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The process

SIMPLE DISTILLATION AND FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION

The solution in the flask became


darker blue in colour

The vapor in the condenser is cooled


by the flow of cold water in the outer
jacket
What effect does this have on the
vapor?

The solid eventually remained in the


round bottom flask.
Simple distillation
-

It causes the vapor to condense


What is the liquid that is collected in
the receiving flask?

The distillate, pure water


Aim: To separate a solution and obtain the
solvent
Apparatus and materials:

Thermometer,
condenser,
distillation flask,
Bunsen burner,
copper sulfate solution,
retort stand,
receiving flask

is used to separate and retain the


solvent from a solution eg. To obtain
water from sea water.
The method is based on the principle
that the solvent is more volatile than the
solute and evaporates (volatile measures
the tendency to vaporise)
The solid remains in the flask and is
called the residue
The distilled product is called the
distillate
During the process as heat is applied,
the water began to boil off and became
water vapour which rose up to the top of
the flask
The water vapour entered the condenser
where cold water from the inlet caused
the water to condense and run off into
the receiving flask
As the water is removed from the
solution, the solution got deeper in
colour because it became more
concentrated.

Conclusion
Method

The apparatus was set up as shown in


the diagram
Observations were noted

Observation
The solution started to boil at ..C.
Colourless vapour evaporated and
formed drops of clear liquid in the
condenser.
The drops ran down the condenser
and were collected in the receiving
flask.

The separation technique of simple


distillation was effective in retrieving the
solvent from a solution
The distillate obtained is water
Solution pure solvent (as vapour)
pure solvent (as liquid)

Aim: To separate a mixture of miscible liquids


Apparatus and materials:

Fractionating column
Thermometer,
condenser,
3 distillation flasks,
bunsen burner,
Solution (alcohol and water),
retort stand,

SIMPLE DISTILLATION AND FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION


-

Method
The apparatus was set up as shown in
the diagram
Observations were noted
Observations
The solution started to boil at ..C.
Vapours evaporated from the solution
and travelled up the fractionating
column
The vapours cooled and condensed in
the column
Clear, colourless drops condensed and
ran down the condenser into the
receiving flask where they were
collected
After the first fraction was obtained, a
sharp rise in temperature was noted
and a second fraction was collected
then
The temperature then remained at
100C and a third fraction was
collected containing a colourless
liquid.
Fractional distillation
-

is used to separate two miscible


liquids (liquids that are readily
dissolved in one another)
This technique is based on the
principle that one of the liquids is

more volatile than the other (has a


lower boiling point and vaporises first)
The boiling point of ethanol is 78 and
pure water is 100
As the mixture of liquids was heated,
the vapours rose up the fractionating
column and continually condensed
and vaporised, with the lower boiling
point liquid (the more volatile one),
rising to the higher part of the column
This liquid condensed first and was
collected as the first fraction
The thermometer measures the
temperature of the vapour at the top
of the column and indicated what
liquid is driven off
When the temperature reaches the
boiling point of the second liquid, that
is then distilled into another container.
Fractional distillation is used on an
industrial scale in the separation of
liquid air and the refining of crude oil.

Conclusion
A mixture of miscible liquids was
separated by the method of fractional
distillation
The first fraction collected was alcohol
and the third fraction was water
The second fraction collected a
mixture of two fractions.
Applications of fractional distillation
Can you suggest an application of
fractional distillation?
Separation of crude oil

SIMPLE DISTILLATION AND FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION