Sunteți pe pagina 1din 68

CHAPTER

Trigonometric
Functions
Ig^\dcdbZig^XgVi^dhXVcWZjhZYidZmiZcYi]Z
XdcXZeid[[jcXi^dchid^cXajYZig^\dcdbZig^X
[jcXi^dch#I]ZhZ[jcXi^dchVcYi]Z^gigVch[dgbVi^dch
XVcWZjhZYidbdYZabVcngZVa"ldgaYe]ZcdbZcV!
hjX]Vhi^YVaVXi^dcdgi]ZcjbWZgd[]djghd[YVna^\]i^c
VeVgi^XjaVgadXVi^dcVikVg^djhi^bZhi]gdj\]djii]ZnZVg#
>ci]^hX]VeiZg!ndjl^aa^ckZhi^\ViZi]ZWVh^Xig^\dcdbZig^X
[jcXi^dchVcYaZVgc]dlidigVch[dgbi]Zb#Ndjl^aaaZVgcid
X]ddhZi]ZeVgVbZiZghd[i]ZigVch[dgbVi^dcidYZkZadebdYZah[dg
gZVa"ldgaYVeea^XVi^dch#Ndjl^aaVahdjhZi]ZhZbdYZahidedhZVcY
VchlZgfjZhi^dchVcYbV`ZegZY^Xi^dch#
By the end of this chapter, you will
describe key properties of periodic functions arising
from real-world applications, given a numerical or
graphical representation
predict, by extrapolating, the future behaviour of a
relationship modelled using a numeric or graphical
representation of a periodic function

sketch graphs of y = af [k(x d)] + c by applying one


or more transformations to the graphs of f (x) = sin x
and f (x) = cos x, and state the domain and range of
the transformed functions
represent a sinusoidal function with an equation,
given its graph or its properties

make connections between the sine ratio and the


sine function and between the cosine ratio and the
cosine function by graphing the relationship between
angles from 0 to 360 and the corresponding sine
ratios or cosine ratios, with or without technology,
defining this relationship as the function f (x) = sin x
or f (x) = cos x, and explaining why the relationship is
a function

collect data that can be modelled as a sinusoidal


function from primary sources or from secondary
sources, and graph the data

sketch the graphs of f (x) = sin x and f (x) = cos x for


angle measures expressed in degrees, and determine
and describe key properties

determine, through investigation, how sinusoidal


functions can be used to model periodic phenomena
that do not involve angles

determine, through investigation using technology,


and describe the roles of the parameters a, k, d, and c
in functions of the form y = af [k(x d)] + c in terms
of transformations of the graphs of f (x) = sin x
and f (x) = cos x with angles expressed in degrees

predict the effects on a mathematical model of an


application involving sinusoidal functions when the
conditions in the application are varied

determine the amplitude, period, phase shift, domain,


and range of sinusoidal functions whose equations
are given in the form f (x) = a sin [k(x d)] + c or
f (x) = a cos [k(x d)] + c

identify sinusoidal functions, including those that


arise from real-world applications involving periodic
phenomena, given various representations, and
explain any restrictions that the context places on
the domain and range

pose and solve problems based on applications


involving a sinusoidal function by using a given
graph or a graph generated with technology from its
equation

281

Prerequisite Skills
Refer to the Prerequisite Skills Appendix on
pages 496 to 516 for examples of the topics and
further practice.

Use the Cosine Law


1. 6X^gXaZd[gVY^jh*Xb]VhVed^cidc^ih

Shift Functions
5. a) <gVe]i]Z[daadl^c\[jcXi^dchdci]Z

hVbZhZid[VmZh#


i)yx'

ii)yx'(
iii)yx''

X^gXjb[ZgZcXZZkZgn(%#

b) 9ZhXg^WZi]ZigVch[dgbVi^dchd[i]Z

hZXdcYVcYi]^gY[jcXi^dchl^i]gZheZXi
idi]Z[^ghi#

6. a) <gVe]i]Z[daadl^c\[jcXi^dchdci]Z

hVbZhZid[VmZh#

30
4

2 0

i)yx '
ii)yx('

iii)yx''

b) 9ZhXg^WZi]ZigVch[dgbVi^dchd[i]Z

hZXdcYVcYi]^gY[jcXi^dchl^i]gZheZXi
idi]Z[^ghi#
a) ;^cYi]ZY^hiVcXZWZilZZcildVY_VXZci

ed^cih#GdjcYndjgVchlZgiddcZ
YZX^bVaeaVXZ#

7. a) I]ZeVgVWdaVyx'^higVchaViZY

*jc^ihidi]ZaZ[iVcY(jc^ihYdlc#
Lg^iZi]ZZfjVi^dcd[i]ZigVch[dgbZY
[jcXi^dc#

b) ;^cYi]ZY^hiVcXZWZilZZcilded^cih

hZeVgViZYWn+%#

b) I]ZeVgVWdaVyx'^higVchaViZY

c) L]Vi^hi]ZY^hiVcXZWZilZZcilded^cih

)jc^ihidi]Zg^\]iVcY,jc^ihje#Lg^iZ
i]ZZfjVi^dcd[i]ZigVch[dgbZY[jcXi^dc#

hZeVgViZYWn&-%4

8. I]ZeVgVWdaVyx'^higVchaViZY

Find Trigonometric Ratios of Special Angles


2. JhZVjc^iX^gXaZidYZiZgb^cZi]ZZmVXih^cZ

VcYXdh^cZgVi^dhd[i]ZVc\aZh^cZVX]hZi#
a) (%VcY+%
b) &'%!&*%!'&%!')%!(%%!VcY((%
c) )*!&(*!''*!VcY(&*
d) %!.%!&-%!VcY',%

Determine the Domain and Range of a Function


3. 8dch^YZgi]Z[jcXi^dcf xx'#Lg^iZi]Z

YdbV^cVcYgVc\Zjh^c\hZicdiVi^dc#
4. Lg^iZi]ZZfjVi^dcd[V[jcXi^dcl^i]

YdbV^cpx2!*x*rVcYgVc\Z
py2!%y*r#

282 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

]dg^odciVaanVcYkZgi^XVaanhdi]Vi^ih
kZgiZmeVhhZhi]gdj\]'!'#9ZhXg^WZi]Z
igVchaVi^dchVcYkZg^[nndjgVchlZg#

Stretch Functions
9. a) <gVe]i]Z[daadl^c\[jcXi^dchdci]Z

hVbZhZid[VmZh#


i)yx'

ii)y'x'
&
iii)yTx'
'
b) 9ZhXg^WZi]ZigVch[dgbVi^dchd[i]Z
hZXdcYVcYi]^gY[jcXi^dchl^i]gZheZXi
idi]Z[^ghi#


10. a) <gVe]i]Z[daadl^c\[jcXi^dchdci]Z

hVbZhZid[VmZh#


'

i)yx(

'

ii)y'x(
&
iii)yTx('
'
b) 9ZhXg^WZi]ZigVch[dgbVi^dchd[i]Z
hZXdcYVcYi]^gY[jcXi^dchl^i]gZheZXi
idi]Z[^ghi#
'

11. I]ZeVgVWdaVyx ^hhigZiX]ZYkZgi^XVaan

hdi]Vi^ieVhhZhi]gdj\]i]Zed^ci'!&+#
L]Vi^hi]ZZfjVi^dcd[i]ZhigZiX]ZY
eVgVWdaV4KZg^[nndjgVchlZg#
'

12. I]ZeVgVWdaVyx) ^hhigZiX]ZY

]dg^odciVaanhdi]Vi^ieVhhZhi]gdj\]i]Z
ed^ci'!(+#L]Vi^hi]ZZfjVi^dcd[i]Z
higZiX]ZYeVgVWdaV4KZg^[nndjgVchlZg#

Reflect Functions
13. a) <gVe]i]Z[daadl^c\[jcXi^dchdci]Z

hVbZhZid[VmZh#


i)yx''
ii)yx''

b) JhZVgZ[aZXi^dcidYZhXg^WZi]Z

igVch[dgbVi^dcd[i]ZhZXdcY[jcXi^dc
l^i]gZheZXiidi]Z[^ghi#

14. a) 9ZiZgb^cZ

Vc
ZfjVi^dc
[dgZVX]
d[i]Z
[jcXi^dch
h]dlc#

y
6
i

ii

2
6

2 0

6x

b) JhZV

gZ[aZXi^dc
idYZhXg^WZi]ZigVch[dgbVi^dcd[
[jcXi^dc^^l^i]gZheZXiid[jcXi^dc^#

Combine Transformations
15. a) I]Z\gVe]d[yx'^higVchaViZY)jc^ih

idi]ZaZ[i!higZiX]ZY]dg^odciVaanWnV
[VXidgd['!VcYi]ZcigVchaViZY&jc^ije#
Lg^iZi]ZZfjVi^dcd[i]ZigVch[dgbZY
[jcXi^dc#
b) <gVe]i]Zdg^\^cVaVcYigVch[dgbZY

[jcXi^dchdci]ZhVbZhZid[VmZh#
16. 9ZhXg^WZi]ZigVch[dgbVi^dchVeea^ZYid

yx'idegdYjXZi]Z\gVe]YZ[^cZYWn
y(x)'-#

Solve Equations Involving Rational Expressions


(+% (%#
17. HdakZT
k
(+%
&#
18. HdakZT
T
(%
k

Chapter Problem
6aai]ZhdjcYhi]Vindj]ZVgVgZbVYZjed[lVkZhd[egZhhjgZ
eVhh^c\i]gdj\]i]ZV^gVcYk^WgVi^c\dcndjgZVgYgjbh#HdjcY
lVkZhXVcWZgZegZhZciZYjh^c\ig^\dcdbZig^X[jcXi^dch#I]ZhZ
gZegZhZciVi^dchXVcWZjhZY[dgY^kZghZejgedhZh!hjX]Vhkd^XZ
gZXd\c^i^dc!VhlZaaVhi]ZYZh^\cd[XdcXZgi]VaahVcY
cd^hZ"XVcXZaa^c\]ZVYe]dcZh#
>ci]^hX]VeiZg!ndjl^aaaZVgc]dlhdjcYXVcWZbdYZaaZYWn
ig^\dcdbZig^X[jcXi^dchVcY]dligVch[dgbVi^dchd[i]Z[jcXi^dch
V[[ZXii]ZX]VgVXiZg^hi^Xhd[hdjcYh!^cXajY^c\adjYcZhh!e^iX]!
VcYfjVa^in#Ndjl^aaaZVgc]dlig^\dcdbZig^X[jcXi^dchVgZjhZY^cbjh^Xhnci]Zh^h!
[gdbi]ZhdjcYhd[ndjg[Vkdjg^iZWVcYidhdjcYigVX`h[dgbdi^dce^XijgZh#

Prerequisite Skills MHR 283

5.1
Modelling Periodic Behaviour
L]ViYdi]ZhdjcYhd[ndjg[Vkdjg^iZWVcY!i]Z^Ya^c\d[VXVgZc\^cZ!
i]Ze]VhZhd[i]Zbddc!VcYndjg]ZVgiWZViVaa]VkZ^cXdbbdc46aaVgZ
ZmVbeaZhd[egdXZhhZhi]VigZeZVi^cVgZ\jaVgeViiZgc#Ndjg]ZVgi!l]Zc
ndjVgZVigZhi![daadlhi]ZhVbZXnXaZZVX]i^bZ^iWZVih#6XVgZc\^cZ
]Vhbdk^c\eVgihi]VigZeZVii]ZhVbZbdi^dchdkZgVcYdkZg#>ci]Z
ajcVgXnXaZ!i]Zbddc\gdlh[gdbVi^cnha^kZg!idVWZVji^[ja[jaabddc!
VcYi]ZclVcZhjci^a^iY^hVeeZVgh!dcanidgZVeeZVgVii]ZWZ\^cc^c\
d[i]ZcZmiXnXaZ#Ndjg[Vkdjg^iZWVcYeaVnh^chigjbZcihi]ViXgZViZ
gZeZi^i^kZegZhhjgZeViiZgch^ci]ZV^gi]VindjgZVgh^ciZgegZiVhbjh^X#
EZg^dY^XeViiZgchXVcWZbdYZaaZYWnig^\dcdbZig^X[jcXi^dch#
Tools
grid paper
protractor
ruler
compasses
or
graphing calculator

Investigate
How can you model periodic behaviour mathematically?
6ci^fjZXVgdjhZah[ZVijg^c\^cig^XViZan
eV^ciZY]dghZhVcYdi]ZgVc^bVahVgZhi^aa
edejaVgViigVXi^dch#HZkZgVaidlch^cDciVg^d
[ZVijgZi]Zb!VhYdbVcnVbjhZbZcieVg`h#
HjeedhZi]ViVXVgdjhZa]VhVY^VbZiZgd[
&%b#?d]c^hhiVcY^c\Vii]ZZY\Zd[i]Z
XVgdjhZa!lViX]^c\]^hh^hiZgHjoVccZdc
V]dghZdci]ZXVgdjhZahdjiZgZY\Z#=dl
YdZhi]ZY^hiVcXZWZilZZc?d]cVcYHjoVccZ
X]Vc\ZVhi]ZXVgdjhZaXdbeaZiZhV[jaaijgc4
EgZY^Xii]Zh]VeZd[V\gVe]i]VigZegZhZcih
Y^hiVcXZkZghjhVc\aZ[dgdcZgZkdaji^dc#

5m
30
30
30

Suzanne

John

1. 9gVlVX^gXaZidgZegZhZcii]ZXVgdjhZa#BVg`Ved^ci_jhidjih^YZ

i]ZX^gXaZidgZegZhZci?d]c#BVg`Ved^cidci]ZX^gXjb[ZgZcXZid
gZegZhZciHjoVccZVii]Zed^cil]ZgZh]ZeVhhZh?d]c#
2. 6hhjbZi]Vii]ZXVgdjhZaijgch^cVXdjciZgXadX`l^hZY^gZXi^dcVcY

i]Vii]ZY^hiVcXZWZilZZc?d]cVcYi]ZZY\Zd[i]ZXVgdjhZaXVcWZ
^\cdgZY#BVg`ed^cihdci]ZX^gXaZidgZegZhZciHjoVccZhedh^i^dc
Vi(%^ciZgkVah[dgdcZXdbeaZiZgZkdaji^dc#;dgZVX]edh^i^dc!
YZiZgb^cZi]ZY^hiVcXZWZilZZc?d]cVcYHjoVccZjh^c\Veegdeg^ViZ
ig^\dcdbZig^Xiddah#I]ZY^V\gVb^aajhigViZhi]Z[^ghii]gZZY^hiVcXZh
idbZVhjgZ#GZXdgYndjggZhjaih^cViVWaZl^i]Vc\aZ^ci]Z[^ghi
XdajbcVcYY^hiVcXZ!^cbZigZh!^ci]ZhZXdcYXdajbc#

284 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

3. ReflectEgZY^Xii]ZkVajZh[dgHjoVccZhedh^i^dcVhi]ZXVgdjhZa

Xdci^cjZhidgdiViZi]gdj\](+%id,'%#?jhi^[nndjgegZY^Xi^dch#
4. JhZi]ZkVajZh^cndjgiVWaZidh`ZiX]i]Z\gVe]d[Y^hiVcXZkZghjh

Vc\aZd[gZkdaji^dc#GZXdgYY^hiVcXZVadc\i]ZkZgi^XVaVm^hVcYi]Z
Vc\aZd[gZkdaji^dc[gdb%id,'%Vadc\i]Z]dg^odciVaVm^h#
5. Reflect8dbeVgZi]Z\gVe]idndjgegZY^XiZY\gVe]#=dlVgZi]Z

\gVe]hh^b^aVg4=dlVgZi]ZnY^[[ZgZci4
6. a) >cheZXii]Z\gVe][dgildgZkdaji^dchd[i]ZXVgdjhZa#EgZY^Xi

i]ZidiVaVc\aZd[gZkdaji^dci]ViHjoVccZbdkZhi]gdj\]^c[^kZ
gZkdaji^dch#
b) >[Vg^YZXdch^hihd[&'gZkdaji^dch!l]Vi^hi]ZidiVaVc\aZd[

gZkdaji^dci]ViHjoVccZbdkZhi]gdj\]4
7. a) JhZi]Z\gVe]idZhi^bViZildVc\aZhYjg^c\i]Z[^ghigZkdaji^dc

l]Zci]ZY^hiVcXZWZilZZc?d]cVcYHjoVccZ^h-b#AdXViZi]ZhZ
Vc\aZhdcndjgY^V\gVbd[i]ZXVgdjhZa#
b) >ci]Zi]^gYgZkdaji^dc!egZY^Xii]ZVc\aZhl]Zci]ZY^hiVcXZ

WZilZZc?d]cVcYHjoVccZ^h-b#
8. =dlbVcncyclesVgZh]dlc^ci]Z\gVe]4

cycle

9. I]Zperiodd[VeViiZgc^hbZVhjgZY^cjc^ihVeegdeg^ViZidi]Z

one complete repetition


of a pattern

egdWaZb#L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dYd[i]^heViiZgc4

period

10. Reflect=dlYdZhVperiodic functionY^[[Zg[gdbVa^cZVg[jcXi^dc

dgVfjVYgVi^X[jcXi^dc4
11. L]Vi^hi]Zb^c^bjbY^hiVcXZWZilZZc?d]cVcYHjoVccZYjg^c\i]Z

[^ghigZkdaji^dc4L]Vi^hi]ZbVm^bjbY^hiVcXZ4

the horizontal length of


one cycle on a graph

periodic function
a function that has a
pattern of y-values
that repeats at regular
intervals

12. L]Vi^hi]Zamplituded[i]^h[jcXi^dc4
13. ReflectHjeedhZi]ViHjoVccZ^hdcV]dghZi]Vi^h'b[gdbi]Z

XZcigZd[i]ZXVgdjhZa#EgZY^Xi]dli]Z\gVe]l^aaX]Vc\Z[gdbi]Z
dcZi]VindjYgZl^chiZe)#H`ZiX]ndjgegZY^Xi^dcd[i]Z\gVe]
d[Y^hiVcXZkZghjhVc\aZd[gZkdaji^dc[dgildgZkdaji^dchd[i]Z
XVgdjhZa#

amplitude
half the distance
between the maximum
and minimum values of
a periodic function

5.1 Modelling Periodic Behaviour MHR 285

Example 1
Classify Functions
a) :mVb^cZZVX]\gVe]#9ZiZgb^cZl]Zi]Zgi]Z[jcXi^dc^heZg^dY^X#>[^i

^h!YZiZgb^cZi]ZeZg^dY#
ii)

i)

y
4

y
4

6x

b) :mVb^cZi]Z\gVe]#9ZiZgb^cZ

6x

6x

y
4

l]Zi]Zgi]Z[jcXi^dc^heZg^dY^X#>[^i
^h!YZiZgb^cZi]ZVbea^ijYZ#

2
6

0
2
4

Solution
a)  i)6eZg^dY^X[jcXi^dc]VhVeViiZgc

d[y"kVajZhi]VigZeZVihVigZ\jaVg
^ciZgkVah#I]ZeZg^dY^hi]ZaZc\i]
d[i]Z^ciZgkVa#>ci]^hZmVbeaZ!
i]ZeViiZgcd[y"kVajZh^cdcZ
hZXi^dcd[i]Z\gVe]gZeZVih^c
i]ZcZmihZXi^dc#I]ZgZ[dgZ!i]Z
[jcXi^dc^heZg^dY^X#

y
4
One Period

One Period
2

6x

2
4

 I
 dYZiZgb^cZi]ZeZg^dY!hZaZXiV
XdckZc^ZcihiVgi^c\ed^ciVcYcdiZi]Zx"XddgY^cViZ#>ci]^hXVhZ!
X]ddhZ+!%#BdkZidi]Zg^\]i!VcYZhi^bViZi]Zx"XddgY^cViZ
l]ZgZi]ZcZmiXnXaZWZ\^ch#I]^hVeeZVghidWZVii]Zdg^\^c#
HjWigVXii]Zildx"XddgY^cViZh#I]ZeZg^dY^h%+!dg
+jc^ih#
ii)>ci]^hZmVbeaZ!i]ZeViiZgcd[

y"kVajZh^cdcZhZXi^dcd[i]Z
\gVe]YdZhcdigZeZVi^ci]ZcZmi
hZXi^dc#I]ZgZ[dgZ!i]Z[jcXi^dc^h
cdieZg^dY^X#

y
4
2
6

0
2
4

286 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

6x

b) I]Z[jcXi^dc^aajhigViZY

y
4

Maximum
^ci]Z\gVe]^heZg^dY^X
Amplitude
WZXVjhZi]ZgZ^hVgZeZVi^c\
2
eViiZgcd[y"kVajZhdcV
gZ\jaVgWVh^h#6eZg^dY^X
6 4 2 0
4
6x
2
Minimum
[jcXi^dcjhjVaan]VhV
2
bVm^bjbkVajZVcYV
4
b^c^bjbkVajZZkZgn
XnXaZ#I]ZVbea^ijYZ^h
]Va[i]ZY^[[ZgZcXZWZilZZci]ZbVm^bjbVcYb^c^bjbkVajZh#>c
i]Z\gVe]h]dlc!i]ZbVm^bjb^h(VcYi]Zb^c^bjb^h&#
(&
 
!dg'jc^ih#
I]ZgZ[dgZ!i]ZVbea^ijYZ^hTT

'

Example 2
Predicting With Periodic Functions
8dch^YZgi]ZeZg^dY^X[jcXi^dch]dlc#

y
4

a) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dYd[i]Z[jcXi^dc4

b) 9ZiZgb^cZf 'VcYf*#
c) EgZY^Xif-!f&%!VcYf&)#

6x

d) L]Vi^hi]ZVbea^ijYZd[i]Z[jcXi^dc4
e) 9ZiZgb^cZ[djgx"kVajZhhjX]i]Vi

fx'#

Solution
a) HZaZXiVXdckZc^ZcihiVgi^c\ed^ci!hjX]Vh,!%#BdkZidi]Zg^\]i

jci^ai]ZeViiZgcWZ\^chidgZeZVi#I]^hdXXjghVi&!%#I]ZeZg^dY^h
ZfjVaidi]Z]dg^odciVaaZc\i]d[i]^hXnXaZ!XVaXjaViZYWnhjWigVXi^c\
i]Zx"XddgY^cViZh#I]jh!i]ZeZg^dY^h&,!dg+jc^ih#
b) GZVYkVajZh[gdbi]Z\gVe]/f'&VcYf*%#
c) f-f'+f&%f&%++f&)f&)++




f'
&

f'
&

f'
&

d) I]ZbVm^bjbkVajZ^h(#I]Zb^c^bjbkVajZ^h'#I]ZVbea^ijYZ

('
 
!dg'#*jc^ih#
^hTT

'

From part a), the period


of the function is 6. The
value of the function at x
is the same as the value
at x plus or minus any
multiple of 6.

e) ;gdbi]Z\gVe]!i]ZkVajZd[f%^h'#9ZiZgb^cZdi]Zgx"kVajZh

WnVYY^c\i]ZeZg^dYiddghjWigVXi^c\i]ZeZg^dY[gdbx%#Ild
edhh^WaZVchlZghVgZx+!x&'!VcYx&-!dgx+!x&'!
VcYx&-#

5.1 Modelling Periodic Behaviour MHR 287

Example 3
Natural Gas Consumption in Ontario

a) :meaV^cl]ni]Z\gVe]]Vh

i]^hh]VeZ#

Residential Natural Gas Consumption


Thousands of Cubic Metres

I]Z\gVe]h]dlhgZh^YZci^Va
cVijgVa\VhXdchjbei^dc^c
DciVg^deZgbdci]!WZ\^cc^c\^c
?VcjVgn'%%&#9ViVVgZdWiV^cZY
[gdbHiVi^hi^Xh8VcVYVi]gdj\]
^ihdca^cZ:"HI6I^ciZgVXi^kZ
idda#

1 600 000
1 400 000
1 200 000
1 000 000
800 000
600 000
400 000
200 000

b) 9di]ZYViVVeeZVgidWZ

12 24 36 48 60
Month Starting January 2001

eZg^dY^X4?jhi^[nndjg
VchlZg#
c) 6hhjbZi]Vii]ZXdchjbei^dcd[cVijgVa\Vh^cDciVg^dXVcWZ

bdYZaaZYjh^c\VeZg^dY^X[jcXi^dc#9ZiZgb^cZi]ZVeegdm^bViZ
bVm^bjbkVajZ!b^c^bjbkVajZ!VcYVbea^ijYZd[i]^h[jcXi^dc#
d) :hi^bViZi]ZeZg^dYd[i]^h[jcXi^dc#9dZhi]^hkVajZbV`ZhZchZ4

:meaV^cl]n#
e) :hi^bViZi]ZYdbV^cVcYgVc\Zd[i]Z[jcXi^dc#
f) :meaV^c]dli]Z\gVe]XVcWZjhZYidZhi^bViZi]ZcVijgVa\Vh

Xdchjbei^dc^c;ZWgjVgn'%&&#

Solution
a) I]ZXdchjbei^dcd[cVijgVa\Vh^cDciVg^dkVg^Zhl^i]i]ZhZVhdc#

DcZZmeZXihXdchjbei^dcidWZ]^\]^ci]Zl^ciZgbdci]hVcYadl^c
i]ZhjbbZgbdci]h#
b) I]ZYViVVgZVeegdm^bViZaneZg^dY^X#I]ZkVajZhYdcdiZmVXian

bViX][gdbXnXaZidXnXaZ#
c) 6gZVhdcVWaZZhi^bViZ[dgi]ZbVm^bjb^h&+%%%%%i]djhVcYXjW^X

bZigZh&+%%%%%%%%b(#I]Zb^c^bjb^hVWdji'%%%%%i]djhVcY
XjW^XbZigZh'%%%%%%%%b(#

TTTT
6bea^ijYZ&+%%%%%'%%%%%


 


'
&)%%%%%

TT




'


,%%%%%

I]ZVbea^ijYZ^hVWdji,%%%%%i]djhVcYXjW^XbZigZh
,%%%%%%%%b(#
d) ;gdbi]Z\gVe]!i]ZeZg^dY^hVWdji&'bdci]h#I]^h^hgZVhdcVWaZ#

DcZZmeZXihi]ZhZVhdcVaXnXaZ[dgXdchjbei^dcd[cVijgVa\VhidWZ
nZVgan#

288 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

e) AZitgZegZhZcii]Zi^bZ!^cbdci]h!VcYaZiggZegZhZcii]Z

Xdchjbei^dcd[cVijgVa\Vh!^ci]djhVcYhd[XjW^XbZigZh#I]Z
YdbV^c^hpt2!&t+%r#CdiZi]Vii]ZadlZgWdjcYd[i]Z
YdbV^c^hcdi%#I]ZYViVWZ\^c^c?VcjVgn!l]^X]^hi]Z[^ghibdci]#
I]ZgVc\Z^hVeegdm^bViZanpg2!'%%%%%g&+%%%%%r#
f) IddWiV^cVgZVhdcVWaZZhi^bViZd[\VhXdchjbei^dcYjg^c\i]Zbdci]

d[;ZWgjVgn!jhZi]Z\gVe]id[^cYi]ZXdchjbei^dc[dgZVX];ZWgjVgn
h]dlc#IV`Zi]ZVkZgV\Zd[i]ZhZkVajZh#I]^h^hVgZVhdcVWaZ
Zhi^bViZd[i]ZXdchjbei^dcegZY^XiZY[dg;ZWgjVgn'%&&#

Key Concepts
6eViiZgci]VigZeZVih^ihZa[gZ\jaVgan^heZg^dY^X#

6eZg^dY^XeViiZgcXVcWZbdYZaaZYjh^c\VeZg^dY^X
[jcXi^dc#

Period
Amplitude

4
2

DcZgZeZi^i^dcd[VeZg^dY^XeViiZgc^hXVaaZY
VXnXaZ#

I]Z]dg^odciVaaZc\i]d[VXnXaZdcV\gVe]^hXVaaZY
i]ZeZg^dY#I]ZeZg^dYbVnWZ^cjc^ihd[i^bZdg
di]Zgjc^ihd[bZVhjgZbZci#

6 x

2
4

6[jcXi^dc^heZg^dY^X^[i]ZgZ^hVedh^i^kZcjbWZg!
p!hjX]i]Vifxpfx[dgZkZgnx^ci]Z
YdbV^cd[fx#I]ZaZVhikVajZd[pi]Vildg`h^hi]Z
eZg^dYd[i]Z[jcXi^dc#
fxnpfx!l]ZgZp ^hi]ZeZg^dYVcYn^hVcn^ciZ\Zg#
I]ZVbea^ijYZd[VeZg^dY^X[jcXi^dc^h]Va[i]ZY^[[ZgZcXZWZilZZci]ZbVm^bjbkVajZ
VcYi]Zb^c^bjbkVajZ^cVXnXaZ#

Communicate Your Understanding


C1  I]ZedejaVi^dcd[Vb^c^c\idlc]Vh^cXgZVhZYVcYYZXgZVhZYhZkZgVai^bZh^ci]ZeVhi[Zl

YZXVYZh#9dndjZmeZXii]ZedejaVi^dcVhV[jcXi^dcd[i^bZidWZeZg^dY^X4?jhi^[nndjg
VchlZg#

C2  a) 8dch^YZgV[jcXi^dchjX]i]Vifxqfx#H`ZiX]i]Z\gVe]d[Vh^beaZ[jcXi^dci]Vi

[daadlhi]^h`^cYd[gZaVi^dch]^e#

b)>hi]Z[jcXi^dc^ceVgiVeZg^dY^X4?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg#

T& 

C3  8dch^YZgi]ZYZX^bVaZmeVch^dcd[i]Z[gVXi^dc #>[ndj\gVe]ZVX]Y^\^i^ci]ZZmeVch^dcdc

,
i]ZkZgi^XVaVm^hkZghjh^ihYZX^bVaeaVXZdci]Z]dg^odciVaVm^h!^hi]ZeViiZgceZg^dY^X4JhZV
\gVe]idhjeedgindjgVchlZg#

5.1 Modelling Periodic Behaviour MHR 289

A Practise
For help with questions 1 to 5, refer to
Example 1.
1. 8aVhh^[nZVX]\gVe]VheZg^dY^Xdgcdi
eZg^dY^X#?jhi^[nndjgVchlZgh#
a)

y
4

2
4

b)

y
6
4
2
6

2 0

l^i]VcVbea^ijYZd[)VcYVeZg^dYd[+#
5. 9dndjg\gVe]h^cfjZhi^dch(VcY)bViX]

i]dhZd[ndjgXaVhhbViZh4:meaV^cl]ndg
l]ncdi#
For help with questions 6 to 8, refer to
Example 2.

