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Disciplina: Arhitectura

calculatoarelor i Internet
Laborator 1
Placa de baz: noiuni despre bios,
magistral, soket, porturi

Placa de baz (englez: motherboard) este placa principal a unui calculator, o component
hardware complex pe care sunt montate multe alte componente hardware ale PC-urilor sau ale
altor aparate electronice computerizate.

Privire de ansamblu Plac de baz Acer E360 produs de Foxconn din 2005

O arhitectur mai veche

Placa de baz conine i conectori electrici pentru comunicarea


cu celelalte componente ale sistemului calculator. Pe placa de
baz se conecteaz ntre ele unitatea central de prelucrare
(UCP) i alte subsisteme i dispozitive electronice: interfee,
memorie, etc.

Componentele plcii de baz la PC-uri


chipset (northbridge i southbridge)
soclul (socket) microprocesorului
sloturi RAM
sloturi ISA, PCI, PCI-Express
cip BIOS
baterie BIOS
porturi USB, SATA, eSATA, PATA, Firewire,S/PDIF
(analog, optic)
headere USB, CD-IN, Firewire, S/PDIF

Componente opionale
Plcile de baz pot avea integrate pe ele i
funcionaliti cum ar fi cele de la:
plac de sunet
plac de reea
plac video

BIOS-ul, Basic Input/Output System, o component


software de baz a calculatoarelor (PC-uri i servere) care
face legtura ntre componentele fizice (hardware) i
sistemul de operare utilizat pe maina respectiv.
Cteva dintre companiile productoare de BIOS-uri sunt:
Award, American Microsystems, Inc. (AMI) i Phoenix
Technologies Ltd. (Phoenix).

BIOS-ul ndeplinete trei funcii fundamentale:


1.Verificarea
componentelor
la
pornirea
calculatorului (Power On Self-Test sau POST)
2.ncrcarea sistemului de operare de pe discul
dur (HDD) n memoria de lucru
3.Face legtur ntre sistemul de operare i unele
dispozitive fizice

Sistemul de baz de intrare/ieire BIOS este o interfa


ntre programele sistemului de operare i partea fizic a
calculatorului.
BIOSul izoleaz sistemul de operare i programele din
main de particularitile tehnice ale dispozitivelor fizice
concrete i permite programatorilor s foloseasc opera ii
de Intrare/Ieire n interiorul programelor pe care le
creeaz, fr a lua n seam adresele dispozitivelor sau
caracteristicile tehnice ale masinii. Pentru a fi performant
i rentabil, programul trebuie gndit pentru toate tipurile
de arhitecturi fizice, pentru a putea fi executat sub orice
platform fizic sau software, condiie numit
portabilitate, i care separ limbajele de programare de
nivel jos (Asamblare) de cele de nivel nalt (tip C, C++,
Java).
n afar de aceasta, BIOS-ul asigur un ir de servicii de
sistem; de exemplu, permite a se afla dimensiunile

memoriei calculatorului personal sau data i ora zilei


curente, sau configura modul in care se folosesc
dispozitivele fizice n momentul pornirii ma inii etc. Se
recomand a se efectua accesul la BIOS nu prin
manipulare direct ci prin porturile de Intrare/Ieire la
scrierea att a programelor de sistem ct i a programelor
aplicaii.
Programarea la nivelul BIOS-lui micoreaz dependena
programelor de schimbarea parametrilor tehnici ai
calculatorului i prin aceasta mrete mobilitatea lor.
Funciile de baz al BIOSului se caracterizeaz prin:
testarea calculatorului personal la punerea n priz
asigurarea controlului dispozitivele externe
servicii de sistem
http://ecomputernotes.com/fundamental/intro
duction-to-computer/difference-between-32bit-and-64-bit

