was
assumed by all the male members of the
Julian dynasty, including the emperor.
After this dynasty had died out, all the
male members of the subsequent dynasties
assumed it, to show that they belonged to
the imperial house. But after the death of
Hadrian in 138 A.D., the title of Caesar was
only assumed by the princes whom the
emperors had named as their successors,
or chosen to be their colleagues in the
government. * CiESAE.
CsBsar {Gains Julius). Julius Csesar was (Naples, Huseum.)
born in 102 or 100 B.C., and was assas-
sinated on March 15th, B.C. 44. He was that his contemporaries regarded hirn as
famous no less as an orator and writer an orator second only to Cicero. Indeed,
than as a general and statesman. Endowed Cicero himself fully recognizes his genius,
with extraordinary natural gifts, he re- awarding especial praise to the elegance
ceived a careful education under the super- and purity of his Latin. Caesar, however,
intendence of his mother Aurelia. In B.C. left but ''few' Speeches in a«finished state,
77 he came forward as the public accuser of and these have not come down to us. A
Dolabella, and entered the lists against the number of writings give evidence of the

many-sidedness of his genius and literary the Argonautio expedition. Coming in the
activity, but these are also lost. There course of the enterprise to Saltnydessus,
were poems, which never attained much they set free Phineus, the husband of their
reputation, including, besides boyish effu- sister Cleopatra, from the Harpies, chasing
sions, some verses on his journey to Spain them through the air on their wings {see
in B.C. 46. A
treatise on Latin accidence, Phineus). According to one story, they
dedicated to Cicero, and entitled De perished on this occasion; according to
Analdgta, was written during his march another, they were slain afterwards by
across the Alps to his army in Gaul. The Heracles on the island of TenSs, on their
AnticatmiSs, composed in his Spanish camp return from the funeral games of Pelias
before the laattle of Munda in B.C. 45, was (see ACASTUS). This was in retribution for
a reply to Cicero's panegyric on Cato of the counsel which they had given to the
Utica. A
treatise on astronomy, De Astris, Argonauts on the coast of Mysia, to leave
had probably some connection with the Heracles behind. Their graves and monu-
reform of the calendar introduced by him, ments were shown in Tenos. One of the
as Pontifex Maximus, in B.C. 45. His pillars was said to move when the north
two great works have, however, survived. wind blew.
These are his Commentdrii de Bella Calamis (Edldmis). A
Greek artist, who
Gallico, 58-52 B.C., in seven books, and his flourished at Athens about 470 B.C. He
Commentarii de Bella Civili, 49-48 B.C., worked in marble and metal, as well as
in three books. The former was written gold and ivory, and was master of sculp-
down rapidly, a,t the end of 52 and begin- ture in all its branches, from the chisel-
ning of 51, in his winter quarters before ling of small silver vessels to the execu-
Bibracte. The latter was probably com- tion of colossal statues in bronze. His
posed in Spain after the conquest of the Apollo, at ApoUonia in Pontus, was 120
Pompeians in 45. feet high. This statue was carried away
The history of the Gallic War was com- to Rome by Lucullus, and set up on the
pleted after Caesar's death by Aulus Hirtius. Capitol. We hear of statues of the gods
This writer added an eighth book, which and heroic women from his hand, as well
included the last rising of the Gauls in 51, as of men on horseback and four-horsed
and the events of the year 50 which pre- chariots. His horses are said to have been
ceded the Civil War. The book, as we now unsurpassed. His female figures, if we
have it, is unfinished. There are three may believe the ancient critics, were char-
other anonymous books which continue the acterized by antique harshness and severity,
history of the Civil Wpv. The Bellum but were relieved by a touch of grace and
Alexandrinuni (War in .i. lexandria) is per- delicacy.
haps from the hand of Hirtius. The Bellum Calamus. See Writing Materials.
Afrlcum (War in Africa) is written in Calantica. See Clothing.
a pompous and affected style [and has Calathus (Gr. Kdldthds). See Vessels.
recently been assigned, but without suffi- CalcSus. A shoe, part of the regular
cient reason, to Asinius Pollio]. The Bellum Roman dress, and usually worn in public.
Hispanum (Spanish War), is to be attri- Each order, and every gens, had its par-
buted to two different authors. Its style is ticular kind of calceus. The patricians
rough, and shows that the writer was not wore a mullSus or calceus patrtciits. This
an educated man. was a shoe of red leather with a high sole,
Casius Bassus. A Latin poet, a friend like that of the cothurnus. The leather
of Persius the satirist, whose book he passed round the back of the heel, where it
edited. He is said to have perished during was furnished with small hooks, to which
the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 a.d. He the straps were fastened. It was originally
had a high reputation in his day as a a part of the royal dress, and was after-
lyric poet, and is said to have composed a wards worn by generals on the occasion of
didactic poem on metre. There is a con- a triumph. In later times, with the rest of
siderable fragment in prose on the same the triumphal costume, it became a part of
subject which bears the name of Csesius the dress of the consuls. In the second
Bassus, but this is perhaps from a prose rank came the calceus sendtOHus, or shoe
version of the poetical treatise. worn by senators. This was black, and
Calais (Gr. KalcCis) and ZetSs. The B6r6- tied round the leg by four straps. In the
adae, or sons of BSrSas and Orithyia. They case of patricians it was ornamented by a
wore both winged hemes, and took part in crescent-shaped clasp. The calceus of the
— :


equttSs, and of ordinary citizens, was also cades, consisting of 10 or 9 days each as tha
black. The latter was called perO ; it rose case might be. The days of the last decade
as high as the ankle, and was fastened with were counted from more to less to corre-
a simple tie. spond with the waning of the moon. Thus
Calchas {KalchCLs). Son of Thestor of the 21st of the month was called the 10th
Mycense. Calchas was the celebrated seer of the waning moon, the 22nd the 9th, the.
who accompanied the Greeks on their expe- 23rd the 8th, and so on. The reckoning of
dition against Troy. Homer calls him the the year, with the order and names of the
best of soothsayers, who knew the past, the months, differed more or less in different
present, and the future. Before the fleet states, the only common point being the
started from Aulis, Calchas predicted that names of the months, which were almost
the Trojan war would last ten years. His without exception taken from the chief
own death (so ran the prophecy) was to festivals celebrated in them. The Athenians
occur whenever he met a wiser seer than and the other lonians began their year with
himself. After the Trojan war he came to the first new moon after the summer solstice,,
the island of Claros, where, in the sacred the Dorians with the autumnal equinox, the
precincts of Apollo, he fell in with the Boeotians and other Jilolians with the winter
soothsayer Mopsus, who beat him in a solstice. The Attic months are as follows
match of guessing riddles. [See MoPSUS (2)]. 1. Hek&tombaion (July- August) 2. MStd- ;

Calchas died of grief, or, according to an- geitniOn (August-September) 3. B6edr6~ ;

other story, took away his own life. A mzOn (September-October) 4. Pydnepsion ;

temple was erected to him in Apulia, where (October - November) B. MaimakteHon.


the votaries lay down to sleep on sheepskins, (November - December) 6. Pdseideon


and received oracles in their sleep. (December-January) 7. Gdmelion (Janu-


Caldarium. See Baths. ary-February) 8. Anthesterton (February-


Calendee (Kalendce). See Calendar. March) ;9. Mdphebolion (March-April)

Calendar. (1) Greek. The Greek year 10. Munychion (April-May) 11. Tharge- ;

consisted of twelve months, some " full " lion (May-June) 12. SkeirophOrton (June-

i£. of 30 days each —

the others " hollow
July). The intorcalary month was a second
or incomplete, of 29 days each. This made Poseideon in the middle of the.
up a lunar year of 354 days, 11 days short year. The official system of numbering the
of the solar year. To maintain some corre- years differed also very much in the various
spondence between the lunar and solar states. The years received their names,
years, and to provide at least for the festivals from the magistrates, sometimes secular,,
of the seasons always occurring at the right sometimes spiritual. {See Eponymds.)
time of year, the Athenians early resorted Historical chronology was first computed
to the method of intercalation. A
space according to Olympiads, beginning B.C. 776,
of time was taken which included as many by the historian Timseus in the 3rd cen-
days as would exactly make up eight solar tury B.C.
years, and could easily be distributed (2) The Roman year was supposed to
among the same number of lunar years. have consisted, under Eoraulus, of 10'
This space of time was called a "great months, four full ones of 31 days (March,
year." Then in every 3rd, 6th, and 8th May, July and October), and six " hollow
year a month of 29 or 30 days was in- of 80 days (April, June, August, September,.
serted, so that the years in question con- November, December). But, as a space of
sisted each of 383 or 384 days. This system 304 days makes up neither a solar nor a
was introduced at Athens by Solon. The lunar year, it is difficult to understand the.
period of eight years was sometimes called so-called " year of Eomulus." King Numa
ennddteris, or a period of nine years, because was usually supposed to have introduced
it began again with every 9th year; some the year of 12 months by adding January
times oktdeteris, or space of eight years. and February at the end for the Roman ;

Por this the astronomers, of whom Meton in year, it must be remembered, began origin-
the Periclean age may be taken as a represen- ally with March. On this system every
tative, substituted a more accurate system, month except February had an odd number
which was afterwards adc^ted in Athens of days March 31, April 29, May 31, June

and other cities as a correction of the old 29, Quintilis 31, Sextilis 29, September 29,

calendar. This was the ennSakaidSkagteris October 31, November 29, December 29,

of 19 years. The alternate "full" and January 29, February 28. Numa is also

"hollow " months were divided into three de- credited with the attempt to square this.

lunar year of 355 days with tlie solar year the people to the Capitol, in front of the
of 365 but how he did it is not certainly
Curia CaMbra, so called from calare. Here
inown. The Decemviri in 450 B.C. pro- he offered sacrifice, and announced that the
bably introduced the system of adjustment firstquarter would begin on the 5th or 7th
^afterwards in use. According to this a day (inclusive) as the case might be. This
.cycle of four years was taken, in the second day was called Nonce, as (according to
year of which an intercalary month {mensis Roman calculation) the 9 th day before the
mercedonius) of 23 days was inserted be- full moon, and fell in March, May, July
tween the 24th and 25th of February, and and October on the 7th, in the other months
in the fourth year a month of 22 days be- on the 5th. The appearance of the fuU
i^ween the 23rd and 24th February. Thus moon was called Idus (probably connected
the period of 4 years amounted to 1465 days. with the Etruscan word iduare, to divide),
IBut this gave the year an average of 366f because it divided the month in the middle.
days, or one day too many, so that a special The days of the month were counted back-
:reotincation was necessary from time to wards, in the first half of the month from
time. This was probably carried out by the Nones and Ides, in the last half from
the omission of an intercalary month. It the Kalends of the following month. The
was the business of the Pontlfices to keep Romans also had a week called internundl-
iihe calendar in order by regular intercala- num, or the interval between two nundznce.
rtion ; but, partly from carelessness, partly It consisted of eight days, and, like our
ifrom political motives, they made insertions weeks, could be divided between two months
-and omissions so incorrectly as to bring the or two years. (For further details see
calendar into complete disorder, and destroy Fasti.)
:th6 correspondence between the months and After the establishment of the Republic
the seasons. The mischief was finally the Romans named their years after the
.remedied by Csesar, with the assistance of consuls, a custom which was maintained
the mathematician Sosigenes. To bring down to the reign of Justinian (541 A.D.).
the calendar into correspondence with the After the time of Augustus it became the
seasons, the year 46 B.C. was lengthened so practice in literature to date events from
as to consist of 15 months, or 415 days, and the foundation of Rome, which took place
the calendar known as the Julian was in- according to Varro in 753, according to
troduced on the 1st January, 45 B.C. This Cato in 751 B.C.
-calendar is founded simply on the solar The Day. The Greeks reckoned the civil
year, which is well known to be a discovery day from sunset to sunset, the Romans (like
of the Egyptians. Csesar fixed this year to ourselves) from midnight to midnight. The
-3655 ^^y^i which is correct within a few natural day was reckoned by both as lasting
minutes. After this the ordinary year con- from sunrise to sunset. The divisions of
sisted of 365 days, divided into 12 months, the day were for a long time made on no
with the names still in use. Every fourth common principle. It was for military pur-
year had 366 days, a day being inserted at poses that the Romans first hit on such a
the end of February. The Julian calendar principle, dividing the night during service
maintained its ground till 1582, when Pope into four equal watches (vigiltoe). Corre-
Gregory XIII corrected the trifling error sponding to this we find another division
which still attached to it. The old names of (probably calculated immediately for the
the months were retained with two excep- courts of justice) into mane (sunrise to 9 or
tions, that of Qtiintilis, which, in honour of 10), forenoon {ad meridiem), afternoon (de
Caesar, was called lulius, and that of Sex- meridie) until 3 or 4, and evening
tilis, which in 8 B.C. was called Augustus (suprSma) from thence till sunset. After
in honour of the emperor. The old divisions the introduction of sun-dials and water-
of the lunar month were also retained for clocks the day and night were divided each
convenience of dating. These were (a) the into 12 hours but the division was founded

Kdlendce, marking the first appearance of on the varying length of the day, so that
the new moon (b) the Noi}(v, marking the
each hour of the day was longer, and con-
first quarter ;
(c) the Idils, marking the versely each hour of the night shorter, in
full moon. Kalendce means properly the summer than in winter.
-day of summoning, from caldre, to summon. Cilliga. A boot with large nails in the
'The Pontifex was bound to observe the first sole, worn in ancient Italy by huntsmen,
phase, and to make his announcement to waggoners, and peasants, and, during the
uhe Bex SacrOrum, who then summoned imperial period, by common soldiers.


Caiix. See Vessels. of the Alexandrian schools Among his

CallicTS.tes (Gr. KalUkrdtSs). A Greek pupils were the most celebrated savants
architect who, together with Ictinus, built of the time, Eratosthenes, Aristophanes of
the Parthenon {q.v.). Byzantium, Apollonius of Rhodes, and
Calllmachus (Gr. KalVtmdcMs). (1) A others. Of his writings only a very few
Greek artist, who flourished in the second have survived in a complete state these are,

half of the 5th century B.C. He was the in- six hymns, five of which are in epic and one
ventor of the Corinthian order of pillar, and in elegiac form, and sixty-four epigrams.
the art of boring marble is also attributed The hymns, both in their language and their
to him, though perhaps he did no more than matter, attest the learned taste of their
bring it to perfection. The ancient critics author. His elegy, entitled the Coma
represent him as unwearied in polishing Berenices, or " Lock of Berenice," is imi-
and perfecting his work; indeed, they tated by Catullus in one of his remaining
allege that his productions lost something pieces. Ovid, in the twentieth of his
through their excessive refinement and Heroides, as well as in his Ibis, took poems
purity. One of his celebrated works was of Callimachus for his models. Indeed, the
the golden chandelier in the Erechtheum Romans generally set a very high value on
at Athens. his elegies, and liked to imitate them. Of
(2) AGreek scholar and poet, the chief —
his other works in prose and poetry among
representative of the Alexandrian school. the latter may be mentioned a very popular
He was the son of Battus, and thus sprung epic called Hecate — only fragments have
from the noble family of the Battiadse. He survived.
at first gave his lectures in a suburb of Callinus (Gr. Eallinos), the creator of the
Alexandria but was afterwards summoned
; Greek political elegy, Tvas a native of
by Ptolemy Philadelphus to the Museum Ephesus, and flourished, probably, about
there, and in about 260 B.C. was made 700 B.C., at the time when the kings of
president of the library. He held this office Lydia were harassing the Greek colonies
till his death, which took place about 240 of Asia Minor by constant wars. One elegy
B.C. He did a great service to literature from his hand has survived, in which, in a
by sifting and cataloguing the numerous simple and manly tone, he endeavours to
books collected at Alexandria. The results kindle the degenerate youth of his father-
of his labours were published in his great land to courage and patriotism.
work called Plnakes, or " Tablets." This Calliope (Gt. KalU6pe). See Muses.
contained 120 books, and was a catalogue, Callirrhoe (Gr. Kallirrhoe). See Acaenan
ai'ranged in chronological order, of the and Alcm^on.
works contained in the library, with obser- Callisthenes {Gt. KallisthenSs). A
vations on their genuineness, an indication historian, born at Olynthus about 360 B.C.
of the first and last word in each book, and He was a relation of Aristotle, from whom
a note of its bulk. This work laid the he received instruction at the same time
foundation of a critical study of Greek as Alexander the Great. He accompanied
literature. 800 works, partly in prose, Alexander on his Asiatic campaign, and
partly in verse, were attributed altogether offended him by refusing to pay him servile
to Callimachus ; but it is to be observed homage after the Persian fashion, and by
that he avoided, on principle, the compo- other daring exhibitions of independence.
sition of long poems, so as to be able to The consequence was that the king threw
give more thought to the artistic elabora- his friend into prison on the pretext that
tion of details. The essence of Callimachus' he was concerned in a conspiracy against
verse is art and learning, not poetic genius his life. Callisthenes died in captivity in
in the real sense. Indeed, some of his 328 B.C., in consequence, probably, of mal-
compositions had a directly learned object treatment. Of his historical writings, par-
the Aitta, or " Causes," for instance. This ticularly those dealing with the exploits of
"was a collection of elegiac poems in four Alexander, only fragments remain ; but he
books, treating, with great erudition, of the was always ranked among the most famous
foundation of cities, the origin of religious historians. Indeed, his reputation as the
ceremonies, and the like. companion of Alexander and the historian
Through his writings, as well as through of his achievements maintained itself so
his oral instruction, Callimachus exercised well, that he was made responsible in
an immense influence, not only on the course literature for the romantic narrative of
of learning, but on the poetical tendencies Alexander's life which grew up in the fol-

