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Chapter 7: Rizal in Europe (1882-1885)

The First Voyage to Spain: Views and

Philippines to Spain: May 3, 1882
20 years old
First leg vessel for Spain trip:
Salvadora learning experience for
o Made sketches of the things
he saw (coast of Manila Bay,
Palawan, Borneo, passengers)
o Most of his fellow passengers
foreigners and Spanish
o Almost all spoke ill of the
Philippines (pecuniary
First stop to Europe: Singapore
o Change ships
o 2 days
o Hotel de Paz
o Toured the British colony
o Impressed by its progress and
beautiful places botanical
garden, temples and art
o People seemed to have
confidence of their British
administrators (Filipinos
feared their rulers)
After 2 days: Djemnah a vessel
managed by Messageries Maritimes,
a French company (larger and clean
than Salvadora, carpeted and toilets
are excellent)
French he learned in Ateneo cannot
be understood by the French
passengers read a French
newspaper to improve
Smattering of Latin + Spanish +
hand gestures to be understood
From Singapore: Djemnah brief
stops in Point de Galle and

Colombo, Ceylon (Sri Lanka)

Indian Ocean Aden (Yemen
where he saw merchants selling lion
and leopard skins) Suez Canal
(view of right: Arabian Peninsula
hot; left: Africa inhospitable but
famous land) Naples, Italy
Marseilles (end of Djemnahs
o Sightseeing
o Galle sleepy port
o Djemnah passed through
Suez Canal and landed at
Port Said in Egypt
Multicultural city
People spoke various
Various churches,
mosques and temples
City mixture of the
colorful customs of
the East and West
o Naples Italy citys
panoramic beauty of the bay
and the liveliness of the
o Marseilles, France
French city
Chateau dIf venue
of his favorite novel
The Count of Monte
Cristo by Alexander
Stayed for 3 days
Rizal now boarded a train to Spain
o Portbou (Spains Catalonia
province) his papers were
checked by the immigration
o Indifferent attitude of Spanish
officers than courteous
Rizal arrived in Barcelona

o Capital of the Spanish

province Catalua; 2nd largest
city of Spain)
o Far, dark, dirty and ugly
o Little inns
o People are not hospitable
o Lodged on the towns most
unattractive side
o Guests were indifferent to
o Summer vacation for students
o Enjoyed freedom and
liberalism unlike in the
o Changed his views about
Barcelona great city and
its people are open-hearted,
hospitable and courageous
o Enjoyed walking at Las
Ramblas Street
Barcelona duration of summer
Met former classmates from Ateneo
Gave him a party at the Plaza de
Catalua (favorite caf)
Wrote nationalistic essay: Amor
Patrio (Love of Country)
o Pen name: Laon-Laan
o Essay appeared in Diariong
o Francisco Calvo editor of
diario; requested more
o 2 articles:
Los Viajes (The
Revista de Madrid
(Review of Madrid)
never printed
The University Student in Madrid
End of summer vacation
Rizal Madrid

Enrolled in 2 courses at the

Universidad Central de Madrid
o Medicine
o Philosophy and Letters
Academy of San Carlos
o Studied painting, sculpture
and French, German, English
Hall of Sanz and Carbonell
o Lessons from private
o Shooting and fencing
Thirst for knowledge despite the Php
700 Paciano gave him
o Spent Php 35 for food per
month, clothing and books
o Expenses he list all them
down to the last peseta in his
Cold in Spain Rizal took baths less
often; cost 35 centavos each
o Last bath: 1 month ago
Only vice: Lottery 3 pesetas a draw
He also liked attending shows at the
theatres in Madrid
Spent time visiting libraries, attend
lectures, religious fiestas and operas
Pastime: visiting friends at the
Paterno residents; sipping coffee at
the Puerto del Sol
No time and money for wine and
Universidad Central de Madrid like
o People with various beliefs
o Liberals, conservatives,
republicans, monarchists and
o Rizal liberals
o Dr. Miguel Morayta
advocate of freedom and selfdetermination of all peoples;
maverick; supporter of
anarchists and had him
expelled by the university

Romantic Episode with Consuelo Ortiga

Habit for Rizal to visist the house of
Don Pablo Ortiga y Rey Spanish
liberal who lived in the Philippines
during the time of Gov. Gen. Carlos
Ma. de la Torre
Came to his house every Saturday
2 lovely daughters: Consuelo & Pilar
Gave flowers to Consuelo; MU
Love poem: A la Senorita C.O. y R
Did not allow the romance to prosper
still engaged to Leonor Rivera
His friend Eduardo de Lete was also
in love with Consuelo
Summer 1883 left Madrid for Paris
to forget Consuelo
Consuelo married de Lete (became
Rizals secret enemy)
Meeting with Future Reformists: The
Circulo Hispano-Filipino

Met with fellow Filipinos and liberal

Spaniards joined Circulo
o Group of social
o Held informal programs
poetry reading and debates
o Rizal composed a poem
Me Piden Versos (You Ask Me [for]
o Poem conveying the
sentiments of a poet
constrained to provide
something that would please
his listeners
Politics part of the groups
discussion centered on reforms in
the Philippines
Rizal became an active discussant
Conservative elements group faded

Entry into the Freemasonry (1883)

Liberal & republican-minded people

whom Rizal met and befriended in
Madrid were masons
Freemasonry outlawed by the
Church because its beliefs are
contrary to its doctrines
Members are considered sinners;
obliged to retract before they could
receive any of the sacraments
Died no Christian burial; buried in
non-Catholic cemeteries
Rizal was impressed by the masons
outlook in life
Adopted their view knowledge
should be achieved by the light of
reason & universal brotherhood of
Masons attacked the Church
What church believed is its
promotion of religious superstition
and obscurantism or hiding the truth
behind the veil of religion
Depotism attacked
Entered through the Lodge Acacia
based in Madrid
Masonic name: Dimasalang
Joined because
o He opposed the practices of
the friars in the Philippines
o Believed in principles of
brotherhood (worth fighting
o He needed the support of
fellow masons (prominent in
Spanish society)
Stopped going to Church
Began to challenge faith, God and
His faith remained in the existence of
Became a master mason at Lodge

2 years later Paris Master

mason of Le Grand Orient France
The Avid Book Collector
Spain exposed to more readings
expanded his intellectual horizon
Spared no amount in buying books
even from second-hand bookstores
Accumulate quite a library
Books that affected him most:
Beecher Stowes Uncle Toms Cabin
and Sues The Wandering Jew
(similar to El Fili)
Benito Perez Caldos Desnerada
influenced Noli and El Fili
Doa Perfecta inspired Noli
(published 11 years before Noli)
o Shows great power which the
Church yielded
o Difference between the
traditional, provincial outlook
and the modern, liberal
outlook of Madrid (Spains
Rizal in Spain; family in Calamba
had financial crisis
o World price of sugar
o Sugar was left unsold
o Rent of land went up
o Manager of the Dominican
estate made life more
difficult for the Rizals
o Manager asks for a free fat
turkey from Don Kikoy
o Pest killed off; ones left are
kept for breeding
o Rizals family pay the
increased rate
o Rizals allowance was
o Paciano sold his pony for
Rizals allowance
Rizal attended classes without eating

o Earned money by working as

a private tutor for rich
The Speech that Attracted the Attention of
Reactionary Spaniards in the Philippines
Contest in Greek in the University
He was penniless
He won a prize
Delivered an eloquent speech at a
banquet praised Filipino painters
Juan Luna and Felix Resurreccion
Hidalgo (won top prizes at the
National Exposition of Fine Arts)
Juan Luna Spoliarium depicted
the corpses of dead Roman gladiators
being dragged out under the bowels
of the Coliseum
Hidalgo 2nd prize for his Virgenes
Cristianas Expuestas al Populacho
(Christian Virgins Exposed to the
Rizals speech first before a public
o Luna and Hidalgo are the
pride of the Filipino people
o Showed that genius is not the
monopoly of any race
o Product of Philippines and
Spain works united both
o Rizal scored with refined
sarcasm the ill-wishers of the
Filipinos who were emerging
as an intellectual force
o Rizal voiced out the hope that
Spain will someday grant the
reforms needed by Filipinos
o End: he offered the toast to
Luna and Hidalgo to which
there was a thunderous