2
6

4. H`ZiX][djgXnXaZhd[VeZg^dY^X[jcXi^dc

6x

6. 6eZg^dY^X[jcXi^dc

Reasoning and Proving


Representing

Selecting Tools

fx]VhVeZg^dY
Problem Solving
d[-#I]ZkVajZhd[
f&!f*!VcYf,
Connecting
Reecting
VgZ(!'!VcY-!
Communicating
gZheZXi^kZan#EgZY^Xi
i]ZkVajZd[ZVX]d[i]Z[daadl^c\#>[V
egZY^Xi^dc^hcdiedhh^WaZ!ZmeaV^cl]ncdi#
a) f.

b) f'.

c) f+(

d) f)%

7. a) H`ZiX]i]Z\gVe]d[VeZg^dY^X[jcXi^dc!

fx!l^i]VbVm^bjbkVajZd[,!V
b^c^bjbkVajZd[&!VcYVeZg^dYd[*#

2
4

b) HZaZXiVkVajZa[dgx!VcYYZiZgb^cZfa#

c) 9ZiZgb^cZilddi]ZgkVajZh!bVcYc!

hjX]i]Vifafbfc#

c)

y
4

B Connect and Apply

2
6

8. Hjc^iVYgVlhVeZg^dY^X[jcXi^dchdi]Vi
2

6x

d)

y
4

9. 6cVk^\Vi^dca^\]idcVed^ci^cVaV`Z

[aVh]Zh&hdcVcY&hd[[#6[iZgi]gZZ
[aVh]Zh!i]Za^\]ihiVnhd[[[dgVcZmigV'h#

2
6

fpfq#8VcndjXdcXajYZi]Vii]Z
eZg^dYd[i]Z[jcXi^dc^hi]ZY^[[ZgZcXZ
WZilZZcpVcYq4?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg!
^cXajY^c\VY^V\gVb#

6x

2. 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZVbea^ijYZVcYeZg^dY[dg

Vcn\gVe]^cfjZhi^dc&i]Vi^heZg^dY^X#
3. H`ZiX][djgXnXaZhd[VeZg^dY^X[jcXi^dc

l^i]VcVbea^ijYZd[*VcYVeZg^dYd[(#
290 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

a) AZi&gZegZhZcidcVcY%gZegZhZci

d[[#H`ZiX]V\gVe]l^i]i^bZdci]Z
]dg^odciVaVm^hidgZegZhZcii]Z[aVh]^c\
d[i]Za^\]i#>cXajYZi]gZZXnXaZh#
b) :meaV^cl]ni]^heViiZgc^heZg^dY^X#
c) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dYd[i]ZeViiZgc4
d) L]Vi^hi]ZVbea^ijYZ4

10. I]ZeZdeaZbdkZgViVcV^gedgih]jiiaZh

WZilZZci]ZbV^ciZgb^cVaVcYVhViZaa^iZ
iZgb^cVa(%%bVlVn#6dcZ"lVnig^e!
bdk^c\ViVXdchiVciheZZY!iV`Zh&b^c!
VcYi]ZXVggZbV^chViZVX]iZgb^cVa[dg
(%hWZ[dgZaZVk^c\#
a) H`ZiX]V\gVe]idgZegZhZcii]ZY^hiVcXZ

d[i]ZXVg[gdbi]ZbV^ciZgb^cVal^i]
gZheZXiidi^bZ#>cXajYZ[djgXdbeaZiZ
XnXaZh#

14. L]^aZk^h^i^c\i]ZZVhiXdVhid[8VcVYV!

GVcdj[cdi^XZhi]Vii]ZlViZgaZkZaViV
idlcYdX`X]Vc\ZhYjg^c\i]ZYVnVhi]Z
i^YZhXdbZ^cVcY\ddji#BVg`^c\hdcdcZ
d[i]Ze^aZhhjeedgi^c\i]ZYdX`h]dlV
]^\]i^YZd[(#(bVi+/(%V#b#!Vadli^YZ
d[%#,bVi&'/)%e#b#!VcYV]^\]i^YZ
V\V^cVi+/*%e#b#
a) :hi^bViZi]ZeZg^dYd[i]Z[ajXijVi^dcd[

i]ZlViZgaZkZaVii]ZidlcYdX`#

b) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dYd[i]Zbdi^dc4

b) :hi^bViZi]ZVbea^ijYZd[i]ZeViiZgc#

c) L]Vi^hi]ZVbea^ijYZd[i]Zbdi^dc4

c) EgZY^Xil]Zci]ZcZmiadli^YZl^aa

11. L]^X]d[i]Z

[daadl^c\kVajZh
YdndjZmeZXiid
[daadlVeZg^dY^X
eViiZgc4?jhi^[n
ndjgVchlZg[dg
ZVX]XVhZ#

dXXjg#

Reasoning and Proving


Representing

Selecting Tools
Problem Solving

Connecting

Reecting
Communicating

a) i]ZXdhid[&`\d[idbVidZhVii]ZadXVa

hjeZgbVg`ZiViY^[[ZgZcii^bZhd[i]ZnZVg
b) i]Z^ciZgZhigViZd[[ZgZYdcVc^ckZhibZci

WnVWVc`dkZgViZgbd[*nZVgh
c) i]ZeZgXZcid[i]Zbddch[VXZi]Vi^h

^aajb^cViZYdkZghZkZgVabdci]h
d) i]ZkdajbZd[V^g^cndjgajc\hYjg^c\

15. I]ZX^ind[Fj^id!

Rotation of Earth

hZkZgVab^cjiZhd[cdgbVaWgZVi]^c\
12. Use TechnologyHjchedihVgZ]j\Z

hidgbhi]ViiV`ZeaVXZdci]Zhjc#I]Zn
XVcegdYjXZZaZXigdbV\cZi^XlVkZhi]Vi
^ciZg[ZgZl^i]gVY^d!iZaZk^h^dc!VcYdi]Zg
Xdbbjc^XVi^dchnhiZbhdc:Vgi]#>hi]Z
cjbWZgd[hjchedihViVcneVgi^XjaVg
i^bZgVcYdb!dgYdZhi]ZcjbWZg[daadl
VeZg^dY^XeViiZgc4JhZi]Z>ciZgcZiid
[^cYV\gVe]dgiVWaZd[hjchediVXi^k^in
dkZghZkZgVaYZXVYZh#>cheZXii]ZYViVVcY
YZX^YZl]Zi]Zgi]ZcjbWZgd[hjchedih
dkZgi^bZbVnWZXdch^YZgZYeZg^dY^X#
?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg#
13. >h^iedhh^WaZ[dgVeZg^dY^X[jcXi^dcid

WZZ^i]ZgXdci^cjdjhan^cXgZVh^c\dg
Xdci^cjdjhanYZXgZVh^c\4?jhi^[nndjg
VchlZg!^cXajY^c\VY^V\gVb#

Reasoning and Proving

:XjVYdg!^hadXViZY Representing
Selecting Tools
dci]ZZfjVidg!
Problem Solving
VWdji+)%%`b[gdb
Reecting
Connecting
i]ZXZcigZd[:Vgi]#
Communicating
6h:Vgi]ijgch!
Fj^idgdiViZhVWdji
:Vgi]hVm^h#8dch^YZgb^Yc^\]iadXVai^bZ
Vhi]ZhiVgi^c\i^bZVcYi]Zedh^i^dcd[
Fj^idVii]Vi]djgVhi]ZhiVgi^c\adXVi^dc#
AZidgZegZhZcii]ZY^hiVcXZ^cVhigV^\]i
a^cZ[gdbi]ZhiVgi^c\adXVi^dcVii^bZt#

Location
at Time t
d
6400 km

Quito at
Midnight

a) :meaV^cl]ni]Z\gVe]d[dkZghjhtl^aa

h]dlVeZg^dY^XeViiZgc#
b) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dYd[i]^hbdi^dc4
c) L]Vi^hi]ZVbea^ijYZd[i]^hbdi^dc4
d) HjeedhZi]VindjlVciid\ZcZgViZV

iVWaZd[kVajZh[dgdVhV[jcXi^dcd[t#
9ZiZgb^cZVcVeegdeg^ViZig^\dcdbZig^X
iddaidjhZ#:meaV^cl]n^i^hi]Zbdhi
Veegdeg^ViZidda[dgi]^hegdWaZb#
9ZhXg^WZ]dlndjldjaYjhZi]Ziddaid
\ZcZgViZi]ZiVWaZd[kVajZh#

5.1 Modelling Periodic Behaviour MHR 291

16. I]ZVkZgV\Zbdci]aniZbeZgVijgZhdkZg

&nZVg^cV\^kZcadXVi^dcjhjVaan[daadlV
eZg^dY^XeViiZgc#
a) :hi^bViZi]ZbVm^bjbkVajZ!b^c^bjb

kVajZ!VcYVbea^ijYZd[i]^heViiZgc[dg
l]ZgZndja^kZ#
b) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dYd[i]^heViiZgc4

:meaV^c#
17. 9ZhXg^WZVgZVa"ldgaYeViiZgci]Vindj

i]^c`b^\]iWZeZg^dY^X#9dcdijhZV
eViiZgci]Vi]VhVagZVYnWZZcjhZY^ci]^h
hZXi^dc#IgVYZeViiZgchl^i]VXaVhhbViZ#
EZg[dgbVc^ckZhi^\Vi^dcidYZiZgb^cZ
l]Zi]Zgi]ZeViiZgc^heZg^dY^X#>[ndj
YZiZgb^cZi]Vii]ZeViiZgc^heZg^dY^X!
YZiZgb^cZi]ZeZg^dYVcYi]ZVbea^ijYZ#>[
^i^hcdi!ZmeaV^cl]ncdi#
18. Chapter ProblemGVcYnXdccZXih]^h

hnci]Zh^oZgidVcdhX^aadhXdeZVcYeaVnh
V7`Zni]Vi]Z`cdlhegdYjXZhVhdjcY
l^i][gZfjZcXnXadhZid*%%XnXaZhZkZgn
hZXdcY!dg*%%=o]Zgio#I]ZeViiZgc^h
h]dlc#I^bZ!^chZXdcYh!^hh]dlcdci]Z
]dg^odciVaVm^h#

19. Use TechnologyJhZYncVb^X\ZdbZign

hd[ilVgZidh`ZiX]VbdYZad[i]ZXVgdjhZa
^ci]Z>ckZhi^\ViZdceV\Z'-)#6c^bViZ
i]Zed^cii]VigZegZhZcihHjoVccZ!VcY
cdiZ]dli]ZbZVhjgZbZcihd[Vc\aZVcY
Y^hiVcXZX]Vc\ZYjg^c\VgZkdaji^dc#
20. I]Z]djghVcYb^cjiZhd[YVna^\]idci]Z

[^ghid[ZVX]bdci]d['%%+^cL^cYhdg!
DciVg^d!VgZh]dlc^ci]ZiVWaZ#
Date

Daylight
(Hours:Minutes)

Jan. 1

9:09

Feb. 1

10:00

Mar. 1

11:14

Apr. 1

12:43

May 1

14:04

Jun. 1

15:04

Jul. 1

15:14

Aug. 1

14:28

Sep. 1

13:10

Oct. 1

11:45

Nov. 1

10:21

Dec. 1

9:19

a) :meaV^cl]ni]ZhZYViVl^aah]dlV

eZg^dY^XeViiZgcdkZghZkZgVanZVgh#

2
0

0.002

0.004

0.006 t (s)

a) :meaV^c]dlndj`cdli]Vii]ZeViiZgc

^heZg^dY^X#
b) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dY4
c) 9ZiZgb^cZVgZaVi^dcWZilZZci]ZeZg^dY

VcYi]Z[gZfjZcXnd[i]ZcdiZWZ^c\
eaVnZY#
Co nne ct io ns
One of the oldest purely electronic
instruments is the theremin,
invented in 1919 by Leon Theremin,
a Russian engineer. Players control
the instruments sound by moving
their hands toward or away from the
instruments two antennas. One antenna controls the
pitch of the sound; the other controls the volume. You
have probably heard the eerie, gliding, warbling sounds
of a theremin in science fiction or horror films.

292 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

b) EgZY^Xii]ZcjbWZgd[]djghd[YVna^\]i

dcBVn&!'%&%#
c) EgZY^Xii]ZcjbWZgd[]djghd[YVna^\]i

dcHZeiZbWZg&*!'%%-#
Achievement Check
21. 6ii]ZYdXidghd[[^XZ[dgVgdji^cZe]nh^XVa

ZmVb^cVi^dc!6gbVcY]Vh]^hWaddY
egZhhjgZX]ZX`ZY#=Zcdi^XZhi]Vii]Z
egZhhjgZgZVX]ZhV]^\]kVajZhnhida^X
egZhhjgZd[&'%VcYVadlkVajZY^Vhida^X
egZhhjgZd[-%!bZVhjgZY^cb^aa^bZigZhd[
bZgXjgnbb=\#I]ZYdXidgXdjcih
&-ejahZWZVih^c&*h#>hi]ZWaddY
egZhhjgZeViiZgceZg^dY^X4?jhi^[nndjg
VchlZg#

a) 8dchigjXiViVWaZd[kVajZhd[ykZghjhx!

Extend

22. 6a^\]i]djhZWZVXdcgdiViZhi]gdj\](+%

ZkZgn&'h#I]Za^\]i]djhZ^hadXViZY&%%b
d[[i]Zh]dgZd[Vc^haVcYl^i]VXdVhia^cZ
d[hiZZeXa^[[hgjcc^c\cdgi]VcYhdji]#6h
i]Za^\]iWZVbhlZZehXadX`l^hZ!hiVgi^c\
[gdbcdgi]Y^gZXi^dcd[%!^ihig^`ZhhdbZ
eVgid[i]ZXa^[[#

gZXdgY^c\i]ZbVm^bjbkVajZ[dgZVX]
XnXaZ^ci]ZyXdajbc#
b) 9gVlVhXViiZgeadi[dgykZghjhx#
c) L]Vi`^cYd[bdYZaYdi]ZYViVVeeZVg

id[daadl4
d) JhZndjg`cdlaZY\Z[gdbVegZk^djh

X]VeiZgidXdchigjXii]ZbdYZa#
e) <gVe]i]ZbdYZadcndjghXViiZgeadi#

North

8dbbZcidci]Z[^i#

T* 

24. Math Contest>[i]Z[gVXi^dc  ^hlg^iiZc

Lighthouse

Sweep
100 m

a) =dladc\YdZh^iiV`Zi]Za^\]iWZVb

idgZVX]VcVc\aZd[(%4L]Vi^hi]Z
Y^hiVcXZigVkZaaZYWni]ZWZVbidi]Z
Xa^[[Vii]Vii^bZ4GZXdgYi^bZVcY
Y^hiVcXZ^cViVWaZ#
b) GZeZVieVgiV[dg+%!.%!&'%!VcY

,
^cZmeVcYZYYZX^bVa[dgb!l]Vi^hi]Z
&%%i]Y^\^iV[iZgi]ZYZX^bVaed^ci4
A &

B )

C '

D -

25. Math Contest6cjbWZg]Vhi]ZeViiZgc

.,-+,*%#=dlbVcnY^\^ihYdZhi]^h
cjbWZg]VkZ4
A &)

B &+

C &-

D '%

26. Math Contest6hZfjZcXZ^hXgZViZYjh^c\

&*%#
c) L]Vi]VeeZchidi]ZY^hiVcXZVhi]Z

WZVbVeegdVX]Zh&-%4
d) 6[iZgeVhh^c\&-%!]dladc\YdZh^i

iV`Zjci^ai]ZWZVbhig^`Zhi]ZXa^[[
V\V^cVihdbZed^ci4
e) JhZndjgiVWaZidh`ZiX]i]Z\gVe]d[

Y^hiVcXZkZghjhi^bZ[dgdcZgZkdaji^dc
d[i]Za^\]i#
f) :meaV^cl]nndjg\gVe]h]dlhV

eZg^dY^XeViiZgc#L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dY4
g) L]Vi^hi]ZVbea^ijYZd[i]ZeViiZgc4

:meaV^c#
23. >chdbZXVhZh!i]ZVbea^ijYZd[V[jcXi^dc

YZXgZVhZhl^i]i^bZ#6cZmVbeaZ^hV
[jcXi^dcjhZYidbdYZai]ZhdjcYd[V
eajX`ZY\j^iVghig^c\#6hi^bZ\dZhdc!i]Z
hdjcYWZXdbZh[V^ciZgVcYY^Zh#I]^h^h
`cdlcVhVYVbeZYeZg^dY^X[jcXi^dc#6c
ZmVbeaZ^hh]dlc#

i]Z[daadl^c\gjaZh#
>[i]ZcjbWZg^hdYY!i]ZcZmicjbWZg
^h[djcYWnVYY^c\&idi]ZcjbWZgVcY
i]ZcY^k^Y^c\Wn'#
>[i]ZcjbWZg^hZkZc!i]ZcZmicjbWZg^h
i]ZcjbWZgY^k^YZYWn'#
>[ndjhiVgil^i]i]ZcjbWZg'&&!l]Vi^h
i]Z*(gYcjbWZg^ci]ZhZfjZcXZ4
A ',

B (

C &

D &%%

27. Math ContestD[*%hijYZcihhjgkZnZY#

(%hVni]Zna^`ZVa\ZWgV!'&hVni]Zna^`Z
ig^\dcdbZign!VcY-hVni]Zna^`ZWdi]#
=dlbVcnhijYZcihYdcdia^`ZZ^i]Zg
Va\ZWgVdgig^\dcdbZign4
A ,

B %

C &'

D &

y
2
0

100

200

300

5.1 Modelling Periodic Behaviour MHR 293

5.2
The Sine Function and
the Cosine Function
L]ViYdVcdXZVcd\gVe]Zg!VhidX`VcVanhi!
VcVjY^dZc\^cZZg!VcYVbjh^X^VceaVn^c\
ZaZXigdc^X^chigjbZcih]VkZ^cXdbbdc4
I]ZnVaaYZVal^i]eZg^dY^XeViiZgch#EZg^dY^XeViiZgchXVcWZgZegZhZciZYVh\gVe]h!ZfjVi^dch!
iVWaZh!VcYdi]ZgbVi]ZbVi^XVa[dgbh#:kZcVXdbeaZmeZg^dY^XeViiZgcXVcWZWgd`ZcYdlc^cid
Vhjbd[iZgbh!ZVX]d[l]^X]^hgZegZhZciZYVhVh^cZdgVXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc#I]^hegdXZhh^h`cdlc
Vh;djg^ZgVcVanh^h!l]^X]^hVeea^ZY^chjX]Y^kZghZ[^ZaYhVhbjh^Xhnci]Zh^h!Xgneid\gVe]n!
VXdjhi^Xh!dXZVcd\gVe]n!hidX`dei^dceg^X^c\!VcYegdWVW^a^ini]Zdgn#
>ci]^hhZXi^dc!ndjl^aajhZndjg`cdlaZY\Zd[i]Zh^cZVcYXdh^cZgVi^dhidYZkZadeh^cZVcY
Xdh^cZ[jcXi^dch#Ndjl^aa^ckZhi^\ViZi]ZegdeZgi^Zhd[i]ZhZ[jcXi^dchVcYWZXdbZ[Vb^a^Vgl^i]
i]ZX]VgVXiZg^hi^Xhd[i]Z^g\gVe]h#

Tools
calculator
grid paper

Investigate A
How can you use a table and grid paper with the sine ratio to construct
a function?
>ci]^hX]VeiZg!ndjl^aaXdch^YZgl^YZgVeea^XVi^dchd[i]Zig^\dcdbZig^X
gVi^dh!^cXajY^c\Veea^XVi^dchl]ZgZi]Z^cYZeZcYZcikVg^VWaZYdZh
cdigZegZhZciVcVc\aZ#>ci]ZhZVeea^XVi^dch!^i^hVeegdeg^ViZidjhZx
gVi]Zgi]VcidgZegZhZcii]ZkVg^VWaZVcYidi]^c`d[h^cZVcYXdh^cZVh
[jcXi^dchd[x/fxh^cxVcYgxXdhx#
1. JhZVjc^iX^gXaZid[^cYZmVXikVajZh[dgh^cx#JhZVXVaXjaVidgid

YZiZgb^cZVeegdm^bViZkVajZh[dgh^cx#7Z\^cVi%VcYXdci^cjZ
ZkZgn(%jci^andjgZVX](+%#8denVcYXdbeaZiZi]ZiVWaZ#
sin x
x
0

Rounded to
One Decimal Place

0.0

30

T1 

0.5

360

294 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

Exact Value

2. a) Eadii]ZdgYZgZYeV^ghx!h^cxdcV\gVe]![gdbx%id

x(+%#JhZi]ZYZX^bVakVajZh[dgh^cx#EaVXZi]Z\gVe]WZh^YZ
i]Zjc^iX^gXaZ#
b) 9gVlVhbddi]XjgkZi]gdj\]i]Zed^cih#
3. ReflectL]nYdndji]^c`i]Vii]^h\gVe]^hd[iZcXVaaZYVh^cZ

lVkZ4
4. 8dci^cjZndjgiVWaZeVhi(+%[dghZkZgVabdgZgdlh#L]ViYdndj

cdi^XZVWdjii]ZZcig^Zh4
5. a) EgZY^Xii]Zh]VeZd[i]Z\gVe]eVhi(+%#?jhi^[nndjgegZY^Xi^dc#
b) KZg^[nndjgegZY^Xi^dc#
6. JhZndjgiVWaZVcY\gVe]idXdenVcYXdbeaZiZi]ZiVWaZd[egdeZgi^Zh

[dgyh^cx[dg%id(+%#AZVkZi]Zi]^gYXdajbcWaVc`[dgcdl#
Ndjl^aajhZi]Zi]^gYXdajbc^c>ckZhi^\ViZ8#
Property

y = sin x

maximum
minimum
amplitude
period
domain
range
y-intercept
x-intercepts
intervals of
increase
intervals of
decrease

7. Reflect:meaV^cl]ni]Z\gVe]d[yh^cx^heZg^dY^X#
8. =dlXVcndjkZg^[ni]Viyh^cx^hV[jcXi^dc4EZg[dgbi]Z

kZg^[^XVi^dc#Lg^iZi]Z[jcXi^dcjh^c\[jcXi^dccdiVi^dc#

BVcneZg^dY^XeViiZgch[daadlVsinusoidalgZaVi^dcVcYXVcWZ
gZegZhZciZYVhVh^beaZh^cZdgXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc#DcZd[i]ZhZeViiZgch
^hi]ZVaiZgcVi^c\XjggZcid[ZaZXig^X^ini]Viegdk^YZhZcZg\n[dg
a^\]ihVcYVeea^VcXZh^cndjg]dbZ#Di]ZgeViiZgchXVcWZbdYZaaZY
jh^c\XdbW^cVi^dchd[ilddgbdgZh^cZVcYXdh^cZ[jcXi^dch!dg
igVch[dgbVi^dchd[i]ZhZ[jcXi^dch#Ndjl^aahZZhdbZd[i]ZhZaViZg^c
i]^hX]VeiZg#

sinusoidal
having the curved form
of a sine wave

5.2 The Sine Function and the Cosine Function MHR 295

Investigate B
Tools
TI-83 Plus or TI-84 Plus
graphing calculator

How can you use technology with the sine ratio to construct a
function?
Method 1: Use a Graphing Calculator
1. EgZhh 2nd PI7AH:IRidVXXZhhi]ZTABLE

SETUPhXgZZc#I]^hhXgZZcVaadlhndjidheZX^[n
i]ZhiVgi^c\kVajZVcYi]Z^cXgZbZci[dgViVWaZ
d[kVajZh#HZiTblStartid%VcYNTblid&%!Vh
h]dlc#BV`ZhjgZIndpntVcYDependVgZhZiid
AUTO#
2. EgZhh MODE VcYZchjgZi]VindjgXVaXjaVidg^h^cDEGREEbdYZ#

:chjgZi]ViVaaeadihVgZijgcZYd[[#6XXZhhi]ZY=ZY^idg!VcYZciZg
i]ZZmegZhh^dch^cM^cY1#
3. 6Y_jhii]Zl^cYdlhZii^c\hhjX]i]ViM^headiiZY[gdb%id(+%l^i]

VhXVaZd[(%VcYN^headiiZY[gdb'id'l^i]VhXVaZd[%#*#
EgZhh GRAPH #
4. Reflect8dbeVgZi]Z\gVe]h]dlcWni]Z\gVe]^c\XVaXjaVidgidi]Z

\gVe]i]Vindjh`ZiX]ZY^c>ckZhi^\ViZ6#JhZi]ZhXVaZdcZVX]Vm^h
id]ZaendjXdbeVgZhZkZgVaed^cih#EgZhh 2nd P86A8R#HZaZXi1:
valueidZkVajViZy[dgndjghZaZXi^dcd[x#
5. EgZhh 2nd PI67A:RidVXXZhhi]ZiVWaZd[kVajZh#HXgdaaYdlcVcY

XdbeVgZi]ZiVWaZidi]ZdcZndjXdchigjXiZY^c>ckZhi^\ViZ6#
6. 8dci^cjZhXgdaa^c\eVhi(+%id[^cYi]ZcZmibVm^bjb#=dlYdZh

^iXdbeVgZidndjgegZY^Xi^dc^chiZe*Vd[>ckZhi^\ViZ64EgZY^Xi
l]ZgZi]ZcZmibVm^bjbl^aadXXjg#HXgdaaYdlcidX]ZX`ndjg
VchlZg#
7. HXgdaaWVX`jeVcYXdci^cjZeVhi%#EgZY^Xil]ZgZi]ZcZmibVm^bjb

l^aadXXjg^ci]^hY^gZXi^dc#8dci^cjZhXgdaa^c\idX]ZX`ndjgVchlZg#
8. ReflectHjeedhZi]VindjXVchZZi]Z\gVe]d[fxh^cx[gdb

x,'%idx,'%#=dlbVcnXnXaZhldjaYndjZmeZXiid
hZZ4L]ZgZldjaYi]ZbVm^bjbkVajZhdXXjg4L]ZgZldjaYi]Z
b^c^bjbkVajZhdXXjg4
9. 6Y_jhindjgl^cYdlkVg^VWaZhhdi]VindjXVchZZi]Z\gVe]d[

fxh^cx[gdbx,'%idx,'%#8]ZX`ndjgegZY^Xi^dch[gdb
hiZe-#

296 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

Method 2: Use a TI-Nspire CAS Graphing Calculator


1. a) EgZhhcVcYhZaZXi8:System Info#HZaZXi2:System Settings...#JhZ

i]Ze`ZnidhXgdaaYdlcidAngle!VcYZchjgZi]Vi^i^hhZiid
Degree#8dci^cjZdcidAuto or ApproxVcYZchjgZi]Vi^i^hhZiid
Auto#8dci^cjZYdlcidOKVcYegZhhxil^XZ#

Tools
TI-NspireTM CAS
graphing calculator

b) EgZhhcVcYhZaZXi6:New Document#HZaZXi

2:Add Graphs & Geometry#


c) IneZh^cm[dg[jcXi^dcf1#EgZhh#
d) EgZhhb#HZaZXi4:Window#HZaZXi

1:Window Settings#HZiXMinid
(+%!XMaxid(+%!Yminid'!
VcYYMaxid'#IVWYdlcidOK
VcYegZhh#I]Z\gVe]l^aaWZ
Y^heaVnZYVhh]dlc#
2. Reflect8dbeVgZi]Z\gVe]h]dlcWni]Z\gVe]^c\XVaXjaVidgid

 i]Z\gVe]i]Vindjh`ZiX]ZY^c>ckZhi^\ViZ6#
b) EgZhhb#HZaZXi6:Points & Lines#HZaZXi2:Point On#BdkZi]Z

Xjghdgidi]Z\gVe]!VcYegZhh#
c) EgZhh/xid\gVWi]Zed^ci#JhZi]ZXjghdg`ZnhidbdkZi]Z

ed^ciVadc\i]Z\gVe]#8dbeVgZi]ZY^heaVnZYkVajZhidi]dhZ^c
ndjgiVWaZ[gdb>ckZhi^\ViZ6#
3. a) EgZhhc#6YYVLists & Spreadsheet

eV\Z#
b) EgZhhb#HZaZXi5:Function Table#

HZaZXi1:Switch to Function Table#


EgZhh#6iVWaZl^aaVeeZVg#
c) EgZhhb#HZaZXi5:Function Table#

HZaZXi3:Edit Function Table Settings#


HZiTable Startid%#HZiTable Step
id&%#IVWYdlcidOKVcYegZhh#I]Z[jcXi^dciVWaZl^aaWZ
Y^heaVnZYVhh]dlc#
4. HXgdaaYdlcVcYXdbeVgZi]ZiVWaZidi]ZdcZndjXdchigjXiZY^c

>ckZhi^\ViZ6#
5. 8dci^cjZhXgdaa^c\eVhi(+%id[^cYi]ZcZmibVm^bjb#=dlYdZh

^iXdbeVgZidndjgegZY^Xi^dc^chiZe*Vd[>ckZhi^\ViZ64EgZY^Xi
l]ZgZi]ZcZmibVm^bjbl^aadXXjg#HXgdaaYdlcidX]ZX`ndjg
VchlZg#
6. HXgdaaWVX`jeVcYXdci^cjZeVhi%#EgZY^Xil]ZgZi]ZcZmibVm^bjb

l^aadXXjg^ci]^hY^gZXi^dc#8dci^cjZhXgdaa^c\idX]ZX`ndjgVchlZg#

5.2 The Sine Function and the Cosine Function MHR 297

7. a)EgZhh/VcYi]ZaZ[iXjghdg`ZnidgZijgcidi]Z\gVe]Y^heaVn#
b) HjeedhZi]VindjXdjaYhZZi]Z\gVe]d[fxh^cx[gdb

x,'%idx,'%#=dlbVcnXnXaZhldjaYndjZmeZXiid
hZZ4L]ZgZldjaYi]ZbVm^bjbkVajZhdXXjg4L]ZgZldjaYi]Z
b^c^bjbkVajZhdXXjg4
8. Reflect6Y_jhindjgl^cYdlhZii^c\hhdi]VindjXVchZZi]Z\gVe]

d[fxh^cx[gdbx,'%idx,'%#8]ZX`ndjgegZY^Xi^dch
[gdbhiZe,#

Investigate C
How can you use the cosine ratio to construct a function?
I]ZXdh^cZXjgkZ]Vhh^b^aVg^i^Zhidi]Zh^cZXjgkZ!VhlZaaVhhdbZ
Y^[[ZgZcXZh#;daadli]ZhiZehd[>ckZhi^\ViZ6VcY>ckZhi^\ViZ7id
^ckZhi^\ViZi]ZXdh^cZXjgkZ#L]Zcndj[^c^h]!XdbeaZiZi]Zi]^gYXdajbc
d[i]ZiVWaZ^chiZe+d[>ckZhi^\ViZ6idhjbbVg^oZi]ZegdeZgi^Zhd[i]Z
Xdh^cZ[jcXi^dc#

Key Concepts
I]Zh^cZVcYXdh^cZgVi^dh!Vadc\l^i]i]Zjc^iX^gXaZ!XVcWZjhZYidXdchigjXih^cZVcY
Xdh^cZ[jcXi^dch#
7di]i]Zh^cZVcYXdh^cZ[jcXi^dch]VkZVlVkZ"a^`ZVeeZVgVcXZ!l^i]VeZg^dYd[(+%#
y = sin x

Properties
sketch of graph

y = cos x

y
1
0

y
1
90

180

270

x
360

90

180

270

x
360

maximum value

minimum value

amplitude

domain

{x 2}

{x 2}

range

{y 2, 1  y  1}

{y 2, 1  y  1}

x-intercepts

0, 180, and 360 over one cycle

90 and 270 over one cycle

y-intercept

intervals of

{x 2,0  x  90, 270  x  360}

{x 2,180  x  360}

{x 2,90  x  270}

{x 2,0  x  180}

increase (over
one cycle)
intervals of
decrease (over
one cycle)

298 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

Communicate Your Understanding


C1  L^i]djiV\gVe]!egZY^Xii]ZkVajZhd[x[dgl]^X]i]Z\gVe]hd[yh^cxVcYyXdhx l^aa

^ciZghZXi^ci]Z^ciZgkVa[gdb%id(+%#?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg#I]Zc!jhZ\gVe]hVcYiVWaZhid
kZg^[nndjgVchlZg#

C2  GZk^Zli]Zx"^ciZgXZeih[dgi]Zh^cZVcYXdh^cZ[jcXi^dch#Lg^iZVcZmegZhh^dc[dgZVX]\gVe]!

^ckdak^c\Vc^ciZ\Zgn!i]Vin^ZaYhi]Zx"^ciZgXZeihl]ZcY^[[ZgZcikVajZhd[nVgZhjWhi^ijiZY#

C3  8dch^YZgVed^cidci]Zjc^iX^gXaZi]Vi^hgdiVi^c\VgdjcYi]ZX^gXaZ^cVXdjciZgXadX`l^hZ

Y^gZXi^dc#

a)L]^X][jcXi^dcgZegZhZcihi]Z]dg^odciVaY^heaVXZbZcid[i]Zed^ci

b)L]^X][jcXi^dcgZegZhZcihi]ZkZgi^XVaY^heaVXZbZcid[i]Zed^ci

c)?jhi^[nndjgX]d^XZhd[[jcXi^dch^ceVgihVVcYW#

l^i]gZheZXiidi]Zdg^\^c4
l^i]gZheZXiidi]Zdg^\^c4

B Connect and Apply


1. NdjVgZ^cVXVgd[V;Zgg^hl]ZZa#I]Z

l]ZZa]VhVgVY^jhd[-bVcYijgch
XdjciZgXadX`l^hZ#AZii]Zdg^\^cWZVii]Z
XZcigZd[i]Zl]ZZa#7Z\^cZVX]h`ZiX]^c
eVgihVVcYWl]Zci]ZgVY^jh[gdbi]Z
XZcigZd[i]Zl]ZZaidndjgXVg^hVadc\i]Z
edh^i^kZx"Vm^h#
a) H`ZiX]i]Z\gVe]d[ndjg]dg^odciVa

Y^heaVXZbZcikZghjhi]ZVc\aZi]gdj\]
l]^X]ndjijgc[dgdcZgdiVi^dcd[i]Z
l]ZZa#L]^X][jcXi^dcbdYZahi]Z
]dg^odciVaY^heaVXZbZci4?jhi^[nndjg
X]d^XZ#
b) H`ZiX]i]Z\gVe]d[ndjgkZgi^XVa

Y^heaVXZbZcikZghjhi]ZVc\aZi]gdj\]
l]^X]ndjijgc[dgdcZgdiVi^dcd[i]Z
l]ZZa#L]^X][jcXi^dcbdYZahi]Z
kZgi^XVaY^heaVXZbZci4?jhi^[nndjg
X]d^XZ#

hdjcY[gdbVhig^c\ZY^chigjbZciXVcWZ
bdYZaaZYXadhZanjh^c\VbdgZXdbeaZm
[jcXi^dchjX]Vhyh^cxh^c'x#
a) JhZiZX]cdad\ndg\g^YeVeZgidh`ZiX]

i]Z\gVe]hd[yh^cxVcY
yh^cxh^c'x#
b) =dlYdi]Z\gVe]hY^[[Zg4=dlVgZi]Zn

h^b^aVg4
Con n ec t i on s
In musical terms, you have added the second harmonic,
sin 2x, to the fundamental, sin x. An electronics
engineer can mimic the sounds of conventional
instruments electronically by adding harmonics, or
overtones. This process is known as music synthesis
and is the basic principle behind the operation of
synthesizers. To learn more about how the addition of
harmonics changes a sound, go to the Functions 11
page of the McGraw-Hill Ryerson Web site and follow
the links to Chapter 5.

c) 6YYi]Zi]^gY]Vgbdc^X!h^c(x!idndjg
2. Chapter ProblemHdjcYhXVcWZbdYZaaZY

jh^c\h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dch#6h^beaZ
^chigjbZcihjX]VhV[ajiZegdYjXZhV
hdjcYi]ViXVcWZbdYZaaZYkZgnXadhZan
jh^c\i]Z[jcXi^dcyh^cx#6hhdjcYh
WZXdbZbdgZXdbeaZm!i]ZbdYZabjhi
WZXdbZbdgZXdbeaZm#;dgZmVbeaZ!i]Z

bdYZaVcYh`ZiX]i]Z\gVe]#8dbeVgZ
i]Z\gVe]idi]Zh^beaZh^cZlVkZVcY
idi]Zh^cZlVkZid\Zi]Zgl^i]i]Z
hZXdcY]Vgbdc^X#

5.2 The Sine Function and the Cosine Function MHR 299

3. I]Z]djg]VcY

dcVXadX`]VhV
aZc\i]d[&'Xb#
AZii]Zdg^\^cWZ
Vii]ZXZcigZd[i]Z
XadX`#

Reasoning and Proving


Representing

Selecting Tools

Problem Solving
Connecting

Reecting

Communicating

a) H`ZiX]i]Z

\gVe]d[i]ZkZgi^XVaedh^i^dcd[i]Z
i^ed[i]Z]djg]VcYkZghjhi]ZVc\aZ
i]gdj\]l]^X]i]Z]VcYijgch[dgVi^bZ
eZg^dYd[,']#6hhjbZi]Vii]Z]djg
]VcYhiVgihVi.#
b) H`ZiX]i]Z\gVe]d[i]Z]dg^odciVa

edh^i^dcd[i]Zi^ed[i]Z]djg]VcY
kZghjhi]ZVc\aZi]gdj\]l]^X]i]Z
]VcYijgch[dgVi^bZeZg^dYd[,']#
6hhjbZi]Vii]Z]djg]VcYhiVgihVi(#
c) =dlbVcnXnXaZhVeeZVg^ci]Z\gVe]

^ceVgiV4
d) =dlbVcnXnXaZhl^aaVeeZVg^ci]Z

\gVe]^ceVgiV^[ndjjhZi]Zb^cjiZ
]VcYgVi]Zgi]Vci]Z]djg]VcY4
:meaV^cndjgegZY^Xi^dc#

Extend

4. L]ViYdZhi]Z\gVe]d[yiVcxadd`

a^`Z4JhZVXVaXjaVidgid^ckZhi^\ViZ#GdjcY
kVajZhd[iVcxidi]gZZYZX^bVaeaVXZh#
a) 8dchigjXiViVWaZd[kVajZh[dgxVcY

iVcx#JhZ&%^cXgZbZcihjeid,%#
I]Zc!jhZ*^cXgZbZcihjeid-*#
8]Vc\Zid&^cXgZbZcihjeid-.#
b) L]Vi]VeeZchidi]ZkVajZd[

iVcxVhxVeegdVX]Zh.%4GZk^Zl
i]Zjc^iX^gXaZVcYZmeaV^cl]ni]^h
]VeeZch#L]Vi^hi]ZkVajZd[iVc.%4
c) 8dci^cjZndjgiVWaZd[kVajZhjeid

(+%#6Y_jhii]Z^cXgZbZciVhgZfj^gZY#
d) JhZndjgiVWaZd[kVajZhidYgVlV

\gVe]d[yiVcx#Id`ZZei]ZhXVaZ
bVcV\ZVWaZ!jhZy"kVajZh[gdb&%id
&%#6aadlheVXZdci]Z]dg^odciVaVm^h
x"kVajZh[gdb,'%id,'%#

300 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

e) 9gVli]ZVhnbeidiZhVhkZgi^XVaYVh]ZY

a^cZhVix.%VcYx',%dci]^h
\gVe]#I]Z\gVe]d[i]ZiVc\Zci[jcXi^dc
VeegdVX]Zh!WjicZkZggZVX]Zh!ZVX]d[
i]ZhZVhnbeidiZh#
f) EgZY^Xil]Vii]Z\gVe]l^aaadd`a^`Z^[

^i^hZmiZcYZYeVhix(+%idx,'%#
L]ZgZl^aai]ZVhnbeidiZhWZYgVlc4
JhZi]ZXVaXjaVidgidX]ZX`V[Zl
ed^cih#I]Zc!h`ZiX]i]Z\gVe][gdb
x(+%idx,'%#
g) EgZY^Xil]Vii]Z\gVe]l^aaadd`a^`Z^[

^i^hZmiZcYZYaZ[ieVhix%#L]ZgZ
l^aai]ZVhnbeidiZhWZYgVlc4JhZi]Z
XVaXjaVidgidX]ZX`V[Zled^cih#I]Zc!
h`ZiX]i]Z\gVe][gdbx,'%id
x%#
h) >hi]Z\gVe]d[yiVcxeZg^dY^X4

?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg#>[i]Z[jcXi^dc^h
eZg^dY^X!YZiZgb^cZi]ZeZg^dY#
5. a) H]dli]Vi

yiVcx^hV
[jcXi^dc#
b) >h^iedhh^WaZ

Reasoning and Proving


Representing

Selecting Tools

Problem Solving
Connecting

id^YZci^[ni]Z
Vbea^ijYZd[
i]Z[jcXi^dc4
?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg#

Reecting

Communicating

c) ;dgl]Vi^ciZgkVahd[kVajZh[dgx[gdb

%id(+%^hi]Z[jcXi^dc^cXgZVh^c\4
;dgl]Vi^ciZgkVah^h^iYZXgZVh^c\4
d) Use TechnologyJhZV\gVe]^c\

XVaXjaVidgideadii]ZiVc\Zci[jcXi^dc
[gdbx(+%idx(+%#8dbeVgZ
i]Z\gVe]dci]ZXVaXjaVidgidi]Z\gVe]
i]Vindjh`ZiX]ZY^cfjZhi^dc)#
e) NdjXVcVYYVhnbeidiZhViVeegdeg^ViZ

kVajZhd[x#GZijgcidi]Z]dbZhXgZZc#
EgZhh 2nd P9G6LR#HZaZXi
4:Vertical!VcYineZ.%#GZijgcidi]Z
\gVe]#CdiZi]ViVkZgi^XVaa^cZVeeZVgh
Vix.%#6YYdi]ZgVhnbeidiZhVh
Veegdeg^ViZ#

f) L]Vi^hi]ZYdbV^cd[i]ZiVc\Zci

9. 8dch^YZgi]Z[jcXi^dcyh^cxXdhx#

[jcXi^dc4L]Vi^hi]ZgVc\Z4Lg^iZZVX]
jh^c\hZicdiVi^dc#

a) EgZY^Xii]Zy"^ciZgXZeid[i]Z[jcXi^dc#
b) EgZY^Xii]Zx"^ciZgXZeih[gdb%id(+%#

?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg#

6. a) H`ZiX]i]Z[jcXi^dcfxh^cx[gdb

x%idx(+%#

c) JhZV\gVe]dgV\gVe]^c\XVaXjaVidgid

kZg^[nndjgVchlZghideVgihVVcYW#

b) GZk^Zli]ZYZ[^c^i^dcd[XdhZXVci#Jh^c\

ndjg\gVe][gdbeVgiV!YZiZgb^cZi]Z
h]VeZd[i]Z\gVe]d[yXhXx#

10. Math Contest;dg%(+%!dkZg

l]Vi^ciZgkVah^hh^cXdh4

c) JhZ\g^YeVeZgVcYVhX^Zci^[^X

11. Math Contest;dg.%.%![dg

XVaXjaVidg!dgV\gVe]^c\XVaXjaVidg!
idX]ZX`ndjgVchlZgideVgiW#6YY
VhnbeidiZhl]ZgZVeegdeg^ViZ#

l]VikVajZhd[YdZhiVcXdi4
12. Math Contest;gdbVa^hid[[^kZcjbWZgh!

d) H]dli]ViyXhXx^hV[jcXi^dc#

VeV^gVgZX]dhZcVcYi]ZcidiVaaZY#I]Z
hjbhd[Vaaedhh^WaZeV^ghVgZ)!-!&%!&'!
&)!&-!'%!''!'+!VcY(%#L]Vi^hi]Zhjb
d[Vaa[^kZcjbWZgh4

e) L]Vi^hi]ZYdbV^cd[i]Z[jcXi^dc4

L]Vi^hi]ZgVc\Z4
7. JhZVbZi]dYh^b^aVgidi]Vi^cfjZhi^dc+

A &+)B-'

idVcVanhZi]Z\gVe]d[yhZXx#

C )&Dcdiedhh^WaZidYZiZgb^cZ

8. JhZVbZi]dYh^b^aVgidi]Vi^cfjZhi^dc+

idVcVanhZi]Z\gVe]d[yXdix#

Career Connection
BVg^V]XdbeaZiZYVi]gZZ"nZVgY^eadbV^c
gZhe^gVidgni]ZgVenVi8VcVYdgZ8daaZ\ZVcYi]Zc
VXXjbjaViZYi]gZZnZVghd[ZmeZg^ZcXZ#Cdl
h]Z^hVeZg[jh^dc^hi!l]ZgZh]ZVhh^hihYjg^c\
deZc"]ZVgihjg\ZgnWndeZgVi^c\i]Z]ZVgi"ajc\
bVX]^cZ#I]^hbVX]^cZ[jcXi^dch^ceaVXZ
d[VeVi^Zcih]ZVgiVcYajc\hl]^aZi]ZnVgZ
WZ^c\deZgViZYdc0^iiV`Zhi]ZeVi^ZcihWaddY!
dmn\ZcViZh^i!VcYejbeh^iWVX`^cidi]ZWdYn#
I]^hVaadlhi]ZYdXidgidhidei]ZeVi^Zcih]ZVgi
hdi]Vi^iXVcWZldg`ZYdc#BVg^V]^hdeZgVi^c\
i]ZeVi^Zciha^[Za^cZh]Zbjhibdc^idgk^iVa
h^\chVcYbV`ZcZXZhhVgnVY_jhibZcihidi]Z
]ZVgi"ajc\bVX]^cZVhlZaaVhVYb^c^hiZgYgj\h!
^cigVkZcdjh[aj^Yh!VcYWaddY#

5.2 The Sine Function and the Cosine Function MHR 301

Use Technology
Dynamically Unwrap the Unit Circle
Tools
graphing calculator

9gVlV\gVe]d[i]Zjc^iX^gXaZVcYeadiVed^ciVi&!%#GZXVaai]Vii]Z
XddgY^cViZhd[Ved^cidci]Zjc^iX^gXaZXVcWZZmegZhhZYVh
Xdh!h^c!l]ZgZ^hVcVc\aZ^chiVcYVgYedh^i^dc#>bV\^cZi]Zed^ci
bdk^c\XdjciZgXadX`l^hZVgdjcYi]ZX^gXaZ#6hi]Zed^cibdkZh!i]Z
Vc\aZ^cXgZVhZh[gdb%id(+%#6ii]ZhVbZi^bZ!i]Zy"XddgY^cViZd[
i]Zed^ci[daadlhi]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dc#NdjXVcjhZV\gVe]^c\XVaXjaVidgid
eadii]Zjc^iX^gXaZVcYi]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dch^bjaiVcZdjhan#
1. EgZhh MODE #HZii]Z[djgi]a^cZideVgVbZig^X

bdYZPARVcYi]Zh^mi]a^cZidh^bjaiVcZdjh
bdYZSIMUL#

Te c h n o l o g y

Tip

When you are in


parametric mode,
pressing X, T, U, n will
return a T.

2. >ceVgVbZig^XbdYZ!ndjXVcZciZgVhZeVgViZZfjVi^dc[dgZVX]d[

xVcYy^ciZgbhd[Vi]^gYeVgVbZiZg#I]ZXVaXjaVidgVhh^\chi]Z
kVg^VWaZIidi]Zi]^gYeVgVbZiZg#I]ZSIMULbdYZl^aaeadii]Zild
\gVe]hVii]ZhVbZi^bZ!gVi]Zgi]VcdcZV[iZgi]Zdi]Zg#EgZhh Y= #
Cdi^XZi]Vii]Za^hiadd`hhdbZl]ViY^[[ZgZci[gdbl]VindjVgZjhZY
id#:ciZgi]ZZmegZhh^dcXdhI[dgX1TVcYh^cI[dgY1T#
3. Reflect8dbeVgZi]ZhZZmegZhh^dchidi]ZXddgY^cViZhd[Ved^cidc

i]Zjc^iX^gXaZ#
4. Eadii]Zjc^iX^gXaZVcYi]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dcdc

i]ZhVbZhZid[VmZh#I]Zjc^iX^gXaZ]VhV
gVY^jhd[&VcYi]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dccZZYhVc
^ciZgkVad[%id(+%[dgdcZXnXaZ#I]ZhZ
hXVaZhVgZcdiXdbeVi^WaZ#IdXdbeZchViZ!
VY_jhii]ZhXVaZ[dgi]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dcWn
Y^k^Y^c\Wn+%#I]^hVaadlhndjidjhZV
l^cYdli]ViXVcVXXdbbdYViZWdi]\gVe]h#
:ciZgI$+%[dgX2TVcYh^cI[dgY2T#

302 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

5. EgZhh WINDOW #I]Zl^cYdlkVg^VWaZhl^aaVahdadd`Va^iiaZY^[[ZgZci

[gdbl]VindjVgZjhZYid#HZii]ZI^ciZgkVa[gdb%id(+%l^i]V
hXVaZd[&!i]ZM^ciZgkVa[gdb'id-l^i]VhXVaZd[&!VcYi]Z
N^ciZgkVa[gdb(id(l^i]VhXVaZd[&#

6. EgZhh GRAPH #LViX]]dli]Zjc^iX^gXaZVcY

i]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dcVgZYgVlc^chiZel^i]ZVX]
di]Zg#Note:@ZZe^cb^cYi]Vii]ZhXVaZhVgZ
Y^[[ZgZci[dgi]Zild\gVe]hhdi]VindjXVc
Y^heaVni]Zbdci]ZhVbZhXgZZc#;dgi]Zjc^i
X^gXaZ!ZVX]bVg`dci]Zx"Vm^hgZegZhZcih
&jc^i#;dgi]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dc!ZVX]bVg`dci]Z
x"Vm^hgZegZhZcih+%#

7. ReflectI]Z^chigjXi^dchY^gZXindjiddeZgViZi]Z\gVe]^c\

XVaXjaVidg^cVbdYZi]Vi^hegdWVWancZlidndj#GZk^ZlZVX]
hiZeidZchjgZi]VindjjcYZghiVcYl]Vi^hWZ^c\YdcZ^ci]VihiZe#
:meaV^ci]ZgdaZd[I^ci]Z[jcXi^dchWZ^c\\gVe]ZY#
8. BdY^[nhiZeh&id+ideadii]Zjc^iX^gXaZVadc\l^i]i]ZXdh^cZ

XjgkZ#L]ViX]Vc\ZhYdndjcZZYidbV`Z4:meaV^cl]ni]ZhZ
X]Vc\ZhVgZcZXZhhVgn#

Extend
9. HjeedhZi]VindjlVciideadii]Zjc^iX^gXaZVadc\l^i]i]ZiVc\Zci!

XdhZXVci!hZXVci!VcYXdiVc\ZciXjgkZh!dcZViVi^bZ#

Te c h n o l o g y

Tip

If you want to watch


the graphs be drawn
again, you cannot just
press QUIT and then
press GRAPH . The
graphing calculator
remembers the last
graph that you asked
for, and will just
display it, provided
that you have not
made any changes
that affect the graph.
There are several
ways to get around
this feature. One is
to select PlotsOn
from the STATPLOT
menu and then select
PlotsOff. When you
press GRAPH , the unit
circle and sine function
will be drawn again.

a) :meaV^cl]^X]d[hiZeh&id+cZZYidWZX]Vc\ZYVcYl]^X]Yd

cdi#
b) BV`Zi]ZX]Vc\Zhi]Vindj^YZci^[^ZY^ceVgiV#I]Zc!eadii]Z

[djg\gVe]h#

Use Technology: Dynamically Unwrap the Unit Circle MHR 303

5.3
Investigate
Transformations of Sine
and Cosine Functions
BVcngZVa"ldgaYegdXZhhZhXVcWZbdYZaaZYl^i]h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dch#=dlZkZg!i]ZWVh^Xh^cZ
[jcXi^dcjhjVaangZfj^gZhdcZdgbdgZigVch[dgbVi^dchid[^ii]ZeVgVbZiZghd[i]ZegdXZhh#DcZ
ZmVbeaZ^hi]Zedh^i^dcd[i]ZhjcVWdkZi]Z]dg^odccdgi]d[i]Z6gXi^X8^gXaZ^chjbbZg#7ZXVjhZ
i]ZhjcYdZhcdihZiYjg^c\i]^hi^bZ!i]ZgZ^hcdcZ\Vi^kZkVajZ[dg^ihedh^i^dcgZaVi^kZidi]Z
]dg^odc#6hVgZhjai!i]ZWVh^Xh^cZ[jcXi^dcbjhiWZVY_jhiZYhdi]Vii]ZgVc\Z]VhcdcZ\Vi^kZ
kVajZh#
>ci]^hhZXi^dc!ndjl^aaaZVgc]dlidigVch[dgbi]Zh^cZVcYXdh^cZ[jcXi^dchhdi]VindjXVcjhZ
i]ZbVhbdYZah[dggZVa"ldgaYVeea^XVi^dchaViZg^ci]ZX]VeiZg#

Investigate

Tools
graphing calculator
Optional
graphing software

How can you investigate transformations of sine and cosine functions


using technology?
A: Graph y = a sin x
1. a) JhZV\gVe]^c\XVaXjaVidgdg\gVe]^c\hd[ilVgZid\gVe]yh^cx

VcYy'h^cxdci]ZhVbZhZid[VmZh![gdbx%idx(+%#
b) =dlVgZi]Z\gVe]hh^b^aVg4=dlVgZi]ZnY^[[ZgZci4
2. a) 6YYi]Z\gVe]d[y(h^cxidi]ZhVbZhZid[VmZh#
b) L]Vi^hi]ZZ[[ZXid[bjai^ean^c\i]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dcWnVXdchiVci

[VXidg4
Te c h n o l o g y

Tip

Another way to
compare two graphs
is to toggle them on
and off. In the Y=
editor, move the cursor
over the equal sign
and press ENTER .
When the equal sign is
highlighted, the graph
is displayed. When
the equal sign is not
highlighted, the graph
is not displayed.