lowing centuries. This was translated into forwhich the votaries of the powerful god-
Latin towards the end of the 3rd century dess desired to secure her favour. Julius "Valerius, and became the Calpis (Gr. Kalpis). See Vessels.
main authority for the mediaeval adaptations Calpurnlus. (1) Calpurnius PlsO FrUgl.
of the myth of Alexander. See Annalists.
Callisto (Gr. EallistB). A nymph, the (2) Titus Calpurnius SicHlus, a Roman
daughter of the Arcadian LycaOn, and a poet, who flourished in the middle of
companion of Artemis. She became, by the 1st century A.D. At the beginning
Zeus, the mother of Areas, the ancestor of of Nero's reign he wrote seven Ecldgce,
the Arcadians. She was turned into a bear, or bucolic poems, which are somewhat
according to one account by the jealous servile imitations of Theocritus and Vergil.
Hera, according to another by Zeus, who The language is declamatory, but the
was anxious to protect her from Hera's laws of metre are strictly observed. The
wrath. In this shape she was slain by poet was poor, and wished his writings to
Artemis, and set among the constellations be brought under the notice of the young
by Zeus under the title of the She-Bear. emperor, through the instrumentality of a
There was another story, according to which personage high in favour at court. This
Callisto's son was intending to slay his individual appears under the name of Meli-
transformed mother while hunting; upon boeus, and has sometimes been supposed to
which Zeus set him in the sky under the have been the philosopher Seneca, some-
name of Arcturus {Arktouros), the Watcher times the Piso who was executed in 65 A.D..
of the Bear, and his mother under the name as the leader of a conspiracy against Nero.
of Arctus {Arktds), the She-Bear. As the Calpurnius lavishes the most fulsome praises
stars bearing these names never set. Homer upon the emperor. Four of the Eclogce,
describes them as the only ones which have which were formerly attributed to Calpur-
no share in the bath of the ocean. Later nius, are now known to have been written
poets, accordingly, invented the further by Nemesianus, who not only imitates Cal-
story that Tethys, wishing to gratify Hera, purnius, but plagiarizes from him.
refused to receive her former rival into her (3) Calpurnius Flaccus, a Latin rhetori-
waters. cian of uncertain date, under whose name
Callistratus (Gr. Kallistrdtos). A Greek fifty-one school-boy harangues, or rather ex-
rhetorician, who probably flourished in the tracts from them, have come down to us.
3rd century A.D. He was the author of de- Calumnia (in old Latin Kalumnta). The
scriptions of fourteen statues of celebrated Latin word for slander. It was technically
artists, ScSpas, for instance, Praxiteles, and applied to false accusations. The falsely
Lysippus, written after the manner of Phi- accused person, if acquitted, had the right
lostratus. His style is dry and affected, of accusing the prosecutor in his turn on
and he gives the reader no real insight into the charge of calumnia before the same
the qualities of the masterpieces which he jury. In civil cases the penalty was a pecu-
attempts to describe. niary fine ; in criminal cases the calum-
Callynteria (Gr. Kallynteria) and Plyn- niator lost his right to appear again as a
teria ("Peasts of Adorning and Cleansing "), prosecutor, and in early times was branded
were the names given to the two chief days on the forehead with a K.
of a service of atonement held at Athens Calydonian (Gr. Kalydonian) Huut. See
from the 19th to the 2Bth of Thargelion Meleager (1) and (Eneus.
(or May-June). The Ereoththeum, or sanc- Cal3rps6 (Gr. Kalypso). A
nymph, the
tuary of Athene of the stronghold, was daughter of Atlas, who dwelt on the island of
cleansed, the ancient wooden image of the Ogygia, where she gave a friendly welcome
goddess was unclothed, the garments washed to Odysseus, whom she kept with her for
and the image itself purified. These duties seven years. {Sec Odysseus.)
were performed, with mysterious rites, by Camenffi (Latin). The name of certain
the family of the Praxiegidse, with the aid fountain nymphs, who presided over child-
of certain women called Plyntridgs. The birth. They had also the gift of prophecy,
Plynteria, or day on which the image was and were identified by the Latin poets with
washed, was an unlacky day, on which no the Greek Muses. {See Mdses.)
public Ijusiness was transacted. The cere- Cameos, and The Gonzaga Cameo. See
monies would seem originally to have been Gems.
intended to commemorate the season of the C&milli and Camillse. The Latin name-
year and the ripening of the corn and fruit, for the boys and girls who attended on tho<

priestsand priestesses during the perform- dors and Roman generals on their return
ance of their religious functions. It was from war, to whom the senate granted
necessary that they audiences in the neighbouring temple of
should he bom of Bellona. But in B.C. B5 Pompeius erected in
free parents, and the Campus the first stone theatre built in
have both parents Rome, with a great colonnade adjoining it.
living. These Here too Julius Csssar commenced his marble
attendants were scepta, or inolosures for the Comitia Cen-
especially attached turiate, with a great colonnade surrounding
to the Fldmen the 6vilS. {See Comitia.) These were com-
Didlis, and his wife pleted by Agrippa in 27 B.C. In B.C. 28,
the Flaminica, and Octavianus Csesar added the Mausoleum,
also to the Curiones. or hereditary burial-place of the Csesars,
The priests gene- and Agrippa the Pantheon and the first
rally brought up Thermce or Baths. Under the succeeding
their own children, emperors a number of buildings rose here ;

by preference, for for instance, Domitian's Race-course {Std-

this service, to teach diUm) and Odeum.. The rest of the Campus
them their duties, was left free for gymnastic and military exer-
and secure them a cises, the grounds being magnificently deco-
succession to the (Bartoli, Admir. 14.)
rated with statues and colonnades. The altar
priestly office. survived until the last days of ancient Rome.
Campus Martius (" Field of Mars ")• A Canachus (Gr. KdndcMs). A Greek sculp-
plain lying to the north of Rome, outside tor born in Sicyon about 480 B.C. He worked
th.6 PS mgriuTn, between the
Tiber, theQui- in bronze, in the combination of gold and
rinal and the Capitoline Hills. {See Pome- ivory, and also in wood. His master-
EiUM.) During the regal period it was part piece was the colossal bronze statue of
of the property of the Crown, and, after the Apollo at Miletus, of which some idea may
expulsion of the kings, was dedicated to be still derived from ancient coins of that
Mars. The northern part, on the banks of city. It seems to have been extremely
the Tiber, served antique in its character {see cut).
as an exerciso- Candelabrum. A lamp furnished with a
ground for the point, on which a taper {candela) was fixed.
Roman youth for {See Lighting.) As the use of lamps
athletics, riding, or became more common, the word candela-
military drill. The brum, was transferred to the wooden or
smaller part, next metal support, usually made up of a base,
to the city, was a tall thin shaft, and a disc {discus), on
used for the meet- which the lamp was set up to illuminate
ings of the Comitia a large room. There were other forms of
Centuriata, and for candelabra, notably the lampdddrium or
holding the lus- "lamp-bearer" {see cut, p. 114). This had
trum. In the midst no disc, but a number of arms, as many as
of it stood an altar the lamps it was intended to carry. Other
to Mars, which candelabra had an apparatus for raising
formed the centre and lowering the lamps. The shaft was
of the ceremony of hollow, and contained a movable rod, sup-
the lustrum, and porting the disc or the arms, which could
of some other fes- be fixed at any required height by bolts
tivals held on the passed through it. Like lamps, candelabra
spot in honour of were made in the greatest possible variety
that deity. (See of forms, and ornamented in a number of
Lustrum.) Until different ways, especially by figures in
the end of the re- relief.Besides the portable candelabra in-
publican age there tended for common use, and set on a table
(Bronze statuette in British
was only one build- Museum.) or on the ground, there were large and
ing on this part of heavy ones, shaped like pillars, and set up
the Campus, the Villa PvhUca. This was on fixed pedestals as ornaments for temples
the residence assigned to foreign ambassa- and palaces {see cut, p. 114).
D. c. A.

Candidatus. The Latin term for a com- not simply recited, but sung or performed in
petitor for a puMic office. He was so called melodrama with musical accompaniments.
Capaneus (Gt. Kdpdneus). One of the
from the peculiar dress in which he usually
showed himself to the people in the Forum. Seven against Thebes who was struck by
This was the tdga Candida, a new toga lightning during the assault upon the city.
whitened with chalk. No one could appear He was climbing
as a candidatus unless his name had been the wall, and was
given in to, and accepted by, the authorities boasting that not
presiding over the election. even the lightning
Cangon (Gt. Kane6n). See Vessels. of Zeus would
Canephori (Gr. KanSphdroi)," basket-bear- scare him away.
ers." The title of certain maidens belong- During the burn-
ing to the first families at Athens, whose ing, of his body
duty it was to carry baskets containing on the funeral
consecrated furniture, on their heads, at pyre, his wife
the solemn processions, particularly at the EvadJie threw
Panathensea. The graceful attitude made herself into the

1 2
(Naples Museum.) *CAXDELABRnM OP MASDLE.
(1) from Gargiulo's EaccoUa, tav. 63. ((Naples Museum.)
(2) and (3) Musfio Borbonico, VIII xxxi, and II =iii. From Gargiulo's Aaccolta, tav. 40.

the figure of a canephords a favourite one flames. His son was Sthenelus, the chario-
with sculptors. Such figures were often teer of Diomedes.
employed by architects as supports for the Capelinm (Gr. Kdpeleidn). Src Inns.
entablatures of temples. The Erechtheum Capella. See Martianus Capella.
on the Acropolis at Athens is an example. CS,per {Fldvius). A
Latin scholar of some
{See Caryatides.) note, who flourished in the 2nd century
Cantharus. See Vessels. A.D.,and whose writings were frequently
Cantlcum. A technical terra of the used and quoted by the later grammarians.
Roman stage. In the narrower sense, it Only two small treatises bearing his name
denoted a melody or air composed in chang- have come down to us, the De Ortho-
ing rhythms, the text to which was sung grdpMa (" On Orthography ") and De Ver-
behind the stage to the accompaniment of bis Dubils (" On Irregular Words ") ; but
a flute, while the actor expressed the mean- these are only meagre extracts from the
ing by pantomime. In Cicero's time, how- original works.
ever, the cantica were sometimes performed CftpltS censi. See Proletarii.
by the actors. In a wider sense, the word CapitolinuB {Julius). See HiSTORiiE Au-
might mean any part in a play whioli was GDST.iE SfTtPTORES.

Capitollum. The southern summit of the July. Thus a historical basis was given to
Capitoline Hill at Rome, separated from it,though the true origin of both festivals
the arx or northern summit- by a saddle, 'had been probably forgotten. After their
on which were the asylum and the temple defeat by the Gauls, the Romans were con-
of Veiovis. The Capitol was approached quered and put to flight by a sudden attack
by a road mounting in several zig-zags from of their neighbours, the Latins, who de-
the Forum. On the highest point of the manded the surrender of a large number of
southern top was the temple of Jupiter girls and widows. Thereupon, at the sug-
Optimus Maximus, begun by the Tarquins, gestion of a girl called Tutula (or Philotis),
but not finished till the first year of the the female slaves disguised themselves as
Republic (509 B.C.). The temple was quad- Roman ladies, went into the enemy's camp,
rangular and nearly square, with three rows and contrived to make the enemy drunk,
of columns in front, six in each row, and while Tutiila, climbing a wild fig-tree, gave
four columns on each side. They were in the signal for the Romans to attack by hold-
the Doric, or rather the Tuscan, style. The ing up a torch. The PopUfugia were cele-
interior was divided by parallel walls in- brated by a mimic flight. On the 7th July,
to three cellce or chambers.' The central the female slaves went in procession to the
chamber was dedicated to Jupiter, and con- 9-?r^rBB, where they carried on all kinds of
tained a statue of the god in terra-cotta. sports with the assembled multitude. Be-
The senate sometimes held its sittings here, sides this, there was a sacrifice and a festal
particularly at the opening of the year, and meal at the tree, and on the next day a
on occasions when war was declared. The thanksgiving, celebrated by the pontifices.
right-hand chamber was sacred to Minerva, Capys (Gr. Kdpys). See Daedan0S and
the left-hand to Juno. The entablature Anohises.
was entirely constructed of wood the
; Car chesium(Gr.£'a?'c7igs?on).&e Vessels.
pediment was of terra-cotta, as was the quad- Card€a. The tutelary goddess of hinges,
riga or four-horsed chariot, with the figure in other words, of family life, among the
of the god, above. After the Third Punic Romans. She was supposed to ward off
War the entablature was gilded. In 83 all the noxious influences of evil spirits,
B.C. the whole temple was burnt down to especially of the Strlgm, who were believed
the vaults in which the Sibylline books to suck the blood of children by night. It
and other consecrated objects were pre- is doubtful whether she is to be identified
served. Sulla rebuilt the structure strictly with the goddess Cama, who is said to have
on the lines of the old one, though with taken the larger organs of the body heart, —
much greater splendour in detail but the
; —
lungs and liver under her especial pro-
new temple was not consecrated till 69 B.C. tection. Garna had a shrine on the Cselian
A statue of Jupiter in gold and ivory, on Hill, in Rome, and a festival on the 1st of
the model of the Olympian Zeus, by Apol- June, at which they ate beans and bacon,
lonius, was substituted for the old image of and made offerings of them to the goddess.
terra-cotta. A hundred years later the Caristia.See Manes.
building was again burnt down, in the civil Carmeuta or Carmentis. An ancient
war of Vitellius and Vespasian.
Vespasian Italian goddess of prophecy, who protected
restored it, but the new structure was again women in child-birth. In Rome she had
destroyed by fire in 80 A.D. In 82 Do- a priest attached to her, the fldmen Car-
mitian erected a new temple, a Corinthian mentalis, and a shrine near the gate under
hexastylSs, which survived unhurt till the the Capitol, named after her the porta Car-
5th century a.d. This was gradually de- mentalis. On this spot the Roman matrons
stroyed, partly by the invading barbarians celebrated in her honour the festival of the
who plundered it, and partly in the dis- Carmentalia, the fldmen and ponttfex as-
sensions of the Middle Ages. The Palazzo sisting. Two Carmentes, called Porrima or
Caffarelli now stands upon its foundation. Antevorta, and Postvorta, were worshipped
Caprotlna. A Roman epithet of Juno. as her sisters and attendants. These names
A special feast, called the Nonob Caprotinae, were sometimes explained with reference
was celebrated in her honour on the Nones to childbirth, sometimes as indicating the
of Quintilis, or 7th of July. In this power of the goddess of fate to look into the
celebration female slaves took a consider- past and future. In the legend of the
able part. The festival was connected foundation of Rome Carmenta appears as
with another, called PopUfUgium, or the the prophetic mother, or wife, of the Arca-
Flight of the People," held on the 5th of dian stranger Evander.
See Caedea.
Carna. for bands of girls to perform their country-
Carnea (Gr. Karneia). A festival cele- dances at the yearly festivals of Artemis
brated in honour of Apollo Carneus (" the Karyatis. In doing so they sometimes
protector of flocks ") as early as the time of assumed the attitude which suggested the
the immigration of the Dorians. In keeping form adopted by the artists in the statues-
up the celebration, the Dorians characteristic- mentioned above. (See also Canephori.)
ally gave it a warlike colour, by transform- Cassandra (Gr. Kassandra). In Homer
ing their original pastoral deity into the Cassandra is the fairest of the daughters of
god of their fighting army. The Ca/rnea Priam and Hecuba. For the promise of
lasted nine days, from the 7th to the 15th her love, Apollo conferred upon her the-
of the month Carneus (August-September). gift of prophecy she broke her word, and.

The proceedings symbolized the life of the god punished her by letting her retain,
soldiers in camp. In every three phrCL- the gift, but depriving her of the power of
trice or obce nine places were set apart, on making her hearers believe her. Her utter-
which tents or booths were put up. In ances were therefore laughed to scorn as
these tents nine men had their meals in the ravings of a mad woman. It was in
common. All ordinary proceedings were vain that, at the birth of Paris, she advised
carried on at the word of command, given that he should be put to death, and that,
out by a herald. One when Helen came to Troy, she prophesied
part of the festival the destruction of the city. When the city
recalled its originally was taken, she was dragged by Ajax the-
rural character. This son of Oileus from the altar of Athene, at
was a race, in which which she had taken refuge but Agamem-

one of the runners, non rescued her and took her as his slave
supposed to symbo- to Mycense. Here she was slain by Cly-
lize the blessings of tsemnestra when Agamemnon was murdered.
harvest, started in She was worshipped with Apollo in several
advance, uttering places under the name of Alexandra.
prayers for the city. Cassianus Bassus. See Geoponici.
The others, called Cassiodorus Senator {Magnus Aurelius}
" vintage runners," was born in Bruttium, about 480 a.d. He
pursued him, and if belonged to an old Roman family which had^
they overtook him, the particularly in the three preceding genera-
occurrence was taken tions, distinguished itself in the public
as a good omen, if they service. His father stood in high favour
failed, as a bad one. with Theodoric, who had an equal regard:
After the twenty-sixth for his talented and highly educated son,.
Olympiad (676 B.C.) a Cassiodorus Senator. On account of his-
musical contest was trustworthiness and ability as a statesman,
added, at which the the younger Cassiodorus was appointed ta
most celebrated artists the highest offices by Theodoric and his.
in Greece
all were successors. He was consul a.d. 514, and
accustomed to com- four times proifectus. Por a period of
pete. The first artist nearly forty years he enjoyed an active and
who sang at this con- CARYATID. successful career in the public administra-
test was Terpander. From the Ereohtbenm, tion, notably as Theodoric's private secre- •

Carpentum. See Athens (British Museum).

tary._ After the fall of Vitiges in 540,
Chariots. Cassiodorus retired to the monastery of
Carpo. See Hor^. Vivarium (Vivarese), which he had founded
Carroballista. See Artillery. on his estates in Bruttium. Here he passed
Carruca. See Chariots. the rest of his life in religious exercises
Caryatides (Gr, EaryMldSs). technical A and literary labour. He died about 575.
term of Greek architecture. Caryatides Among the works which he composed
were female statues clothed in long drapery, during his career as a statesman, we have
used instead of shafts, or columns, to sup- a universal history called Chrdnica, from
port the entablature of a temple (see cut). Adam down to the year when it was writ-
The name properly means " maidens of ten. This consists mainly of a catalogue of
CarysB {Karyai)," a Spartan town on the the Roman consuls, and is the longest of
Arcadian frontier. Here it was the custom all the lists which have come down to us>

thf; whole length of the camp into two The construction of the fortifications

parts. This road was 50 feet in width, always began before the generaFs tent was
and ended in two gates, the porta dScH- pitched. The legionaries constructed the
mdna in front, and the porta pratdria on rampart and ditch in front and rear, while

the side opening towards the enemy. In the the allies did the same on either side. The
front part were encamped the two legions, stakes required for the formation of an
with their allied contingents. They lay in abattis on the outer side of the wall were
three double rows of tents on each side of carried by the soldiers themselves on the
the via prcetoria, which made a right angle march The whole work was carried on
with the via principalis. Its whole length under arms. The watches (excHMce and
was divided by roads 50 feet in width, viglMce) were kept with great strictness
while across it, from one lateral rampart both by day and night. The vigilice, or
to the other, ran the via quintdna. The night-watches, were relieved four times,
front side of the rows of tents was turned the trumpet sounding on each occasion.
towards the intervening roads. Starting The posts of each night-watch were in-
from the via prcetoria, the first two lines spected by four Roman equitSs. The pass-
of tents on each side contained the cavalry word for the night was given by the general.
and infantry of one legion each, while the Each gat« was guarded by outposts of infan-
third row, lying nearest to the rampart, try and cavalry, the light-armed troops (veli-
contained the cavalry and infantry of the tes) being also distributed as sentries along
allied contingents. In the hinder part of the ramparts. When the camp was to break
the camp, directly upon the via principalis, up, three signals were given ; at the first,
and on both sides of the via praetona, the tents were taken down and packed up ;

were the tents of the twelve military at the second, they were put upon beasts
tribunes, opposite the four ranks of the of burden and in wagons, and at the third
legions. On both sides were the tents of the army began its march.
the prcefecti of the allied contingents, After the time of Polybius the Roman
placed in the same way opposite those of military system underwent many changes,
the troops under their command. Then which involved alterations in the arrange-
followed the headquarters, or prcBtorium, ments of the camp, but we have no trust-
a space 200 feet square, intersected by the worthy information on this subject in detail
via prcetoria. In this was the general's until the beginning of the 2nd century
tent {tabernacHlum) in front was the altar
; A.D. The treatise of one Hyginus on castra-
on which the general sacrificed, on the left metation gives the following statements as
the augUrdle for taking the auspices, and to the practice of his time. The ordinary
on the right the tribunal. This was a bank form of a camp was that of a rectangle,
of earth covered with turf, on which the the length of which was about a third part
general took his stand when addressing greater than the breadth. In former times
the troops, or administering justice. Right the legions were posted inside the camp;
of the prcetorium was the qucestOrtum, con- but now, being regarded as the most trust-
taining the quarters of the paymasters, and worthy troops, they were encamped along
the train of artillery. On the left was the the whole line of ramparts, the width of
forum, a meeting place for the soldiers. Be- which was now limited to 60 feet. They
tween these spaces and the lateral ramparts were separated from the interior of the
were the tents of the select troops who com- camp by a road 30 feet wide {via sdgUldris),
posed the body-guard of the general. Those running parallel to the line of ramparts.
of the cavalry had their front turned in- The interior was now divided, not into two,
wards, while those of the infantry were but into three main sections. The midmost
turned towards the wall. The tents of the of these lay between the via principalis,
picked allied troops occupied the hinder part which was 60, and the via quintana, which
of the camp, which was bounded by a cross was 40 feet wide. It was occupied by the
road 100 feet in breadth. The tents of the proetorium and the troops of the guard,
cavalry looked inwards, those of the in- and was called the wing of the prmtorium
fantry towards the rampart. The auxiliary (IdtSrd prmtorii) The auxiliary troops were

troops were posted at the two angles of this stationed in what was now the front part,
space. The rampart was divided from the or proBtentHra, between ,the via principalis
tents by an open space 200 feet in width. and the porta prcetoria, and the rear, or
This was specially intended to facilitate the rStentUra, between the via quintana and
march of the troops at their entrance and exit. the porta decumana. The via prcetoria,

which was also 60 feet wide, led only from or seven books Italian and Roman
the prcetorium and the forum in front of history. The Origines, or "Early
it to the porta prcetoria, as at this time the History,'' applied properly only to the first
qucestorium was situated between theporta three books, which contained the story of
decumana and the prcetorium. The general the kings, and traced the rise of the various
superintendence of the arrangements was, cities of Italy. But it was afterwards ex-
during the imperial period, in the hands of tended to the whole work, which included
the prcefectus castrorum. {See PuiEFECTUS.) the history of Rome down to B.C. 151. In
Catalfipton [not Catalecta, but=Gr. Kata- the narrative of his own achievements he
lepton = "oTi a small scale"]. The title of a inserted his own speeches. Prom early
collection of short poems attributed in anti- manhood he displayed great energy as an
quity to Vergil. {See Vergil.) orator. More than 150 of his speeches
Catapiilta. See Artillery. were known to Cicero, who speaks with
Cathedra (Gr. Kathedra). See Chairs. respect of his oratorical performances. The
Cato {Marcus Porcius). The earliest im- titles, and some fragments of eighty of his
portant representative of Latin prose, and orations have survived.
an ardent champion of Roman national feel- In the form of maxims addressed to his
ing in life as in literature. He was born son {PrcBCepta ad Filium) he drew a com-
234 B.C., at Tusoulum, and passed his youth prehensive sketch of everything which,
in a laborious life in the country. At the in his opinion, was useful for a young man
age of seventeen he entered the army, and to know if he was to be a vir bonus. He
fought with distinction in the Hannibalic also put together in verse some rules for
war in Italy, Sicily and Africa. He was every-day conduct {Carm,en De Moribus).
elected quaestor in 204, sedile in 199, and The only work of Cato which has come
prsetor in 198 B.C., when he administered down to us in anything like completeness is
the province of Sardinia. He attained the his treatise on agriculture {De Be Busticd),
consulship in B.C. 195. As proconsul he was though even this we do not possess in its
so successful in the measures he adopted for original shape. This was intended as a
the subjugation of the province of Spain, manual for the private use of one Manlius,
that he was honoured with a triumph on and had reference to a particular estate
his return. Pour years later, in the capa- belonging to him. One part is written sys-
city of legdtus, he dealt the decisive stroke matically, the other is a miscellaneous col-
which gave the Romans the victory over lection of various rules. There is also a
the troops of king Antiochus at Ther- collection of 146 proverbs, each in a couple
mopylae. In 184 he was elected censor, of hexameters, v/hich bears the name of
and administered his office with such strict- Cato. But this belongs to the later Empire,
ness that he received the cognomen of though it is probably not later than the end
Censorius. He was the enemy of all inno- of the 4th century a.d. This little book
vations, especially of the Greek iufluence was a well known manual all through the
which was making itself felt at Rome. Middle Ages, and was widely circulated in
Everything which he thought endangered translations.
the ancient Roman discipline, he met with Catreus (Gr. Eatreus). In Greek mytho-
unwearied opposition, regardless of any un- logy a king of Crete, the son of Minos and of
popularity he might incur. He is said to Pasiphae. An oracle had prophesied that he
have been prosecuted forty-four times, and would fall by the hand of one of his own chil-
to have been always acquitted. The occa- dren. He accordingly put his daughters,
sions on which he himself appeared as Aerope and Clymene, into the hands of Nau-
prosecutor were even more numerous. plius, who was to sell them into a foreign
Even in extreme old age he retained the country; his son Althsemenes, meanwhile, mi-
vigour of his intellect, and was as active grated to Rhodes with his sister Apemosyne.
as before in politics and literature. He His sister, who had been led astray by
is said to have been an old man when he Hermes, he killed with a blow of his foot, and
made his first acquaintance with Greek slew his aged father, who had come to put
literature. He died 149 B.C., in his eighty- into his hands the government of Crete, mis-
sixth year. [See Livy xxxix 40.] taking him for a pirate. Clymene became
Ckto was the first writer who composed a the w;ife of Nauplius, and the mother of
history of Rome in Latin, and who pulp Pai&medes and (Eax. Aerope married
lished any considerable, number of his ,own Atreus, and bore him two sons, Agamem^
speeches^ His chie'fwork was the Origines, noh and Menelaiis but was finally thrown

into the sea by her husband on accQunt of and Thetis, and a paraphrase of Callima-
her adultery with Thyestes. {See Atreus ) chus' best elegy, " The Lock of Berenice."
C5.tullus ( Gains ValSnus Catullus). These are all in the Alexandrian manner.
Perhaps the greatest of Roman lyric poets. The remaining poems are short, and of dif-
He was born at Verona B.C. 87, and died ferent contents, but all written in elegiacs.
about 54. He came to Rome while stiU Catullus takes his place in the history
young, and found himself in very good of literature as the earliest classical metrist
society there, being admitted to the circle of among the Romans. He is a complete
such men as Cicero, Hortensius, and Corne- master of all varieties of verse. More than
lius Nepos, and the poets Cinna and Calvus. this, he has the art of expressing every
He had an estate on the Lacus Larius (Lake phase of feeling in the most natural and
of Como), and another at Tibur (Tivoli) but,
beautiful style; love, fortunate and unfor-
if we may believe what he says about his tunate, sorrow for a departed brother,
debts and poverty, his pecuniary affairs must wanton sensuality, the tenderest friendship,
have been in bad order. In consequence of the bitterest contempt, and the most burning
this he attached himself to the propraetor hatred. Even his imitations of the Greek
Gaius Memmius, on his going to Bithynia are not without an original stamp of their
in the year 57. He gained nothing by own.
doing so, and in the following spring re- Caupona. See Inns.
turned home alonie, visiting on the way the Causia (Gr. Kausia). Aflat, broad-brim-

tomb of his brother, who was buried near med felt hat, worn in Macedonia and by the
Troy. Some of his most beautiful poems Macedonian soldiers. When worn by per-
are inspired by his love for a lady whom sons high in society it was coloured purple ;

he addresses as Lesbia, a passion which the kings of Macedon surrounded it with

seems to have been the ruin of his life. the royal diadem, and thus the purple
She has been, with great probability, iden- causia with the diadem continued to be the
tified with the beautiful and gifted, but emblem of sovereignty in the kingdoms
unprincipled sister of the notorious Clodius, which arose from the empire of Alexander.
and wife of Metellus Celer. Catullus was, The Macedonian hat was in later times
in his eighteenth year, so overmastered by adopted by fishermen and sailors at Rome,
his passion for her, that he was unable, and in the imperial period was worn by the
even after he had broken off all relations higher classes in the theatre as a protection
with her, and come to despise her, to dis- against the sun.
entangle himself. CavSa. See Theatre.
In his intercourse with his numerous C6bes (Gr. KSbes). A Greek philosopher,
friends Catullus was bright and amiable, the author of a school-book called Finax or
but unsparing in the ridicule he poured "The Picture," which was very popular, and
upon his enemies. He held aloof from was translated into Arabic. It is a dialogue
public life, and from any active participa- upon an allegorical picture, representing the
tion in politics, but none the less bitterly condition of the soul before its union with
did he hate those whom he thought respon- the body, and the nature of human life in
sible for the internal decline of the Re- general. The purport of the conversation

public themselves and all their creatures. is to prove that the foundations of happi-
On though his own father's guest,
Csesar, ness are development of the mind and the
and on his dissolute favourite Mamurra, he conscious practice of virtue. It is doubtful
makes violent attacks. But he is said to to which Cebes the book is to be referred,
have apologized to Caesar, who magnani- for there were two philosophers of the
mously forgave him. name. One was Cebes of Thebes, the dis-
Catullus' poems have not all survived. ciple of Socrates, who wrote three philoso-
We still possess 116, which, with the ex- phical dialogues, one of which bore the
ception of three, are included in a collection title Pinax ; the other was a Stoic of Cyzi-
dedicated to Cornelius Nepos. The first cus, who flourished in the 2nd century A.D.
half is taken up with minor pieces of various C6crops (Gr. KSkrops). One of the abori-
contents, and written in different lyric gines of Attica, and as such represented with
metres, especially the iambic. Then follows a human body ending in a serpent (see cut).
a series of longer poems, amongst them the In the later story he was erroneously repre-
wonderful lament of Attis, wonderful in sented as having come to Attica from Sais
spite of the repulsiveness of its subject; in Egypt. He was said to have been the
the epic narrative of the marriage of Peleus first king of Attica, which was called after


him CecrSpia. He divided the rude in- whose home Demeter, while seeking for her
habitants into twelve communities, founded daughter, received an affectionate welcome
the stronghold of Athens, which was called and comfort while tending her newly-born
Cecropia after him, and introduced the ele- son Demophoon. {See Demeter and De-
Cella. See Temple.
Celsus {A. Cornelius). A
Roman savant,
eminent in several branches of knowledge,
who flourished in the age of Tiberius, a.d.
14-37. He was the author of a great ency-
clopaedic work called (it would seem) Artes,
designed after the manner of Varro's Disci-
plinoB. The work of Celsus included more
than 20 books, treating of agriculture,
medicine, philosophy, rhetoric, and the art
of war. Of these all that remain are books
7-13, De MSdlclna. This is the earliest and
the most considerable work of the sort in
the extant Roman literature. The material
which the author has collected, partly from
Greek sources, partly from his own expe-
rience, is treated in systematic order, and
with a purity of style which won for Celsus
the name of the Cicero of physicians.
* CEOKOPS. Cena. See Meals.
(Vase painting at Palermo.) Cenaculum. See House.
C6n6tapMum (Gr. KenOtapMdn). See
ments of civilization, the laws of marriage Burial.
and property, the earliest political arrange- Censores (Roman). The officials whose
ments, and the earliest religious services, duty it was (after 444 B.C.)take the
notably those of Zeus and Athene. place of the consuls in superintending the
When Poseidon and Athene were con- five-yearly census. The office was one of the
tending for the possession of the land, higher magistracies, and could only be held
Poseidon struck the rock of the acropolis once by the same person. It was at first
with his trident, and water (or, according confined to the Patricians in 351 B.C. it

to another story, the horse) sprang forth was thrown open to the Plebeians, and after
but Athene planted the first olive tree. 339 one of the censors was obliged by law
Cecrops, on being called in to decide be- to be a plebeian. On occasion of a census,
tween them, gave judgment in favour of the the censors were elected soon after the ac-
goddess, as having conferred on the land the cession to office of the new consuls, who
more serviceable gift. presided over the assembly. They were
Cecrops had four children by his wife usually chosen from the number of consu-
AgraulSs :a son Erysichthon, who died larSs, or persons who had been consuls.
childless, and three daughters, Agraulos, Accordingly the censorship was regarded, if
Herse, and Pandrosos. The names of the not as the highest ofiSce of state, at least as
last two show them to be the deities of the the highest step in the ladder of promotion.
fertilizing dew and indeed the three were
; The newly elected censors entered imme-
regarded as in the service of Athene, and diately, after due summons, upon their office.
as giving fruitfulness to the fields. Pan- Its duration was fixed in 433 B.C. to eighteen
drosos was Athene's first priestess. She months, but it could be extended for certain
had a shrine of her own (PandrdsSum) in purposes. For the object of carrying out
the temple of Erechtheus on the acropolis, their proper duties, the census and the
and was invoked in times of drought with solemn purifications (lustrum) that con-
the two Attic Horce, Thallo and Carpo cluded it, they had the power of summon-
(see Erechtheum). In her temple stood ing the people to the Campus Martins,
the sacred olive which Athene had created. where, since 434 B.C., they had an official
Ceiseno (Gr. Kelaino). (1) See Harpies. residence in the Villa Pvbttca. The tri-
(2) See Pleiades. bunes had no right of veto as against their
CSl€us (Gr. K&.eos). A king of Eleusis, in proceedings in taking the census; indeed.

30 far as this part of their duties was con- nuated or the infirm ; if an equSs was now
cerned, they were irresponsible, being bound found, or had previously been found, un-
only in conscience by the oath which they worthy of his order (as for neglecting to care
took on entering upon and laying down for his horse), he was expelled from it. The
their office. Having no executive powers, vacant places were filled up from the number
they had no lictors, but only messengers of such individuals as appeared from the
(viMdrSs) and heralds {jproBConSs). Their general census to be suitable. There were
insignia were the sella curUlis and a purple certain other duties attached to the censor-
toga. The collegial character of the office ship, for the due performance of which they
was so pronounced, that if one censor died, were responsible to the people, and subject to
the other abdicated. From the simple act the authority of the senate and the veto of
of taking the census and putting up the the tribunes. (1) The letting of the public
new list of citizens, their functions were domain lands and taxes to the highest bidder.
in course of time extended, so as to include (2) The acceptance of tenders from the
a number of very important duties. Among lowest bidder for works to be paid for by
these must be mentioned in particular a the State. In both these cases the period
general superintendence of conduct (rSgimen was limited to five years. (3) Superinten-
mSrurn). In virtue of this they had the dence of the construction and maintenance
power of affixing a stigma on any citizen, of public buildings and grounds, temples,
regardless of his position, for any conceiv- bridges, sewers, aqueducts, streets, monu-
able offence for which there was no legal ments, and the like.
punishment. Such offences were neglect After 167 B.C. Roman citizens were freed
of one's property, celibacy, dissolution of from all taxation, and since the time of
marriage, bad training or bad treatment Marius the liability to military service was
of children, undue severity to slaves and made general. The censorship was now a
clients, irregular life, abuse of power in superfluous office, for its original object, the
office, impiety, perjury, and the like. The census, was hardly necessary. Sulla disliked
offender might be punished with degrada- the censors for their power of meddling in
tion ; that is, the censors could expel a man matters of private conduct, and accordingly
from the senate or ordo equester, or they in his constitution of 81 B.C. the office was,
could transfer him from a country tribe if not formally abolished, practically super-
into one of the less respectable city tribes, seded. It was restored in 70 B.C. in the
and thus curtail his right of voting, or consulship of Pompey and Crassus, and con-
again they could expel him from the tribes tinued to exist for a long time, till under
altogether, and thus completely deprive the Empire it disappeared as a separate
him of the right of voting. This last pen- office. The emperor kept in his own hands
alty might be accompanied by a fine in the the right of taking the census. He took
shape of additional taxation. The censors over also the other functions of the censor,
had also the power of issuing edicts against especially the supervision of morals, a pro-
practices which threatened the simplicity ceeding in which he had Caesar's example to
of ancient Roman manners for instance,
; support him. The care of public buildings,
against luxury. These edicts had not the however, he committed to a special body.
force of law, but their transgression might Censorinus. A Roman scholar of the
be punished by the next censors. The 3rd century A.d. Besides some grammatical
effect of the censorial stigma and punish- treatises now lost, he was the author
ment lasted until the next census. The of a short book, De Die NatSli (" On the
consent of both censors was required to Day of Birth "), in which he treats of the
ratify it, and it directly affected men only, influence of the stars on the birth of men,
not women. The censors exercised a special of the various stages of life, and the different
superintendence over the SquitSs and the modes of reckoning time. In the course of
senate. They had the lectio sendtUs, or the work he gives a number of valuable
power of ejecting unworthy members and historical and chronological notices.
of passing over new candidates for the sena- Census. After the establishment of the
torial rank, as, for instance, those who had constitution of Serviiis Tullius the number
held curule offices. The equites had to of Roman citizens was ascertained every
pass singly, each leading his horse, before five years (though not always with pei^
the censors in the forum, after the comple- feet regularity) to determine their legal
tion of the genera! census. An honourable liability to 'the payment of taxes and to
dismissal was then given to the superan- military service. This process was call-od

census. The census was originally- taken it. It was a favourite subject with^poets
by the kings; after the expulsion of the and artists. The Centaurs were driven
kings by the consuls; after 444 B.C. by from Pelion by Pirithous and the Lapithse,
special officers called censors {see Censobes). and even the wise Chiron was forced to go
The censors took the auspices on the night
preceding the census on the next day their

herald summoned the people to the Campus

Martius, where they had an official residence
in the villa publica. Each tribe appeared
successively before them, and its citizens
were summoned individually according to
the existing register. Each had to state on
oath his age, his own name, those of his
father, his wife, his children, his abode, and
the amount of his property. The facts were
embodied in lists by the censors' assistants.
The census of the provinces was sent in by
the provincial governors. There was a
special commission for numbering the armies
outside the Italian frontier. The censors,
in putting up the new lists, took into con-
sideration not only a man's property but
his moral conduct (see Censoees, p. 122a).
The census was concluded with the solemn
ceremony of reviewing the newly constituted
army (lustrum). (See Lustkdm.) The re-
publican census continued to exist under
the early Empire, but the last lustrum was CENTAUR AND EROS.
held by Vespasian and Titus in A.d. 74. The (Paris, Loiivre.)
provincial census, introduced by Augustus
and maintained during the whole imperial with them {see Chieon). Artists were
period, had nothing to do with the Roman always fond of treating the fabulous combats
census, being only a means of ascertaining of the Centaurs and the heroes of old but ;

the taxable capacities of the provinces. in later times the Centaurs appear in a
Centauri (Gr. Kentauroi). Homer and the different light. They form part of the
older mythology represent the Centaurs are following of Dionysus, moving peaceably in
a rude, wild race, fond of wine and women, his festal train among satyrs, nymphs, and
dwelling in the mountains of Thessaly, es- Bacchants, drawing the victorious car of the
pecially on Pelion and (Eta. In Homer they god and his queen Ariadne, playing on the
are spoken of as shaggy animals, living in lyre, and guided by gods of love. The
the mountains. It was, perhaps, not until the forms of women and children were some-
5th centurj'- B.C. that they were represented times represented in the shape of Centaurs,
in the double shape now familiar to us. and used. in various ways by artists for their
Originally the Centaur was conceived as a smaller pictures. For the Centaur o-Tntones
being with the body of a man standing on
. or Ichthyocentaurz (" Pish-Centaurs ") see
a horse's legs but in later times the human
; Teiton.
body was represented as rising up in the Cento. Properly a patchwork garment.
front of a horse's body and four legs (see cut). In its secondary meaning the word was
According to one version of the current applied to a poem composed of verses or
legend they were the offspring of Nephele parts of verses by well-known poets put
and Ixion according to another, the son
; together at pleasure, so as to make a new
of this pair, Kentauros, begat them upon meaning. Homer and Vergil were chiefly
mares (see Ixion). The story of their used for the purpose. The Christians were
contest with the Lapithee at the wedding fond of making religious poems in this way,
of Pirithoiis, born of their drunkenness and hoping thus to give a nobler colouring to
lust, is as early as Homer [Iliad i 268, the pagan poetry. For instance, we have a
''Odyssey xxi 295 foil;] {See Pieithous.) Homeric, cento of 2,343 verses on the Life
In Homer Nestor, and in the later story of Christ, ascribed to Athenais, who, under
Theseus, are represented as taking part in the title of Eudocia, was consort of the
emperor Theodogius II. Another instance of age,who served on garrison duty in the
is a poem known
as the Christus pdtieas, city. Besides these there were 2 centuries
or "the suifering Christ," consisting of of mechanics (fabrum), and 2 of musicians
2,610 verses from Euripides. Instances of {corntcinum, and tubicinum).
Vergilian centos are the sacred history of The centuricB fabrum were enrolled be-
Proba Ealtonia (towards the end of the tween the first and second class the centurice.

4th century A.D.), and a tragedy entitled cornicinum and tvhicinum between the
MedBa by Hosidius Geta. fourth and fifth. The 193d centuria con-
Centumviri (" The hundred men "). This sisted of citizens whose income fell below
was the the single jury for the trial
title of the minimum standard of the rest, and who
of civil causes at Rome. In the republican were called prOlSt&rii or cdpitS censi.
age it consisted of 105 members, chosen from These last had originally no function beyond
the tribes (three from each of the thirty-iive). that of voting at the assembly of the
Under the Empire its number was increased citizens in the cormtla centuridta, and were
to 180. It was divided into four sections not liable to military service. But in later
{consiVUt), and exercised its jurisdiction in times the richer among them were admitted
the name of the people, partly in sections, to serve in the army. A fresh division of
partly as a single collegium. It had to deal centurice was made at every census. The
with questions of property, and particu- military equipment of each citizen, and his
larly with those of inheritance. In the position in battle array, was determined
later years of the Republic it was presided by the class to which his property entitled
over by men of quaestorian rank but from ; him to belong. {See Legion.) On the poli-
the time of Augustus by a commission of tical position of the different classes see
ten {decern viri lltibUs mdicandls). The COMITIA (2).
pleadings were oral, and the proceedings In military parlance centuna meant one
public. In earlier times they took place of the 60 divisions of the legion, each of
in the forum under the Empire in a basi-
; which was commanded by a centuria.
lica. In the imperial age the centumviral Centuriata Comitia. See Comitia (2).
courts were the only sphere in which an Centtlriones. The captains of the 60 cen-
ambitious orator or lawyer could win dis- turies of the Roman legion. They carried a
tinction. The last mention of them is in staff of vinewood as their badge of office.
395 A.D. The peculiar symbol of the cen- In the republican age they were appointed,
tumviral court was a Tmsta or spear (see on the application of the legion, by the
Hasta). military tribunes on the commission of the
Centtiria (" a hundred "). In the Roman consuls. There were various degrees of rank
army of the regal period the centuria was among the centurions according as they be-
a division of 100 cavalry soldiers. In the longed to the three divisions of the triarii,
half-military constitution of Servius Tullius princlpes, and hastdti, and led the first or
the word was applied to one of the 193 second centuria of one of the 30 manipSli.
divisions into which the king divided' the The centurion of the first centuria of a
patrician and plebeian popUlus according manipulus led his manipidus himself, and
to their property, with the view of allotting as centurio prior ranked above the leader of
to each citizen his due share of civil rights the second centuria, or centurio posterior.
and duties. Of the 193 centuries 18 con- The highest rank belonged to the first cen-
sisted of cavalry soldiers (100 each) belong- turio of the first manipulus of the tnarii,
ing to the richest class of citizens. The next the prlmipllus or primus pllus, who was
170, whose members wereto serve as infantry, admitted to the council of war. The method
fell into five classes. The first 80 included of promotion was as follows: The cen-
those citizens whose property amounted to turiones had to work first through the 30
at least 100,000 asses. The second, third, lower centuries of the 30 manipvli of the
and fourth, containing each 20 centuries, hastati, principes, and triai-ii, and then
represented a minimum property of 75,000, through the 30 upper centurice up to the
SOjOOO, and 25,000 asses respectively. The primipilus.
fifth, with 30 centuries, represented a mini- After the end of the Republic and under
mum of 12,600, 11,000 or 10,000 asses. the Empire the legion was usually divided
These 170 centurise were again divided into into 10 cohorts ranked one above the other,
85 centuries of iUnidrSs, or men from 18-45 each cohort consisting of three manipuli or
years of age, who served in the field ; and six centtirice. The division into priSres
85 of sSnlOres, citizens from 46 to 60 years and posteriOrSs, and into f.riarii, principcs

and hastati still remained, but only for the of the Taumessian fox and both his dog

centurions and within the cohort, which and the hunted animal were turned to stone
accordingly always included a prior and by Zeus. Subsequently he joined Amphi-
posterior of the three ranks in question. tryon in his expedition against the Telebose,
The method of promotion, which was per- and, according to one account, became
haps not regularly fixed until the time of sovereign of the Cephallenians. According
the standing armies of the Empire, seems to to another he put an end to his life by leap-
have been the old one, the centurions passing ing from the promontory of Leucate, on
up by a lower stage through all 10 cohorts, which he had founded a temple to Apollo.
and the higher stage always beginning in Cepheus (Gr. Kepheus). (1) The son of
the tenth. The first centurion of each Belus, king of ^Ethiopia, husband of Cassio-
cohort probably led it, and was admitted to pea and father of Andromeda. {See Andro-
the council of war. The promotion usually meda.)
ceased with the advancement to the rank of (2)Son of Ateus, king of Tegea and bro-
primipilus. If a centurion who had reached ther ofAuge (see Telephus). He fell with
this point did not choose to retire, he was his twenty sons when fighting on the side
employed on special services, as commandant of Heracles against Hippoc5on of Sparta.
of a fortress for instance. Under the Cephisodotus (Gr. Kephls6d6t6s). A
Empire, however, exceptional cases occurred Greek artist, born at Athens, and connected
of promotion to higher posts. with the family of Praxiteles. He flourished
Cgphalus (Gr. Kgphdlds). In Greek mytho- towards the end of the 4th century B.C.
logy the son of Hermes and Herse, the daugh- The celebrated statue now in the Glyptothek
ter of Cecrops king of Athens. According to at Munich, representing Eirene with the
another story he was son of Deion of Phocis infant Plutus in her arms, is probably a
and Diomede, and migrated from Phocis to copy of a work by Cephisodotus (see cut,
Thoricus in Attica. He was married to under Eirene). There was another Cephi-
Procris, the daughter of Erechtheus, and sodotus, a contemporary of his, and the son
lived with her in the closest affection. But of Praxiteles, who was likewise in high
while hunting one day in the mountains, he repute as a sculptor.
was carried away for his beauty by Eos, the Cer (Gr. Ker). In Greek mythology, a
goddess of the dawn. To estrange his wife's goddess of death, especially of violent death
heart from him, Eos sent him to her in the in battle. In Hesiod she is the daughter of
form of a stranger, who, by the offer of Nyx (night), and sister of Moros (the
splendid presents, succeeded in making her doom of death), Hypnos (sleep), and Dreams.
waver in her fidelity. Cepbalus revealed The poets commonly speak of several Keres,.
himself, and Procris, in shame, fled to Crete, goddesses of different kinds of death. Homer
where she lived with Artemis as a huntress. and Hesiod represent them as clothed in
Artemis (or, according to another story, garments stained by human blood, and drag-
Minos), gave her a dog as swift as the wind, ging the dead and wounded about on the
and a spear that never missed its aim. On field of battle. Every man has his allotted
returning to Attica she met Cephalus hunt- Doom, which overtakes him at the appointed
ing. He failed to recognise her, and offered time. Achilles alone has two, with the
his love if she would give him her dog and power to choose freely between them. In
her spear. She then revealed herself, and, later times the Keres are represented
the balance of offence being thus redressed, generally as powers of destruction, and as
the lovers were reconciled and returned to associated with the Erinyes, goddesses of
their old happy together.
life But Procris revenge and retribution.
her jealousy. When
at last fell a victim to Cerberus (Gr. KerhSros). In Greek mytho-
Cephalus went out hunting, he used often logy, the three-headed dog, with hair of
to call on Aura, or the breeze, to cool his snakes, son of Typhaon and Echidna, who
heat. Procris was told of this, and, sup- watches the entrance of the lower world.
posing Aura to be some nymph, hid herself He gives a friendly greeting to all who enter,
in a thicket to watch him. Hearing a but if any one attempts to go out, he seizes.
rustling near him, and thinking a wild him and holds him fast. When Heracles, at
beast was in the thicket, Cephalus took aim the command of Eurystheus, brought him
with the unerring spear which Procris had from below to the upper world, the poison-
given him, and slew his wife. For this ous aconite sprang up from the foam of his
murder he was banished, and fled to Boeotia. mouth. {See the cuts to the article Hades.).
Here he assisted Amphitryon in the chase Cercis (Gr. Kerlns). See Theatre.

Cercjron (Gr. Kerkyon). In Greek mytho- before the beginning of the harvest, and
logy the son of Poseidon, and father of dedicated to her the first cuttings of the
A.l6pe, who lived at Eleusis, and compelled corn (prcemStium). (See Demeter.)
ill passers-by to wrestle with him. He was Ceryx (Gr. Keryx). The son of Pandrosos
conquered and slain by the young Theseus, and Hermes, and the ancestor of the Keryces
who gave the kingdom of Eleusis to his of Eleusis (see Ceryx, 2). Herse (or Erse)
grandson, Hippothoon. {See Alope, and was mother, by Hermes, of the beautiful
Theseus.) Cephaius (see Cephalus). She had a special
C§r6alia. See Ceres. festival in her honour, the ArrMpMHa {see
C6res. An old Italian goddess of agri- Areephoria). Agraulos, mother of Al-
culture. The Ceres who was worshipped at cippe, by Ares, was said in one story to
Rome is, however, the same as the Greek have thrown herself down from the citadel
Demeter. Her cultus was introduced under during a war to save her country. It was,
the Italian name at the same time as that accordingly, in her precincts on the Acro-
x)f Dionysus and Persephone, who in the polis that the young men of Athens, when
same way received the Italian names of they received their spears and shields, took
Liber and Libera. It was in 496 B.C., on the their oath to defend their country to the
•occasion of a drought, that the Sibylline death, invoking her name with those of the
books ordered the introduction of the wor- Charites Auxo and Hegemone. According
ship of the three deities. This worship was to another story, Athene entrusted Erich-
30 decidedly Greek that the temple dedi- thonius to the keeping of the three sisters
cated on a spur of the Aventine in 490 B.C., in a closed chest, with the command that
•over the entrance to the Circus, was built they were not to open it. Agraulos and
in Greek style and by Greek artists ; and Herse disobeyed, went mad, and threw
the service of the goddess, founded on the themselves down from the rocks of the
Greek fable of Demeter and Persephone, citadel.
was performed in the Greek tongue by Ceryx (Gr. KSryx). (1) The Greek name
Italian women of Greek extraction. The for a herald. In the Homeric age the keryx
worshippers of the goddess were almost is the official servant of the king, who
exclusively plebeian. Her temple was placed manages his household, attends at his meals,
under the care of the plebeian sediles, who assists at sacrifices, summons the assem-
(as overseers of the corn market) had their blies and maintains order and tranquillitj'
official residence in or near it. The fines in them. He also acts as ambassador to the
which they imposed went to the shrine of enemy, and, as such, his person is, both in
•Ceres, so did the property of persons who ancient times and ever afterwards, inviol-
had offended against them, or against the able. In historical times the herald, be-
tribunes of the plebs. Just as the Patricians sides the part which he plays in the politi-
•entertained each other with mutual hospi- cal transactions between different cities,
talities at the Megalesian games(April 4-10), appears in the service of the gods. He an-
so did the Plebeians at the Ceredlia, or games nounces the sacred truce observed at the
introduced at the founding of the temple of public festivals, commands silence at reli-
Ceres. Those held in later times were given gious services, dictates the forms of prayer
by the sediles from the 12th-19th April, and to the assembled community, and performs
another festival to Ceres, held in August, many services in temples where there is
was established before the Second Punic only a small staff of attendants, especially
War. This was celebrated by women in by assisting in the sacrifices. He has also
honour of the reunion of Ceres and Proser- a great deal to do in the service of the
pina. After fasting for nine days, the women, State. At Athens, in particular, one or
clothed in white, and adorned with crowns of more heralds were attached to the various
ripe ears of corn, offered to the goddess the officials and to the government boards. It
firstfruits of the harvest. After 191 B.C. a was also the herald's business to summon
fast (ieiunium CerSris) was introduced by the council and the public assembly, to re-
command of the Sibylline books. This was cite the prayer before the commencement of
originally observed every four years, but in business, to command silence, to call upon
later times was kept r.nnually on the 4th of the speaker, to summon the parties in a
October. The native Italian worship of lawsuit to attend the court, and to act in
Ceres was probably maintained in its purest general as a public crier. As a rule, the
form in the country. Here the country heralds were taken from the poor, and the
oifered Ceres a sow {porca pra'cidCtnija) lower orders. At Athens they had a salary.

and took their meals at the public expense, style was smooth and picturesque, but his
with the officials to whom they were at- plays were artificial, and better adapted for
tached. On the herald's staif (Gt. kery- reading than for performance. A few frag-
kddn, Lat. c&ducSus), see Hermes. ments of them remain, which show some
(2) In Greek mythology, the son of imaginative power.
Hermes, the herald of the gods, by Agraulos Chairs and Seats. Of these there was
the daughter of Ceorops, or (according to a great variety in the ancient world, some
another story) of Eumolpus, and ancestor of with, and some without, supports for the
the Eleusinian family of the Kerykes, one head and back. The latter sort (Gr.
of whose members always performed the diphrds, Lat. sella) were mostly low, and
functions of a herald at the Eleusinian
Cetra. The light shield of the Roman
auxiliaries. {See Shield.)
Ceyx (Gr. KSyx). In Greek mythology, (1)
A king of Traohis, the friend and nephew
of Heracles. {See Heracles.)
(2) The son of Heosphoros or the Morn-
ing-Star, and the nymph Philonis the ;

husband of AlkySne or HalkySne, daughter

of the Thessalian JEolus. The pair were
arrogant enough to style themselves Zeus
and Hera, and were accordingly changed
respectively by Zeus into the birds of the
same name, a diver and a kingfisher.
Another story confused Ceyx with the king
of Trachis, and dwelt on the tender love of
the pair for each other. Oeyx is drowned
at sea, and Alcyone finds his body cast up
apon his native shore. The gods take pity
on her grief, and change the husband and
wife into kingfishers {alcyones), whose affec-
tion for each other in the pairing season was
proverbial. Zeus, or, according to another
story, the wind-god .iBolus (sometimes repre-
sented as the father of Alcyone), bids the
winds rest for seven days before and after
the shortest day, to allow the kingfishers to
sit on their eggs by the sea. Hence the
expression "halcyon days," applied to this
season. Dsedalion, the brother of Ceyx,
was turned into a hawk, when he threw
himself from a rock on Parnassus in grief
at the death of his daughter Chione.
Chalcus (Gr. Chalkous). See Coinage
Chaldsei. See Astrology.
Chaos. According to Hesiod, the yawn-
ing, unfathomable abyss which was the first
of all existing things. Prom Chaos arose
Gaia (Earth), Tartarus (Hell), and Eros
(Love). Chaos bore Erebus and Night;
from their union sprang ^ther and Hemera
{Sky and Day). The conception of Chaos
as the confused mass out of which, in the
beginning, the separate forms of things
arose, is erroneous, and belongs to a later
Chseremon. A Greek tragedian, who
flourished at Athens about 380 B.C. His


"vithout backs were also used by mechanics, by a cross-beam, and was fixed on the necks
soldiers, and boys at scbool. The backed of the two horses or mules which were next
chairs ordinarily in use much resembled our to the pole. Sometimes a third and fourth
modern chairs. They generally had a slop- horse were attached by means of a rope
ing back, sometimes arched out in the centre passing from the neckband to a rail form-
(see cuts). Chairs of this form were made ing the top of the front board. It was
for women and invalids ;and the cathedra indeed the universal custom in antiquity to
Dr professor's chair was of the same descrip- make the two principal horses draw by the
tion. The Greek thrdnds and the Latin yoke. It was only the extra horses that drew
sdlium were seats of honour. They were by traces, and this always at the side of the
lofty, and had footstools accordingly the
; others, never in front of them. Carriages
back was high and straight, the legs were in ordinary use sometimes had two, some-
upright, and there were arms at the sides. times four wheels. They were used mostly
The Roman pater familias, when giving for carrying burdens. Only women, as a
his clients their morning audience, sat in rule, travelled in carriages ; men usually
a solium. Seats were not always stuffed, either walked or rode, thinking it affecta-
but cushions were put on them, and cover- tion to drive except in case of old age or
ings on the backs. Chairs were made of illness. It was, however, customary at
metal and ivory, as well as of wood. Athens and elsewhere for a bride to be
Chares. (1) Chares of MityUne.
A Greek historian, court-marshal of
Alexander the Great. He was the
author of a comprehensive work, con-
taining at least ten books, upon the
life, chiefly the domestic life, of this
monarch. This history had the repu-
tation of being trustworthy and in-
teresting. Only a few fragments of
it remain.
(2) Chares of Lindos in Rhodes.
A Greek artist, a pupil of Lysippus.
In 278 B.C. he produced the largest
statue known in antiquity, the colos-
sal image of the sun, 280 feet high,
placed at the entrance of the harbour
of Rhodes, and generally known as WAR-CHAKIOT.
the Colossus of Rhodes. This was (Vase painting?.)
destroyed by an earthquake as early
as 222 B.C. The thumbs were thicker than drawn to the house of the bridegroom in a.
the average span of a man's hand, the carriage drawn by mules or oxen, sitting
fingers larger than many ordinary statues. between the bridegroom and his friend.
Chariots. (1) Greek. The racing chariots (2) Rome. Among the Romans we find a.
in use at the public games require especial great variety of carriages in use, for trans-
mention. These preserved the form of the port, travelling and state occasions. This
war-chariots of the heroic age, made to variety is apparent in the number of differ-
carry the warrior and his charioteer (see ent names, which cannot however always
cut). They were also used at Rome in be referred with certainty to the forms of'
the games of the circus and in festal carriage presented in works of art. The
processions. The chariot had two low various kinds of travelling-carriages must
wheels, tisually with four spokes each. On have been borrowed from abroad, as is
these rested the car (see cut), elliptically proved by their names. The reda, for
shaped in front, protected by a board instance, came from Gaul.This was a four-
rising to the knees of the driver in front, wheeled travelling carriage for family and
and sloping off to the rear, where the baggage, or for company. The ctstwm and
chariot was open. In the triumphal chariot essSdum were light two-wheeled convey-
of the Romans this board was breast high. ances. The essediim was probably a Gaulish
At the end of the pole was fastened the yoke. war-chariot, as the covinnus was a British
This consisted either of a simple arched war-chariot. The four-wheeled pilentum
piece of wood, or of two rings connected came also from Gaul. It was drawn by-

mules and generally used by the servants out much intelligence, from the works of
and snite. The pilentum and covinnus older scholars. Its value is derived from
were used on state occasions. These were the numerous quotations it preserves from
both covered carriages, the pilenta having the older Latin literature.
four wheels, the covinnus two. The covin- Charitfis or Graces. Goddesses of grace,
nus often mentioned in the literature of the and of everything which lends charm and
empire had four wheels, and resembled a beauty to nature and human life. Accord-
reda. We must also mention the thensa, a ing to Hesiod they are the offspring of
chariot adorned with gold and ivory, in Zeus and the daughter of Oceanus and
which the images of the gods and deified Eurynome. Their names are EuphrSuyne
emperors, lying upon a cushion on a frame (joy), Thalia (bloom), and Aglaia (brilliance).
or a litter, were borne to the circus through Aglaia is the youngest, and the wife of
the streets and the Porum at the Circensian Hephsestus. Tor the inspiration of the
games. The use of carriages for travelling Graces was deemed as necessary to the
purposes was allowed in Eoman society, plastic arts, as to music, poetry, science,
but there was very little driving in Rome eloquence, beauty, and enjoyment of life.
itself. Married ladies were from very old Accordingly the Graces are intimate with
times permitted the use of carpenta in the the Muses, with whom they live together on
city, and to drive in pilenta to sacrifices Olympia. They are associated, too, with
and games. The privilege was said to Apollo, Athene, Hermes, and Peitho, but
have been granted them in acknowledgment especially with Eros, Aphrodite, and Diony-
of their contributions to the ransom of the sus. Bright and blithe-hearted, they were
city after it was burnt by the Gauls, B.C. 390. also called the daughters of the Sun and
In 45 B.C. Caesar finally restricted their pri- of iEgle (" Sheen "). They were worshipped
vilege to the public sacrifices to which the in conjunction with Aphrodite and Dionysus
Vestal Virgins, the married ladies, and the at Orchomenus in Boeotia, where their shrine
flamens also drove in pilenta. was accounted the oldest in the place, and
Men were strictly forbidden to drive in where their most ancient images were found
the city, except in two cases. A general in the shape of stones said to have fallen
at his triumph was borne to the circus in a from heaven. It was here that the feast of
gilded chariot drawn by four horses and in the Charitesia was held in their honour,
the procession which preceded the games of with musical contests. At Sparta, as at
the circus, the magistrates rode in chariots Athens, two Charites only were worshipped,
drawn by two horses. Six horses were Cleta (Kleta) or Sound, and Phaenna or
sometimes allowed to the emperor. Through- Light at Athens their names were Auxo

out the cities of the empire driving in the (Increase), and Hegemone (Queen). It
streets was generally forbidden in the first was by these goddesses, and by Agraulos,
two centuries after Christ. At length, in daughter of Cecrops, that the Athenian
the 3rd century, the use of a carriage was youths, on receiving their spear and shield,
allowed as a privilege to the senators and swore faith to their country. The Charites
high imperial oflScials, who rode in carruccB were represented in the form of beautiful
plated with silver. In later times private maidens, the three being generally linked
citizens were permitted to drive in these hand in hand. In the older representations
coaches. "Wagons (the general name of they are clothed ; in the later they are
which was plaustra) were, with certain ex- loosely clad or entirely undraped.
ceptions, forbidden by a law of Caesar to Chariton, of Aphrodisias in Plirygia.
ply between sunrise and the tenth hour (4 The assumed name of the author of a Greek
in the afternoon), in view of the immense romance in eight books, on the fortunes of
traffic in the streets. Some wagons had Chsereas and Callirrhoe. He was a Chris-
two, some four wheels. They were gener- tian, probably of the 4th century A.D.
ally drawn by oxen, asses, or mules. If His treatment of the story is simple, but
they were meant to carry very heavy loads, full of life and movement ; the narrative is
the wheels would be made of one piece and easy and flowing, the language on the whole
without spokes. natural and unadorned.
Charisius {Flavins Sosipdter). A writer Charon. (1) In Greek mythology, the son
on Latin grammar, who flourished towards of Erebus and the Styx ;
the dark and grisly
the end of the 4th ceutury a.d. His Ars old man in a black sailor's cloak, who ferries
Grammdtica, a work in five books, imper- the souls of the dead across the river of
fectly preserved, is a compilation, made with- the lower world for the fare of an obolds.
D. C. A. K

The coin was put into the mouth of the the promontory of Malea in Laconia. Here
dead for this purpose. (See Future Life.) he was wounded accidentally with a poisoned
(2) A Greek historian. (See Logogeaphi.) arrow by his friend Heracles, who was
Charybdis. See Sgylla. pursuing the flying Centaurs {see Pholus).
Cheiromantia. See Mantike. To escape from the dreadful pain of the
CheirotSnia. A show of hands. The wound, he renounced his immortality in
usual method of voting in Greek popular favour of Prometheus, and was set by Zeus
assemblies, whether at political meetings among the stars as the constellation Archer.
or elections. In elections, the cTieirotonia Chiton. The undershirt worn by the
was contrasted with the drawing of lots, Greeks, corresponding to the Roman tUnlca.
which was usual since the time of Cleis- Two kinds were commonly distinguished,
thenes in the case of many offices. the short Doric chiton of wool (fig. 1) and
Chelidonis. See Aedon.
CMliarchus. The leader of a division of
1,000 men. {See Phalanx.)
CMmaera. A fire-breathing monster of
Lycia, destroyed by Bellerophon. Accord-
ing to Homer the Chimsera was of divine
origin. In front it was a lion, behind it
was a serpent, and in the middle a goat,
and was brought up by Amisodarus as a
plague for many men. Hesiod calls her the
daughter of Typhaon and Echidna, and by
Orthos the mother of the Sphinx and the
Nemean lion. He describes her as large,
swift-footed, strong, with the heads of a
lion, and goat, and a serpent. In numerous
works of art, as in statues, and the coins of
Corinth, Sicyon, and other cities, the Chi-
msera is generally represented as a lion,
with a goat's head in the middle of its back,
and tail ending in a snake's head. The
bronze Chimsera of Arretium, now in Flor-
ence, is a very celebrated work of art.
Even in antiquity the Chimsera was re-
garded as a symbol of the volcanic character
of the Lycian soil. (1) SOLDIER IN A
Chione. (1) Daughter of BSreas and
(Bas-relief fromMiiller'B (Bronze statuette from Hercn-
Oreithyia, mother of Eumolpus by Posei- Denfcm, I. taf. xxix.) laneum, in Naples Masenm.)
don. {See Eumolpus.)
(2) Daughter of Dsedalion, mother of the long Ionic tunic of linen, which was
Philammon by Apollo, and of Autolycus by worn at Athens down to the time of
Hermes. She was slain by ArtSmis for Pericles. The chiton consisted of an ob-
venturing to compare her own beauty with long piece of cloth, wrapped round the
that of the goddess. {See Dsedalion.) body. One arm was passed through a hole
Chiron. A Centaur, son of Cronus and the in the closed side, while the two comers
Ocean nymph Phllyra. By the Naiad nymph were joined together by a clasp on the
Chariclo he was father of Endeis, wife of shoulder. The garment, which thus hung
.^acus, the mother of Peleus and T6lamon, down open on one side, was fastened to-
aud grandmother of Achilles and Ajax. He gether at both corners, or sometimes sewn
is represented in the fable as wise and just, together below the hips. At the waist it
while the other Centaurs are wild and un- was confined by a belt. In course of time
civilized. He is the master and instructor short sleeves were added to the arm-holes.
of the most celebrated heroes of Greek Sleeves reaching to the wrist were by the
story, as Actseon, Jason, Castor, Polydeuoes, Greeks regarded as effeminate ; but they
Achilles, and Asclepius, to whom he teaches were worn by the Phrygians and Medians,
the art of healing. Driven by the L&pithae and often appear on monuments as part of
from his former dwelling-place, a cave at the dress of Orientals. The chiton worn
the top of PellSn, he took up his abode on on both shoulders was distinctive of free

men. Workmen, sailors and slaves wore appeared as a writer as early as 520 B.C.
a chiton with one armhole only for the left He was a rival of Pratinas, Phrynichus and
arm, while the right arm and right breast ^schylus. His favourite line seems to have
were left uncovered. This was called the been the satyric drama, in which he was
exomts. Country folk wore a chiton of long a popular writer.
skins. The chiton worn by Doric ladies (2) A Greek epic poet, born in Samos
was a long garment like a chemise, slit up- about 470 B.C., a friend of Herodotus, and
wards on both sides from the hips and held afterwards of the Spartan Lysander. He
together by clasps at the shoulders. In the lived first at Athens and afterwards at the
case of young girls it was fastened up so court of King Archelaiis of Macedonia,
high that it hardly reached the knees. For where he was treated with great consider-
the rest of Greece the usual dress of a lady ation, and died about 400 B.C. He was the
was the Ionian chiton, long, broad, reaching first epic poet who, feeling that the old
to the feet in many folds, and only drawn mythology was exhausted, ventured to
up a short distance by the girdle. From treat a historical subject of immediate in-
this long ladies' chiton was developed the terest, the Persian wars, in an epic entitled
double chiton, a very long and broad piece Perseis. According to one account the poem
of cloth, folded together round the body, was read in the schools with Homer. The
and fastened with clasps at the shoulders. few fragments that remain show that it did
It was folded double round the breast and not lack talent and merit but little regard

back, and was open or fastened with clasps was paid to it by posterity.
on the right side, and fell simply down to (3) Choerilus of lasds in Caria. This
the feet. Sometimes the open side was Choerilus was also an epic poet, who accom-
sewn together from the girdle to the lower panied Alexander the Great. Alexander
edge. For the garments worn over the promised him a gold piece for every good
chiton see Himation, Chlamys, and Tei- verse he wrote in celebration of his achieve-
BON. ments, but declared that he would rather
Chlamys. An outer be the Thersites of Homer than the Achilles
garment introduced at of Choerilus.
Athens from Thessaly Choes. See Dionysia.
and Macedonia. It con- Chorus. The woi'd chords in Greek meant
sisted of an oblong piece a number of persons who performed songs
of woollen cloth thrown and dances at religious festivals. When
over the left shoiilder, the drama at Athens was developed from
the open ends being the dithyrambic choruses, the chorus was
fastened with clasps retained as the chief element in the Diony-
•on the right shoiilder. siac festival. {See Tragedy.) With the
The chlamys was worn old dramatists the choral songs and dances
by ephehl ; it was also much preponderated over the action proper.
the uniform of general As the form of the drama developed, the
officers, like the palu- sphere of the chorus was gradually limited,
damentum, as it was so that it took the comparatively subordi-
called in later times nate position which it occupies in the ex-
among the Romans. It tant tragedies and comedies. The function
commonly served as an of the chorus represented by its leader was
overcoat for travelling, to act asan ideal public, more or less con-
hunting, and military nected with the dramatis persona. It
service. {See cut.) might consist of old men and women or of
Chloris. (1) The maidens. It took an interest in the occur-
(Statue of Phociou,
personification of the Vatican, Rome.) rences of the drama, watched the action
spring season, and god- with quiet sympathy, and sometimes in-
dess of flowers, the wife of Zephyrus, mother terfered, if not to act, at least to advise,
of Carpos (" Fruit "). She was identified by comfort, exhort, or give warning. At the
the Romans with Flora. {See Flora.) critical points of the action, as we should

(2) Daughter of Amphion of OrchomSnns, say in the entr^actes, it performed long

-wife of Neleus, mother of Nestor and lyrical pieceswith suitable action of dance
Periclymenus. {See Peeiclymenits.) and gesture. In the better times of the
Choerilus. An Athenian dramatist,
(1) drama these songs stood in close connexion
one of the oldest Attic tragedians, who with the action; but even in Euripides this
connexion is sometimes and with the
loose, Lysicrates in 335 B.C., stUl remains. {See
later tragedians, after the time of Lysicbates.) After the Peloponnesian war
the choral performance sank to a mere in- the prosperity of Athens declined so much
termezzo. The style of the chorus was that it was often difficult to find a sufficient,
distinguished from that of the dialogue number of choregi to supply the festivals.
partly by its complex lyrical form, partly The State therefore had to take the business
by language, in which it adopted a mix-
its upon itself. But many choruses came to an
ture of Attic and Doric forms. The proper end altogether. This was the case with the
place of the chorus was on the orchestra, comic chorus in the later years of Aristo-
on different parts of which, after a solemn phanes; and the poets of the Middle and
march, it remained until the end of the New Comedy accordingly dropped the chorus.
piece drawn up, while standing, in a square. This explains the fact that there is no
During the action it seldom left the orchestra chorus in the Roman comedy, which is an
to re-appear, and it was quite exceptional imitation of the New Comedy of the Greeks-
for it to appear on the stage. As the per- In their tragedies, however, imitated from
formance went on the chorus would change Greek originals, the Romans retained the
its place on the orchestra as the piece re-
; chorus, which, as the Roman theatre had no
quired it would divide into semi-chorusos orchestra, was placed on the stage, and as a
and perform a variety of artistic movements rule performed between the acts, but some-
and dances. The name of Em/nieleia was times during the performance as well.
given to the tragic dance, which, though ChSregus, Choreutse. See Chorus.
not lacking animation, had a solemn and Chorizont€s. See Homer.
measured character. The comedy had its Chresmoldgi. See Mantike.
burlesque and often indecent performance Chrysaor. Son of Poseidon and Medusa,
called Cordax the satyric drama its Sicin-
brother of PegSsus, and father of the three-
nis, representing the wanton movements of headed giant Geryon and Echidna by the
satyrs. The songs of the choruses, too, had Ocean-Nymph Callirrhoe.
their special names. The iirst ode per- Chryseis. The daughter of Chryses,
formed by the entire body was called pard- priest of Apollo at Chryse. She was
dos ; the pieces intervening between the carried away by the Greeks at the con-
parts of the play, staslma ; the songs of quest of her native city, and allotted to
mourning, in which the chorus took part Agamemnon. Agamemnon having refused
with the actors, commoi. The number of the father's proffered ransom, Apollo visited
the members (choreutai) was, in tragedies, the Greek camp with pestilence until Aga-
originally twelve, and after Sophocles fifteen. memnon gave her back without payment.
This was probably the number allowed in {See Trojan" War.)
the satyric drama : the chorus in the Old Chrysippus. (1) Son of Pelops and the
Comedy numbered twenty-four. Nymph Axi5che, murdered by his step-
The business of getting the members of brothers Atreus and Thyestes, who were
the chorus together, paying theni, maintain- consequently banished by Pelops.
ing them during the time of practice, and (2) AGreek philosopher of Tarsus or Soli
generally equipping them for performance, in Cilicia (about 282-206 B.C.). At Athens
was regarded as a Liturgia, or public ser- he was a pupil of the Stoic Cleanthes, and
vice, and devolved on a wealthy private his successor in the chair of the Stoa.
citizen called a Choregus, to whom it was a Owing to the thorough way in which he
matter of considerable trouble and expense. developed the system, he is almost entitled
We know from individual instances that to be called the second founder of the Stoic
the cost of tragic chorus might run up to school ;and, indeed, there was a saying
30 minse (about £100), of a comic chorus " Had there been no Chrysippus, there had
\o 16 minae (about £53). If victorious, the been no Stoa." The author of more than
CflidrSgus received a crown and a finely 706 books, he was one of the most prolific
wrought tripod. This he either dedicated, writers of antiquity, but his style was
with an inscription, to some deity as a marred by great prolixity and carelessness.
memorial of his triumph, or set up on a Only a few fragments of his writings survive.
marble structure built for the purpose in Chthdnla. (1) Daughter of Erechtheus
the form of a temple, in a street named of Athens, who was sacrificed by her father
the Street of Tripods, from the number of to gain the victory over the men of Eleusis-
thesemonuments which were erected there. {See Erechtheus.)
One of these memorials, put up by a certain (2) An epithet of Demeter {q. v.)-

ChthSnian Gods (from ChthOn, the earth). his intellect matured. In this year he mar-
The deities who rule under the earth or ried Terentia. His career as an advocate
who are connected with the lower world, as he pursued with such success that he was
Hades, Pluto, Persephone, Demeter, Diony- unanimously elected quaestor in 76 B.C.
sus, Hecate, and Hermes. He was stationed at Lilybseum, in Sicily,
Chytroi (Feast of Pots) the third day of and administered his office unimpeachably.
the Anthesteria. {See Dionysia.) After his return he entered the senate, and
Cicero. (1) Marcus TuLlius Cicero. The developed an extraordinary activity as a
celebrated Eoman orator, born at Arpinum, speaker. In consequence he was elected to
January 3rd, 106 B.C. He was son of Mar- the curule sedileship in 70 B.C. It was in
cus TuUius Cicero and Helvia, his family
being of equestrian rank, but not yet
ennobled by office. With his brother
Quintus he received his education in Rome,
where he soon had an opportunity of hear-
ing and admiring the two most celebrated
orators of the day, Crassus and Antonius.
He took the t6ga virilis in 90 B.C., and,
while practising rhetorical exercises, de-
voted himself with ardour to the study of
law. In 89 he served on his first campaign ,

in the Marsian War. After this he began

his studies in philosophy, mainly under the
guidance of the Academic philosopher,
Philo of Larissa. The presence of the
Rhodian rhetorician Molo in Rome, and
afterwards the instruction in dialectic given
him by the Stoic Diodotus, gave him the
opportunity he desired for furthering his
training as an orator. Having thus care-
fully prepared himself for his future voca-
tion during the period of the civil distur-
bances, he started on his career as an orator
under Sulla's dictatorship. He began with
civil orprivate cases. One of his earliest
speeches, the Pro Quinctio, still survives.
This oration [in which he defends his client
on the question of his conduct in a partner-
ship] he delivered in 81 B.C., in his 26th
year. In the following year he first appeared
in a causa publica, and not on the side of
the prosecution, the usual course for begin-
ners, but on that of the defence. His client
was Sextus Roscius of Ameria, accused of
murdering his own father. Thife speech laid
the foundation of Cicero's fame, and not
only because it was successful. People ad-
' CICERO {Madrid).
mired the intrepidity with which Cicero
stood up against Chrysogonus, the favourite M- CICERO- AN LXIIII.
of the omnipotent dictator.
In the following year, for the sake of his remembering
this year that the Sicilians,
delicate health, Cicero started on a two years'
the conscientiousness and unselfishness he
tour in Greece and Asia, taking every oppor-
tunity of finishing his education as a philo-
had displayed in his qusestorship, begged
sopher and orator. For philosophy he had
him to lead the prosecution against VeiTes.
recourse to the most celebrated professors at
For three years this man had, in the most
infamous manner, ill-treated and plundered
Athens for rhetoric he went to Rhodes, to
the province. Cicero had to contend with

his former instructor, Molo. In B.C. 77 he

all kinds of hindrances thrown in
his way
returned to Rome, his health restored, and

by the aristocratic friends of Verres. By conspirators, who had remained behind in

the Dlvindtio in Cmcilium he had to make Home.
good his claims to prosecute against those Cicero's consulship marks the climax of
of CsBcilius Niger. -
The defence was led by his career. He received, it is true, the
the most famous orator of the day, Horten- honourable title of pater patrim ; but, a
sius. But Cicero managed to collect such a few weeks later, he had a clear warning of
mass of evidence, and to marshal it with what he had to expect from the opposite
such ability, that after the actio prima, or party in the way of reward for his services.
first hearing, Verres found it advisable to When laying down his office he was about
retire into voluntary exile. The unused to make a speech, giving an account of
material Cicero worked up into an actio se- his administration. The tribune Metellus
cunda in five speeches. The whole proceed- Nepos interrupted him, and insisted on his
ing made him so popular that, spoiled as the confining himself to the oath usual on the
multitude was, no one complained of his occasion. In the following year he had
economical expenditure on the games during opportunities for displaying his eloc[uence
his sedileship. He was unanimously elected in the defence of P. Cornelius Sulla and the
prsetor in 67 b.o. In this office he made poet Archias. But he was often attacked,
his first political speech in 66, successfully and had, in particular, to meet a new danger
defending the proposal of the tribune in the hostility of Clodius Pulcher, whose
Manilius to give Pompeius the command mortal hatred only too soon hit upon a
in the Mithridatic war, with unprecedented chance of sating itself. Cicero would not
and almost absolute power. accede to the plans of Caesar, Pompey and
In 64 B.C. he came forward as candidate Crassus, but offered them a strenuous re-
for the consulship, and was successful, in sistance. He deceived himself as to his
spite of the efforts of his enemies. He owed own political importance, and refused to
his success to the support of the nobility, quit the city except under compulsion. The
who had hitherto regarded him, as a homo triumvirs accordingly abandoned him to the
Tiovus, with disfavour, but had come to re- vengeance of Clodius. Clodius was elected
cognise him as a champion of the party of tribune of the plebs in 68 B.C., and at once
order. He obtained the office, as he had the proposed that any person should be made
rest, suo anno, that is in the first year in an outlaw, who should have put S,oman
which his candidature was legally possible. citizens to death without trial. Cicero met
The danger with which Catiline's agitation the charge by retiring into voluntary exile
was threatening the State, determined Cicero early in April, 58. He went to Thessa-
to offer a vigorous opposition to everything lonica and Macedonia, where he found a
likely to disturb public order. With this safe retreat at the house of the quaestor
view he delivered three speeches, in which Plancius. The sentence was, however, pro-
he frustrated the agrarian proposals of the nounced against him ; his house on the
tribune Servilius Rullus. He also led Palatine was burnt down, his country
the defence of the aged Eabirius, whom houses plundered and destroyed, and even
the leaders of the democratic party, to his family maltreated. It is true that, as
excite the people against the senate, had early as the next year, he was recalled with
prosecuted for the murder of Saturninus every mark of distinction, and welcomed in
thirty-six years before. To avoid the triumph by the people on his entrance into
danger and excitement of a fresh consular Rome at the beginning of September. But
election for 62, he undertook the defence of his political activity was crippled by the
the consul designdtus L. Murena, on the power of the triumvirs. His fear of Clodius
charge of bribery ; and this, although the forced him to comply with their commands
accusers of Murena numbered among them as a means of keeping in their good graces.
Cicero's best friends, and, indeed, rested But all this only stimulated him to show
their case upon the very law by which greater energy as an orator. His chief
Cicero had himself proposed to increase efforts were put forth in defending his
the penalties for bribery. The conspiracy friends, when prosecuted by political an-
of Catiline gave Cicero an opportunity of tagonists, as, for instance, Publius Sestius
displaying in the most brilliant light his in 56 B.C., GnsBus Plancius in 54, Titus
acuteness, his energy, his patriotism, and Annius Milo in 52. His de'feice of the
even his power as an orator. He discovered latter, accused of the murder of Clodius,
the conspiracy, and helped largely to was unsuccessful. It was at this period
suppress it by the execution of the chief that he began to apply himself to literature.

In 53 B.C. he was elected augur from July,

; nent part in politics. All the efforts of his
51, to July, 50, lie administered the province party to bring about a restoration of the
of Cilicia as proconsul. In this capacity, ancient republican freedom centred in him.
his clemency, uprightness and unselfishness B'utjWhen Octavianus disappointed the hopes
won for him the greatest respect. For his which he had excited, and attached him-
conduct in a campaign against the robber self to Antonius and Lepidus in the second
tribes of Mount Amanus he was honoured triumvirate, Cicero, now the chief man in
by the Imperdtor, a public thanks-
title of the senate, was declared an outlaw. In-
giving, and the prospect of a triumph. tending to fly to Macedonia, as he had done
He landed in Italy towards the end of fifteen years before, he was overtaken by
November, B.C. 50, and found that a breach his pursuers near Caieta, and put to death
between Pompey and Csesar was inevitable. on September 7th, 43 B.C., shortly before he
The civil war broke out in the next year, had completed his sixty-fourth year. His
and, after long hesitation, Cicero finally head and right hand were exposed on the
decided for Pompey, and followed him to rostra by Antonius.
Greece. But after the battle of Pharsalas, The literary labours of Cicero signalize
in which ill-health prevented him from an important advance in the development
taking a part, he deserted his friends, and of Latin literature. It is not only that he
crossed to Brundisium. Here he had to is to be regarded as the creator of classical
wait a whole year before Csesar pardoned Latin prose. He was also the first writer
him, and gave him leave to return to Rome. who broke ground, to any great extent, in
Csesar treated him with distinction and fields of literature which, before him, had
kindness, but Cicero kept aloof from public remained almost untouched. He had in-
life. Nothing short of the calls of friend- sight enough to perceive that his vocation
ship could induce him to appear in the lay in the career of an orator. His industry,
courts, as he did for Marcellus, Ligarius, throughout his whole life, was untiring he ;

and Deio tarns. The calamities of his was never blinded by success to educate

country his separation from his wife

; himself, and perfect himself in his art, was
Terentia, in 46 B.C., after a married life the object which he never lost sight of.
of thirty-three years his hasty union with
; His speeches, accordingly, give brilliant
the young and wealthy Publilia, so soon to testimony to his combiuation of genius with
be dissolved; the unhappy marriage and industry. Besides the fifty-seven speeches
death of his favourite daughter TuUia ; all which survive in a more or less complete
this was a heavy affliction for him. He shape, and the most important of which
found some consolation in studying philo- have been mentioned above, we have about
sophy, and applying himself with energy to twenty fragments of others, and the titles
literary work. of thirty-five more. Cicero was justified in
The murder of Csesar on March 15th, 44 boasting that no orator had written so many
B.C., roused him from his retirement, though speeches, and in such different styles, as
he had taken no actual part in the deed. himself [Orator, c. 29, 30]. These orations
His patriotism excited him once more to take were partly political, partly forensic the

an active part in public life, and his first aim latter being mostly on the side of the de-
was to effect a reconciliation of parties. He fence. Cicero was also the author of pane-
succeeded so far as to secure the passing of gyrics, as that, for instance, upon Cato.
a general amnesty. But it was not long With few exceptions, as the second actio
before the intrigues and the hostility of the against Verres, the Pro Mllone, and the
Csesarian party forced him again to leave panegyrics, they were actually delivered,
Rome. He was on his way to Greece, and published afterwards. Extending over
when, at the end of August, he was re- thirty-eight years, they give an excellent
called, by false rumours, to the Capitol. idea of Cicero's steady progress in the
In a moment of deep irritation against mastery of his art. They are of unequal
Antonius, he delivered, on the 2nd of Sep- merit, but everywhere one feels the touch of
tember, the first of his fourteen Philippic the born and cultivated orator. A wealth
orations, so called after those of Demos- of ideas and of wit, ready acuteness, the
thenes. The second Philippic was never power of making an obscure subject clear
spoken, but published as a pamphlet the ; and a dry subject interesting, mastery of
last was delivered on the 21st April, B.C. 43. pathos, a tendency to luxuriance of lan-
On the retirement^ of Antonius from Rome, guage,, gea&rally tempered by good taste to
Cicero found' himself again playing a promi- the right m'SSfeure, an nnsuspasssed tact in


the use of Latin idiom and expftession, a books on the greatest good and the greatest
wonderful feeling for the rhythm and struc- evil (X>e Flnlbus BdnOrum et Mdldrum),
ture of prose writing: these are Cicero's B.C. 45. This is the best of his philoso-
characteristics. With all the faults which phical works. (5) The second book of the
his contemporaries and later critics had to first edition, and the first book of the second
find with his speeches, Cicero never lost edition, of the Acddemir.a, B.C. 45. (6)
his position as the most classical represen- The five books of the Tusoulan Disputations,
tative of Latin oratory, and he was judged B.C. 44. In the same year appeared (7)
the equal, or nearly the equal, of Demos- the De Naturd DSorum, in three, and (8)
thenes. the De DivindtionS, in two books. (9) A
The knowledge which he had acquired in fragment on the Stoical doctrine of Fate.-
his practice as a speaker he turned to (10) The Cato Maior, or De Senectute.
account in his writings on Rhetoric. In (11) Lmlius, or De
Amicttia. (12) De
these he set forth the technical rules of the OfflciU, or On Ethics, in three books.
Greek writers, applying to them the results Besides these, a whole series of philoso-
of his own experience, and his sense of the phical and other prose writings by Cicero
requirements of Latin oratory. Besides the are known to us only in fragments, or by
two books entitled Rhetdnca or De Inven- their titles.
tidne, a boyish essay devoid of all origina- The multifarious nature of Cicero's occu-
lity, the most important of his works on pation as a statesman and an orator did
this subject are : (1) The De Ordtore, a not hinder him from keeping up a volu-
treatise in three books, written 55 B.C. This minous correspondence, from which 864
work, the form and contents of which are letters (including 90 addressed to Cicero)
alike striking, is written in the style of a are preserved in four collections. These
dialogue. Its subject is the training neces- letters form an inexhaustible store of infor-
sary for an orator, the proper handling of mation, bearing upon Cicero's own life as
his theme, the right style, and manner of well as upon contemporary history in all
delivery. (2) The Brutus, or DS Claris its aspects. We
have (1) The EpistUlce ad
Oratoribus, written in B.C. 46 a history of
Fdmllidres, in sixteen books, B.C. 63-43
Latin oratory from the earliest period down (2) The Ejnstuloe ad Atticum, in sixteen
to Cicero's own time. (3) The Orator, a books, B.C. 68-43 ; (8) Three books of letters
sketch of the ideal orator, written in the to his brother Quintus; (4) Two books of
same year as the Brutus. correspondence between Cicero and Brutus
Cicero also devoted a large number of after the death of Csesar, the genuineness
books to Grreek philosophy, a subject which of which is [rightly] disputed.
he was concerned to render accessible to Cicero also made some attempts to write
his countrymen. His writings in this line poetry, in his youth for practice, in his
lack depth and thoroughness but it must
; later life mainly from vanity. His youth-
be said at the same time that he has the ful effort was a translation of Aratus, of
great merit of being the first Latin writer which some fragments remain. After 63
who treated these questions with taste and B.C. he celebrated his own consulship in
in an intelligible form, and who created a three books of verses. [He is a consider-
philosophical language in Latin. The frame- able metrist, but not a real poet.]
work which he adopts is usually that of the {2) Quintus Tullius Cicero, the younger
Aristotelian dialogue, though he does not brother of Marcus, was born in B.C. 102.
always consistently adhere to it. It was He was praetor in 62, and legdtus to Csesar
not until after his fiftieth year that he in Gaul and Britain from 54-52 B.C. In
began to write on philosophy, and in the the civil war he took the side of Pompey,
years B.C. 45 and 44, when almost entirely but was pardoned by Csesar. In 43 he was
excluded from politics, he developed an made an outlaw, at the same time as his
extraordinary activity in this direction. brother, and in 42 was murdered in Rome.
The following philosophical works survive, Like Marjsus, he was a gifted man, and
whole or in part (1) Fragments,
either in : not unknown in literature, especially as a
amounting to about one-third of the work, writer of history and poetry. In 54 B.C.,
of the six books, De Re Publlca, written for example, when engaged in the Gallic
B.C. 54-61. (2) Three books of an unfinished campaign, he wrote four tragedies in six-
treatise, De
LSgtbus, written about 62. teen days, probably after Greek models.
(3) Pdrddoxa StOlcOrum,a short treatment We have four letters of his, besides a short
of six Sroical texts, B.C. 46. (4) Five paper addressed to his brother in 64 B.C.,


(on the line to be taken in canvassing for was a recreation ground laid out by king
-the consulship. Tarquinius Prisons in the valley between
CinciusAlimenttts. See Annalists. the Palatine and Aventine hills, south of
Cinctns Gahinus. See Toga. the Capitol. Its centre was marked by the
Cinyras {Klnyras). Supposed, in the altar of Census. A
second circus, called
'Greek mythology, to have been king of the Circus Flarmnius, was built by the
Cyprus, the oldest priest of AphrSdite in censor C. Plaminius on the Campus Martins
Paphos, the founder of that city, and the in 220 B.C. Several more were built during
ancestor of the priestly family of the Ciny- the imperial period, some of which can still
radce. His -wealth and long life, bestowed be recognised in their ruined state. Such
upon him by Aphrodite, were proverbial
and from Apollo, who was said to be his
father, he received the gift of song. He
was accounted the founder of the ancient
hymns sung at the services of the Paphian
Aphrodite and of Adonis. Consequentlj'
he was reckoned among the oldest singers
and musicians, his name, indeed, being
Phoenician, derived from kinnor, a harp.
The story added that he was the father of
Adonis by his own daughter Myrrha, and
that, when made aware of the sin, he took
away his own life.
Cippns. The Latin name for a sepulchral
monument. The form of the cippus was
sometimes that of a pedestal with several
an upright cone, eithei*
divisions, supporting


* CIPPDS WITH PHALEfi^. At Carceres ; B B, Metce.

(Olten : Ann. d'Inst. 1860 tav. B, 4.) (1) FLAK OF CIKOUS OP MAXENTIUS.
(On the Via Appia, near Rome.)
pointed at the end, or entirely cylindrical
sometimes that of a cube with several pro- is the Circus of Maxentius, erroneously
jections on its surface. {See cut here, and called Circo di Caracalla (fig. 1). Similar
also under Signum.) racecourses existed in many other cities of
Circe {KirM) (a figure in Greek mytho- the empire, e.g., that still remaining amid the
logy). A celebrated magician, daughter ruins of the town of Bovillse. The length of
of the Sun {HSUOs) and the Ocean nymph the Circus Maximus, as enlarged by Caesar,
Perseis, sister of iEetes and Pasiphae. She was some l,800feet,its breadth someSoO. The
dwelt on the island of Mms,. For her meet- seats, which rose in a series of terraces, rested
ing with Odysseus and the son she bore on a substructure consisting of three stories
him, Telegonus, see Odysseus. of arched vaults. The lower seats were of
Circus, Games of {Ludl Circenses). The stone, the upper of wood. Round the out-
name of Circus was given at Rome par side of the circus ran a building, containing
excellence to the Circus Maximum. This booths and seats, as well as the entrances

to the seats, thenumber of which amolinted, followed by the images of the gods borne
in time, to 150,000, and in the
Caesar's on litters or carriages, and escorted by
4th century, after the building had been the collegia and priestly corporations. In
repeatedly" enlarged, to 385,000. The the imperial age the procession included
pddium, or lowest row of seats running the images of the deceased emperors and
immediately above the race-course, was pro- empresses, to whom divine honours were
tected from the wild animals by a railing paid. The procession moved through the
and a trench (euripus) ten feet in width entrance, while the crowd rose up, cheered,
and depth. This trench was, however, and clapped their hands. The president
filled up at the command of Nero. The dropped a white handkerchief into the
end of the circus, at which were the gate arena, and the race began. Four, some-
of entrance and the partitions in which the times as many as six, chariots drove out
chariots stood, was flanked by two towers from behind the barriers at the right hand
(opptda) occupied by bands of music. of the spina. Then they rushed along the
Between these was the loggia of the pre- spina as far as the further posts, rounded
siding magistrate. The opposite end of these, and drove back down the left side to
the building was semicircular, and had a the starting-posts. They made the circuit
gate called the porta triumphalis, which seven times, and finally drove off the course
seems to have been used only on extra- through the barriers on the left of the
ordinary occasions. The senators and spina. Seven circuits constituted one heat,
equites had separate places allotted them, or missus. A chalk line was drawn across
as in the theatre. The seats assigned to the ground near the entrance, and the
the common people were divided according victory was adjudged to the driver who
to tribes, and the sexes were not separated. first crossed it. During the republican
The eight or twelve openings (carceres) period the number of missus or heats
from which the chariots issued lay, as we amounted to ten or twelve, and after the
have already mentioned, at both sides of the time of Caligula to twenty-four, taking up
entrance, and were closed with bars. They the whole day.
were arranged in slanting lines, so that the To keep the spectators constantly in-
distance from the carceres to the starting- formed how many of the seven heats had
point was equalized for all. The starting- been run, one of the egg-shaped signals,
point was marked by three conical pillars mentioned above, was taken down after each
(metcB), standing on a substructure. Three heat, and probably also one of the dolphins
other similar m,etCB, corresponding to them, was turned round. The chariots had two
stood at the other or semicircular end of wheels, were very small and light, and
the circus. Between the two points where wfere open behind. The team usually con-
the metoe stood was built a low wall (spina), sisted either of two (bigcn) or of four horses
extending through the whole length of the (quadrigce). In the latter case the two
course. On this there used to stand the middle horses only were yoked together.
mast of a ship, which, after Augustus' The driver {aurlga or agitator, fig. 2) stood
time, gave place to an obelisk. The spina in his chariot, dressed in a sleeveless tunic
was adorned with pillars, little shrines, and strapped round the upper part of his body,
statues of the gods, especially of Victory. a helmet-shaped cap on his head, a whip in
A second and loftier obelisk was added by his hand, and a knife with a semi-circular
Constantine. The obelisk of Augustus now blade in his girdle, to cut the reins with
stands in the Piazza del Popolo, that of in case of need, for the reins were usually
Constantine on the square in front of the attached to his girdle. The main danger
Lateran. There was also an elevated lay in turning round the pillars. To come
substructure, supporting seven sculptured into collision with them was fatal, not only
dolphins spouting water, and a pedestal to the driver himself, but to the driver
with seven egg-shaped objects upon it, the immediately behind him. The chariots, and
use of which will be explained below. probably also the tunics and equipments of
The games were generally opened by a the drivers, were decked with the colours
solemn procession from the Capitol through of the different factions, as they were
the forum to the circus, and through the called. Of these there were originally
whole length of the circus round the spina. only two, the White and the Red. At the
At the head of the procession came the beginning of the imperial period we hear
giver of the games, sitting on a car of of 'two more, the Green and l^e Blue. Two
triumph in triumphal costume. He was more, Gold and Purple, were introduced by

D'omitian, but probably dropped out of use thus it would often happen that a driver
after his death. Towards the end of the would rise to the position of a contractor,
3rd century A.d. the White faction joined or become director of a company of con-
with the Green, and the Red with the Blue. tractors. Numerous monuments survive to
Accordingly in the late Roman and Byzan- commemorate their victories. Sometimes,
tine period we generally hear only of Blue indeed, a celebrated horse would have a
and Green. It was the party feeling thus monument put up to him.
engendered which was the mainspring of A contest of riders, each with two horses,
the passionate interest, often amounting was often added to the chariot - races.
almost to madness, which the people took These riders were called desultores, because
in the games of the circus. they jumped from one horse to another
while going at full gallop. The circus was
also used for boxing-matches, wrestling-
matches, and foot-racing; but during the
imperial period separate buildings were
usually appropriated to these amusements.
Gladiatorial contests, and wild-beast hunts,
were originally held in the circus, even after
the building of the amphitheatre.
Besides these games, the circus was
sometimes used for military reviews. The
cavalry mancsuvres, for instance, of the six
divisions of the knights (ludi sevzrales),
with their six leaders (sevtri), and an
imperial prince as princeps iuventutis at
their head, would occasionally be held
there. Under the emperors of the Julian
dynasty a favourite pastime was the Troia
or Indus Troiae. This consisted in a
number of manoeuvres performed by boys
belonging to senatorial and other respect-
able families. They rode on horseback in
light armour in separate divisions, and
were practised for the purpose by special
Ciris. See Nisus.
Cisium. See Chariots.
Clthara {Kithara). stringed instru-A
ment, invented (so the fable ran) by Apollo.
The Clthara was played on occasions of
ceremony, such as public games and pro-
' v\C^
cessions the lyra, a smaller instrument


(Sala della Mga, Vatican.)

The necessary attendants, the horses, and

the general equipment of the games were
provided, at the cost of the giver, by special
companies, with one or more directors at
their head. These companies were dis-
tinguished by adopting the different colours
of the factions. The drivers were mostly
The (1), (2) and (4) ITuseo Borbonuio, XIII xl, X vi, XII ixiv.
slaves, or persons of low position. (3) Weloker, DeiiJtm. in 31.,
calling was looked down upon but at the ;

'same time a driver of exceptional skill and easier to hold, was more commraly used
would be extraordinarily popular. The vic- in ordinary life. The cithara ecfasisted of
tors, besides their palms and crowns, often a sounding board, which extended into two
received considerable sums of money and ;
arms or side-pieces. The sounding-board,
made of thin pieces of wood, plates of metal, civitas and libertas became convertible
or ivory, was generally of a quadrangular, terms.
but sometimes of an oval shape; and was Classiarli or dasstcl (from classis, a fleet).
ded^ply vaulted at the back. The arms, The crews of the Roman fleet. In the
which were broad were hollow, like the republican age the rowers {remtges) were
sounding-board. As the instrument was slaves, and the sailors {nautce) were partly
rather heavy, and the player had to stand contributed by the allies {sdcn navdles),
"while performing on it, it was generally partly levied from among the Roman citizens
provided with straps for supporting it, so of the lowest orders, the citizens of the
as to leave the player's hands free. The maritime colonies, and the freedmen. Under
phorminx, generally regarded as an at- the Empire the fleets were manned by
tribute of Apollo, seems to have been a freedmen and foreigners, who could not
special variety of the cithara. It is gener- obtain the citizenship until after twenty-six
ally spoken of as " shrill-toned." Different years' service. In the general military
forms of the cithara are given in the en- system, the navy stood lowest in respect of
graving. (For further details, and for the pay and position. No promotion to higher
manner of playing on the cithara, see Lyra ) posts was open to its officers, as those were
Civitas. The technical Latin word for monopolized by the army. In later times,
the right of citizenship. This was origin- a division of the marines stationed at
ally possessed, at Kome, by the patricians Misenum and Ravenna was appointed to
only. The plebeians were not admitted to garrison duty in Rome. This division was
share it at all until the time of Servius also used in time of war in repairing the
Tullius, and not to full civic rights until roads for the armies. In Rome the marines
B.C. 337. In its fullest comprehension the were employed, among other things, in
civitas included: (1) the iUs suffragli, or stretching the awnings over the theatre.
right of voting for magistrates (2) the ius
Classicam. The signal given by the
honorum, or right of being elected to a buctna or horn for the meeting of the
magistracy; (3) the ius provocCitionis or cdmitta centurldta at Rome, and for the
right of appeal to the people, and in later meeting of the soldiers in camp, especially
times to the emperor, against the sentences before they marched out to battle.
passed by magistrates affecting life or Claudianus {Claudius). ALatin poet,
property ; (4) the ius convMi, or right to bom at Alexandria in the second half of
•contract a legal marriage ; (5) the ius the 4th century A.D. In 396 a.d. he came
commercit, or right to hold property in the to Rome. Here he won the favour of the
Roman community. The civitas was ob- powerful Vandal Stilicho, and on the
tained either by birth from Roman parents, proposal of the senate was honoured with
•or by manumission (see Manumissio), or by a statue by the emperors Arcadius and
presentation. The right of presentation HSnorius. The inscription on this statue
iaelonged originally to the kings, afterwards is still in existence (Mommsen, Inscrip-
to the popular assemblies, and particularly tiones Regni Neapolitani, No. 6794). His
to the comttia tributa, and last of all to patron Stilicho fell in 408, and Claudian,
the emperors. The civitas could be lost apparently, did not survive him. We
by dSmtnvMO capitis {see Deminutio express evidence that the poet was not a
Capitis). The aerdril, so called, had an Christian. He wasfamiliar with Greek
imperfect civitas, without the ims suffragii and Latin and had considerable
and ius honorum. Outside the circle of the poetical gifts, including a mastery both of
civitas stood the slaves and the foreigners language and metre. These gifts raise him
or plrPgrlni {see Peregrini). The latter far above the crowd of the later Latin
included: (1) strangers who stood in no poets, although the effect of his writing is
international relations with Rome (2) the
marred by tasteless rhetorical ornament
allies, or s6c1i, among whom the Ldtlnl and exaggerated flattery of great men.
held a privileged place {see Latini) (3) the
His political poems, in spite of their lau-
dsditlcif, or those who belonged to nations datory colouring, have considerable his-
conquered in war. torical value. Most of them are written
Though the Roman citizenship was con- in praise of Honorius and of Stilicho, for
ferred upon all the free inhabitants of the whom he had a veneration as sincere as
empire in 212 a.d. by the emperor Caracalla, was his hatred of Rufinus and EutrSpIus.
the grades of it were not all equalized, nor Against the latter he launched a number of
was it until the time of Justinian that invectives. Besides the Raptus Proserpina,

or Rape of Proserpine, an unfinished epic Clppsj^dra {Elepsydra). A

in which his descriptive power is most or earthenware vessel filled with a certain
brilliantly displayed, his most important measure of water, and having a hole in the
poems are (1) De III, IV, VI, Consulatu bottom of a size to ensure the water running
Honorii ; (2) De Nuptlis Honorii Fes- away within a definite space of time. Such
cennlna ; (3) Eptthdldmlum de Nuptiis water-clocks were used in the Athenian
Honorii et Mariae (4) De Bella Gilddntco ;
law courts, to mark the time allotted to the
(5) De Consulatu Stilichonis ; (6) De Bella speakers. They were first introduced in
Pollentlno ; (7) Laus Serenae, Serena being Rome in 169 B.C., and used in the courts
Stilicho's wife. He also wrote epistles in there in the same way. In the field they
verse, a series of minor pieces, narrative were used to mark the night-watches. The
and descriptive, and a GigantdmdcMa, of invention of the best kind of water-clock
which a fragment has been preserved. was attributed to Plato. In this the hours
Claudius Cluadrigarius. See Annalists. were marked by the height of the water
C16anthes (Gr. Eleanthes). A
Greek philo- flowing regularly into a vessel. This was
sopher, native of Assos in Asia Minor. He done in one of two ways. (1) A
dial was
was originally a boxer, and while attending placed above the vessel, the hand of which
at Athens the lectures of Zeno, the founder was connected by a wire with a cork floating
of the Stoic philosophy, he got a livelihood on the top of the water. (2) The vessel
at night by carrying water. He was Zeno's was transparent, and had vertical lines
disciple for nineteen years, and in 260 B.C. drawn upon it, indicating certain typical
succeeded him as head of the Stoic school. days in the four seasons or in the twelve
He died in his eighty-first year by voluntary months. These lines were divided into-
starvation. A
beautiful hymn to Zeus is twelve sections, corresponding to the posi-
the only one of his writings that has come tion which the water was experimentally
down to us. found to take at each of the twelve hours
Clemens {Titus Flavius) A Greek ec- of night or day on each of these typical
clesiastical writer, born at Alexandria about days. It must- be remembered that tho
150 A.D. Originally a heathen, he gained, in ancients always divided the night and day
the course of long travels, a wide knowledge into twelve equal hours each, which in-
of philosophy. Finding no satisfaction in volved a variation in the length of the hours
it, he became a Christian, and about 190 corresponding to the varying length of the
A.D. was ordained priest in Alexandria, and day and night.
chosen to preside over a school of cate- Cleruchia (Gr. KleroucMa). A kind of
chumens there. The persecution under Greek colony, which differed from the ordi-
Sept5fmius Severus having compelled him nary colonial settlement in the fact that
to take flight, he founded a school in the settlers remained in close connection with
Jerusalem, and came afterwards to Antioch. their mother-city. The Athenian cleruchicB
He died in 218 A.D. His writings contri- are the only ones of which we have any
buting as they do to our knowledge of detailed knowledge. A
conquered territory
ancient philosophy, have an important place, was divided into lots of land, which were
not only in Christian, but also in profane assigned to the poorer citizens as clerucM,
literature. This is especially true of the or "holders of lots." The original inhabi-
eight books called Stromdtd ; a title which tants would be differently treated according
properly means " many coloured carpets," or to circumstances. In many cases they were
writings of miscellaneous contents. compelled to emigrate sometimes the men

Cleomenes (Kledmenes). An Athenian were and the women and children

sculptor, who probably flourished in the enslaved but ordinarily the old inhabitants

Augustan age. The celebrated Venus di would become the tenants of the settlers,
Medici, now at Florence, is his work. [He and take, generally, a less privileged posi-
is described on the pedestal as son of tion. The settlers formed a separate com-
ApoUodorus. The Germantcus of the munity, elected their own officials, and
Louvre was the work of his son, who bore managed their local affairs; but they con-
the same name.] tinued to be Athenian citizens, with all the
Cleopatra {ElS6pdtra) (in Greek mytho- rights and duties of their position. They
logy). (l)Daughter of BSreas and Orithyia, remained under the authority of Athens,
and wife of Phineus. {Sec Phineus.) and had to repair to the Athenian courts
(2) Daughter of Idas, and wife of Meleager. for justice in all important matters.
{See Meleager.) Clibaniis (Gr. Kllbdnos). See Bakers.