Speech was mentioned in the

newspaper El Liberal news about
this event reached the Philippines
Rizal made enemies which his
speech said that he can never go
back to the Philippines
Dona Teodora anxious; not able to
eat for days; fell ill Paciano wrote
to Rizal about the effect of his tribute
to the Filipino painters
Paciano cautioned him to be more
careful in his actions
o Warned him to stop writing
articles that might offend the
friars/other reactionary
o Not fail in his Christian
o Dona Lolay: stop pursuing
studies that might lead to his
Rizal heeded these but continued his
life (destiny)
Completion of Studies in Spain
Completed his medical studies
Title: Licenciado en Medicina
enable him to practice medicine
o Aprobado Fair
o Lower grades in Spain than in
o Decided to improve his
training in ophthalmology
assistant of Dr. Louis de
Weckert (French
ophthalmologist in Paris)
o In Germany, assistant to
various expert
Continued Doctorate in Medicine
not awarded the degree because of
his failure to present the thesis
required for graduation + not paid
the corresponding fees

Dr. Rizal misnomer was never

awarded the title of Doctor
Maximo Viola lent him money
secured his certificate and practice
Finished Philosophy and Letters
higher grades
24th birthday Licenciado en
Filosofia y Letras (Licentiate in
Philosophy and Letters)
o Sobresaliente Excellent
o Qualified him to serve as
professor of humanities in
any Spanish university
Broadened his knowledge by
learning many new things
o After working for Dr.
Weckert Dr. Galezowskys
clinic (Germany)
o Save money live with
German law students
(boarding house)
o Boardmates recommended
him to be in the chess players
o Took time to attend lectures
at the University of
Heidelberg, Germany
o Enamored by peaceful
o Did sketches of whatever he
o Poem: A las Flores de
Heidelberg inspired by
blooming flowers of the
university along the Neckar
River; how Germans lived;
secret of their prosperity
o Boarded Karl Ulmers house
(Protestant minister; good
o Mason but Catholicism >

o His stay in Germany: center

of scientific research
Liepzig, Dresden and Berlin
o Famed for their universities
which date back to the
Middle Ages
o Met Fredrich Ratzel (German
historian in Liepzig)
o Translated Schillers William
Tell to Tagalog
o Blumentritt Rizal was
introduced to Feodor Jagor
and Hans Virchow
(anthropologists; doing
studies on Philipine culture)
o German language
o Write a scholarly paper
entitled: Tagalische Verkunst
or the Tagalog Metrical Art
Day: Doctors assistant
Night: attending lectures at the
University of Berlin
o French lessons
o Finished Noli
o Found the proper printing
house Berlin-BruckrucreiAction Gesselchaft
o Rizal tight budget
o Allowance from Philippines
did not arrive because of the
attack of locusts in Calamba
o Noli amoust not published if
not for Dr. Maximo Viola
who visited him in Berlin
o Viola paid for the
publication of the novel and
also had Rizals health looked

into (he was coughing out

o Physical exam due to
Rizals frugal way of living
o Rizal and Viola grand tour
of Europe
Visited Bluementritt
in Leitmeritz
Brunn and Prague,
Czech Republic
Vienna to Lintz and
Salzbug, Austria
Munich and Ulm
Rizal Milan,
Venice and Rome
1 week in Rome
Rizal for Marseilles,
o Rizal then boarded a steamer
bound for the Philippines
Rizals Nightmare

Wrote it on January 1, 1883;

actual night: December 30
He was about to shout and ask
for help form Antonio Paterno,
feeling that he was about to die
He woke weak and breathless
13 years later, he would actually