Computer BIOS

http://www.build-your-own-computer.net/computerbios.html
Dell BIOS, IBM BIOS, Phoenix BIOS, AMI BIOS and More
What is BIOS? Computer BIOS stands for basic input/output system; it controls the initial
startup of your computer. Take a look at the BIOS screens on this page; learn that a bios virus
can shut down your system; and learn how to reset BIOS password.
The computer BIOS is a set of firmware code that is run when you first turn on your computer.
When a computer first boots, it does not have access to any sort of operating system and cannot
access the system memory or hard drives. The hardware in the system cannot by itself load the
operating system, so the computer needs something that will initiate the process.
The primary function of the computer BIOS is to identify and initiate the components on the
motherboard and to prepare the system for boot up. This preparation sets the components up so
that the software programs of the operating system can load up and take control of them. This
process is known as Bootstrapping.
There are 3 main computer BIOS makers. Award BIOS, AMI BIOS, and Phoenix BIOS. Dell
BIOS and IBM BIOS are manufactured by third parties. Keep in mind that there really isn't a

such thing as an Intel BIOS or Windows BIOS. The BIOS' are created by Award, AMI and
Phoenix and are installed on the motherboard.
When you turn your computer on, it runs what is called a POST - Power On Self Test. The POST
is a set of instructions that will initialize the system. The BIOS will also interact with the CMOS.
The CMOS holds user customized data such as passwords, hard drive details, the date, and the
time. The general order of device start-up during POST is...
1. Clock Generator
2. Processor and Caches
3. Chipset
4. System Memory
5. PCI Devices
6. Graphics Controller
7. SATA and IDE Controllers - Hard drives, DVD/CD Drives
8. I/O Controllers such as Keyboard and Mouse

The last thing the POST does is load the boot loader for the Operating System you are using, and
pass control to it. You can set the boot order of the drives to allow you to boot from a flash drive,
CD/DVD, or hard drive.

Introduction To BIOS Settings

Let me say here that changing certain settings in your setup can cause problems with your
computer and can prevent you from booting. Some Motherboards today will come with BIOS
Backup onboard so that if something were to go wrong, it can revert back to an older version. In
the event that something does go wrong, remember that you can always reset your motherboard
to the factory settings.
There are two ways that you can reset your computer BIOS. The easiest is to simply remove the
battery from the motherboard, wait for about 20 minutes, and put it back in. If removing the
battery does not work, you can toggle the motherboard's reset jumper. Refer to your motherboard
manual to find out where the jumper is located. Some higher end boards even have a reset button
that you can simply press (this is also known as: reset BIOS password).

Keep in mind also that you may never need to go into your computer BIOS settings, except when
building your own computer (or in the very unfortunate circumstance of a BIOS virus). I'm not
trying to scare anyone off here, just want you to make sure you are careful. Let's take a look at
the BIOS settings...

BIOS Settings

When you first boot up your computer, you will either see the motherboard manufacturer's logo
screen, or you will see the POST results screen. When you see either of these, press the "Delete"
key on your keyboard. If the Delete key does not work, look for something onscreen to the effect
of "F2 = Setup". This is the key that will get you into the computer BIOS screens. Once there,
you should see a screen similar to the following:

Within the computer BIOS screens you will use the arrow keys on your keyboard to navigate
around. The + and (plus and minus) keys are used to adjust the settings, the enter key will
confirm and save your settings and the ESC key will cancel your change, and take you back one
screen.
Keep in mind that computer BIOS screens will differ from motherboard to motherboard, but the
basic functionality that we will cover here will be pretty much the same. At any time during the
process, you can refer to your motherboard manual. Most companies will include instructions for
the different setup screens.

Standard CMOS Features Screen

The Standard CMOS Features BIOS Screen is where you can configure the following...

Time and Date Settings

Floppy and Hard Drives

Keyboard Settings

Monitor Settings

The main setting here to be concerned with is the Hard Drive. The keyboard and monitor are
basically just there for legacy systems, as you either have one, or you don't.
The Time and Date settings can be adjusted here, as well as within your Operating System. The
Hard Drives however need to be setup here in order for the BIOS to find and access them. Most
modern motherboards will allow you to auto detect your hard drive. Simply highlight the IDE or
SATA Primary drive and hit the Enter Key. You should see an option to autodetect your drive.

Advanced BIOS Features

To set the boot order of your computer, first go to Advanced BIOS Features from the main
computer BIOS screen, then arrow down to Boot Sequence, and hit Enter. This will bring up a
screen that will show you choices you can setup.
On some BIOS Screens, you will see the options listed out, as in this picture. Simply select what
you want for the First, Second, and Third Boot Device. Most motherboards will come preset with
Floppy as the first choice. If you do not have a floppy drive, I would recommend changing this to
DVD Drive until you have your operating system installed, after that, you can set it to your
primary hard drive.. You can also substitute USB Drive in that slot if you boot from External
Drives or Flash Drives.
If you are using Windows XP Service Pack 2 or Vista, you should enable USB 2.0 support on
your motherboard. This will speed up the communications with your USB devices.
This setting can be called different things, sometimes it is called OnChip PCI Device, sometimes
USB 2.0 Support. Ensure that the OnChip USB Controller is enabled, and that USB 2.0
Controller is also enabled.
If you want to see what your computer is actually doing when it boots up, instead of the
manufacturer's logo, find the option that says Full Screen Logo Display, and set it to disabled.
This way, you will be able to see any errors or issues your computer may have at boot up, as well
as monitor the progress of the boot.

Look for the Quick POST, or Quick Power On Self Test option. By setting this option to
disabled, you can speed up your boot time. What this will do is reduce the number of times the
system checks the memory from 3 times, to only once.
Select the correct display for video bios. Look for an option that says "Init Display First", or
"Primary VGA BIOS", or "PEG Port/Graphic Adapter Priority".
If you are using a graphics card in your system, you can set this option to either AGP, or if you
have PCI-E, set it to PEG. This will tell the system exactly which card to use, so it doesn't have
to waste time searching all options.
System BIOS Cacheable and Video BIOS Cacheable options can both be set to disabled. These
are settings for older systems using DOS, and are not used in newer systems. It doesn't hurt if
they are enabled, but it'll speed things up if you turn them off.
By setting the APIC Mode option to Enabled, you can sometimes speed up the communications
between the CPU, the Northbridge, and the Southbridge.
That's it for the advanced settings. There are many other more advanced settings, but you want to
be very careful and do some detailed reading before changing them. Most will not break your
computer, but some have the possibility of producing damage to your CPU or motherboard. Most
notably, be sure you know exactly what you are doing when changing processor or memory
voltages.
For more information on the other settings in the BIOS, consult your motherboard manual, or
check out the overclocking guides at Tom's Hardware.

Studiu de caz- montarea unui calculator din


componente

Componente necesare:
o placa de baza, (un gigabyte in cazul de fata)
un procesor (intel core 2 duo)
un cooler pentru procesor (este in cutia procesorului)
un hard-disk
un dvd-rw (lg) aka cd-romul
o placa video (geforce 7300 gt)
memorii RAM
o carcasa
Explicatii:
procesorul este creierul calculatorului care are nevoie de un cooler (ventilator) care sa-l
raceasca;
hard-disk ul - este o memorie ne-volatila, adica informatiile raman salvate chiar si dupa ce ai
oprit calculatorul. Este destul de incet ca viteza de scriere-citire. De obicei li se spune harduri pe
IDE sau harduri pe SATA, dupa numele interfetei prin care comunica (IDE sau SATA).
fiecare tip de interfata are alt tip de mufa
placa video se ocupa de procesarea informatiilor care ajung la monitor. este o componenta
specializata, axata pe functii matematice si procesarea elementelor 3d