3. a) =^YZi]Z\gVe]hd[y'h^cxVcYy(h^cx#EgZY^Xii]Zh]VeZ

&h^cx#?jhi^[nndjgegZY^Xi^dc#
d[i]Z\gVe]d[yT
'
&
T
b) <gVe]y  h^cxVcYXdbeVgZi]Z\gVe]idi]Z\gVe]d[yh^cx#
'
LVhndjgegZY^Xi^dcXdggZXi4


T& 

4. a) =^YZi]Z\gVe]d[y  h^cx#EgZY^Xii]Zh]VeZd[i]Z\gVe]d[

'
yh^cx#?jhi^[nndjgegZY^Xi^dc#

b) <gVe]yh^cxVcYXdbeVgZi]Z\gVe]idi]Z\gVe]d[

yh^cx#LVhndjgegZY^Xi^dcXdggZXi4
c) EgZY^Xii]Zh]VeZd[i]Z\gVe]d[y'h^cx#KZg^[nndjg

304 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

egZY^Xi^dcWn\gVe]^c\#

5. Reflect8dch^YZgi]ZigVch[dgbVi^dcd[i]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dci]VigZhjaih

[gdbbjai^ean^c\i]Z[jcXi^dcWnV[VXidga/yah^cx#9ZhXg^WZi]Z
igVch[dgbVi^dcjcYZgi]Z[daadl^c\XdcY^i^dch#
a) a& 

b) % a &

c) a &

d) & a %

B: Graph y = sin kx
1. a) <gVe]i]Z[jcXi^dchyh^cxVcYyh^c'xdci]ZhVbZhZid[

VmZh[gdbx%idx(+%#
b) =dlVgZi]Z\gVe]hh^b^aVg4=dlVgZi]ZnY^[[ZgZci4
c) =dlVgZi]ZeZg^dYhgZaViZY4
2. a) =^YZi]Z\gVe]d[yh^c'x#EgZY^Xii]ZeZg^dYd[i]Z\gVe]d[

yh^c(x#
b) <gVe]yh^c(xidkZg^[nndjgegZY^Xi^dc#
3. a) =^YZi]Z\gVe]d[yh^c(x#EgZY^Xii]ZeZg^dYd[i]Z\gVe]d[

&x#
yh^cT
'
&
b) <gVe]yh^cTxidkZg^[nndjgegZY^Xi^dc#NdjbVncZZYid
'
&x.
VY_jhindjgl^cYdlidVXXdbbdYViZdcZ[jaaXnXaZd[yh^cT
'


4. Reflect8dch^YZgi]ZigVch[dgbVi^dcd[i]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dci]VigZhjaih

[gdbbjai^ean^c\i]ZkVg^VWaZxWnV[VXidgk/yh^ckx#
a) =dl^hi]ZeZg^dYd[yh^ckxgZaViZYidi]ZeZg^dYd[yh^cx4
b) 9ZhXg^WZi]ZigVch[dgbVi^dci]VidXXjghl]Zck&VcYl]Zc

% k &#
c) 9ZhXg^WZi]ZigVch[dgbVi^dci]VidXXjghl]Zck &VcYl]Zc

& k %#<gVe]idX]ZX`ndjgXdc_ZXijgZh#


C: Graph y = sin (x d)
1 a) <gVe]i]Z[jcXi^dchyh^cxVcYyh^cx(%dci]ZhVbZ

hZid[VmZh[gdbx%idx(+%#
b) =dlVgZi]Z\gVe]hh^b^aVg4=dlVgZi]ZnY^[[ZgZci4
2. a) EgZY^Xil]Vii]Z\gVe]d[yh^cx+%l^aaadd`a^`Z#?jhi^[n

ndjgegZY^Xi^dc#
b) <gVe]yh^cx+%idkZg^[nndjgegZY^Xi^dc#
3. a) EgZY^Xil]Vii]Z\gVe]d[yh^cx(%l^aaadd`a^`Z#?jhi^[n

ndjgegZY^Xi^dc#
b) <gVe]yh^cx(%idkZg^[nndjgegZY^Xi^dc#
4. Reflect8dch^YZgi]ZigVch[dgbVi^dcd[i]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dci]VigZhjaih

[gdbhjWigVXi^c\VeVgVbZiZgd[gdbi]ZkVg^VWaZx/yh^cxd#
9ZhXg^WZi]ZigVch[dgbVi^dcjcYZgi]Z[daadl^c\XdcY^i^dch#
a) d3% 

b)d1%
5.3 Investigate Transformations of Sine and Cosine Functions MHR 305

D: Graph y = sin x + c
1. a) <gVe]i]Z[jcXi^dchyh^cxVcYyh^cx&dci]ZhVbZhZi

d[VmZh[gdbx%idx(+%#
b) =dlVgZi]Z\gVe]hh^b^aVg4=dlVgZi]ZnY^[[ZgZci4
2. a) EgZY^Xil]Vii]Z\gVe]d[yh^cx&l^aaadd`a^`Z#?jhi^[nndjg

egZY^Xi^dc#
b) <gVe]yh^cx&idkZg^[nndjgegZY^Xi^dc#
3. a) EgZY^Xil]Vii]Z\gVe]d[yh^cx(l^aaadd`a^`Z#?jhi^[nndjg

egZY^Xi^dc#
b) <gVe]yh^cx(idkZg^[nndjgegZY^Xi^dc#NdjbVncZZYid

VY_jhindjgl^cYdlkVg^VWaZhidY^heaVni]Z\gVe]egdeZgan#
4. Reflect8dch^YZgi]ZigVch[dgbVi^dcd[i]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dci]VigZhjaih

[gdbVYY^c\VeVgVbZiZgcidi]Z[jcXi^dc/yh^cxc#9ZhXg^WZ
i]ZigVch[dgbVi^dcjcYZgi]Z[daadl^c\XdcY^i^dch#
a) c% 

b) c %

5. ReflectGZk^ZlndjggZ[aZXi^dch[gdbeVgih6!7!8!VcY9#8denVcY

XdbeaZiZViVWaZh^b^aVgidi]ZdcZh]dlcidhjbbVg^oZi]ZZ[[ZXi
i]Vii]ZkVajZd[ZVX]d[i]ZhZ[VXidgh]Vhdci]Z[dgbd[i]Z\gVe]#
I]Z[^ghia^cZd[i]ZiVWaZ^h[^aaZY^c[dgndj#
Factor

Value

Effect

a>1

amplitude is greater than 1

0<a<1
1 < a < 0
a < 1
k>1

0<k<1
1 < k < 0
k < 1

d
c

d>0
d<0
c>0
c<0

Example 1
Functions of the Form y = a sin kx
8dch^YZgi]Z[jcXi^dcy(h^c)x#
a) L]Vi^hi]ZVbea^ijYZ4
b) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dY4
c) =dlbVcnXnXaZhl^aadXXjgWZilZZcx%VcYx(+%4
d) <gVe]i]Z[jcXi^dc[gdbx%idx(+%#
306 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

Solution
8dbeVgZy(h^c)xidyah^ckx#
a) a(0i]Zy"kVajZhd[i]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dcVgZbjai^ea^ZYWnV[VXidgd[

(#I]ZVbea^ijYZ^h(jc^ih#
(+%
T
 
.%#

b) k)0idYZiZgb^cZi]ZeZg^dY!Y^k^YZ(+%Wnk/

I]ZeZg^dY^h.%#
c) H^cXZi]ZeZg^dY^h.%VcYk)![djgXnXaZhl^aadXXjgWZilZZc

%VcY(+%#
d)

y
3

90

270

180

360 x

Example 2
Functions of the Form y = a sin (x d) + c
8dch^YZgi]Z[jcXi^dcyh^cx)*'#
a) L]Vi^hi]ZVbea^ijYZ4
b) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dY4
c) 9ZhXg^WZi]Ze]VhZh]^[i!dg]dg^odciVaigVchaVi^dc#

Con n ec t i on s

d) 9ZhXg^WZi]ZkZgi^XVah]^[i!dgkZgi^XVaigVchaVi^dc#

In a sinusoidal function,
a horizontal translation
is also known as a
phase shift. A vertical
translation is also
known as a vertical
shift.

e) <gVe]i]Z[jcXi^dc[gdbx%idx,'%#

Solution
8dbeVgZyh^cx)*'idyah^cxdc#
a) a&0i]ZVbea^ijYZd[i]Z[jcXi^dc^h&#
b) k&0i]ZeZg^dYd[i]Z[jcXi^dc^h(+%#
c) d)*0i]Ze]VhZh]^[i^h)*idi]Zg^\]i#
d) c'0i]ZkZgi^XVah]^[i^h'jc^ihje#
e)

y
4
2
0

180

360

540

720 x

5.3 Investigate Transformations of Sine and Cosine Functions MHR 307

Example 3
Functions of the Form y = a sin [k(x d)] + c
8dch^YZgi]Z[jcXi^dcy'h^cP(x(%R&#
a) L]Vi^hi]ZVbea^ijYZ4
b) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dY4
c) 9ZhXg^WZi]Ze]VhZh]^[i#
d) 9ZhXg^WZi]ZkZgi^XVah]^[i#
e) <gVe]i]Z[jcXi^dc[gdbx%idx(+%#

Solution
8dbeVgZy'h^cP(x(%R&idyah^cPkxdRc#
a) a'0i]ZVbea^ijYZd[i]Z[jcXi^dc^h'#

(+%
T
 
&'%#

b) k(0i]ZeZg^dYd[i]Z[jcXi^dc^h
The value of d is negative.
This indicates a horizontal
translation to the left.

c) d(%0i]Ze]VhZh]^[i^h(%idi]ZaZ[i#
d) c&0i]ZkZgi^XVah]^[i^h&jc^iYdlc#
e)

y
2
0

90

180

270

360 x

Key Concepts
I]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dcbVnWZigVch[dgbZYWn^cigdYjX^c\
[VXidgha!k!d!VcYc/yah^cPkxdRc
 aYZiZgb^cZhi]ZVbea^ijYZd[i]Z[jcXi^dc#I]ZVbea^ijYZ^hqaq#

(+%
 kYZiZgb^cZhi]ZeZg^dY!p!d[i]Z[jcXi^dcVXXdgY^c\idi]ZgZaVi^dcpT
#
qkq
 dYZiZgb^cZhi]Z]dg^odciVaigVchaVi^dc!dge]VhZh]^[i!d[i]Z[jcXi^dc#>[d^hedh^i^kZ!
i]Zh]^[i^hidi]Zg^\]i#>[d^hcZ\Vi^kZ!i]Zh]^[i^hidi]ZaZ[i#
 cYZiZgb^cZhi]ZkZgi^XVaigVchaVi^dc!dgkZgi^XVah]^[i!d[i]Z[jcXi^dc#>[c^hedh^i^kZ!i]Z
h]^[i^hje#>[c^hcZ\Vi^kZ!i]Zh]^[i^hYdlc#
I]ZXdh^cZ[jcXi^dcbVnWZigVch[dgbZY^ci]ZhVbZlVn/yaXdhPkxdRc.Ndj
l^aaldg`i]gdj\]ZmVbeaZh^ckdak^c\i]ZXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc^ci]ZZmZgX^hZh#

308 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

Communicate Your Understanding


C1  8dch^YZgi]Z\gVe]d[y*h^c'xc#L]VikVajZhd[cVgZgZfj^gZYhdi]Vii]Z\gVe]]Vh

dcanedh^i^kZy"kVajZh4:meaV^c]dlndj[djcYndjgVchlZg#

C2  8dbeVgZi]Z[daadl^c\\gVe]h#:meaV^c]dlV]dg^odciVagZ[aZXi^dcXVcWZjhZYidigVch[dgb

\gVe]V^cid\gVe]W#

a)

b)

2
180

2
180

360

180

180

360 x

C3  8dch^YZgi]Z\gVe]hd[yh^cxVcYyXdhx#9ZiZgb^cZildlVnh^cl]^X]i]Z\gVe]d[i]Z

Xdh^cZ[jcXi^dcXVcWZZmegZhhZYVhV]dg^odciVaigVchaVi^dcd[i]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dc#

A Practise
For help with questions 1 to 3, refer to
Example 1.

For help with Questions 4 to 8, refer to


Examples 2 and 3.

1. H`ZiX]dcZXnXaZ[dgZVX][jcXi^dc#>cXajYZ

VcVeegdeg^ViZhXVaZdcZVX]Vm^h#HiViZ
i]ZkZgi^XVahigZiX]VcYVbea^ijYZd[i]Z
[jcXi^dc#
(
a) y)h^cx
b) yT h^cx
'
*
c) y*h^cx
d) yT h^cx
)

4. Lg^iZildZfjVi^dch!dcZ^ci]Z[dgb

yah^ckxVcYdcZ^ci]Z[dgb
yaXdhPkx  dR!idbViX]ZVX]\gVe]#
a)

y
6
4
2

2. H`ZiX]dcZXnXaZ[dgZVX][jcXi^dc#>cXajYZ

VcVeegdeg^ViZhXVaZdcZVX]Vm^h#HiViZi]Z
kZgi^XVahigZiX]VcYi]Zci]ZVbea^ijYZd[
i]Z[jcXi^dc#
&
a) y(Xdhx
b) yT Xdhx
'
'
c) y'Xdhx
d) yT Xdhx
(
3. 9ZiZgb^cZi]Z]dg^odciVahigZiX]VcYi]Z

eZg^dYd[ZVX][jcXi^dc#

T' 
(
&
&
T
T
y h^c x

a) y'h^c*x

b) y(h^c x

&
c) n-h^cTx

d)

e) y)Xdhx

f) y'Xdh-x

T& 

g) y  Xdh&'x

'

'

'

T* 

90

180

270

360 x

90

180

270

360 x

2
4
6

b)

y
3

0
3

T( 
)

h) y  Xdh x

5.3 Investigate Transformations of Sine and Cosine Functions MHR 309

5. Lg^iZildZfjVi^dch!dcZ^ci]Z[dgb

9. a) HiViZi]ZkZgi^XVah]^[iVcYi]Z

Vbea^ijYZd[ZVX]h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc#

yaXdhkxVcYdcZ^ci]Z[dgb
yah^cPkx  dR!idbViX]ZVX]\gVe]#

i)yXdhx,%

a)

ii)y(Xdhx&

iii)yXdhx(*'

iv)y)Xdhx&'%(

y
4
2

b) H`ZiX]ildXnXaZhd[i]Z\gVe]d[ZVX]
0

90

180

270

360 x

[jcXi^dc#>cXajYZVcVeegdeg^ViZhXVaZ
dcZVX]Vm^h#

2
4

B Connect and Apply


b)

10. I]ZkZgi^XVa

y
2

Reasoning and Proving

h]^[il^i]gZheZXiidyh^cx[dgZVX]
[jcXi^dc#

edh^i^dc!y!^c
Representing
Selecting Tools
XZci^bZigZh!d[V
Problem Solving
ed^cidci]Zg^b
d[i]Zl]ZZad[V
Connecting
Reecting
hiVi^dcVgnZmZgX^hZ
Communicating
W^XnXaZV[iZgi^bZ!t!
^chZXdcYh!XVcWZbdYZaaZYWni]Z
ZfjVi^dcy)%h^c,'%t*%#

a) yh^cx*%(

a) L]Vi^hi]ZadlZhikZgi^XVaedh^i^dci]Vi

90

180

270

360 x

6. 9ZiZgb^cZi]Ze]VhZh]^[iVcYi]ZkZgi^XVa

i]Zed^cigZVX]Zh4

b) y'h^cx)*&
c) y*h^cx'*)

b) L]Vi^hi]Z]^\]ZhikZgi^XVaedh^i^dc

i]Vii]Zed^cigZVX]Zh4

d) y(h^cP'x+%R'

c) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dYd[gdiVi^dcd[i]Z
7. 9ZiZgb^cZi]Ze]VhZh]^[iVcYi]ZkZgi^XVa

h]^[il^i]gZheZXiidyXdhx[dgZVX]
[jcXi^dc#

l]ZZa!^chZXdcYh4
d) HjeedhZi]Vii]ZeZg^dYd[i]ZgdiVi^dc

d[i]Zl]ZZaig^eaZh#=dlYdZhi]Z
ZfjVi^dcX]Vc\Z4?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg#

a) yXdhx(%
b) y)Xdhx('+
c) y.Xdhx&'%*

11. a) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZVbea^ijYZ!i]ZeZg^dY!

i]Ze]VhZh]^[i!VcYi]ZkZgi^XVah]^[id[
ZVX][jcXi^dc#

d) y&'XdhP*x&*%R,

i)y*h^cP)x+%R'

h]^[id[ZVX]h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc#

i)yh^cx&%%&

ii)y'h^cx(

ii)y'XdhP'x&*%R*
&
&
iii)yT h^c Tx+%  &
'
'
iv)y%#-XdhP(#+x)%R%#)

iii)yh^cx)*'

b) Use Technology<gVe]ZVX][jcXi^dc

iv)y(h^cx&'%'

8. a) HiViZi]Ze]VhZh]^[iVcYi]ZkZgi^XVa

b) H`ZiX]ildXnXaZhd[i]Z\gVe]d[ZVX]

[jcXi^dc#>cXajYZVcVeegdeg^ViZhXVaZ
dcZVX]Vm^h#

310 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

P

jh^c\iZX]cdad\n#8dbeVgZi]Z\gVe]id
i]ZX]VgVXiZg^hi^XhndjZmeZXiZY#

12. I]Zi]Zdgnd[W^dg]ni]bhhZZ`hidZmeaV^c

l]neZdeaZ]VkZ\ddYYVnhVcYWVY
YVnh#6XXdgY^c\idi]Zi]Zdgn!i]gZZ
eZg^dY^X[jcXi^dchWZ\^cViW^gi]VcYhiVn
l^i]ndji]gdj\]djindjga^[Z#I]Ze]nh^XVa
XnXaZ]VhVeZg^dYd['(YVnh!i]ZZbdi^dcVa
XnXaZ]VhVeZg^dYd['-YVnh!VcYi]Z
^ciZaaZXijVaXnXaZ]VhVeZg^dYd[((YVnh#
6hVeZghdcbdkZhi]gdj\]a^[Z!i]ZXnXaZh
adhZe]VhZl^i]ZVX]di]Zg!WjigZijgccdl
VcYi]Zcidi]ZhVbZe]VhZ!hjX]i]ViVaa
i]gZZbVm^bjbkVajZhXd^cX^YZ#L]ZcZkZg
Vg]ni]bXgdhhZhi]Zi^bZVm^h!VXg^i^XVa
YVndXXjgh#

VhdjcYlVkZXVcWZbdYZaaZYVh
y+)h^cktViVY^hiVcXZd[&b[gdb^ih
hdjgXZ#6iVY^hiVcXZd['b!
+)
aT
''
 &+
I]ZbdYZaa^c\ZfjVi^dcWZXdbZh
y&+h^ckt#
a) Lg^iZi]ZbdYZaa^c\ZfjVi^dcViV

Y^hiVcXZd[)b[gdbi]ZhdjgXZ#
b) Lg^iZi]ZbdYZaa^c\ZfjVi^dcViV

Y^hiVcXZd[-b[gdbi]ZhdjgXZ#
c) =dl[Vg[gdbi]ZhdjgXZYdZhi]Z

bdYZaa^c\ZfjVi^dcWZXdbZ
&h^ckt4
yT
)

14. I]Z\gVe]d[

a) 6hhjb^c\VcVbea^ijYZd[&!bdYZa

ZVX]W^dg]ni]be]nh^XVa!Zbdi^dcVa!
VcY^ciZaaZXijVal^i]Vh^cZ[jcXi^dc
i]ViWZ\^chViW^gi]#
b) JhZ\g^YeVeZgdgiZX]cdad\nideadiVaa

i]gZZ[jcXi^dchdci]ZhVbZhZid[VmZh
[dgi]Z[^ghi&*%YVnhd[a^[Z#
c) >YZci^[n\ddYYVnhl]ZcilddgbdgZ

W^dg]ni]bhgZVX]VbVm^bjbdgXadhZ
idVbVm^bjb#
d) >YZci^[nWVYYVnhl]ZcilddgbdgZ

W^dg]ni]bhgZVX]Vb^c^bjbdgXadhZ
idVb^c^bjb#
13. Chapter ProblemI]Z]jbVcZVg

^ciZgegZihi]ZVbea^ijYZd[VhdjcYlVkZ
VhadjYcZhh#I]jh!VhdjcYlVkZbdYZaaZY
Wny'h^ckt^hadjYZgi]VcVhdjcY
lVkZbdYZaaZYWnyh^ckt#7ZXVjhZi]Z
]jbVcZVgYdZhcdideZgViZdcVa^cZVg
hXVaZ!i]ZeZgXZ^kZYadjYcZhhgVi^d^h
cdiVXijVaan'/&#L]ZcVc^chigjbZci^h
eaVnZY!i]ZhdjcYlVkZhegZVYhdji^cV
he]Zg^XVaeViiZgc#I]ZVbea^ijYZYZXgZVhZh
Vhi]ZhfjVgZd[i]ZY^hiVcXZ#HjeedhZi]Vi

Reasoning and Proving

yh^cx^h
Representing
Selecting Tools
igVch[dgbZYhdi]Vi
Problem Solving
^i]VhVcVbea^ijYZ
Reecting
d[)VcYx"^ciZgXZeih Connecting
Communicating
i]ViXd^cX^YZl^i]
i]Zb^c^bjb
kVajZh#I]ZeZg^dY^h(+%VcYi]Ze]VhZ
h]^[i^h%#
a) Lg^iZi]ZZfjVi^dcd[i]ZigVch[dgbZY

[jcXi^dc#
b) L]Vie]VhZh]^[i^hcZZYZY[dgi]Z

igVch[dgbZY[jcXi^dc[gdbeVgiVid
]VkZVy"^ciZgXZeid['49gVlV\gVe]id
h]dli]VindjgVchlZg^hXdggZXi#
c) 8Vci]ZgZfj^gZYy"^ciZgXZei^ceVgiW

WZVX]^ZkZYWnVaiZg^c\i]ZeZg^dYgVi]Zg
i]Vci]Ze]VhZh]^[i4?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg#
15. a) Lg^iZi]ZZfjVi^dcd[VigVch[dgbZY

h^cZ[jcXi^dci]Vi^cXajYZhViaZVhi
i]gZZigVch[dgbVi^dch#<ZcZgViZV
b^c^bjbcjbWZgd[XajZhVWdjii]Z
igVch[dgbVi^dc#:chjgZi]Vii]ZXajZhXVc
WZjhZYidYZiZgb^cZi]ZigVch[dgbVi^dc#
b) IgVYZXajZhl^i]VXaVhhbViZ#9ZiZgb^cZ

i]ZigVch[dgbVi^dchgZfj^gZYidbViX]
i]ZXajZh#>[bdgZi]VcdcZVchlZg^h
edhh^WaZ!ZmeaV^cl]n#
c) IgVYZZfjVi^dchVcYY^hXjhhVcn

dWhZgkVi^dchdgXdcXZgch#
5.3 Investigate Transformations of Sine and Cosine Functions MHR 311

16. a) Lg^iZi]ZZfjVi^dcd[VigVch[dgbZY

Xdh^cZ[jcXi^dci]Vi^cXajYZhVi
aZVhii]gZZigVch[dgbVi^dch#9dcdi
jhZi]ZhVbZi]gZZigVch[dgbVi^dch
ndjjhZY^cfjZhi^dc&*#<ZcZgViZV
b^c^bjbcjbWZgd[XajZhVWdjii]Z
igVch[dgbVi^dc#
b) IgVYZXajZhl^i]VXaVhhbViZ#9ZiZgb^cZ

i]ZigVch[dgbVi^dchgZfj^gZYidbViX]
i]ZXajZh#>[bdgZi]VcdcZVchlZg^h
edhh^WaZ!ZmeaV^cl]n#
c) IgVYZZfjVi^dchVcYY^hXjhhVcn

dWhZgkVi^dchdgXdcXZgch#
Achievement Check
17. a) 9ZiZgb^cZZVX]d[i]Z[daadl^c\[dgi]Z

[jcXi^dcy+XdhP*x)*R(#
?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg#


i)i]ZVbea^ijYZ

ii)i]ZeZg^dY

iii)i]Ze]VhZh]^[i

iv)i]ZkZgi^XVah]^[id[i]Z[jcXi^dc

b) H`ZiX]i]Z[jcXi^dc^ceVgiVdc\g^Y

eVeZgl^i]djijh^c\ViVWaZd[kVajZh#
:meaV^cndjggZVhdc^c\#

Extend

18. 6h^cZ[jcXi^dc]Vh]Va[i]ZeZg^dYd[

yh^cx#6aadi]ZgeVgVbZiZghd[i]Zild
[jcXi^dchVgZi]ZhVbZ#
a) EgZY^Xii]ZcjbWZgd[ed^cihd[

d) HjeedhZi]Vii]Z\gVe]^hXdci^cjZY

idx,'%#=dlbVcned^cihd[
^ciZghZXi^dcYdndjZmeZXi^ci]Z
cZlhZXi^dcd[i]Z\gVe]4?jhi^[nndjg
i]^c`^c\#
e) :miZcYi]Z\gVe]VcYX]ZX`ndjg

egZY^Xi^dc^ceVgiY#LVhndjg
egZY^Xi^dcXdggZXi4>[cdi!ZmeaV^cl]n
cdi#
f) HjeedhZi]Vii]ZhZXdcY[jcXi^dc]VYV

eZg^dYd[dcZ"i]^gYi]Z[^ghi#=dlYdZh
ndjgVchlZgideVgiVX]Vc\Z4
19. 8dch^YZgi]Z[jcXi^dcyiVcx VcY^ih

igVch[dgbVi^dcyaiVcPkxdRc#
JhZV\gVe]^c\XVaXjaVidgid^ckZhi^\ViZi]Z
Z[[ZXihd[a!k!d!VcYcdci]Z\gVe]d[
yiVcx#Lg^iZVWg^Z[gZedgid[ndjg
[^cY^c\h#
20. Math ContestI]Zhjbd[Z^\]i

XdchZXji^kZedh^i^kZ^ciZ\Zgh^h)%)#
L]Vi^hi]Zhjbd[i]ZaZVhiVcY\gZViZhi
cjbWZgh^ci]^hhZfjZcXZ4
TTTT
A *%#*

B 'q &%&

C &%&

D '*#'*

21. Math ContestIldX^gXaZhVgZiVc\Zciid

ZVX]di]Zg#6a^cZhZ\bZciYgVlc[gdb
i]ZXZcigZ!9!d[i]ZaVg\ZgX^gXaZ^hiVc\Zci
idi]ZhbVaaZgX^gXaZVi6#6cdi]Zga^cZ
hZ\bZciYgVlc[gdbi]ZXZcigZ!7!d[i]Z
hbVaaZgX^gXaZ^hiVc\Zciidi]ZaVg\ZgX^gXaZ
Vi8#EgdkZi]Vi69^hadc\Zgi]Vc78#

^ciZghZXi^dc^[i]Zild[jcXi^dchVgZ
\gVe]ZY[gdbx%idx(+%#?jhi^[n
ndjgegZY^Xi^dc#
b) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZcjbWZgd[ed^cihd[

^ciZghZXi^dc^[i]Zild[jcXi^dchVgZ
\gVe]ZY[gdbx%idx(+%#LVh
ndjgegZY^Xi^dcXdggZXi4>[cdi!ZmeaV^c
l]n#
c) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZXddgY^cViZhd[i]Z[^ghi

ed^ciidi]Zg^\]id[i]Zdg^\^cl]ZgZi]Z
\gVe]hd[i]Zild[jcXi^dch^ciZghZXi#

312 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

A
B
D

5.4

Graphing and Modelling With


y = a sin [k(x d)] + c and
y = a cos [k(x d)] + c
>cdgYZgidbdYZaVgZVa"ldgaYh^ijVi^dcjh^c\Vh^cZdgVXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc!ndjbjhiVcVanhZi]Z
h^ijVi^dcVcYi]ZcigVch[dgbi]ZVbea^ijYZ!eZg^dY!kZgi^XVah]^[i!VcYe]VhZh]^[iVXXdgY^c\an#;dg
ZmVbeaZ!i^YZh^ci]ZdXZVcXVcWZbdYZaaZYjh^c\Vh^cZ[jcXi^dcl^i]VeZg^dYd[VWdji&']#
>ci]^hhZXi^dc!ndjl^aaaZVgc]dlidjhZV\gVe]dgVa^hid[egdeZgi^Zhd[i]ZYZh^gZY[jcXi^dcid
lg^iZVXdggZhedcY^c\ZfjVi^dc#

Example 1
Determine the Characteristics of a Sinusoidal Function From an
Equation
6cZc\^cZZgjhZhi]Z[jcXi^dcy(XdhP'x*R)idbdYZai]Z
kZgi^XVaedh^i^dc!y!^cbZigZh!d[VgdY^cVbVX]^cZxhZXdcYhV[iZgi]Z
bVX]^cZ^hhiVgiZY#
a) L]ViVgZi]ZVbea^ijYZ!eZg^dY!e]VhZh]^[i!VcYkZgi^XVah]^[id[i]Z

edh^i^dc[jcXi^dc4
b) L]ViVgZi]ZadlZhiVcY]^\]ZhikZgi^XVaedh^i^dchi]Vii]ZgdY

gZVX]Zh4
c) Use TechnologyJhZiZX]cdad\nid\gVe]i]Z[jcXi^dc#8]ZX`ndjg

VchlZgh^ceVgiWjh^c\i]Z\gVe]#
d) HiViZi]ZYdbV^cVcYgVc\Zd[i]Zdg^\^cVaXdh^cZ[jcXi^dcVcYi]Z

igVch[dgbZY[jcXi^dc#

Solution
a) 8dbeVg^c\i]Z\^kZcZfjVi^dcy(XdhP'x*R)idi]Z\ZcZgVa

ZfjVi^dcyaXdhPkxdRc\^kZha(!k'!d*!VcY
c)#
H^cXZa(!i]ZVbea^ijYZ^h(b#

5.4 Graphing and Modelling With y = a sin [k(x d)] + c and y = a cos [k(x d)] + c MHR 313

9ZiZgb^cZi]ZeZg^dY#
(+%
(+%
T
T


k

'
&-%

I]ZeZg^dY^h&-%h#
H^cXZd*!i]Ze]VhZh]^[i^h*hidi]Zg^\]i#
H^cXZc)!i]ZkZgi^XVah]^[i^h)bjelVgY#
b) I]ZaZVhikVajZd[i]ZWVh^XXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc^h&#H^cXZi]Z

