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SINGLE ENDED POWER AMPLIFIER.

A single ended power amplifier has a single trnsistor controlling a current through a load.The
ac signal is input at RI to the base of Q1 the output signal is across load in the secondary coil
of the transformer T1. The transformer is used as an impedance matching device. T1 matches
the relatively high inpedance of the Q1 collector circuit in the T1 primary coil with a low
impedance load in the T1 secondary coil.In the single ended power amplifier circuit, the
transformer matches the low inpedance load with the high ompedance of the Q1 collector
circuit.Power gain is determined by the ratio of the output power to the input power or the
product of voltage gain and current gain Ap=Po/Pi=Av*Ai.Power amplifiers have high power
gain but low voltage gain.Power gain is the product of voltage gain and current gain because
the current gain is high, the power gain is high.The peak of the collector emitter voltage may
exceed the dc supply voltage by a factor of two. When a single ended power amolifier is
designed,Vce must not exceed the transistor specification.Amplifiers can be classified as
class A,B or C.The single ended power amplifier is biased for continuous current flow which
causes class A operation.Because output current flows continuously,class A is the lleast
dfficient class of amplifier,but it produces an output signal with practically no amplitude
distortion.A power amplifiers effciency is determined by the ac output power of the load
devided by the dc power of the supply.The single ended power amplifier does not have good
power efficiency.However,because it is biased for class A operation the output signal has
practically no amplitude distortion.Because the output current flows for 360 of the input
signal,ther is practically no amplitude distortion
Transistor in the single ended power amplifier circuit can be npn or pnp transistor and can
connect in a common emitter configuration.We use a voltage divider to ser the base of
transistor voltage Vb.The base voltage is set high enough to always forward bias the Q1 base
emitter junction for the magnitude range of the ac input signal.Because the base emitter
junction is always forward biased ( transistor is never cut off),the transistor collector current
flows during the positive and negative phases of the input signal.The ac output load resistor is
transformer coupled to the collectior of transistor.Transformer matches the low inpedance of
load to the high impedance output of the transistor collevtor circuit.When there is no ac input
signal,no current flows in the load resistor because only ac signals can be coupled through a
transformer.When the signal is sine wave it has low distortion and is centered around 0.The
averae ac current value is said to be 0.The peak voltage of the ac input signal is maintained
lelow the point at which the negative peak would cause the transistor to cut off.The total
circuit current is the same with or without an ac input signal.As a result, the amplifier
operation is class, there is no amplitude distortion of the ac output signal.The value of the
emitter resistor is small in order to provide a large collector current, the collector current is
essentially equal to the emitter current. Calculate emitter current by using Ohms law
Ie=Ve/R4.We use the dc resistance of the transformer primary coil, which is very low, is the
collector resistance.Collector voltage almost equals the dc supply voltage because of the very
low resistance of the transformer promary coil. Use Ohms law to calculate the collector
current equal Ic= ( Vsupply-Vcollector )/Rcollector.