memoriile RAM (random access memory) este o memorie volatila (informatia se pierde
atunci cand se ia curentul), cu o viteza mult mai mare decat a hard-disk-ului, in care sunt stocate
informatiile folosite cel mai des de aplicatiile deschise. cu cat mai mult, cu atat mai bine, si
calculatorul se misca mai repede. Mai sunt cunoscute si sub numele de simm-uri
cd-rom unitatea care citeste cd-uri. daca citeste dvd-uri e dvd-rom. daca scrie e cd-rw sau
dvd-rw. 4 combinatii mari si late
carcasa le tine pe toate la un loc, si asigura o ventilatie corespunzatoare. Este deseori numit
hard-ul, si confundat cu hard-disk-ul.
placa de baza

1) slotul pentru procesor


2) sloturi pentru memoriile RAM memoria
3) sloturi SATA (doar pentru hard-diskuri)
4) mufa IDE tot pentru hard-disk-uri / cd-rom
5) mufa de alimentare a placii de baza
6) Sloturi PCI (pentru placi grafice, placi de retea, placi de sunet)
7) slot PCI-express (exclusiv pentru placi grafice)
8 ) mufa pentru alimentarea cooler-ului
Step 1: Montarea procesorului:
In cutia procesorului se afla:

un procesor si un cooler :D.


Se trage de siguranta de pe placa de baza in stanga (fata de cum e placa de baza), si se ridica. Se
ridica si capacelul care fixeaza procesorul, si se scoate plasticul care protejeaza slot-ul.
Procesorul (partea de sus partea de jos) are 2 ciupituri pe margine, pentru a nu-l putea monta
gresit. La fel si slot-ul de pe placa de baza. Mare grija sa nu indoiti vreun pin

Dupa ce ati montat procesorul in locas, fixati capacelul si inchideti cu siguranta.


Cooler-ul trebuie sa aiba pasta conductoare pe partea care o sa vina in contact cu procesorul.
Daca nu are out-of-the-box, atunci are un tubulet cu pasta, cu care trebuie uns procesorul.

Coolerul se apasa pe placa pana face click pentru fiecare din cele 4 picioruse. Un pic de atentie
la cablu, trebuie pus in asa fel incat sa nu poata fi prins de catre ventilator.
Step 2: Montarea memoriilor RAM trebuie sa faca click, exista un singur fel de a monta
memoriile.

In cutia cu placa de baza o sa gasiti o punguta cu suruburi. O mica explicatie pentru ce reprezinta
fiecare:

In imaginea din stanga: suruburi rotunjite, care sunt folosite la fixarea placii de baza pe carcasa. ,
si a cd-rom-ului. Celalalt tip de surub este pentru fixarea capacelor carcasei si a hard-ului,
modele mai vechi

Cum se monteaza placa de baza in carcasa:


In primul rand monteaza inaltatoarele si plasticele care fixeaza placa, ca in poza de mai sus.

Dupa aceea, se scoate placuta din spatele carcasei, pe unde vor iesi mufele, si se inlocuieste cu
modelul cu care a venit placa de baza.

Mare atentie sa nu va taiati la mana in bucatile de metal, sunt foarte ascutite. Fata noua se
monteaza din interiorul carcasei, prin presare.

Montarea cablurilor de la carcasa catre placa de baza.

Next se monteaza cd-rom-ul.

Next step, se fac legaturile la cd-rom si hard.

Next, conectarea cablurilor pentru interfata:

Cablul albastru este cablul IDE, iar cel galben cu mufa mica este SATA. Mai este un cablu in
cutie, pentru conectarea la floppy. Daca hardul este pe IDE, se poate monta
pe acelasi cablu cu cd-rom-ul (cablul IDE are 2 mufe, si pe acelasi cablu pot fi conectate 1 hard
si 1 cd-rom)
Optional: se monteaza eventualele placi audio / de retea, in sloturile pci. la fel ca la placa video

Intrebari?
Aplicatii