Vbea^ijYZ^h(!i]^hhigZiX]ZhYdlcid(#I]ZkZgi^XVah]^[id[
)bjelVgYejh]Zhi]^hid&#Hd!i]ZadlZhikZgi^XVaedh^i^dc^h&b#
I]Z\gZViZhikVajZd[i]ZWVh^XXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc^h&#H^cXZi]Z
Vbea^ijYZ^h(!i]^hhigZiX]Zhjeid(#I]ZkZgi^XVah]^[id[)jelVgY
ejh]Zhi]^hid,#I]Z]^\]ZhikZgi^XVaedh^i^dc^h,b#
c) Method 1: Use a Graphing Calculator

I]Z\gVe]^hh]dlc#EgZhh 2nd P86A8R#JhZ4:maximumid


YZiZgb^cZi]ZbVm^bjbkVajZVcY3:minimumidYZiZgb^cZi]Z
b^c^bjbkVajZ#


Method 2: Use a TI-NspireTM CAS Graphing Calculator


GZ[Zgidi]Z^chigjXi^dch[dg\gVe]^c\
^cHZXi^dc*#'#<gVe]i]Z[jcXi^dc#Eadi
Ved^cidci]Z[jcXi^dc#<gVWi]Zed^ci
VcYYgV\^iidlVgYi]ZbVm^bjb#L]Zc
ndjgZVX]i]ZbVm^bjb!i]ZldgY
bVm^bjbl^aaVeeZVg!Vadc\l^i]i]Z
XddgY^cViZh#
H^b^aVgan!ndjXVcYgV\i]Zed^ciidlVgY
i]Zb^c^bjb#L]Zcndj]VkZgZVX]ZY
i]Zb^c^bjb!i]ZldgYb^c^bjb
l^aaVeeZVg!Vadc\l^i]i]ZXddgY^cViZh#

d) ;dgi]Z[jcXi^dcyXdhx!i]ZYdbV^c^hpx2r#

I]ZgVc\Z^hpy2!&y&r#
;dgi]Z[jcXi^dcy(XdhP'x*R)!i]ZYdbV^c^hpx2r#
I]ZgVc\Z^hpy2!&y,r#

314 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

Example 2
Sketch a Graph
a) 9ZhXg^WZi]ZigVch[dgbVi^dchi]VibjhiWZVeea^ZYidi]Z\gVe]d[

fxh^cxiddWiV^ci]Z\gVe]d[gx)h^c(x&#6eeani]ZhZ
igVch[dgbVi^dchidh`ZiX]i]Z\gVe]d[gx#
b) HiViZi]ZYdbV^cVcYgVc\Zd[fxVcYgx#
c) BdY^[ni]ZZfjVi^dc[dggxid^cXajYZVe]VhZh]^[id[(%idi]Z

g^\]i#8Vaai]^h[jcXi^dchx#6eeani]Ze]VhZh]^[iidi]Z\gVe]d[
gxVcYigVch[dgb^iidhx#

Solution
a) HiVgil^i]i]Z\gVe]d[

iv

iii

fxh^cx!XjgkZ^#
4
ii
6eeani]ZVbea^ijYZd[)id\Zi
2
XjgkZ^^#
i
6eeani]ZkZgi^XVah]^[id[&
0
90
180
270
360
jc^ijelVgYid\ZiXjgkZ^^^#
2
NdjbVn^cXajYZV]dg^odciVa
gZ[ZgZcXZa^cZViy&id]Zae
4
ndj#
6eeani]Z]dg^odciVaXdbegZhh^dcWnV[VXidgd[(id\ZiXjgkZ^k#

b) ;dgi]Z[jcXi^dcfxh^cx!i]ZYdbV^c^hpx2r#I]ZgVc\Z^h

py2!&y&r#;dgi]Z[jcXi^dcgx)h^c(x&!i]ZYdbV^c
^hpx2r#I]ZgVc\Z^hpy2!(y*r#
c) I]ZZfjVi^dcl^i]Ve]VhZh]^[i

d[(%idi]Zg^\]i^h
hx)h^cP(x(%R&#
I]Z\gVe]hd[gxVcYhxVgZ
h]dlc#

y
4

g(x)
h(x)

2
0

90

180

270

360 x

L]Zc\gVe]^c\VigVch[dgbZYh^cZdgXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc![daadli]ZhZhiZeh/
1. H`ZiX]i]ZWVh^X[jcXi^dc#
2. 6eeani]ZkZgi^XVahigZiX]dgXdbegZhh^dcidVX]^ZkZi]ZYZh^gZY

Vbea^ijYZ#
3. 6eeani]ZkZgi^XVah]^[i#JhZV]dg^odciVagZ[ZgZcXZa^cZid]Zaendj#
4. 6eeani]Z]dg^odciVahigZiX]dgXdbegZhh^dcidVX]^ZkZi]ZYZh^gZY

eZg^dY#
5. 6eeani]Ze]VhZh]^[i#
5.4 Graphing and Modelling With y = a sin [k(x d)] + c and y = a cos [k(x d)] + c MHR 315

Example 3
Represent a Sinusoidal Function Given Its Properties
a) 6h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc]VhVcVbea^ijYZd[(jc^ih!VeZg^dYd[&-%!

VcYVbVm^bjbVi%!*#GZegZhZcii]Z[jcXi^dcl^i]VcZfjVi^dc^c
ildY^[[ZgZcilVnh#
b) JhZ\g^YeVeZgdgV\gVe]^c\XVaXjaVidgidkZg^[ni]Vindjgild

bdYZahgZegZhZcii]ZhVbZ\gVe]#

Solution
a) Method 1: Use a Cosine Function

I]ZVbea^ijYZ^h(!hda(#
I]ZeZg^dY^h&-%#
(+%
T


&-%
k
 k'
6bVm^bjbdXXjghVi%!*#L]Zcx%!Xdhx&!l]^X]^h^ih
bVm^bjbkVajZ#I]ZVbea^ijYZ]VhVagZVYneaVXZYi]ZbVm^bjb
Vi(#I]ZVYY^i^dcVakZgi^XVah]^[igZfj^gZY^hjelVgY'jc^ihid*#
I]ZgZ[dgZ!c'#
I]Z[jcXi^dcXVcWZbdYZaaZYWni]ZZfjVi^dcfx(Xdh'x'#
Method 2: Use a Sine Function
JhZi]ZhVbZkVajZhd[a!k!VcYcVh^cBZi]dY&#I]Zc!Veeani]Z
Veegdeg^ViZe]VhZh]^[iidWg^c\i]ZbVm^bjbid%!*#
I]ZbVm^bjbd[i]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dccdgbVaandXXjghVix .%#
=dlZkZg!i]ZeZg^dY^ci]^hXVhZ^h&-%!hdi]ZbVm^bjbdXXjghVi
.%
T
 
)*#IdbdkZi]ZbVm^bjbidi]Zy"Vm^h!Ve]VhZh]^[id[)*
'
idi]ZaZ[i^hgZfj^gZY#
I]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dc^hgx(h^cP'x)*R'#
b) :ciZgi]ZXdh^cZbdYZa^cY1VcYi]Zh^cZbdYZa^cY2#8]Vc\Zi]Z

a^cZhinaZ[dgY2id]ZVkn#L]ZcndjegZhh GRAPH !i]ZXdh^cZbdYZa


l^aaWZYgVlc[^ghi#I]Zc!i]Zh^cZbdYZal^aaWZYgVlc#NdjXVc
eVjhZi]Z\gVe]^c\egdXZhhWnegZhh^c\ ENTER l]^aZi]Z\gVe]^h
WZ^c\YgVlc#EgZhh ENTER V\V^cidgZhjbZ#

316 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

Example 4
Determine a Sinusoidal Function Given a Graph
9ZiZgb^cZi]ZZfjVi^dcd[V
h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dci]VigZegZhZcih
i]Z\gVe]#8]ZX`ndjgZfjVi^dcjh^c\
V\gVe]^c\XVaXjaVidg#

y
2
0

60 120 180 240 300 360 x

2
4

Solution
;gdbi]Z\gVe]!i]ZbVm^bjbkVajZ
d[y^h(VcYi]Zb^c^bjbkVajZ^h
*#
(*
aTT
 


'
 )

y
2
0

60 120 180 240 300 360 x

2
4

I]ZVbea^ijYZ^h)#
8djciYdlc)jc^ih[gdbi]Z
bVm^bjbdgje)jc^ih[gdbi]Z
b^c^bjbVcYYgVlV]dg^odciVagZ[ZgZcXZa^cZ#I]ZZfjVi^dcd[i]^ha^cZ
^hy&#I]ZkZgi^XVah]^[i^h&jc^iYdlclVgY#I]ZgZ[dgZ!c&#
JhZZ^i]ZgVh^cZ[jcXi^dcdgVXdh^cZ[jcXi^dcidXdchigjXii]ZbdYZa#
;dgi]^hZmVbeaZ!jhZVh^cZ[jcXi^dc#9ZiZgb^cZi]ZhiVgid[i]Z[^ghih^cZ
lVkZidi]Zg^\]id[i]Zy"Vm^h!bdk^c\Vadc\i]Z]dg^odciVagZ[ZgZcXZ
a^cZ#I]^hdXXjghVix+%#I]Ze]VhZh]^[i^h+%idi]Zg^\]i#I]ZgZ[dgZ!
d+%#
8dci^cjZVadc\i]ZgZ[ZgZcXZa^cZidYZiZgb^cZi]ZZcYd[i]Z[^ghiXnXaZ#
I]^hdXXjghVix&-%#I]ZeZg^dY^h&-%+%&'%#
(+%
&'%
T
k
k(
HjWhi^ijiZi]ZeVgVbZiZgha)!k(!d+%!VcYc&^cidi]Z
\ZcZgVaZfjVi^dcyah^cPkxdRc#
y)h^cP(x+%R&#
8]ZX`jh^c\V\gVe]^c\XVaXjaVidg#I]Z\gVe]dci]ZXVaXjaVidgbViX]Zh
i]Z\^kZc\gVe]#

5.4 Graphing and Modelling With y = a sin [k(x d)] + c and y = a cos [k(x d)] + c MHR 317

Key Concepts
I]ZVbea^ijYZ!eZg^dY!e]VhZh]^[i!VcYkZgi^XVah]^[id[h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dchXVcWZ
YZiZgb^cZYl]Zci]ZZfjVi^dchVgZ\^kZc^ci]Z[dgb
fxah^cPkxdRcdgfxaXdhPkxdRc#
I]ZYdbV^cd[Vh^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc^hpx2r#I]ZgVc\ZZmiZcYh[gdbi]Zb^c^bjb
kVajZidi]ZbVm^bjbkVajZd[i]Z[jcXi^dc#6cnXnXaZXVcWZjhZYidYZiZgb^cZi]Z
b^c^bjbVcYi]ZbVm^bjb#
IgVch[dgbVi^dchXVcWZjhZYidVY_jhii]ZWVh^Xh^cZVcYXdh^cZ[jcXi^dchidbViX]V\^kZc
Vbea^ijYZ!eZg^dY!e]VhZh]^[i!VcYkZgi^XVah]^[i#
I]ZZfjVi^dcd[Vh^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dcXVcWZYZiZgb^cZY\^kZc^ihegdeZgi^Zh#
I]ZZfjVi^dcd[Vh^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dcXVcWZYZiZgb^cZY\^kZc^ih\gVe]#

Communicate Your Understanding


C1  I]ZZfjVi^dcd[Vh^cZ[jcXi^dc^hy*h^c(x+%'#:meaV^cl]ni]Ze]VhZh]^[i^h

cdi+%#9ZiZgb^cZi]Ze]VhZh]^[i#

C2  I]ZZfjVi^dcd[VXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc^hyXdhP'x+%R#

a) HiVgil^i]i]ZWVh^XXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc#BV`ZVgdj\]h`ZiX]d[i]ZZ[[ZXid[Veean^c\i]Z

b) HiVgil^i]i]ZWVh^XXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc#BV`ZVgdj\]h`ZiX]d[i]ZZ[[ZXid[Veean^c\i]Ze]VhZ

c) 8dbeVgZi]Z\gVe]h^ceVgihVVcYW#>ceVgi^XjaVg!XdbeVgZi]ZadXVi^dcd[i]Z[^ghi

d) L]^X]YZhXg^WZhi]ZXdggZXiegdXZYjgZ!eVgiVdgeVgiW4?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg#JhZV

]dg^odciVaXdbegZhh^dc[^ghiVcYi]ZcbV`ZVhZXdcYh`ZiX]d[i]ZZ[[ZXid[Veean^c\i]Z
e]VhZh]^[i#
h]^[i[^ghiVcYi]ZcbV`ZVhZXdcYh`ZiX]d[i]ZZ[[ZXid[Veean^c\i]Z]dg^odciVaXdbegZhh^dc#
bVm^bjbidi]ZaZ[id[i]Zy"Vm^h#:meaV^cVcnY^[[ZgZcXZh#
\gVe]^c\XVaXjaVidgidX]ZX`ndjgegZY^Xi^dc#

C3  >c:mVbeaZ(!i]ZYZh^gZY[jcXi^dcXVcWZgZegZhZciZYjh^c\Z^i]ZgVh^cZ[jcXi^dcdgVXdh^cZ

[jcXi^dc#>hi]^hValVnhi]ZXVhZ4?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg#

A Practise
For help with questions 1 and 2, refer to
Example 1.
1. 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZVbea^ijYZ!i]ZeZg^dY!i]Z

2. 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZVbea^ijYZ!i]ZeZg^dY!i]Z

e]VhZh]^[i!VcYi]ZkZgi^XVah]^[id[ZVX]
[jcXi^dcl^i]gZheZXiidyXdhx#

e]VhZh]^[i!VcYi]ZkZgi^XVah]^[id[ZVX]
[jcXi^dcl^i]gZheZXiidyh^cx#

a) y(XdhP*x)*R)

a) y*h^cP)x'*R(

c) y(XdhP,'x&%R(

b) y'h^cP&-x)%R*

d) y  Xdh  x )%   

c) y(h^cP&'%x(%R'

T( 

PT'(

T& 

d) y  h^c  x+%   

318 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

'

b) y'XdhP')x-%R&

T* 
'

PT()

T& 
'

For help with questions 3 and 4, refer to


Example 2.
3. a) 9ZhXg^WZi]ZigVch[dgbVi^dchi]Vibjhi

WZVeea^ZYidi]Z\gVe]d[fxh^cx
iddWiV^ci]Z\gVe]d[
gx(h^c'x&#6eeanZVX]
igVch[dgbVi^dc!dcZhiZeViVi^bZ!id
h`ZiX]i]Z\gVe]d[gx#
b) HiViZi]ZYdbV^cVcYgVc\Zd[fxVcY

gx#
c) BdY^[ni]ZZfjVi^dc[dggxid^cXajYZ

Ve]VhZh]^[id[+%idi]ZaZ[i#8Vaai]^h
[jcXi^dchx#6eeani]Ze]VhZh]^[i
idi]Z\gVe]d[gxVcYigVch[dgb^iid
hx#
4. a) IgVch[dgbi]Z\gVe]d[

fxXdhxidgx)Xdh(x'Wn
Veean^c\igVch[dgbVi^dchidi]Z\gVe]
dcZhiZeViVi^bZ#
b) HiViZi]ZYdbV^cVcYgVc\Zd[fxVcY

For help with question 7, refer to Example 4.


7. a) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZZfjVi^dcd[VXdh^cZ

[jcXi^dcidgZegZhZcii]Z\gVe]^c
:mVbeaZ)#
b) 8]ZX`ndjgZfjVi^dcjh^c\V\gVe]^c\

XVaXjaVidg#

B Connect and Apply


8. 8dch^YZgi]Z[jcXi^dc

fx&%h^cx)*&%#
a) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZVbea^ijYZ!i]ZeZg^dY!

i]Ze]VhZh]^[i!VcYi]ZkZgi^XVah]^[id[
i]Z[jcXi^dcl^i]gZheZXiidyh^cx#
b) L]ViVgZi]ZbVm^bjbVcYb^c^bjb

kVajZhd[i]Z[jcXi^dc4
c) 9ZiZgb^cZi]Z[^ghii]gZZx"^ciZgXZeihid

i]Zg^\]id[i]Zdg^\^c#
d) 9ZiZgb^cZi]Zy"^ciZgXZeid[i]Z

[jcXi^dc#
9. 8dch^YZgi]Z[jcXi^dc

gx#
c) BdY^[ni]ZZfjVi^dc[dggxid^cXajYZ

Ve]VhZh]^[id[+%idi]Zg^\]i#8Vaa
i]^h[jcXi^dchx#6eeani]Ze]VhZh]^[i
idi]Z\gVe]d[gxVcYigVch[dgb^iid
hx#
For help with questions 5 and 6, refer to
Example 3.
5. 6h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc]VhVcVbea^ijYZd[

*jc^ih!VeZg^dYd[&'%!VcYVbVm^bjb
Vi%!(#
a) GZegZhZcii]Z[jcXi^dcl^i]VcZfjVi^dc

jh^c\Vh^cZ[jcXi^dc#
b) GZegZhZcii]Z[jcXi^dcl^i]VcZfjVi^dc

jh^c\VXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc#
6. 6h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc]VhVcVbea^ijYZ

&jc^ih!VeZg^dYd[,'%!VcYV
d[T
'
( #
bVm^bjbVi %!T
'
a) GZegZhZcii]Z[jcXi^dcl^i]VcZfjVi^dc
jh^c\Vh^cZ[jcXi^dc#

 

gx*XdhP'x(%R#
a) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZVbea^ijYZ!i]ZeZg^dY!

i]Ze]VhZh]^[i!VcYi]ZkZgi^XVah]^[id[
i]Z[jcXi^dcl^i]gZheZXiidyXdhx#
b) L]ViVgZi]ZbVm^bjbVcYb^c^bjb

kVajZhd[i]Z[jcXi^dc4
c) 9ZiZgb^cZi]Z[^ghii]gZZx"^ciZgXZeihid

i]Zg^\]id[i]Zdg^\^c#
d) 9ZiZgb^cZi]Zy"^ciZgXZeid[i]Z

[jcXi^dc#
10. Use TechnologyJhZV\gVe]^c\XVaXjaVidg

dg\gVe]^c\hd[ilVgZidkZg^[nndjgVchlZgh
idfjZhi^dch-VcY.#
11. a) IgVch[dgbi]Z\gVe]d[fxh^cxid

gx*h^cP+x&'%R)#H]dl
ZVX]hiZe^ci]ZigVch[dgbVi^dc#
b) HiViZi]ZYdbV^cVcYgVc\Zd[fxVcY

gx#
c) Use TechnologyJhZV\gVe]^c\

XVaXjaVidgidX]ZX`ndjg[^cVa\gVe]#

b) GZegZhZcii]Z[jcXi^dcl^i]VcZfjVi^dc

jh^c\VXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc#

5.4 Graphing and Modelling With y = a sin [k(x d)] + c and y = a cos [k(x d)] + c MHR 319

a) >[i]ZhZXdcY^chigjbZciXdjaYeaVn

12. a) IgVch[dgbi]Z\gVe]d[fxXdhx

eZg[ZXian^ce]VhZl^i]i]Z[^ghi!i]Zild
hdjcYhldjaYWZgZegZhZciZYWn

idgx+XdhP*x+%R'#H]dl
ZVX]hiZe^ci]ZigVch[dgbVi^dc#
b) HiViZi]ZYdbV^cVcYgVc\Zd[fxVcY

gx#

yh^cxh^cx
'h^cx

<gVe]i]^hgZegZhZciVi^dcVcY
yh^cxdci]ZhVbZhZid[VmZh#=dl
VgZi]ZildgZaViZY4

c) Use TechnologyJhZV\gVe]^c\

XVaXjaVidgidX]ZX`ndjg[^cVa\gVe]#
13. a) GZegZhZcii]Z\gVe]d[

fx'h^cP(x(%Rl^i]Vc
ZfjVi^dcjh^c\VXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc#

b) >cgZVa^in!i]Zild^chigjbZcihl^aaWZ

b) Use TechnologyJhZV\gVe]^c\

XVaXjaVidgidX]ZX`ndjg\gVe]#
14. a) 9ZiZgb^cZi]Z

Reasoning and Proving

ZfjVi^dcd[V
Representing
Selecting Tools
h^cZ[jcXi^dc
Problem Solving
i]VigZegZhZcih
Reecting
i]Z\gVe]h]dlc# Connecting
Communicating
8]ZX`ndjg
ZfjVi^dcjh^c\V
\gVe]^c\XVaXjaVidg#
y
4
2
0

60 120 180 240 300 x

b) Use Technology9ZiZgb^cZi]Z

ZfjVi^dcd[VXdh^cZ[jcXi^dci]Vi
gZegZhZcihi]Z\gVe]#8]ZX`ndjg
ZfjVi^dcjh^c\V\gVe]^c\XVaXjaVidg#
15. Chapter ProblemHjeedhZi]Viild

igjbeZieaVnZgheaVni]ZhVbZcdiZ#9dZh
i]ZgZhjaihdjcYa^`ZdcZigjbeZieaVn^c\
il^XZVhadjYdga^`ZildigjbeZiheaVn^c\
id\Zi]Zg4Ndj]VkZegdWVWancdi^XZYi]Vi
ild^chigjbZcihd[i]ZhVbZ`^cYeaVn^c\
i]ZhVbZcdiZValVnhhdjcYa^`Zild
^chigjbZcih!VcYcdia^`ZdcZ^chigjbZci
eaVnZYadjYZg#I]ZhVbZZ[[ZXidXXjgh[dg
eZdeaZh^c\^c\#I]ZgZVhdc^hi]Vii]Zild
cdiZhl^aaValVnhY^[[ZgWnVe]VhZh]^[i#
IdhZZ]dli]^hldg`h!aZii]ZZfjVi^dc
yh^cxgZegZhZcidcZ^chigjbZcieaVn^c\
VcdiZ#
320 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

djid[e]VhZ#E^X`VcVgW^igVgne]VhZ
Y^[[ZgZcXZd[.%#I]Z[jcXi^dci]Vi
gZegZhZcihi]Zild^chigjbZciheaVn^c\
id\Zi]Zg^hyh^cxh^cx.%#
<gVe]i]^h[jcXi^dc#=dlYdZh^i
XdbeVgZidy'h^cx4

c) 6bjh^Xhnci]Zh^oZgXVcbV`Z

ZaZXigdc^XX^gXj^ihi]Vih^bjaViZ
^chigjbZciheaVn^c\^ce]VhZl^i]
ZVX]di]Zg#I]^h^h\ZcZgVaancdikZgn
^ciZgZhi^c\!h^cXZi]ZhdjcY^hi]ZhVbZ
VhVh^c\aZ^chigjbZcieaVn^c\adjYZg#
:aZXigdc^XZc\^cZZghejgedhZanX]Vc\Z
i]Ze]VhZd[ZVX]^chigjbZciidVX]^ZkZ
VX]dgjhZ[[ZXid[hZkZgVa^chigjbZcih
eaVn^c\id\Zi]Zg#8]ddhZY^[[ZgZci
e]VhZh]^[ihVcYlg^iZV[jcXi^dci]Vi
gZegZhZcih[djg^chigjbZciheaVn^c\
id\Zi]Zg#<gVe]i]Z[jcXi^dcVcY
YZhXg^WZi]Z\gVe]#
Con n ec t i on s
Robert Moog invented the electronic synthesizer in
1964. Although other electronic instruments existed
before this time, Moog was the first to control the
electronic sounds using a piano-style keyboard. This
allowed musicians to make use of the new technology
without first having to learn new musical skills. Visit
the Functions 11 page on the McGraw-Hill Ryerson
Web site and follow the links to Chapter 5 to find out
more about the Moog synthesizer.

TTTTT
16. 6ii]ZZcYd[V

Reasoning and Proving

YdX`!]^\]i^YZd[
Representing
Selecting Tools
&)b^hgZXdgYZYVi
Problem Solving
./%%V#b#Adli^YZ
Connecting
Reecting
d[+b^hgZXdgYZY
Communicating
Vi(/%%e#b#6
h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc
XVcbdYZai]ZlViZgYZei]kZghjhi^bZ#

19. 8dch^YZgi]ZgZaVi^dcyq h^cx 


#
a) H`ZiX]i]Z\gVe]d[i]Z[jcXi^dc

yh^cxdkZgildXnXaZh#
b) JhZi]Z\gVe][gdbeVgiVidh`ZiX]V

c) JhZiZX]cdad\ndg\g^YeVeZgVcYV

iVWaZd[kVajZhidX]ZX`ndjgegZY^Xi^dc#
GZhdakZVcnY^[[ZgZcXZh#

a) 8dchigjXiVbdYZa[dgi]ZlViZgYZei]

jh^c\VXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc!l]ZgZi^bZ^h
bZVhjgZY^c]djgheVhi]^\]i^YZ#
b) 8dchigjXiVbdYZa[dgi]ZlViZgYZei]

jh^c\Vh^cZ[jcXi^dc!l]ZgZi^bZ^h
bZVhjgZY^c]djgheVhi]^\]i^YZ#
c) 8dchigjXiVbdYZa[dgi]ZlViZgYZei]

jh^c\Vh^cZ[jcXi^dc!l]ZgZi^bZ^h
bZVhjgZY^c]djgheVhiadli^YZ#
d) 8dchigjXiVbdYZa[dgi]ZlViZgYZei]

jh^c\VXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc!l]ZgZi^bZ^h
bZVhjgZY^c]djgheVhiadli^YZ#
e) 8dbeVgZndjgbdYZah#L]^X]^hi]Z

h^beaZhigZegZhZciVi^dc^[i^bZ^h
gZ[ZgZcXZYid]^\]i^YZ4adli^YZ4
:meaV^cl]ni]ZgZ^hVY^[[ZgZcXZ#
Achievement Check
17. a) 9ZhXg^WZi]ZigVch[dgbVi^dchi]Vibjhi

WZVeea^ZYidi]Z\gVe]d[
fxh^cxiddWiV^ci]Z\gVe]d[
gx'h^cP)x)%R(#
b) H`ZiX]i]Z\gVe]d[gxWnVeean^c\i]Z

igVch[dgbVi^dchYZhXg^WZY^ceVgiV#
c) HiViZi]ZYdbV^cVcYgVc\Zd[gx#

?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg#

Extend

18. HjeedhZi]VindjVgZ\^kZci]Z

XddgY^cViZh!p!q!d[Ved^ci#8Vcndj
ValVnhYZiZgb^cZVkVajZd[ahjX]i]Vi
i]Z\gVe]d[yah^cxl^aaeVhhi]gdj\]
i]Zed^ci4>[hd!ZmeaV^cl]n!egdk^Y^c\V
Y^V\gVb#>[cdi!ZmeaV^cl]n!VcY^cY^XViZ
i]ZaZVhiVbdjcid[^c[dgbVi^dci]VicZZYh
idWZVYYZY#

egZY^Xi^dc[dgi]Zh]VeZd[i]Z\gVe]d[
TTTTT
yqh^cx 
#

d) =dlYdndji]^c`i]Z\gVe]d[

TTTTTTTTT
yqh^cx&
l^aaY^[[Zg[gdbi]Z
TTTTT
 \gVe]d[yq h^cx 
4
TTTTTTTTT
e) <gVe]yq h^cx&
VcYXdbeVgZ

^iidndjgegZY^Xi^dc#GZhdakZVcn
Y^[[ZgZcXZh#

20. a) 9ZiZgb^cZi]Zb^c^bjbcjbWZgd[

igVch[dgbVi^dchi]ViXVcWZVeea^ZYid
yh^cxhjX]i]Vii]ZbVm^bjbkVajZh
d[i]ZigVch[dgbZY[jcXi^dcXd^cX^YZ
l^i]i]Zx"^ciZgXZeihd[yXdhx#>[i]^h
^hcdiedhh^WaZ!ZmeaV^cl]n!^cXajY^c\
VY^V\gVb#
b) 9ZiZgb^cZi]Zb^c^bjbcjbWZgd[

igVch[dgbVi^dchi]ViXVcWZVeea^ZYid
yh^cxhjX]i]Vii]ZbVm^bjbkVajZh
d[i]ZigVch[dgbZY[jcXi^dcXd^cX^YZ
l^i]i]Zx"^ciZgXZeihd[yiVcx#>[i]^h
^hcdiedhh^WaZ!ZmeaV^cl]n!^cXajY^c\
VY^V\gVb#
21. Math Contest<^kZci]Z[jcXi^dc

y(h^cP'x(%R![^cYi]ZhbVaaZhi
edh^i^kZkVajZ[dgx i]Vi\^kZhVbVm^bjb
kVajZ[dgy.
22. Math ContestI]ZeZg^dYd[

yq)Xdh(x(%q^h
A (+%

B .%

C +%

D &'%

23. Math ContestL]ZcVcjbWZg^hY^k^YZY

Wn'&!i]ZgZbV^cYZg^h&,#L]Vi^hi]Z
gZbV^cYZgl]Zci]ZcjbWZg^hY^k^YZY
Wn,4
A &

B (

C *

D +

5.4 Graphing and Modelling With y = a sin [k(x d)] + c and y = a cos [k(x d)] + c MHR 321

5.5
Data Collecting and
Modelling
DcZd[i]ZgZVa"ldgaYVeea^XVi^dchd[h^cjhd^YVa
bdYZah^hi]Zbdi^dcd[VeZcYjajb#6;djXVjai
eZcYjajb^hjhZYidbZVhjgZi]ZgdiVi^dcd[:Vgi]#
6h:Vgi]ijgch!i]ZVm^hd[hl^c\d[i]ZeZcYjajb
gdiViZhl^i]^i#
>ci]^hhZXi^dc!ndjl^aaaZVgcidXdaaZXiYViVi]ViXVcWZbdYZaaZYl^i]h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dchVcY
i]ZcXdchigjXiVhj^iVWaZbdYZajh^c\igVch[dgbVi^dch#
Tools

Investigate

graphing calculator
motion sensor
pendulum

How can you collect data on the motion of a pendulum and use the
data to construct a sinusoidal model?