Clientes. This was the name for such would often present them with a small sum
inhabitants of Eome as had lost, or given of money called sportUla. The relation was
up, the citizenship of their own cities, and entirely a free one, and could be dissolved
had settled in Roman territory. Here, at pleasure by either party.
having no legal rights, they were compelled, In the republican age whole communities,
in order to secure their personal freedom, to and even provinces, when they had sub-
seek the protection of some Roman citizen, mitted to the Roman yoke, would sometimes
a term which, in ancient times, could only become clients of a single patronus. In
mean a patrician. The relation thus set on this case the patronus would usually be
foot was called clientela, and was inherited the conquering general. Marcellus, for
by the descendants of both parties. Accord- instance, the conqueror of Syracuse, and his
ingly the client entered into the family of descendants, were patrons of Sicily. The
his patron (patronus), took his gentile practical advantages which were secured
name, and was admitted to take part in the to a foreign community by this permanent
family sacrifices. The patron made over to representation at Rome are obvious. Ac-
him a piece of land as a means of support, cordingly we find that, under the Empire,
protected him from violence, represented even cities which stood to Rome in no
him at law, and buried him after his death. relation of dependence, such as colonies and
The client, on his part, accompanied his municipta, sometimes selected a patronus.
patron abroad and on military service, gave The patronus was, in such cases, always
his advice in legal and domestic matters, chosen from among the senators or equttes.
and made a contribution from his property Cline (Gr. Kline). See Meals.
if his patron were endowing a daughter, or Clio (Gt. Kleio). See Muses.
had to be ransomed in war, or to pay a fine. Clip§us. See Shield.
The relation between patron and client is Clitarchus (Gr. Kleitarchos). A Greek
also illustrated by the fact that neither historian, son of the historian Dinon. He
party could bring an action against the flourished about 300 B.C., and was the author
other in a court of law, or bear witness of a great work, in at least twelve books,
against him, or vote against him, or appear upon Alexander the Great. He was no-
against him as advocate. A man's duty to toriously untrustworthy, and inclined to
his client was more binding than his duty believe in the marvellous ; his style was
to his blood relations and any violation of
turgid and highly rhetorical ; but his
it was regarded as a capital offence. narrative was so interesting that he was
When Servius TuUius extended the rights the most popular of all the writers on
of citizenship to the clients as well as to the Alexander. The Romans were very fond
plebeians, the bond between patron and of his book, which was indeed the main
client still continued in force, although it authority for the narratives of Diodoms,
gradually relaxed with the course of time. Trogus Pompeius, and Curtins. A number
At the end of the republic age, the status of fragments of it still survive.
of client, in the proper sense of the word, Clitus {Kleltos) Greek mythology).
bad ceased to exist. Under the Empire Son of Man tins, and
grandson of Melampus
the clientela was a mere external relation loved and carried off by Eos. See Eos.
between the rich and the poor, the great Cloaca. A vaulted subterranean channel
and the obscure. It involved no moral for carrying off drainage of every kind. As
obligation on either side, but was based early as the 6th century B.C. Rome had
merely on the vanity of the one party, an extensive system of sewers for draining
and the necessity of the other. It was the marshy ground lying between the hills
no unusual thing to find people who had of the city. By this the sewage was carried
no settled means of subsistence trying, into a main drain {Cloaca Maxima) which
by flattery and servile behaviour, to win emptied itself into the Tiber. Part of this
the favour of the great. Even philosophers sewer, in length quite 1,020 feet, is still in
and poets, like Statins and Martial, are existence, and after a lapse of 2,500 years,
found in this position. The client performs goes on fulfilling its original purpose. The
certain services, calls on his patron in the sewer, which is nearly twenty feet wide,
morning, accompanies him on public occa- is covered by a vaulted roof of massive
sions,and is in turn invited to his table, squares of tufa, in which an arch of tra-
receives presents from him, and (if he can vertine is inserted at intervals of 12 feet
get it) a settled provision. Instead of 2 inches. The original height was 10 feet
inviting their numerous clients, the rich 8 inches, but has been reduced to 6 feet

iiinches by the accumiilation of filth and publican age. Linen garments for men
rubbish. The drainage system of Rome do not appear until later, when the fine
was considerably extended, especially by Egyptian and Spanish linen-stuffs became
Agrippa in the Augustan age. a special article of luxury. The toga was
The duty of keeping the sewers of Rome always made of wool. Cotton-stuffs, too,
in repair fell originally to the censors. Dur- were known to the ancients, as well as the
ing the imperial age it was transferred to serica, a material made wholly or partly of
a special board, the curMOres cloacdrum. silk; but these were not commonly used
Citizens who wished to establish a con- until the imperial times (see Weaving).
nexion between their property and the city Country folk in Greece, and especially
drains had to pay a special tax to the State, shepherds, clothe themselves in the skins of
called cloacdrium. animals. Pelisses, apparently, did not come
Clocks were known to the ancients only into fashion until the Empire.
under the form of sun-dials (see Gnomon) The colour of dresses among the Greeks
and water-clocks (see Clepsydea). and Romans was mostly, but by no means
Clothing. The dresses of the Greeks and exclusively, white. Por practical reasons
Romans consisted of under garments or the working classes used to wear stuffs of
shirts, and upper garments or mantles. The dark colour, either natural or artificial.
Greek chiton and the Latin tunica, common Dark clothes were worn among the upper
to both men and women,
belong to the first classes in Rome only in time of mourning,
class; does the stola of the Roman
so or by a person accused before the courts of
matron, worn over the tunica. The Mma- law. Coloiired dresses were put on by men
tidn was an upper garment, worn in Greece in Greece mainly on festal occasions, and
both by men and women. The Greek by the Romans not at all. Gay-coloured
chldmys and tribon and peplos were upper materials were at all times worn by Greek
garments, the chlamys and tribon confined ladies, and often, too, by Roman ladies as
to men, and the peplos to women. The early as the 1st century B.C. Strong
upper dress worn in public life by a Roman colours do not appear to have been liked by
citizen was the toga; thapalla was peculiar the ancients. They were familiar with
to married ladies. There were other dresses stripes, plaids, and other patterns, as well
of the same kind commonly in use among as with ornaments of needlework and all
the Romans, for instance the l&cerna, Icena, kinds of embroidery. With regard to the
pcenula, the sdgum and
and synthesis
: fitting of dresses, it should be observed that
paludamentum were confined to military it was mostly the custom to weave them
service. (See, for further details, the according to measure, and there was there-
articles on the words in question.) Trousers fore no necessity, as in modern times, for
(Latin bracce, Greek anaxyridSs) were artistic cutting. The art of sewing was
only known as worn by the Orientals and quite subordinate, and confined mostly to
by the barbarians of the North. Among the stitching leaves together for garlands;
Romans no one wore them but the soldiers though sleeved garments, no doubt, required
stationed in the northern districts. In rather more care. Hence the fact that there
works of art, accordingly, trousers and the was no such thing in antiquity as a separate
long-sleeved chiton are an indication of tailoring trade. The necessary sewing was
barbarian costume. The custom of wrapping done by the ladies of the house, or by their
up the calf and thigh as a protection against slaves, and sometimes by the fullers, whose
the cold was deemed excusable in sickly business it was to measure the pieces of
and elderly people, but was thought effemi- cloth, to sell ready-made garments, and to
nate in others. The wool of the sheep was clean clothes. {See Pullees.)
at all times the staple material for cloth Shoes. The Greeks usually went bare-
stuffs. Linen, though known to the Greeks foot, except when out of the house ;but
of the Homeric age, was worn chiefly by they did not think it necessary to wear
the Ionian s, and less so by the inhabitants shoes, even in the street. On entering a
of Greece Proper. Among the Romans, the house, whether one's own or not, it was
use of linen was mostly confined to the customary to uncover the feet. The
girdle, though common among the Italian simplest form of covering for the feet was
tribes. Both sexes wore a linen girdle a sole fastened by straps (hypodema.) This
(subligdculum) and women a linen breast- is to be distinguished from the sandal
band. Women were the first to exchange (sanddlon, sandalion), which was worn
wool for linen, and this during the re- originally by men and afterwards by women.
This was a more complicated set of straps, protection against the sun ladies carriedi
reaching as far as over the ankle, where umbrellas (Gr. skiadeiOn, Lat. umhrdcu-
they were fastened. They sometimes had lum, umbella), or made their servants carry
leather added at the sides and heel, so as to them. Fans (Gr. rMpds, Lat. fldbellum}
resemble a shoe. Close shoes of various were likewise in common use. These
kinds, fastened over the foot, .were also were made of gaily-painted bits of wood,,
worn by men and women. There were, and the feathers of peacocks or other birds,,
besides, several kinds of boots, among which and were generally in the shape of leaves.
may be mentioned the endrdmis and Ornaments. Rings were in fashion both
cdthurnus (see EndHomis, OothuA^us). among men and women. The only other
Among the Romans, men and women metal ornaments which men would have
when at home, and generally in private any opportunity for wearing in ordinary
life, (sdlSa), which was only
wore a sandal life were the clasps or brooches {fibulce}
taken off at meals ;but a respectable used for fastening dresses or girdles. These
Roman would hardly show himself bare- were of bronze, silver, or gold, and often
footed out of doors. With the toga went adorned with costly jewels. Besides rings
the shoe called calceus, of which there and clasps, women wore needles in their
were differents kinds, varying according hair, and ear-rings, necklaces, and bracelets
to rank (see Calceus). Ladies usually, on their wrists and arms, sometimes even
when out of doors, wore shoes of white or on their ankles. The trinkets that have
coloured leather, which formed an impor- been preserved from antiquity exhibit the
tant part of their toilette, especially under greatest conceivable variety of form. One-
the Empire, when the sexes rivalled each of the commonest forms for a bracelet is
other in the splendour of their shoes, the that of a snake, surrounding the arm once,,
men appearing in white and red leather, or in several spirals. An equal variety is
the emperor and great personages wearing observable in the ornamentations of pearls,
shoes adorned with gold and even with precious stones, and the like.
jewels. Among the Romans generally, a Clotho (Gr. Klotho). See Mcer^.
great variety of shoes was in use, many of Cl^mgne (Gr. KlymSne) (in Greek myth-
them borrowed from other countries (see ology)- (1) Daughter of Catreus, wife of
Ceepida, Soccus). Wooden shoes (sculpo- Nauplius, and mother of Palamedes. {See-
nBce) were worn by slaves and peasants. Naupijus.)
For the military boot in use under the (2) Daughter of Oceanus, and mother of
Empire, see Caliga. Phagthon by HeliSs. {See Phaethon.)
Coverings for the head. The upper Cljtaemnestra (Gr. Klytaimnestra more

classes in Greece and Italy generally went correctly ElytaimSstra). Daughter of Tyn-
bareheaded. It was only when long in dareus, and wife of Agamemnon. With
the open air, as on journeys, or while hunt- the aid of her lover, .SIgisthus, she mur-
ing, or in the theatre, that they used the dered her husband, and was, in turn, put
caps and hats worn by artisans, country to death by her son, Orestes. {See Aga-
folk, and fishermen {see Petasus, Pilleus, memnon, jEgisthus, and Orestes.)
Causia). In Rome, for protection against Cl^tia {Klytia). In Greek mythology-
sun and storm, they adopted from the nor- an ocean nymph, beloved by the Sun-god,,
thern countries the ciocullus or cuculVtO, a who deserted her. She was changed into
hood fastened to the poenula or lacerna. the heliotrope, a flower which is supposed
The head was often protected, in the case always to turn its head in the direction of
both of men and women, by drawing the the sun's movement.
top of the garment over the head. Besides CSoaius {SSMlos). In Greek mytho-
kerchiefs and caps, women also wore veils, logy, the king of Camicus in Sicily, who
which in some cases, as at Thebes (and as gave Deedalus a friendly welcome when
now in the East), covered the face as far flying from the pursuit of Minos. Cocalus
as the eyes. Roman ladies would seldom (or his daughters, according to another
appear in the street uncovered. A common account) suffocated Minos in a hot bath.
covering was the riclnium, which also Cock-fightiiig. See Venationes. at end.
served as a wrapper. This was, in later CocytUB (Gr. EdJcytds). See Hades,.
times, only worn at religious ceremonials. Realm op.
It was a square cloth fastened to the head, Cdemptlo. Properly " a joint taking," s»
which ladies folded round them, throwing " a joint purchase." One of the three fbrms
it over the left arm and left shoulder. For of marriage among the Romans. It was so-

called from the fiction of a purchase sup- turice), or1,000 men ( = 10 centurice). They
posed to take place on the occasion. In the consisted either entirely of infantry, or
presence of five witnesses and a lihrlpens, partly of cavalry (380 infantry -I- 120 cavalry,
or holder of the balance, the bridegroom 760 infantry + 240 cavalry). For the com-
struck the' balance with a bronze coin, which manders of these cohorts, see Pr^efectiis.
he handed to the father or guardian of the The troops stationed in Rome were also
bride. At the same time he asked her numbered according to cohortes. (1) The
whether she would be his wife, and she, in cohortes prcetorice, originally nine, but
turn, asked him whether he would be her afterwards ten in number, which formed
husband. the imperial body-guard. Each cohort con-
Cognatio. TheLatin word for relation- sisted of 1,000 men, including infantry and
ship. Cognatio included relationship on cavalry (see PryETORiani). The institu-
both the father's and mother's side, while tion of a body-guard was due to Augustus,
cLgndVlo implied relationship on the father's and was a development of the cohors prce-
side only (see Agnatic). Agnatio in- toria, or body-guard of the republican
volved legal duties and rights, while cog- generals. Its title shows that it was as
natio, originally at least, brought with it old as the time when the consuls bore the
only moral obligations. CognoLti to the name of prcetOres. This cohors prcetoria
sixth degree had the right of kissing each was originally formed exclusively of cavalry,
other {iUs oscuU), and also the right of mainly of equestrian rank. But towards
refusing to appear as witnesses against each the end of the republican age, when every
other in a court of law^ On the other hand, independent commander had his own cohors
cognati were forbidden by custom, at least prcetoria,it was made up partly of infantry,
in the earlier times, to intermarry, or to who were mainly veterans, partly of picked
appear in court against each other as ac- cavalry of the allies, and partly of Roman
cusers. When a man died, his cognati were SquttSs, who usually served their tlrO-
expected to put on mourning for him. In cimum, or first year, in this way. (2) Three
course of time the cognati gradually ac- and in later times four, cohortes urbancBf
quired the rights proper to agnati. But consisting each of 1,000 men, were placed
natural relationship did not win full recog- under the command of the prcefectus urhi.
nition until the time of Justinian, by whose They had separate barracks, but ranked
legislation the rights of agnati were abol- below the body-guard, and above the
ished. legionaries. (3) Seven cohortes vigilum,
CognomSn. See Names. of 1,000 men each, were under the command
Cohors. A
division of the E,oman army. of the prmfectus vigilum. These formed
In the republican age the word was the night police and fire-brigade, and were
specially applied to the divisions con- distributed throughout the city, one to every
tributed by the Italian allies. Down to two of the fourteen regiones.
89 B.C., when the Italians obtained the Coinage. (1) Greek. As late as the
Roman citizenship, they were bound to Homeric age, cattle, especially oxen, served
supply an infantry contingent to each of as a medium of exchange, as well as a
the two consular armies, which consisted of standard of price \ll. xi 211, xxi 385]. We
two legions apiece. This contingent num- find, however, that the metals were put to the
bered in all 10,000 infantry, divided into : same use, their value being decided by their
(a) 20 cohortes of 420 men each, called weight as determined by a balance. The
cohortes dlares, because, in time of battle, weight, as well as the balance, was called
they formed the wings {alee) of the two tdlanton. [It is probable that the gold
combined legions (6) four cohortes extra-
; talanton of Homer weighed two drachvice,
orcKnarlce, or select cohorts of 400 men and was equivalent in value to an ox; see
each. Ridgeway, in Journal Hell. Studies viii
From about the beginning of the 1st 133.] The idea of giving the metal used
century B.C., the Roman legion, averaging in exchange a form corresponding to its re-
4,000 men, was also divided into ten quirements is no doubt an early one. The
cohortes, each containing three mdnipUli or date of the introduction of a coinage in the
six centUrice. In the imperial times, the proper sense, with an official stamp to
auxiliary troops assigned to the legions denote its value and obviate the necessity
stationed in the provinces were also divided of weighing the metal, cannot now be deter-
into cohorts (cohortes auxiliartcB). These mined. But as early as the 6th century
cohorts contained either 600 men (=5 cen- B.C. we find a highly developed and artistic
D. C. A. L
system of coining money in existence. Tte (fig. 2), the largest (which was only issued
various Greek standards of value were all occasionally) the dSkadrachmdn or 10

developed in several gradations, it is true drachmce. The didrachmdn (2 drachmae)
— from tte gold and silver standard of Asia was manner issued rarely. The tri-
in like
Minor. It was not until a later time that obdldn (3 obols), the Sbdlos, and the heml-
the standard of the Persian gold money dbOVtdn (f obol) were small silver coins;
was in some cities transferred to the silver the tetartemdridn (J obol) the smallest of
coinage. The proportion of gold to silver all. The Greek states always adopted a
was commonly reckoned among the Greeks silver currency, gold being rarely issued.
as 10 :
1, so that a gold piece weighing 2 The largest gold piece was the didrach-
drachmcB was =
20 silver drachmm. But mdn or golden stater ( = 20 silver drachmce).
in commerce the proportion assumed was Besides this we find drachmas, triobols,
12 1, and this was the average generally
: obols, half-obols, quarter-obols, and even
observed in the Roman empire. The eighth obols in gold. The gold money most
measure of weight mosft commonly current commonly current in Greece was, down to
was the talent, which contained 60 mince. the. Macedonian age, the royal Persian coin
Like the talent, the mina was not a real
coin, but a standard of measurement. The
unit of coinage was the drachma, 100
drachmas being reckoned to the m,ina. The
drachma, again, contained 6 obols. In an-
cient times the commonly accepted standard
was that of .^gina. The coins of the island
of ^gina were stamped on one side with (3) DAKIC.
the :^ure of a tortoise, on the other side
called Ddreikos, or Daric It was
(fig. 3).
stamped on one side with a crowned
on the other with an oblong incuse. This
corresponded with the gold stater of Attica
and of the cities of Asia Minor. Among
these should be especially mentioned the sta-
ter of Cyzicus or the Cyzicenus =28 silver
drachm,ce. The earliest copper coin issued
(B.C. 700-660.)
at Athens was the Chalkus =
|- of a silver

obol (440 B.C.). In the time of Alexander

with a roughly executed incuse square. the Great the silver coinage stopped at the
The largest silver coin was the stater or
didrachmdn (iig. 1), ( = about 2s. 2d., the
./Eginetan drachma being = Is. Id.). Solon
abolished this standard in Attica, and in-
troduced a lighter drachma equal to about
8d. The Attic talent (=6,000 drachmae)
was thus worth about £200, the mina about Head of Apollo. Victorious higa.
£3 6s. 8d. The silver coins of Attica bore
on the front the head of Pallas, and on the
triobolos, and it therefore became necessary
to represent the smaller fractions in copper.
The silver money of Attica was in very
general use, but the Attic standard was
not adopted in Greece Proper. It spread
westward, however, in quite early times.
In the greater part of Sicily, and in Taren-
tum and Etruria, the coinage was from the
Archaic head of Athene. Owl. first regulated in accordance with the Attic

(2) TETBADKACHMON OF ATHENS. standard. But the wide diffusion of this

(Time of Persian wars.) standard was mainly due to the action of
Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the
reverse the figure of an owl. The principal Great. The former adopted it when intro-
coin was the tetradrachmdn or 4 drachmce ducing his gold coinage (Philippus, fig. 4),


the latter for his silver money (fig. 5). For (2) Roman. As in Greece, so in Rome,
even after Alexander's death this standard oxen avid sheep were originally the medium
held its ground in the kingdoms of the of exchange. The oldest pecuniary fines
were exacted in cattle, and the Latin word
for money, pScunia, is derived from pecus.
In later times unwrought copper (cbs rudS)
given in pieces according to weight, took
the place of oxen. Bars of cast copper
marked on both sides with some figure (as
of an ox, pig, or fowl) are said to have
been introduced by king Servius Tullius,
when he took in hand the regulation of
Head of Heracles. Zeus. weights and measures. The first demon-
(6) TETKADEACHMON OP ALEXANDEK THE GREAT. strable example of a coin is from the age
of the decemvirs (about 450 B.C.). The unit
Macedonian empire, except in Egypt, virhere of coinage was the as of cast copper, carry-
the Ptolemies maintained the old coinage ing the nominal weight of the Roman pound
of the country. Macedonian influence ex- {libra =
\2 uncix, see fig. 7). The as (ass
tended the Attic currency into
many other states,