Te c h n o l o g y

Tip

These instructions
assume the use of a
CBRTM motion sensor
with a TI-83 Plus or
TI-84 Plus graphing
calculator. If you
are using different
technology, refer to
the manual.

1. HZijeVeZcYjajb#JhZVaVg\ZdW_ZXiVhi]ZWdWViaZVhii]Zh^oZd[V

WVh`ZiWVaahd^iXVcWZYZiZXiZYWni]Zbdi^dchZchdg#JhZVhig^c\dg
gdeZadc\Zcdj\]id\^kZi]ZeZcYjajbVeZg^dYd[bdgZi]Vc&h#
2. a) 8dccZXii]Z87GIBbdi^dchZchdgidi]Z\gVe]^c\XVaXjaVidgjh^c\

i]ZXVWaZegdk^YZY#
b) EgZhh APPS VcYhZaZXi2:CBL/CBR#CdiZi]Vii]ZVeea^XVi^dcdc

ndjgXVaXjaVidgbVn]VkZVY^[[ZgZcicjbWZg#
c) 6ii]ZCBL/CBRhXgZZc!egZhh ENTER #HZaZXi3:RangerVcYegZhh
ENTER #CdiZi]Vii]ZGVc\Zgegd\gVbdcndjgXVaXjaVidgbVn]VkZ
VY^[[ZgZcicjbWZg#

d) HZaZXi1:SETUP/SAMPLE[gdbi]ZbV^cbZcj#BdkZi]ZXjghdg
Te c h n o l o g y

Tip

The motion sensor


cannot measure
distances less than
about 0.5 m. Ensure
that your pendulum is
never closer than this.
The maximum distance
that it can measure is
about 4 m, but your
pendulum may be too
small a target to return
a usable signal from
this distance.

jeidSTART NOW#EgZhh ENTER #


3. HiVgii]ZeZcYjajbhl^c\^c\#Ed^cii]Zbdi^dchZchdgVii]ZWdWd[

i]ZeZcYjajbhjX]i]Vii]ZWdWhl^c\hY^gZXianidlVgYVcYVlVn
[gdbi]ZhZchdg#EgZhh ENTER VcYXdaaZXiYViV[dg&*h#6ii]ZZcYd[
i]ZXdaaZXi^dci^bZ!V\gVe]d[Y^hiVcXZkZghjhi^bZ^hh]dlc#
4. Reflect>cheZXii]Z\gVe]#9dZh^iVeeZVgh^cjhd^YVa46gZi]ZgZVcn

he^`Zhdgdi]ZghjYYZc_jbehi]Vi^cY^XViZVb^hVa^\cbZcid[i]Z
eZcYjajbVcYbdi^dchZchdgYjg^c\i]ZYViVXdaaZXi^dcegdXZhh4>[
hd!VY_jhindjge]nh^XVahZije#EgZhh ENTER VcYhZaZXi
REPEAT SAMPLE#8dci^cjZgZ[^c^c\ndjgZmeZg^bZciVaVggVc\ZbZci
jci^andj]VkZVhbddi]\gVe]#

322 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

5. a) EgZhh ENTER VcYhZaZXiSHOW PLOT#8dc[^gbi]Vii]Z\gVe]^hV

hbddi][jcXi^dci]ViVeeZVghh^cjhd^YVa#
b) EgZhh ENTER VcYhZaZXiQUIT#I]Zi^bZYViVl^aaWZhidgZY^ca^hi

L1VcYi]ZY^hiVcXZYViVl^aaWZhidgZY^ca^hiL2#
6. a) EgZhh GRAPH VcYi]Zc TRACE #JhZi]ZXjghdg

`ZnhidYZiZgb^cZi]ZbVm^bjbVcY
b^c^bjbd[ndjg\gVe]#9ZiZgb^cZi]Z
Vbea^ijYZ!a#

b) 6YYi]ZVbea^ijYZidi]Zb^c^bjbidYZiZgb^cZi]ZkZgi^XVah]^[i!

c#JhZi]ZY=ZY^idgideadiV]dg^odciVagZ[ZgZcXZa^cZjh^c\i]^h
kVajZ#6aiZgcVi^kZan!ndjXVcjhZi]ZDRAWbZcjVcYhZaZXi
3:Horizontal#
c) GZijgcidi]Z\gVe]#JhZi]ZgZ[ZgZcXZa^cZid]ZaendjigVXZi]Z

Con n ec t i on s
For help in determining
an equation given a
graph, refer to
Example 4 in Section 5.4.

hiVgid[i]Z[^ghih^cZlVkZidi]Zg^\]id[i]ZkZgi^XVaVm^h#GZVYi]Z
e]VhZh]^[i!d#
d) 8dci^cjZidi]ZZcYd[i]Z[^ghiXnXaZ#JhZi]ZhiVgiVcYZcYid

YZiZgb^cZi]ZeZg^dY#DcXZndj]VkZi]ZeZg^dY!YZiZgb^cZi]Z
kVajZd[k#
7. a) JhZi]ZkVajZhd[a!c!d!VcYkidlg^iZi]ZZfjVi^dcidbdYZai]Z

bdi^dcd[i]ZeZcYjajb#
b) :ciZgi]^hZfjVi^dcjh^c\i]ZY=ZY^idg#Eadii]ZXjgkZVcYkZg^[n

i]Vi^iXadhZanbViX]Zhi]Z\gVe]YgVlcWni]ZGVc\Zghd[ilVgZ#>[
i]ZgZVgZbV_dgY^hXgZeVcX^Zh!X]ZX`ndjgXVaXjaVi^dch#
8. ReflectHiVgii]ZeZcYjajbhl^c\^c\VcYZhi^bViZi]ZVbea^ijYZ

VcYeZg^dY#GZk^Zli]ZVbea^ijYZVcYeZg^dYd[i]ZeZcYjajbi]Vi
ndjXVaXjaViZY^ceVgihVVcYYd[hiZe+#8dbeVgZi]ZildhZihd[
kVajZh#
9. a) EgZY^Xii]ZZ[[ZXii]ViZVX]d[i]Z[daadl^c\l^aa]VkZdcndjg

\gVe]#8dch^YZgZVX]dcZhZeVgViZan#
i)i]ZaZc\i]d[i]ZeZcYjajb^hh]dgiZcZY
ii)i]ZVbea^ijYZ^h^cXgZVhZY
b) 8]ZX`ndjgegZY^Xi^dch^ceVgiVjh^c\i]ZeZcYjajbVcYi]Z

bdi^dchZchdg#

5.5 Data Collecting and Modelling MHR 323

Example 1
Retrieve Data from Statistics Canada
Jh^c\YViV[gdbHiVi^hi^Xh8VcVYV!YZiZgb^cZ^[i]ZgZ^hVeZg^dYd[i^bZ
dkZgl]^X]X]Vc\Zh^ci]ZedejaVi^dcd[8VcVY^VchV\ZY'%id')XVcWZ
bdYZaaZYjh^c\Vh^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc#

Solution
K^h^illl#hiViXVc#\X#XV$ZYj$ZYj%*T%%&-X"Zc\#]ib#
HZaZXiSinusoidal#
HZaZXitable 051-0001#
JcYZgGeography!hZaZXiCanada#
JcYZgSex!hZaZXiBoth sexes#
JcYZgAge group!hZaZXi20 to 24 years#
HZii]ZgZ[ZgZcXZeZg^dYidfrom 1976 to 2005#
HZaZXiRetrieve as individual Time Series#>[ndjeaVcidVcVanhZi]ZYViV
l^i]VhegZVYh]ZZidgdi]Zghd[ilVgZ!hZaZXii]ZYdlcadVYVWaZ[^aZ[dgbVi
VhCSV (comma-separated values)!l^i]Time as rows#
Di]Zgl^hZ!ndjXVchZaZXii]ZhXgZZcdjiejiVhVc=IBAiVWaZ!l^i]Time
as rows#HZaZXiRetrieve Now#I]ZiVWaZ^hh]dlc#
Population of Canada, Aged 20 to 24 Years, Both Sexes, By Year
Year

Population

Year

Population

Year

Population

1976

2 253 367

1986

2 446 250

1996

2 002 036

1977

2 300 910

1987

2 363 227

1997

2 008 307

1978

2 339 362

1988

2 257 415

1998

2 014 301

1979

2 375 197

1989

2 185 706

1999

2 039 468

1980

2 424 484

1990

2 124 363

2000

2 069 868

1981

2 477 137

1991

2 088 165

2001

2 110 324

1982

2 494 358

1992

2 070 089

2002

2 150 370

1983

2 507 401

1993

2 047 334

2003

2 190 876

1984

2 514 313

1994

2 025 846

2004

2 224 652

1985

2 498 510

1995

2 009 474

2005

2 243 341

HdjgXZ/HiVi^hi^Xh8VcVYV

I]ZedejaVi^dcd[eZdeaZ^c
8VcVYVV\ZY'%id')[gdb
&.,+id'%%*VeeZVghid
[daadlVh^cjhd^YVabdYZa#

Population Aged 20 to 24 in Canada,


1976 to 2005
Population

<gVe]i]ZYViV#

3 000 000
2 500 000
2 000 000
1 500 000
1 000 000
500 000
0

324 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

10 20 30
Year Relative to 1976

Example 2
Make Predictions
I]ZgZaVi^dch]^eWZilZZci]Z]Z^\]iVWdkZi]Z\gdjcYd[VeZghdcg^Y^c\
V;Zgg^hl]ZZaVcYi^bZXVcWZbdYZaaZYjh^c\Vh^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc#
a) 9ZhXg^WZi]ZZ[[ZXidci]^h[jcXi^dc^[i]ZeaVi[dgb[gdbl]^X]i]Z

eZghdcZciZghi]Zg^YZ^hgV^hZYWn&b#
b) 9ZhXg^WZi]ZZ[[ZXidci]^h[jcXi^dc^[i]Z;Zgg^hl]ZZaijgchil^XZVh

[Vhi#

Solution
a) 7ZXVjhZi]ZeaVi[dgb^hcdiVi

i]ZadlZhied^cid[i]Zl]ZZa!V
e]VhZh]^[i^h^cigdYjXZY#I]Z
g^YZgYdZhcdigZVX]i]ZadlZhi
ed^cijci^ai]Zl]ZZaijgch
i]gdj\]i]Ze]VhZh]^[i#
>[i]ZeaVi[dgbjhZYidZciZg
i]Zg^YZ^hgV^hZYWn&b!i]Z
e]VhZh]^[i^cXgZVhZhVcY^i
iV`Zhadc\Zg[dgi]Zg^YZgid
Platform
gZVX]i]ZadlZhied^ci^ci]Z
g^YZ#I]Z\gVe]l^aah]^[iidi]Zg^\]i#

Direction
of
Rotation

Phase
Shift

b) >[i]Zl]ZZaijgchil^XZVh[Vhi!i]ZeZg^dYl^aaWZ]Va[Vhadc\#

&#
I]Z\gVe]l^aaWZXdbegZhhZY]dg^odciVaanWnV[VXidgd[T
'

Example 3
Use a Sinusoidal Model to Determine Values
I]Z]Z^\]i!h!^cbZigZh!VWdkZi]Z\gdjcYd[Vg^YZgdcV;Zgg^hl]ZZa
V[iZgthZXdcYhXVcWZbdYZaaZYWni]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dc
ht&%h^cP(t(%R&'#
a) <gVe]i]Z[jcXi^dcjh^c\\gVe]^c\iZX]cdad\n#
b) 9ZiZgb^cZZVX]d[i]Z[daadl^c\#
i)i]ZbVm^bjbVcYb^c^bjb]Z^\]ihd[i]Zg^YZgVWdkZi]Z\gdjcY

ii)i]Z]Z^\]id[i]Zg^YZgVWdkZi]Z\gdjcYV[iZg(%h
iii)i]Zi^bZgZfj^gZY[dgi]Z;Zgg^hl]ZZaidXdbeaZiZdcZgZkdaji^dc

5.5 Data Collecting and Modelling MHR 325

Solution


a)

b) I]ZkVajZhXVcWZYZiZgb^cZYZ^i]ZgWnXVaXjaVi^dcdgWnjh^c\

iZX]cdad\n#
Method 1: Use the Equation
i)I]ZVbea^ijYZ^h&%bVcYi]ZkZgi^XVah]^[i^h&'b#I]ZgZ[dgZ!
i]ZbVm^bjb]Z^\]id[i]Zg^YZgVWdkZi]Z\gdjcY^h
&%b&'b!dg''b#I]Zb^c^bjb]Z^\]i^h&%b&'b!dg
'b#
ii)IdYZiZgb^cZi]Z]Z^\]id[i]Zg^YZgVWdkZi]Z\gdjcYV[iZg(%h!
hjWhi^ijiZ(%[dgt^ci]ZZfjVi^dc#
 ht&%h^cP(t(%R&'

&%h^cP((%(%R&'

&%h^c%&'

%&'

&'


I]Z]Z^\]id[i]Zg^YZgVWdkZi]Z\gdjcYV[iZg(%h^h&'b#

iii)I]ZkVajZd[k^h(#





Te c h n o l o g y

Tip

If you are using a


TI-NspireTM CAS
graphing calculator,
refer to the
instructions on
page 33 to determine
the maximum and
minimum values and
the period.

(+%
(+%
T
T


(
k
k&'%
 ]ZeZg^dY^h&'%h#I]Zi^bZgZfj^gZY[dgi]Z;Zgg^hl]ZZaid
I
XdbeaZiZdcZgZkdaji^dc^h&'%h#

Method 2: Use the Graph


i)EgZhh 2nd P86A8R#JhZi]Zmaximum
deZgVi^dc[gdbi]ZCALCULATEbZcj#


326 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

 ]ZbVm^bjb]Z^\]id[i]Zg^YZgVWdkZi]Z
I
\gdjcY^h''b#

 ^b^aVgan!jhZi]ZminimumdeZgVi^dc[gdb
H
i]ZCALCULATEbZcjidYZiZgb^cZi]Z
b^c^bjb#

I]Zb^c^bjb]Z^\]i^h'b#

Con n ec t i on s

ii)JhZi]ZvaluedeZgVi^dc[gdbi]Z

CALCULATEbZcjidYZiZgb^cZi]Z]Z^\]i
V[iZg(%h#
I]Z]Z^\]iV[iZg(%h^h&'b#

iii)IdYZiZgb^cZi]ZeZg^dY!hjWigVXii]ZXddgY^cViZhd[i]ZVY_VXZci

A maximum and an
adjacent minimum are
half a cycle apart. To
obtain the value of
the full period, it is
necessary to multiply
by 2.

bVm^bjbVcYb^c^bjbVcYbjai^eanWn'#I]ZeZg^dY^h
'&-%h&'%h!dg&'%h#

Key Concepts
9ViVXVcWZXdaaZXiZY[gdbe]nh^XVabdYZahjh^c\iddahhjX]VhVbdi^dchZchdg#
9ViVXVcWZYdlcadVYZY[gdbhiVi^hi^XVahdjgXZhhjX]VhHiVi^hi^Xh8VcVYV#
9ViVXVchdbZi^bZhWZbdYZaaZYjh^c\Vh^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc#
JhZV\gVe]dgViVWaZidWj^aYVbdYZaidYZiZgb^cZi]ZVbea^ijYZ!e]VhZh]^[i!eZg^dY!
VcYkZgi^XVah]^[id[Vh^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc#
EgZY^Xi^dchVWdjii]ZWZ]Vk^djgd[VcVaiZgZYbdYZaXVcWZbVYZWnXdch^YZg^c\i]ZZ[[ZXi
d[X]Vc\^c\VeVgVbZiZgdci]Z\gVe]d[i]Zdg^\^cVaZfjVi^dc#
I]Z\gVe]dgZfjVi^dcXVcWZjhZYidYZiZgb^cZkVajZh#

Communicate Your Understanding


C1  8dch^YZgi]ZbdYZandjXdchigjXiZY^ci]Z>ckZhi^\ViZ#=dlYdZhndjgVcVanh^hX]Vc\Z^[ndj

YZX^YZidbdYZai]Zbdi^dcl^i]VXdh^cZ[jcXi^dcgVi]Zgi]VcVh^cZ[jcXi^dc4

C2  8dch^YZgi]ZedejaVi^dc\gVe][dgeZdeaZ^c8VcVYVV\ZY'%id')#L]Vi`^cYd[bdYZa^h

Veegdeg^ViZ[dgi]ZeZg^dY[gdb&.,+id&.-%4[gdb&.-&id&.--4<^kZgZVhdch[dgndjg
VchlZgh#

C3  HjeedhZi]Vii]ZZci^gZ;Zgg^hl]ZZa^c:mVbeaZ(^hbdkZYjelVgY&bVcYi]Ze]VhZh]^[i

^hYZXgZVhZYid'%#L]ViX]Vc\ZhYdndjZmeZXiidhZZ^ci]Z\gVe]4?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg#

5.5 Data Collecting and Modelling MHR 327

A Practise

1. 6hZchdg^hjhZY

id\Vi]ZgYViVdc
i]Zbdi^dcd[V
eZcYjajb#9ViVVgZ
gZXdgYZYdcV\gVe]
l^i]i^bZ!^chZXdcYh!
[gdb%hid&%h!dci]Z]dg^odciVaVm^hVcY
Y^hiVcXZ!^cbZigZh![gdb%bid*b!dc
i]ZkZgi^XVaVm^h#
a) JhZi]Z\gVe]idZhi^bViZi]ZbVm^bjb

VcYb^c^bjbkVajZh#I]Zc!jhZi]ZhZ
kVajZhid[^cYi]ZVbea^ijYZ!a#
b) 8deni]Z\gVe]VcYh`ZiX]V]dg^odciVa

d
Distance (metres)

For help with questions 1 and 2, refer to the


Investigate.

3
2
1
0

4
6
8
Time (seconds)

10 t

a) JhZi]Z\gVe]idZhi^bViZi]ZbVm^bjb

VcYb^c^bjbkVajZh#I]Zc!jhZ
i]ZhZkVajZhid[^cYi]ZVeegdm^bViZ
Vbea^ijYZ!a#
b) 8deni]Z\gVe]VcYh`ZiX]V]dg^odciVa

gZ[ZgZcXZa^cZ#:hi^bViZi]ZkZgi^XVa
h]^[i!c#

gZ[ZgZcXZa^cZ#:hi^bViZi]ZkZgi^XVa
h]^[i!c#

c) JhZi]Z]dg^odciVagZ[ZgZcXZa^cZid

c) JhZi]Z]dg^odciVagZ[ZgZcXZa^cZid

d) JhZi]Z]dg^odciVagZ[ZgZcXZa^cZid

Zhi^bViZi]Ze]VhZh]^[i!d#
d) JhZi]Z]dg^odciVagZ[ZgZcXZa^cZid

Zhi^bViZi]ZeZg^dY#JhZi]ZeZg^dYid
[^cYi]ZkVajZd[k#
e) 8dchigjXiVbdYZa[dgi]Zbdi^dcWn

lg^i^c\VcZfjVi^dcjh^c\Vh^cjhd^YVa
[jcXi^dc#
f) Use TechnologyJhZiZX]cdad\nid

\gVe]ndjgbdYZa#8dbeVgZndjgbdYZa
idi]Z\gVe]h]dlc#>[ndjhZZVcn
h^\c^[^XVciY^[[ZgZcXZh!X]ZX`VcYVY_jhi
ndjgbdYZa#
2. 6bdi^dchZchdg

Reasoning and Proving

^hjhZYid\Vi]Zg
Representing
Selecting Tools
YViVdci]Zbdi^dc
Problem Solving
d[VeZcYjajb#
Reecting
I]ZiVWaZd[kVajZh Connecting
Communicating
^hZmedgiZYidV
XdbejiZg!VcY
\gVe]^c\hd[ilVgZ^hjhZYidYgVli]Z
\gVe]h]dlc#I^bZ!^chZXdcYh!^hdci]Z
]dg^odciVaVm^h#9^hiVcXZ!^cbZigZh!^hdc
i]ZkZgi^XVaVm^h#

Zhi^bViZi]Ze]VhZh]^[i!d#
Zhi^bViZi]ZeZg^dY#JhZi]ZeZg^dYid
[^cYi]ZkVajZd[k#
e) 8dchigjXiVbdYZa[dgi]Zbdi^dcWn

lg^i^c\VcZfjVi^dcjh^c\Vh^cjhd^YVa
[jcXi^dc#
f) Use TechnologyJhZiZX]cdad\nid

\gVe]ndjgbdYZa#8dbeVgZndjgbdYZa
idi]Z\gVe]h]dlc#>[ndjhZZVcn
h^\c^[^XVciY^[[ZgZcXZh!X]ZX`VcYVY_jhi
ndjgbdYZa#
For help with questions 3 and 4, refer to
Example 3.
3. I]Z]Z^\]i!h!^cbZigZh!d[i]Zi^YZ^cV

\^kZcadXVi^dcdcV\^kZcYVnVit]djgh
V[iZgb^Yc^\]iXVcWZbdYZaaZYjh^c\i]Z
h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc
ht*h^cP(%t*R,#
a) ;^cYi]ZbVm^bjbVcYb^c^bjb

kVajZh[dgi]ZYZei]!h!d[i]ZlViZg#
b) L]Vii^bZ^h]^\]i^YZ4L]Vii^bZ^h

adli^YZ4
c) L]Vi^hi]ZYZei]d[i]ZlViZgVi

./%%V#b#4
d) ;^cYVaai]Zi^bZhYjg^c\V')"]eZg^dY

l]Zci]ZYZei]d[i]ZlViZg^h(b#
328 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

4. I]ZedejaVi^dc!P!d[VaV`Zh^YZidlcl^i]

a) BdYZai]Zg^YZgh]Z^\]iVWdkZi]Z

VaVg\ZcjbWZgd[hZVhdcVagZh^YZcihXVcWZ
bdYZaaZYjh^c\i]Z[jcXi^dc
Pt*%%%h^cP(%t,R-%%%!l]ZgZt
^hi]ZcjbWZgd[bdci]hV[iZgCZlNZVgh
9Vn#

b) BdYZai]Zg^YZgh]Z^\]iVWdkZi]Z

a) ;^cYi]ZbVm^bjbVcYb^c^bjb

c) HjeedhZi]Vii]ZeaVi[dgb^hbdkZY

kVajZh[dgi]ZedejaVi^dcdkZgVl]daZ
nZVg#

\gdjcYkZghjhVc\aZjh^c\VigVch[dgbZY
h^cZ[jcXi^dc#
\gdjcYkZghjhVc\aZjh^c\VigVch[dgbZY
Xdh^cZ[jcXi^dc#
id+%VgdjcYi]Zg^b[gdbi]ZadlZhi
edh^i^dcd[i]ZXVg#=dll^aai]Z
ZfjVi^dch^ceVgihVVcYWX]Vc\Z4
Lg^iZi]ZcZlZfjVi^dch#

b) L]Zc^hi]ZedejaVi^dcVbVm^bjb4

L]Zc^h^iVb^c^bjb4
c) L]Vi^hi]ZedejaVi^dcdc

7. HjeedhZi]Vii]ZXZcigZd[i]Z;Zgg^hl]ZZa

HZeiZbWZg(%4
d) L]Zc^hi]ZedejaVi^dcVWdji&%%%%4

For help with question 5, refer to Example 1.


5. a) I]ZdlcZgd[Vc^XZ"XgZVbh]de`Zei

gZXdgYhd[VkZgV\ZYV^anhVaZh[dgZVX]
bdci][dgi]ZeVhinZVg!Vhh]dlc!
WZ\^cc^c\^c?VcjVgn#8dchigjXiV
h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dcidbdYZai]Z
VkZgV\ZYV^anhVaZhkZghjhi]Zbdci]#
b) DkZgl]ViYdbV^cVcYgVc\Z^hndjg

bdYZakVa^Y4
Month

^cfjZhi^dc+^hbdkZYjelVgY'b!Wji
i]ZeaVi[dgb^haZ[i^ceaVXZViVed^ci(%
WZ[dgZi]ZXVggZVX]Zh^ihadlZhied^ci#
=dlYdi]ZZfjVi^dch^ceVgihVVcYW
d[fjZhi^dc+X]Vc\Z4Lg^iZi]ZcZl
ZfjVi^dch#
8. I]ZbdkZbZcid[Ve^hidc^cVc

VjidbdW^aZZc\^cZXVcWZbdYZaaZYWni]Z
[jcXi^dcy*%h^c&%-%%t'%!l]ZgZ
y^hi]ZY^hiVcXZ!^cb^aa^bZigZh![gdbi]Z
XgVc`h]V[iVcYt^hi]Zi^bZ!^chZXdcYh#

Daily Sales
Daily Sales
($)
Month
($)

45

355

115

285

195

205

290

10

105

360

11

42

380

12

18

For help with Questions 6 and 7, refer to


Example 2.
6. 6;Zgg^hl]ZZa]VhVY^VbZiZgd['%bVcY

^h)bVWdkZ\gdjcYaZkZaVi^ihadlZhi
ed^ci#6hhjbZi]ViVg^YZgZciZghVXVg
[gdbVeaVi[dgbi]Vi^hadXViZY(%VgdjcY
i]Zg^bWZ[dgZi]ZXVggZVX]Zh^ihadlZhi
ed^ci#

a) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dYd[i]Zbdi^dc4
b) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZbVm^bjb!b^c^bjb!

VcYVbea^ijYZ#
c) L]ZcYdi]ZbVm^bjbVcYb^c^bjb

kVajZhdXXjg4
d) L]Vi^hi]ZkZgi^XVaedh^i^dcd[i]Z

& 
h4
e^hidcVitT
&'%

5.5 Data Collecting and Modelling MHR 329

c) IgnY^[[ZgZcigZaVi^kZaZc\i]hWZilZZc

B Connect and Apply


9. I]ZeZg^dY!T!

^chZXdcYh!d[
VeZcYjajb^h
gZaViZYidi]Z
aZc\i]! !^c
bZigZh!VXXdgY^c\

Reasoning and Proving


Selecting Tools

Representing
Problem Solving
Connecting

Reecting

Communicating

idi]ZgZaVi^dc
TT
!
T' T
g

l]ZgZg^hi]ZVXXZaZgVi^dcYjZid\gVk^in!
VWdji.#-b$h'!cZVgi]Zhjg[VXZd[:Vgi]#
a) >[i]ZaZc\i]^hYdjWaZY!Wnl]Vi[VXidg

YdZhi]ZeZg^dY^cXgZVhZ4
b) >[ndjlVciVeZcYjajbl^i]]Va[i]Z

eZg^dYd[i]Z\^kZceZcYjajb!l]Vi
bjhindjYdidi]ZaZc\i]4
c) HjeedhZi]VindjbV`ZVeZcYjajb

l^i]]Va[i]ZeZg^dYd[i]ZeZcYjajb
jhZY^ci]Z>ckZhi^\ViZ#BdY^[ni]Z
ZfjVi^dci]VibdYZahi]Zbdi^dcd[i]Z
eZcYjajbidgZ[aZXii]ZcZleZg^dY#
d) HjeedhZi]VindjiV`Zi]ZeZcYjajb^c

i]Z>ckZhi^\ViZidi]Zbddc!l]ZgZi]Z
gViZd[VXXZaZgVi^dcYjZid\gVk^in^h
&i]Vid[i]ZgViZVi:Vgi]h
VWdjiT
+
 hjg[VXZ#EgZY^Xii]ZZ[[ZXidci]ZeZg^dY
d[i]ZeZcYjajb#
e) BdY^[ni]ZZfjVi^dci]VibdYZahi]Z
bdi^dcd[i]ZeZcYjajbhdi]Vi^i^h
VXXjgViZ[dgajcVg\gVk^in#

i]ZildeZcYjajbhig^c\h#8Vcndj
YZiZgb^cZVgVi^di]VigZhjaih^c
h^cjhd^YVabdi^dc4
11. =dlXadhZanXVc

YZZeWgZVi]^c\WZ
bdYZaaZYjh^c\
Vh^cjhd^YVa
[jcXi^dc4
a) EgVXi^hZhadl!

Reasoning and Proving


Representing

Selecting Tools

Problem Solving
Connecting

Reecting

Communicating

YZZeWgZVi]^c\!
[^aa^c\ndjgajc\hidXVeVX^in!VcYi]Zc
Zm]Va^c\jci^andjXVccdiZmeZaVcnbdgZ
V^g#@ZZei]ZgViZhadl!hjX]i]Vi^c]Va^c\
VcYZm]Va^c\ZVX]iV`ZViaZVhi*h#
b) ;^aaV'"AeaVhi^XWdiiaZl^i]lViZg#

>ckZgii]ZWdiiaZ^cVh^c`]Va[[jaad[
lViZg#:m]VaZi]gdj\]VijWZhjX]VhV
[aZm^WaZhigVl!VcYXVeijgZi]ZZm]VaZY
V^g^ci]ZWdiiaZ#JhZi]ZVbdjcid[
lViZgY^heaVXZYidZhi^bViZi]ZkdajbZ
d[V^gi]VindjWgZVi]ZYdji#>[ndj]VkZ
VaVg\Zajc\XVeVX^in!ndjbVncZZYid
jhZbdgZi]VcdcZWdiiaZ#JhZV[ZaieZc
idbVg`i]ZaZkZaZVX]hZXdcY#




10. 6YdjWaZeZcYjajbXVcWZbVYZWn

XdccZXi^c\VhZXdcYeZcYjajbidi]Z
WdWd[i]Z[^ghi#BV`ZVbdYZad[VYdjWaZ
eZcYjajbjh^c\VcnbViZg^VahVkV^aVWaZ!
VcYhZi^i^cbdi^dc#
a) LViX]i]ZWdWd[i]Z[^ghieZcYjajb#

9ZhXg^WZi]Zbdi^dc#LdjaY^iWZ
edhh^WaZidbdYZa^ijh^c\Vh^cjhd^YVa
[jcXi^dc4
b) LViX]i]ZWdWd[i]ZhZXdcYeZcYjajb#

9ZhXg^WZi]Zbdi^dc#LdjaY^iWZ
edhh^WaZidbdYZa^ijh^c\Vh^cjhd^YVa
[jcXi^dc4

330 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

c) BV`ZViVWaZd[kVajZhd[kdajbZ

Zm]VaZYkZghjhi^bZ#JhZi]ZiVWaZid
h`ZiX]V\gVe]#
d) JhZndjgiVWaZVcY\gVe]idXdchigjXiV

h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dcidbdYZai]ZYViV#
e) <gVe]i]ZbdYZadci]ZhVbZhZid[

VmZh#=dlXadhZanYdZhi]ZVXijVa
Zm]VaVi^dc[daadlVh^cjhd^YVabdYZa4
Con n ec t i on s
You cannot actually expel all of the air from your lungs.
Depending on the size of your lungs, 1 L to 2 L of air
remains even when you think your lungs are empty.

12. Hbd\^hV\ZcZg^XiZgbjhZYidYZhXg^WZ

edaajiVcih^ci]ZV^g#6hbd\VaZgi^h
jhjVaan^hhjZYl]Zci]ZV^gfjVa^in^cYZm
^h\gZViZgi]Vc*%#6^gfjVa^inXVckVgn
i]gdj\]djii]ZYVn!^cXgZVh^c\l]ZcbdgZ
XVghVgZdci]ZgdVY#8dch^YZgVbdYZad[
i]Z[dgbI(%h^cP&*t)R'*!l]ZgZ
I ^hi]ZkVajZd[i]ZV^gfjVa^in^cYZmVcYt
bZVhjgZhi]Zi^bZV[iZgb^Yc^\]i!^c]djgh#
a) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dYd[i]ZbdYZaaZY

[jcXi^dc4:meaV^cl]ni]^hbV`Zh
hZchZ#
b) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZbVm^bjb!b^c^bjb!

VcYVbea^ijYZ#
c) L]ZcYdi]ZbVm^bjbVcYb^c^bjb

dXXjg4
d) 9jg^c\l]Vii^bZ^ciZgkValdjaYVhbd\

VaZgiWZ^hhjZY!VXXdgY^c\idi]^hbdYZa4
13. a) ;^cYndjgejahZ#JhZVlViX]id

YZiZgb^cZ]dlbVcni^bZhndjg]ZVgi
WZVih^c&b^c#JhZi]^hbZVhjgZbZciid
XVaXjaViZi]ZeZg^dYd[dcZ]ZVgiWZVi#
b) 6hhjb^c\VcVbea^ijYZd[&jc^i!jhZ

Vh^cZ[jcXi^dcidXdchigjXiVbdYZad[
ndjg]ZVgiWZVikZghjhi^bZ#
c) JhZi]Za^WgVgndgi]Z>ciZgcZiiddWiV^c

VigVX^c\[gdbVbZY^XVa]ZVgibdc^idg#
=dl\ddY^hVh^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dcVhV
bdYZa[dgV]jbVcejahZ4
14. Chapter ProblemNdjgkd^XZ^hVhjc^fjZ

VhV[^c\Zgeg^ci!VcYndjgkd^XZeViiZgc
XVcWZjhZYid^YZci^[nndj#:kZc^[ndj
]VkZVXdbeaZmkd^XZ!VXdbejiZgXVcWZ
egd\gVbbZYidVcVanhZndjgkd^XZeViiZgc
VcYWgZV`^i^cidVhjbd[h^cjhd^YVa
[jcXi^dchd[kVgn^c\eZg^dYh!Vbea^ijYZh!
VcYe]VhZh]^[ih#I]^hegdXZhh^h`cdlcVh
;djg^ZgVcVanh^h#
a) IdhZZ]dli]^hegdXZhhldg`h!hiVgi

l^i]i]ZbdYZayh^cx#E^X`i]gZZ
Y^[[ZgZcieV^ghd[Vbea^ijYZhVcY
eZg^dYh#6eeanZVX]eV^gidi]ZWVh^X
h^cZ[jcXi^dcVcYVYYid[dgbi]Zkd^XZ
bdYZa#6cZmVbeaZ^h

yh^cx%#*h^c'x%#,*h^c(x
 %#'*h^c*x
<gVe]i]ZbdYZa#6YYVcdi]ZgiZgbid
ndjgbdYZa!VcY\gVe]^iV\V^c#L]Vi
X]Vc\ZhYdndjcdi^XZ4

b) 7dggdlVb^Xgde]dcZVcYdhX^aadhXdeZ

[gdbi]Ze]nh^XhYZeVgibZciVindjg
hX]dda#H^c\Vh^c\aZcdiZVcYhZZndjg
dlckd^XZeViiZgc#8dbeVgZeViiZgch
l^i]di]Zgh^cndjgXaVhh#
15. K^h^illl#hiViXVc#\X#XV$ZYj$ZYj%*T%%&-X"

Zc\#]ib#HZaZXiSinusoidal#
HZaZXiInternational travellers into
Canada!table 387-0004#
HZaZXitable 075-0013#
JcYZgGeography!hZaZXiCanada#
JcYZgTravel category!hZaZXiInbound
international travel#
JcYZgSex!hZaZXiBoth sexes#
JcYZgInternational Travellers!hZaZXi
Total travel#
JcYZgSeasonal adjustment!hZaZXi
Unadjusted#
HZii]ZgZ[ZgZcXZeZg^dYidfrom Mar 1986
to Mar 2006#
>[ndjlVciidhZZi]ZYViVdcndjg
XdbejiZghXgZZc!hZaZXiRetrieve as a Table
VcYi]ZcRetrieve Now#
>[ndjeaVcidVcVanhZi]ZYViVl^i]V
hegZVYh]ZZidgdi]Zghd[ilVgZ!hZaZXi
Retrieve as individual Time Series#HZaZXi
i]ZYdlcadVYVWaZ[^aZ[dgbViVh
CSV (comma-separated values)!l^i]
Time as rows#
a) HZaZXiVgZXZcinZVg#8dchigjXiV

h^cjhd^YVabdYZaidgZegZhZcii]Z
cjbWZgd[^ciZgcVi^dcVaigVkZaaZghid
8VcVYV[dgi]VinZVg#
b) >cheZXii]ZYViV[gdbdi]ZgnZVgh#9dZh

ndjgbdYZaVeeanidVcnnZVg4?jhi^[n
ndjgVchlZg#

5.5 Data Collecting and Modelling MHR 331

c) BV`ZV\gVe]d[i]ZbVm^bjbkVajZh

kZghjhnZVg[dgZVX]nZVgi]Vindj]VkZ
YViV[dg#:meaV^cl]ni]Zadc\"iZgb
igZcYVbdc\i]ZbVm^bjbkVajZh
VeeZVghidWZeZg^dY^X#
d) 8dchigjXiVh^cjhd^YVabdYZaid

gZegZhZcii]ZkVg^Vi^dc^cbVm^bjb
kVajZh[gdbnZVgidnZVg#L]Vi^hi]Z
VeeVgZcieZg^dYd[i]^hadc\"iZgb
kVg^Vi^dc4
16. K^h^illl#hiViXVc#\X#XV$ZYj$ZYj%*T%%&-X"

Time, t
(s)

Height, y
(m)

Time, t
(s)

Height, y
(m)

110

35

103

60

85

10

85

60

11

103

35

12

110

17

13

103

10

14

85

17

15

60

Zc\#]ibHZaZXiSinusoidal#
a) HZaZXiViVWaZd[^ciZgZhiVcYYdlcadVY

i]ZYViV#
b) EdhZVfjZhi^dci]ViXVcWZVchlZgZYWn

XdchigjXi^c\Vh^cjhd^YVabdYZad[i]Z
YViV#
c) HdakZndjgfjZhi^dcidZchjgZi]Vi^i

ldg`h#
d) :mX]Vc\ZfjZhi^dchl^i]VXaVhhbViZ#

HdakZZVX]di]ZghfjZhi^dc#
e) :mX]Vc\Zhdaji^dch!VcYY^hXjhh

l]Zi]Zgi]ZnVgZXdggZXi#
Achievement Check
17. 7jc\ZZ_jbe^c\

^hi]dj\]iid]VkZ
dg^\^cViZY^c
FjZZchidlc!CZl
OZVaVcY!Yjg^c\i]Z
&.-%h#9ViV[dgV
Wjc\ZZ_jbeZgVgZ
h]dlc#I^b^c\WZ\^ch
l]Zci]ZWjc\ZZXdgY
^h[jaanZmiZcYZY#
I]ZkZgi^XVa]Z^\]i
d[i]Z_jbeZgVWdkZ
i]Z\gdjcY[dg&*h^hh]dlc#JhZVh^cZ
[jcXi^dcidbdYZai]Z_jbe#

Extend

18. 8dch^YZgV&%"b"iVaaigZZ#DcVXZgiV^c

YVn!i]Zhjcg^hZhVi+/%%V#b#!^hY^gZXian
dkZg]ZVYVicddc!VcYhZihVi+/%%e#b#
;gdb+/%%V#b#jci^acddc!i]ZaZc\i]!
s!^cbZigZh!d[i]ZigZZhh]VYdlXVcWZ
bdYZaaZYWni]ZgZaVi^dc
s&%Xdi&*t!l]ZgZt^hi]Zi^bZ!^c
]djgh!eVhi+/%%V#b#
a) BdY^[ni]ZbdYZahdi]Vi^i^hkVa^Y

[gdbcddcjci^a+/%%e#b#
b) <gVe]i]ZbdYZaVcYi]ZbdY^[^ZY

bdYZa^ceVgiVdci]ZhVbZhZid[VmZh#
19. Math Contest6XjWZl^i]h^YZhd[+Xb

]VhZVX]h^YZ^cXgZVhZYid&-Xb#=dl
bVcnd[i]ZhbVaaZgXjWZhl^aa[^i^ci]Z
aVg\ZgXjWZ4
A (

B ',

C .

D -&

20. Math Contest6\aVhhXdciV^cZg^h[^aaZY

l^i]*%Ad[lViZg#&%Ad[lViZg^h
gZbdkZYVcYgZeaVXZYl^i]&%Ad[\gVeZ
_j^XZ#I]Zb^mijgZ^hh]V`ZclZaa#I]Zc!
'%Ad[i]Zb^mijgZ^hgZbdkZYVcY
gZeaVXZYl^i]'%Ad[\gVeZ_j^XZ#=dl
bVcna^igZhd[\gVeZ_j^XZVgZcdl^ci]Z
XdciV^cZg4
A '%

B ')

C '*

D '+

21. Math Contest>[i]ZcjbWZg(%%%^h

lg^iiZc^ci]Z[dgb'x(y*z!l]Vi^hi]Z
kVajZd[xyz4
A (

332 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

B )

C +

D ,

5.6
Use Sinusoidal
Functions to Model
Periodic Phenomena
Not Involving Angles
Ndj]VkZldg`ZYl^i]h^cjhd^YVaVeea^XVi^dchi]ViYdcdi^ckdakZVc\aZh![dgZmVbeaZ!i]Z]Z^\]ih
d[i^YZhkZghjhi^bZ#>ci]^hhZXi^dc!ndjl^aaldg`l^i]di]ZggZVa"ldgaYh^ijVi^dchi]ViXVcWZ
bdYZaaZYWnh^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dchWjiYdcdicZXZhhVg^an^ckdakZVcVc\aZVhi]Z^cYZeZcYZci
kVg^VWaZ#HjchediVXi^k^in^hVcZmVbeaZ#HjchedihVgZ]j\ZhdaVghidgbh#I]Z^gVXi^k^inVeeZVgh
id[daadlVeZg^dY^XeViiZgci]ViXVcWZbdYZaaZYWnVh^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc#I]ZbdYZa^hjhZYid
egZY^XiY^hgjei^dchidgVY^d"WVhZYXdbbjc^XVi^dchdc:Vgi]#

Investigate

Tools

How can you use sinusoidal functions to model the tides?


1. I]Z[jcXi^dcht*h^cP(%t(RXVcWZjhZYidbdYZai]Z

gZaVi^dch]^eWZilZZci]Z]Z^\]i!^cbZigZh!d[i]Zi^YZh^cVXZgiV^c
eaVXZVWdkZdgWZadlbZVchZVaZkZa!VcYi]Zi^bZd[YVn!^c]djgh
eVhib^Yc^\]i#<gVe]i]ZbdYZadkZgVeZg^dYd[')]#
2. JhZndjg\gVe]idYZiZgb^cZl]Zci]Z[^ghi]^\]i^YZdXXjgh#L]Vi^h

i]Z]Z^\]id[i]Zi^YZVWdkZbZVchZVaZkZa4
3. 6il]Vii^bZYdZhi]Z[^ghiadli^YZdXXjg4L]Vi^hi]Z]Z^\]id[i]Z

i^YZ4:meaV^cl]ni]ZVchlZg^hcZ\Vi^kZ#
4. 6il]Vii^bZhYdi]ZcZmi]^\]VcYadli^YZhdXXjg4
5. L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dYd[i]Z[jcXi^dc4
6. ReflectJhZndjgVchlZghidZmeaV^cl]ni]Ze]VhZh]^[i^h(#

graphing calculator
Optional
graphing software or
other graphing tools

Con n ec t i on s
Tides are caused
principally by the
gravitational pull of the
moon on Earths oceans.
The physics of rotating
systems predicts that
one high tide occurs
when the water is
facing the moon and
another occurs when
the water is on the
opposite side of Earth,
away from the moon.
This results in two tide
cycles each day. To learn
more about tides, visit
the Functions 11 page
on the McGraw-Hill
Ryerson Web site and
follow the links to
Chapter 5.

5.6 Use Sinusoidal Functions to Model Periodic Phenomena Not Involving Angles MHR 333

Example 1

Co nne ct io ns
The adoption of AC
power transmission
in North America was
spearheaded by the
inventor Nikola Tesla.
He demonstrated that
AC power was easier
to transmit over long
distances than the
direct current favoured
by rival inventor Thomas
Edison. There is a statue
honouring Tesla on Goat
Island in Niagara Falls,
New York.

Model Alternating Electric Current (AC)


I]ZZaZXig^X^injhZY^cbdhid[i]ZldgaY^hVaiZgcVi^c\XjggZci#Jca^`Z
i]ZZaZXig^X^in[gdbVWViiZgn!l]^X]ValVnh[adlh^ci]ZhVbZY^gZXi^dc!
68ZaZXig^X^ingZkZghZhY^gZXi^dc^cVXnXa^XVa[Vh]^dc#I]ZcjbWZgd[
XnXaZheZghZXdcY^hcdii]ZhVbZ^cVaaXdjcig^Zh#>c8VcVYV!i]ZJc^iZY
HiViZh!VcYhdbZdi]ZgXdjcig^Zh!i]Z
[gZfjZcXnhiVcYVgY^h+%=o]Zgio!
l]^X]bZVch+%XdbeaZiZXnXaZheZg
hZXdcY#I]ZbVm^bjbkdaiV\Z^hVWdji
&,%K#I]ZkdaiV\ZXVcWZbdYZaaZY
VhV[jcXi^dcd[i^bZjh^c\Vh^cZ
[jcXi^dc/Vah^cPktdRc#
a) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dYd[+%"=o684
b) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZkVajZd[k#
c) L]Vi^hi]ZVbea^ijYZd[i]Z

kdaiV\Z[jcXi^dc4
d) BdYZai]ZkdaiV\Zl^i]Vhj^iVWan

igVch[dgbZYh^cZ[jcXi^dc#
e) Use TechnologyJhZiZX]cdad\nid

\gVe]i]ZkdaiV\Z[jcXi^dcdkZgild
XnXaZh#:meaV^cl]Vii]ZhXVaZhdc
i]ZVmZhgZegZhZci#

Solution

&
T

a) H^cXZi]ZgZVgZ+%XdbeaZiZXnXaZhZkZgnhZXdcY!i]ZeZg^dY^h  h#
b)

Te c h n o l o g y

Tip

You can enter rational


expressions for the
window variables. To
set the maximum
1
T
value for x to
,
30
you can just type

1
30. When
you press ENTER , the
calculator will calculate
the desired value,
0.03333.

(+%
T
&

T

+%

+%
k'&+%%
I]ZkVajZd[k^h'&+%%#
k

c) I]ZVbea^ijYZ^h&,%K#
d) I]ZkdaiV\Z[jcXi^dc^hV&,%h^c'&+%%t#
e) Id\gVe]i]ZkdaiV\Z[jcXi^dcdkZgildXnXaZh!hZii]ZgVc\Zd[x[gdb

&hVcYi]Zx"hXVaZidT
& 
%hidT
h#:VX]i^X`dci]Zx"Vm^h
(%
&'%
& 
gZegZhZcihT
h#
&'%
HZii]ZgVc\Zd[y[gdb'%%Kid'%%KVcY
i]Zy"hXVaZid*%K#:VX]i^X`dci]Zy"Vm^h
gZegZhZcih*%K#
I]Z\gVe]^hh]dlc#

334 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

Example 2
Model the Angle of the Sun Above the Horizon on the Summer Solstice
in Inuvik
I]ZiVWaZh]dlhi]ZVc\aZd[i]ZhjcVWdkZi]Z]dg^odc[dgZVX]]djgdc
i]ZhjbbZghdahi^XZ^c>cjk^`!Cdgi]lZhiIZgg^idg^Zh#
Hour Past Midnight

10

11

Angle Above the


Horizon ()

2.4 1.8 2.4 4.2 7.2

11

16

22

27

33

38

42

Hour Past Midnight

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

Angle Above the


Horizon ()

45

46

45

42

38

33

27

22

17

12 7.5 4.3

a) JhZi]ZiVWaZidYZiZgb^cZVh^cjhd^YVabdYZa[dgi]ZVc\aZd[i]Zhjc

VWdkZi]Z]dg^odc#
b) <gVe]i]Zed^cih^ci]ZiVWaZdci]ZhVbZhZid[VmZhVhndjgbdYZaid

kZg^[ni]Z[^i#
c) >hi]Z[^iVhZmeZXiZY4:meaV^cVcnY^hXgZeVcX^Zh#

Solution
a) ;gdbi]ZiVWaZ!i]ZbVm^bjbVc\aZd[ZaZkVi^dc^h)+VcYi]Z

)+&#b^c^bjbVc\aZ^h&#-#I]ZVbea^ijYZ^hTT
 

''#&#I]ZgZ[dgZ!
'
i]ZkVajZd[a^h''#&#
I]ZkZgi^XVah]^[i^h&#-''#&'(#.#I]ZgZ[dgZ!i]ZkVajZd[c^h
'(#.#
I]Zh^cZlVkZhiVgihVi'(#.#I]^h^hVWdji,#*]eVhib^Yc^\]i#
I]ZgZ[dgZ!d,#*#
I]ZeZg^dY^h')]#
(+%
T


')
k
 k&*
I]ZVc\aZVWdkZi]Z]dg^odcXVcWZbdYZaaZYl^i]i]ZZfjVi^dc
ht''#&h^cP&*t,#*R'(#.#

b) I]Z\gVe]^hh]dlc!hjeZg^bedhZYdkZgi]ZYViVed^cih#
c) I]Z[^i^h\ddYVi[^ghi!WjiWZ\^chidYZeVgi

[gdbi]ZYViVed^cihVhi]ZYVnegd\gZhhZh#
:Vgi]hbdkZbZciVgdjcYi]ZhjcbVn
VXXdjci[dgi]ZYZeVgijgZ[gdbVejgZan
h^cjhd^YVabdYZa#I]ZgZVaeZg^dY^hcdi
ZmVXian')]#

5.6 Use Sinusoidal Functions to Model Periodic Phenomena Not Involving Angles MHR 335

Example 3
Predator-Prey Populations
L]ZcildVc^bVah]VkZV
egZYVidg$egZngZaVi^dch]^e!i]Z
edejaVi^dcd[ZVX]dkZgi^bZXVc
WZbdYZaaZYl^i]Vh^cjhd^YVa
[jcXi^dc#>[i]ZedejaVi^dcd[
egZn^haVg\Z!i]ZedejaVi^dcd[
egZYVidgh^cXgZVhZhh^cXZi]ZgZ
^hVcVYZfjViZ[ddYhjeean#6h
i]ZedejaVi^dcd[egZYVidgh^cXgZVhZh!i]ZedejaVi^dcd[egZnYZXgZVhZh#
:kZcijVaan!i]ZgZ^hcdiZcdj\][ddY[dgi]ZegZYVidgh!VcYi]ZnVahd
WZ\^cidY^Zd[[#6hi]ZcjbWZgd[egZYVidghYZXa^cZh!bdgZegZnhjgk^kZ!
VcYi]ZedejaVi^dcd[egZn^cXgZVhZhV\V^c#
HjeedhZi]Vii]ZcjbWZg!N!d[egZn^cV\^kZcVgZVXVcWZbdYZaaZYWn
i]Z[jcXi^dcNt'*%h^c.%t*%%!l]ZgZt^hi]ZcjbWZgd[nZVgh
h^cXZVWVhZnZVgd[&..%#
a) L]VilVhi]ZedejaVi^dcd[egZn^c&..%4
b) L]ZcY^Yi]ZedejaVi^dcgZVX]VbVm^bjb4
c) L]VilVhi]ZbVm^bjbedejaVi^dcVii]^hi^bZ4
d) L]ZcY^Yi]ZedejaVi^dcgZVX]Vb^c^bjb4
e) L]VilVhi]Zb^c^bjbedejaVi^dcVii]Vii^bZ4
f) =dlbVcnnZVgheVhhZYWZilZZcbVm^bjbedejaVi^dch4

Solution
a) HjWhi^ijiZ%[dgt#H^cXZh^c%%!i]ZedejaVi^dc^c&..%lVh*%%#
b) Use TechnologyJhZV\gVe]^c\XVaXjaVidg

id\gVe]i]Z[jcXi^dcdkZgViaZVhiildXnXaZh#
6Y_jhii]Zl^cYdlkVg^VWaZhVXXdgY^c\an#
I]Zc!jhZi]ZmaximumdeZgVi^dc[gdbi]Z
CALCULATEbZcjidYZiZgb^cZi]Z[^ghi
bVm^bjb#>idXXjggZYV[iZg&nZVg!^c&..&#
c) I]ZedejaVi^dcd[egZn^c&..&lVh,*%#
d) JhZi]ZminimumdeZgVi^dc[gdbi]Z

CALCULATEbZcjidYZiZgb^cZi]Z[^ghi
b^c^bjb#>idXXjggZYVii]ZZcYd[(nZVgh!
^c&..(#
e) I]ZedejaVi^dcd[egZn^c&..(lVh'*%#
f) I]ZcZmibVm^bjbdXXjggZY^c&..*#;djgnZVgheVhhZYWZilZZc

bVm^bjbedejaVi^dch#

336 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

Key Concepts
H^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dchXVcWZjhZYidbdYZaeZg^dY^Xe]ZcdbZcVi]ViYdcdi^ckdakZVc\aZh
Vhi]Z^cYZeZcYZcikVg^VWaZ#
I]ZVbea^ijYZ!e]VhZh]^[i!eZg^dY!VcYkZgi^XVah]^[id[i]ZWVh^Xh^cZdgXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc
XVcWZVY_jhiZYid[^ii]ZX]VgVXiZg^hi^Xhd[i]Ze]ZcdbZcdcWZ^c\bdYZaaZY#
IZX]cdad\nXVcWZjhZYidfj^X`anYgVlVcYVcVanhZi]Z\gVe]bdYZaaZYWni]ZZfjVi^dc#
I]Z\gVe]XVcWZjhZYidhdakZegdWaZbhgZaViZYidi]Ze]ZcdbZcdc#

Communicate Your Understanding


C1  6h^ijVi^dcbdYZaaZYWnVh^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc]Vhcdx"^ciZgXZeih#L]ViXdcXajh^dchXVcndj

YgVlVWdjii]ZgZaVi^dcWZilZZcaVcYc4

C2  6h^ijVi^dcXVcWZbdYZaaZYWni]Zh^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dcyah^cPkxdRc#>[i]Z\gVe]

eVhhZhi]gdj\]i]Zdg^\^c!XVcndjXdcXajYZi]Vii]Ze]VhZh]^[i!d!^h%4?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg!
^cXajY^c\VY^V\gVb#

C3  I]ZeZg^dYd[Vh^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc^h\gZViZgi]Vc(+%WjiaZhhi]Vc,'%#L]VigZhig^Xi^dch

YdZhi]^hXdcY^i^dceaVXZdci]ZkVajZd[k4?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg#

A Practise
For help with questions 1 and 2, refer to the
Investigate.
1. >ci]Z>ckZhi^\ViZ!i]Zh^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc

ht*h^cP(%t(R^hjhZYidbdYZa
i]Z]Z^\]id[i^YZh^cVeVgi^XjaVgadXVi^dc
dcVeVgi^XjaVgYVn#DcVY^[[ZgZciYVn!
i]ZbVm^bjb]Z^\]i^h-b!i]Zb^c^bjb
]Z^\]i^h -b!VcY]^\]i^YZdXXjghVi
*/(%V#b#
a) BdY^[ni]Z[jcXi^dchjX]i]Vi^i

bViX]Zhi]ZcZlYViV#
b) EgZY^Xii]Zi^bZh[dgi]ZcZmi]^\]VcY

adli^YZh#
2. HjeedhZi]ViVXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc^hX]dhZcid

bdYZai]Zi^YZh^ci]Z>ckZhi^\ViZ#

b) KZg^[ni]Vii]ZXdh^cZbdYZaXdggZXian

egZY^Xihi]ZadlVcY]^\]i^YZh[dgi]Z
YVn#
For help with question 3, refer to Example 1.
3. HdbZi^bZhYZbVcY[dgZaZXig^X^inWZXdbZh

hd\gZVii]Vihjeea^ZghhjX]VhDciVg^d
EdlZg<ZcZgVi^dcXVccdibV^ciV^ci]Z
YZh^gZYbVm^bjbkdaiV\Zdci]ZZaZXig^X^in
\g^Y#I]^hXgZViZhVXdcY^i^dc`cdlcVh
VWgdlcdji#>cVWgdlcdji!^cXVcYZhXZci
aVbehY^bVcYhdbZVeea^VcXZhYdcdi
ldg`ViVaa#=dlYdZhi]Z\gVe]d[kdaiV\Z
kZghjhi^bZX]Vc\ZYjg^c\VWgdlcdji4
H`ZiX]i]ZcZl\gVe]VcY_jhi^[nndjg
X]Vc\Zh#

a) BdY^[ni]Z[jcXi^dchdi]ViVXdh^cZ

[jcXi^dc^hjhZYWjiVaaegZY^Xi^dchd[
i^YZhgZbV^ci]ZhVbZ#

5.6 Use Sinusoidal Functions to Model Periodic Phenomena Not Involving Angles MHR 337

For help with question 4, refer to Example 3.


4. I]ZedejaVi^dcd[egZn^cVegZYVidg"egZn

gZaVi^dc^hh]dlc#I^bZ^h^cnZVghh^cXZ
&.-*#
N

Population

1000
800

b) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dYd[i]Z[jcXi^dc4
c) <gVe]i]ZlViZgaZkZadkZg')]#
d) >[i]ZlViZg^haZhhi]Vc(bYZZe!

aVcY^c\VhZVeaVcZ^hXdch^YZgZYjchV[Z#
9jg^c\l]Vii^bZ^ciZgkVah!WZilZZc
b^Yc^\]iVcYb^Yc^\]ii]Z[daadl^c\
YVn!^h^iXdch^YZgZYjchV[ZidaVcYV
hZVeaVcZ4
e) L]Vidi]Zg[VXidghVgZ^bedgiVci^c

600

YZX^Y^c\l]Zi]Zg^i^hhV[ZidaVcY4

400

6. 6iVcdi]Zgi^bZd[nZVg^ci]ZhVbZ

200
0

8
12 16
Time (years)

20

a) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZbVm^bjbVcYb^c^bjb

kVajZhd[i]ZedejaVi^dc!idi]ZcZVgZhi
*%#JhZi]ZhZid[^cYi]ZVbea^ijYZ#
b) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZkZgi^XVah]^[i!c#
c) 9ZiZgb^cZi]Ze]VhZh]^[i!d#
d) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZeZg^dY#JhZi]ZeZg^dYid

YZiZgb^cZi]ZkVajZd[k#
e) BdYZai]ZedejaVi^dckZghjhi^bZl^i]

Vh^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc#
f) <gVe]ndjg[jcXi^dc#8dbeVgZ^iidi]Z

\gVe]h]dlc#

B Connect and Apply


5. I]ZYZei]!d!^cbZigZh!d[lViZg^cV

hZVeaVcZ]VgWdjgdcV\^kZcYVnXVcWZ
bdYZaaZYjh^c\i]Z[jcXi^dc
d&'h^cP(%t*R&)!l]ZgZt^hi]Z
i^bZeVhib^Yc^\]i!^c]djgh#

]VgWdjgVh^cfjZhi^dc*!i]ZbVm^bjb
lViZgYZei]^h''bVcYi]Zb^c^bjb
YZei]^h+b#I]Z[^ghi]^\]i^YZdXXjghVi
*/%%V#b#
a) BdY^[ni]ZbdYZa^cfjZhi^dc*id

bViX]i]ZcZlYViV#
b) <gVe]i]ZlViZgaZkZadkZg')]#
c) 9jg^c\l]Vii^bZ^ciZgkVah!WZilZZc

b^Yc^\]iVcYb^Yc^\]ii]Z[daadl^c\
YVn!^h^iXdch^YZgZYjchV[ZidaVcYV
hZVeaVcZ4
7. I]ZZaZXig^X^in

Reasoning and Proving

hiVcYVgYjhZY^c
Representing
Selecting Tools
:jgdeZVcYbVcn
Problem Solving
di]ZgeVgihd[i]Z
Connecting
Reecting
ldgaY^hVaiZgcVi^c\
XjggZci68l^i]V
Communicating
[gZfjZcXnd[*%=o
VcYVbVm^bjbkdaiV\Zd[')%K#I]Z
kdaiV\ZXVcWZbdYZaaZYVhV[jcXi^dcd[
i^bZjh^c\Vh^cZ[jcXi^dc#
a) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dYd[*%"=o684
b) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZkVajZd[k#
c) L]Vi^hi]ZVbea^ijYZd[i]ZkdaiV\Z

[jcXi^dc4
d) BdYZai]ZkdaiV\Zl^i]Vhj^iVWan

igVch[dgbZYh^cZ[jcXi^dc#
e) Use TechnologyJhZiZX]cdad\nid

\gVe]i]ZkdaiV\Z[jcXi^dcdkZgild
XnXaZh#:meaV^cl]Vii]ZhXVaZhdci]Z
VmZhgZegZhZci#
a) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZbVm^bjbVcYb^c^bjb

YZei]hd[i]ZlViZg^ci]Z]VgWdjg#

338 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

8. ?ja^VXdchigjXihVbdYZa68\ZcZgVidg^c

e]nh^XhXaVhhVcYXgVc`h^iWn]VcYVi
(gZkdaji^dcheZghZXdcY#H]Z^hVWaZida^\]i
jeV[aVh]a^\]iWjaWi]Vi^hgViZY[dg+K#
a) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dYd[i]Z68egdYjXZY4
b) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZkVajZd[k#

10. GZ[ZgidndjgbdYZa^cfjZhi^dc.#
a) EgZY^Xii]ZcZmii]gZZdXXjggZcXZhd[

bVm^bjbhjchediVXi^k^inV[iZg'%%+#
b) EgZY^Xii]ZcZmii]gZZdXXjggZcXZhd[

b^c^bjbhjchediVXi^k^inV[iZg'%%+#
c) L]Vi^hi]ZkVg^Vi^dc^ci]ZbVm^bjb

c) L]Vi^hi]ZVbea^ijYZd[i]ZkdaiV\Z

[jcXi^dc4
d) BdYZai]ZkdaiV\Zl^i]Vhj^iVWan

igVch[dgbZYh^cZ[jcXi^dc#
e) Use Technology<gVe]i]ZkdaiV\Z

[jcXi^dcdkZgildXnXaZh#:meaV^cl]Vi
i]ZhXVaZhdci]ZVmZhgZegZhZci#
9. I]ZiVWaZh]dlhVccjVaVkZgV\Zhjchedi

VcYb^c^bjbkVajZhdkZgi]ZYViV^c
i]ZiVWaZ4
Con n ec t i on s
Sunspots were observed as early as 165 B.C.E. Like
many phenomena in the sky, they were thought to
have a mystical significance to humans.

11. >c:mVbeaZ(!i]ZedejaVi^dcd[egZnXVc

Sunspots
(Annual
Average)

Year
(since
1970)

Sunspots
(Annual
Average)

107.4

19

162.2

66.5

20

145.1

67.3

21

144.3

36.7

22

93.5

WZbdYZaaZYl^i]i]Z[jcXi^dc
Nt'*%h^c.%t*%%#GZhZVgX]h]dlh
i]Vii]ZedejaVi^dcd[egZYVidgh[daadlh
i]ZeZg^dYd[i]ZedejaVi^dcd[egZn!
&d[VXnXaZidi]Z
l^i]Ve]VhZh]^[id[T
)
g^\]i#HjeedhZi]Vii]ZegZYVidgh]VkZ
Vb^c^bjbedejaVi^dcd[*%VcYV
bVm^bjbedejaVi^dcd[&%%#

32.3

23

54.5

a) 8dchigjXiVbdYZa[dgi]ZedejaVi^dcd[

14.4

24

31.0

egZYVidghjh^c\Vh^cZ[jcXi^dc#

11.6

25

18.2

b) <gVe]i]ZedejaVi^dcd[egZnVcY

26.0

26

8.4

86.9

27

20.3

145.8

28

61.6

10

149.1

29

96.1

11

146.5

30

123.3

12

114.8

31

123.3

egZYVidg"egZnh^bjaVi^dc\VbZ#

13

64.7

32

109.4

a) EaVni]Z\VbZ^cVhbVaa\gdjeVcY

14

43.5

33

65.9

15

16.2

34

43.3

16

11.0

35

30.2

17

29.0

36

15.4

18

100.9

VXi^k^in[gdb&.,%id'%%+#
Year
(since
1970)

a) JhZi]ZiVWaZidYZiZgb^cZVh^cjhd^YVa

bdYZa[dgi]ZcjbWZgd[hjchedih#
b) <gVe]i]Zed^cih^ci]ZiVWaZdci]Z

egZYVidghdci]ZhVbZhZid[VmZhdkZgV
eZg^dYd[&'nZVgh[gdbi]ZWVhZnZVg#
c) Hj\\ZhigZVhdchl]ni]ZgZ^hVe]VhZ

h]^[iidi]Zg^\]i#
12. Use TechnologyHZVgX]i]Z>ciZgcZi[dgV

\ZcZgViZViVWaZd[YViV#
b) <gVe]i]ZYViV[dgegZnVcYegZYVidgh#
c) JhZi]Z\gVe]VcYi]ZiVWaZidXdchigjXi

VbdYZa[dgi]ZedejaVi^dcd[egZnVcY
i]ZedejaVi^dcd[egZYVidgh#
d) <gVe]i]ZbdYZahdci]ZhVbZhZi

d[VmZhVhi]ZYViV#=dllZaaYdi]Z
bdYZahgZegZhZcii]ZYViV4

hVbZVmZhVhndjgbdYZaidkZg^[ni]Z[^i#
c) >hi]Z[^iVhndjZmeZXiZY4:meaV^cVcn

Y^hXgZeVcX^Zh#

5.6 Use Sinusoidal Functions to Model Periodic Phenomena Not Involving Angles MHR 339

13. I]Z\gVe]gZegZhZcihbdci]angZh^YZci^Va

cVijgVa\VhXdchjbei^dc^cDciVg^d[gdb
?VcjVgn'%%&id9ZXZbWZg'%%*#

VbdYZa[dgi]ZcjbWZgd[]djghd[
YVna^\]i#
c) <gVe]i]ZbdYZadci]ZhVbZhZid[VmZh

Residential Natural Gas Consumption


Thousands of Cubic Metres

b) JhZi]Z\gVe]VcYi]ZiVWaZidXdchigjXi

Vhi]ZYViV#8dbbZcidci]Z[^i#
d) JhZndjgbdYZaidegZY^Xii]ZcjbWZg

1 600 000
1 400 000
1 200 000
1 000 000
800 000
600 000
400 000
200 000
0

d[]djghd[YVna^\]idc?VcjVgn(&#
15. Use TechnologyI]ZJ#H#CVkVa

DWhZgkVidgnXVaXjaViZhYVna^\]iiVWaZh[dg
VcnadXVi^dcdc:Vgi]#<didi]Z
Functions 11eV\Zd[i]ZBX<gVl"=^aa
GnZghdcLZWh^iZVcY[daadli]Za^c`hid
VXXZhhi]ZdWhZgkVidgnhLZWh^iZ#

12 24 36 48 60
Month Starting January 2001

a) JhZi]Z\gVe]idXdchigjXiVh^cjhd^YVa

bdYZa[dgcVijgVa\VhXdchjbei^dc#
b) <gVe]i]ZbdYZa[dgVeZg^dYd[*nZVgh!

i]ZaVi^ijYZVcYadc\^ijYZd[ndjg
adXVi^dc#
b) Dci]ZCVkVaDWhZgkVidgnhh^iZ!hZaZXi

hiVgi^c\^c?VcjVgn'%%&#
c) JhZi]ZbdYZaidegZY^XigZh^YZci^Va

cVijgVa\VhXdchjbei^dc^c9ZXZbWZg
'%%-#
14. I]ZcjbWZgd[]djghd[YVna^\]idci]Z

&*i]d[ZVX]
bdci]!WZ\^cc^c\
^c?VcjVgn!^h
h]dlc[dgVcn
ed^cidc:Vgi]l^i]
VaVi^ijYZd[*%
cdgi]#

a) JhZVcViaVhdgi]Z>ciZgcZiidYZiZgb^cZ

Reasoning and Proving


Representing

Selecting Tools

Problem Solving
Connecting
Communicating

Duration of Daylight Table for One Year#


:ciZgndjgadXVi^dcYViVVcYdWiV^ci]Z
iVWaZ#GZXdgYi]ZYViV[dgi]Z&*i]d[ZVX]
bdci]idbV`ZViVWaZd[kVajZh#
c) <gVe]i]ZYViV#
d) JhZi]Z\gVe]VcYi]ZiVWaZidXdchigjXi

VbdYZa[dgi]ZcjbWZgd[]djghd[
YVna^\]iVindjgadXVi^dc#
e) <gVe]i]ZbdYZadci]ZhVbZhZid[VmZh

Reecting

Vhi]ZYViV#8dbbZcidci]Z[^i#
f) JhZndjgbdYZaidegZY^Xii]ZcjbWZg

d[]djghd[YVna^\]idcVcnXdckZc^Zci
YVn#8]ZX`ndjgegZY^Xi^dcWnY^gZXi
dWhZgkVi^dc#

Month

Hours of Daylight

8:30

10:07

11:48

13:44

15:04

16:21

15:38

a) BdYZai]Z]Z^\]id[dcZd[i]ZegdeZaaZg

14:33

12:42

i^ehVWdkZi]Z\gdjcYVhV[jcXi^dcd[
i^bZjh^c\Vh^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc#

10

10:47

11

9:06

12

8:05

a) <gVe]i]ZYViV#

340 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

16. I]ZegdeZaaZgd[VhbVaaV^geaVcZ]VhVc

dkZgVaaaZc\i]d['#%b#I]ZegdeZaaZg
XaZVghi]Z\gdjcYWnVY^hiVcXZd[)%Xb
VcYhe^chVi&'%%gZkdaji^dcheZgb^cjiZ
l]^aZi]ZV^geaVcZ^hiVm^^c\#

b) <gVe]i]Z[jcXi^dcdkZg[djgXnXaZh#
c) 9ZiZgb^cZVaai^bZh^ci]Z[^ghiXnXaZ

l]Zci]Zi^e^h&#%bVWdkZi]Z\gdjcY#

17. Chapter ProblemHdjcYhnci]Zh^hXVc

^cXajYZheZX^VaZ[[ZXih#;dgZmVbeaZ!V
h^cZlVkZd[dcZ[gZfjZcXnXVcWZjhZY
idXdcigdai]ZVbea^ijYZd[Vh^cZlVkZ
d[V]^\]Zg[gZfjZcXnWnbjai^ea^XVi^dc#
I]ZgZhjai^hV
i]gdWW^c\Z[[ZXiXVaaZY
igZbdad#I]ZZ[[ZXi
[^ghiWZXVbZedejaVg
l]ZcZaZXig^X\j^iVgh
WZXVbZVkV^aVWaZ^c
i]Z&.*%h#IdhZZ]dl
igZbdadldg`h!jhZ
h^cxidXdcigdai]Z
Vbea^ijYZd[h^c&%x
Wnbjai^ea^XVi^dc/yh^cxh^c&%x#
a) Use TechnologyDcV\gVe]^c\

XVaXjaVidg!hZii]Zl^cYdlhjX]i]Vix
gjch[gdb(+%id(+%l^i]VhXVaZd[
(%!VcYygjch[gdb'id'l^i]VhXVaZ
d[&#:ciZgVcY\gVe]i]Z[jcXi^dc#
b) DWhZgkZi]ZX]Vc\Z^ci]ZVbea^ijYZd[

dcZ[jcXi^dcVh^i^hXdcigdaaZYWni]Z
di]Zg#6gZi]ZhdjcYWjghih^YZci^XVa4
Add`XVgZ[jaan[dggZ[aZXi^dch#:meaV^c
l]ni]ZndXXjg#
c) IgZbdad^hdcZd[bVcnheZX^Va

Z[[ZXihi]ViXVcWZVYYZYidhdjcYh
WnbVc^ejaVi^c\i]ZWVh^Xh^cjhd^YVa
[jcXi^dcbdYZah#>ckZhi^\ViZdi]Zg
Z[[ZXih!hjX]Vhk^WgVid!lV]"lV]!e^iX]
WZcY!e^c\"edc\!X]dgjh!Y^hidgi^dc!VcY
ViiVX`YZaVn#BVcnLZWh^iZh^cXajYZ
hVbeaZhdjcYh^cV[dgbVii]VindjXVc
a^hiZcid#A^hiZc[dgi]ZhZhVbZZ[[ZXih^c
ndjg[Vkdjg^iZbjh^X#

c) JhZVbZi]dYh^b^aVgideVgiWid

YZiZgb^cZl]ZcndjgXjggZciZbdi^dcVa
XnXaZWZ\Vc#GZXVaai]Vii]ZeZg^dY^h
'-YVnh#GZeZVi[dgi]Z^ciZaaZXijVa
XnXaZ!l^i]VeZg^dYd[((YVnh#
d) JhZVadc\e^ZXZd[\g^YeVeZgideadi

Vaai]gZZW^dg]ni]bh#JhZVhj^iVWaZ
Vbea^ijYZVcYVY^[[ZgZciXdadjg[dg
ZVX]#
e) BdYZaZVX]W^dg]ni]bl^i]V

h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc#
f) Use Technology:ciZgi]ZbdYZah^cidV

\gVe]^c\XVaXjaVidg#6Y_jhii]Zl^cYdl
kVg^VWaZhVeegdeg^ViZanVcYYZiZgb^cZ
l]ZcndjgcZmi\ddYYVnhVcYWVY
YVnhl^aadXXjg#
19. I]Zl^cYijgW^cZVi:m]^W^i^dcEaVXZ^c

Idgdcid^h.)biVaaVcY]Vhi]gZZWaVYZh!
ZVX]bZVhjg^c\')b^caZc\i]#I]ZWaVYZh
ijgcViV[gZfjZcXnd[',gZkdaji^dcheZg
b^cjiZ#
a) JhZVh^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dcidbdYZai]Z

]Z^\]iVWdkZi]Z\gdjcYd[dcZd[i]Z
WaVYZi^ehVhV[jcXi^dcd[i^bZ#
b) <gVe]i]Z[jcXi^dcdkZg[djgXnXaZh#
c) 9ZiZgb^cZVaai^bZh

^ci]Z[^ghiXnXaZ
l]Zci]Zi^e
d[i]ZWaVYZ
^h&%%b
VWdkZi]Z
\gdjcY#

18. GZ[ZgidfjZhi^dc&'dceV\Z(&&VWdjii]Z

i]Zdgnd[W^dg]ni]bh#
a) 8VaXjaViZi]ZcjbWZgd[YVnhi]Vindj

]VkZWZZcVa^kZ#7ZhjgZidVXXdjci[dg
i]ZZmigVYVn^caZVenZVgh#
b) I]Ze]nh^XVaXnXaZ]VhVeZg^dYd[

'(YVnh#9^k^YZndjgVchlZg^ceVgiV
Wn'(VcYYZiZgb^cZi]ZgZbV^cYZg#
I]^hiZaahndj]dladc\V\di]ZXjggZci
e]nh^XVaXnXaZWZ\Vc#

5.6 Use Sinusoidal Functions to Model Periodic Phenomena Not Involving Angles MHR 341

Extend

20. Cdc"gZ[aZXi^kZXdVi^c\dcZnZ\aVhhZh^hV

kZgni]^caVnZgVeea^ZYidi]Zdjih^YZd[
i]ZaZchZh#A^\]igZ[aZXih[gdbi]Z[gdciVcY
WVX`d[i]ZXdVi^c\Vabdhih^bjaiVcZdjhan!
VcYi]ZildgZ[aZXi^dchXdbW^cZ#I]Z
gZ[aZXi^dc[gdbi]Z[gdcijcYZg\dZhVe]VhZ
h]^[i!l]^aZi]Vi[gdbi]ZWVX`YdZhcdi#
I]Za^\]igZ[aZXiZY[gdbi]ZXdVi^c\XVcWZ
bdYZaaZYl^i]i]Zh^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc
Pxh^cxh^cx&-%!l]ZgZx^h
i]Ze]VhZd[i]Za^\]ilVkZl]Zc^i]^ihi]Z
XdVi^c\!VcYPx^hi]Zegdedgi^dcd[i]Z
a^\]ilVkZi]Vi^hgZ[aZXiZY#

21. EdaVg^h!Vahd`cdlcVhi]ZCdgi]HiVg!

^hi]ZhiVgXadhZhiidWZ^c\Y^gZXian
dkZg]ZVY^[ndjk^Zl^i[gdbi]ZCdgi]
EdaZ#=dlZkZg!:Vgi]hVm^h^hcdiValVnh
ed^ci^c\^ci]ZhVbZY^gZXi^dc#I]ZVm^h
^hbdk^c\^cVhadlX^gXaZ!Vbdi^dc
h^b^aVgidi]Vid[Vhe^cc^c\ide#I]Z
Z[[ZXi^hXVaaZYegZXZhh^dc#7ZXVjhZd[
i]^hbdkZbZci!KZ\V!i]ZWg^\]ihiVgid
i]Zg^\]id[XZcigZ^ci]Ze]did\gVe]!l^aa
ZkZcijVaanWZXdbZi]ZCdgi]HiVg#6h
:Vgi]hVm^hXdci^cjZhidbdkZ!EdaVg^hl^aa
gZijgcVhi]ZCdgi]HiVg#

a) <gVe]i]^h[jcXi^dcdkZgildXnXaZh#
b) >cheZXii]Z[jcXi^dcXVgZ[jaanVcY

ZmeaV^cl]ni]Z\gVe]]Vhi]Z[dgbi]Vi
^iYdZh#L]n^hVi]^cXdVi^c\
cdc"gZ[aZXi^kZ4
c) I]ZhZXdcYiZgb^ci]ZgZ[aZXi^dc

[jcXi^dcXVcVahdWZZmegZhhZY^ciZgbh
d[VXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc#9ZiZgb^cZVXdh^cZ
[jcXi^dci]Vi]Vhi]ZhVbZZ[[ZXiVhi]Z
h^cZ[jcXi^dch]dlc#
C o nne ct io ns
Reflection from a film that is
much thinner than the
wavelength of the light
being used forms a
perfect window. No
light is reflected; it
is all transmitted.
This is why images
viewed through nonreflective eyeglasses
appear brighter than
when viewed through
lenses without the coating.
You can use a soap bubble kit
to see another example of this perfect window. Dip
the bubble blower into the solution, and hold it so
that the soap film is vertical. Orient the film to reflect
light. You will see a series of coloured bands as the
soap drains to the bottom. Then, you will see what
looks like a break in the film forming at the top. This
is the perfect window. You can test to see if there is
still soap there by piercing the window with a pin or a
sharp pencil.

342 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

a) JhZi]Za^WgVgndgi]Z>ciZgcZiid

YZiZgb^cZi]ZeZg^dYd[egZXZhh^dcd[
:Vgi]hVm^h#9dndjZmeZXiidhZZKZ\V
Vhi]ZCdgi]HiVgYjg^c\ndjga^[Zi^bZ4
b) BdYZai]ZegZXZhh^dcd[:Vgi]VhV

h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc#
c) Use Technology9ZiZgb^cZi]Zl^cYdl

hZii^c\hcZZYZYid\gVe]i]^h[jcXi^dc
dcV\gVe]^c\XVaXjaVidg#I]Zc!\gVe]
i]Z[jcXi^dc#
22. Math ContestI]ZcdiVi^dcnbZVchid

bjai^eanVaai]ZcVijgVacjbWZgh[gdbi]Z
cjbWZgnYdlcid&#;dgZmVbeaZ!
**)('&#L]Zc*%^h
ZmeVcYZY!]dlbVcnoZgdhVgZVii]ZZcY
d[i]ZcjbWZg4
A &%

B *

C *%

D &'
TT
23. Math Contest>[yq x !l]Vi^hi]ZkVajZ

d[x'*&'&y*%4

Use Technology
Create a Scatter Plot and a Function Using a TI-NspireTM CAS
Graphing Calculator
GZ[Zgid:mVbeaZ'dceV\Z((*#
Hour Past Midnight

Tools
1

10

11

TI-Nspire CAS
graphing calculator

Angle Above the Horizon () 2.4 1.8 2.4 4.2 7.2 11 16 22 27 33 38 42


Hour Past Midnight

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

Angle Above the Horizon () 45 46 45 42 38 33 27 22 17 12 7.5 4.3


1. DeZcVcZlYdXjbZci#8gZViZVeV\Z

jh^c\i]ZLists & Spreadsheet


Veea^XVi^dc#
2. :ciZgi]Z]djgYViV^cXdajbc6#
3. :ciZgi]ZVc\aZYViV^cXdajbc7#
4. DeZcVcZlGraphs & GeometryeV\Z#

EgZhhbVcYX]Vc\Zi]Z\gVe]ineZidScatter Plot#
5. HZaZXihour[gdbi]Zx"Vm^hYgdeYdlcbZcj#HZaZXiang[gdbi]Z

y"Vm^hYgdeYdlcbZcj#
6. EgZhhb#HZii]ZWindow hZii^c\h[gdb

*id'*[dgi]Zx"Vm^hVcY[gdb&%id
*%[dgi]Zy"Vm^h#
6hXViiZgeadil^aaVeeZVgVhh]dlc#
7. 8]Vc\Zi]Z\gVe]ineZWVX`idFunction#
8. GZ[Zgidi]Z[jcXi^dcYZg^kZY^c:mVbeaZ

'/ht''#&h^cP&*t,#*R'(#.#
IneZi]Z[jcXi^dcVhf1#EgZhh#
9. I]Z\gVe]^hh]dlc!hjeZg^bedhZYdkZg

i]ZYViVed^cih#I]Z[^i^h\ddYVi[^ghi
WjiWZ\^chidYZeVgi[gdbi]ZYViVed^cih
Vhi]ZYVnegd\gZhhZh#:Vgi]hbdkZbZci
VgdjcYi]ZhjcbVnVXXdjci[dgi]Z
YZeVgijgZ[gdbVejgZanh^cjhd^YVa
bdYZa#I]ZgZVaeZg^dY^hcdiZmVXian
')]#

Use Technology: Create a Scatter Plot and a Function Using a TI-Nspire CAS Graphing Calculator MHR 343

Chapter 5 Review
5.1 Modelling Periodic Behaviour,
pages 284 to 293
1. 8dch^YZgi]Z\gVe]h]dlc#

5.3 Investigate Transformations of Sine and


Cosine Functions, pages 304 to 312
5. 8dch^YZgi]Z[jcXi^dcyXdhx+%(#

a) L]Vi^hi]ZVbea^ijYZ4

b) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dY4

c) 9ZhXg^WZi]Ze]VhZh]^[i#
d) 9ZhXg^WZi]ZkZgi^XVah]^[i#

360 180 0

180 360 x

a) :meaV^cl]ni]Z[jcXi^dcgZegZhZciZY^h

eZg^dY^X#
b) =dlbVcnXnXaZhVgZh]dlc4

e) <gVe]i]Z[jcXi^dc[dgkVajZhd[x[gdb

%id(+%#
f) =dlYdZhi]ZZfjVi^dcX]Vc\Z^[i]Z

e]VhZh]^[iVcYkZgi^XVah]^[iVgZWdi]^c
i]Zdeedh^iZY^gZXi^dc[gdbi]Zdg^\^cVa
[jcXi^dc4?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg#

c) L]ViVgZi]ZbVm^bjbVcYb^c^bjb

kVajZh4
d) L]Vi^hi]ZVbea^ijYZ4
e) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dY4
2. 6h]jiiaZWjhiV`ZheVhhZc\Zgh[gdbV

gZbdiZeVg`^c\adiidi]ZV^gedgiiZgb^cVa
&#*`bVlVn#I]ZWjhgjchXdci^cjVaan!
XdbeaZi^c\VXnXaZ^c&%b^c!l]^X]
^cXajYZhV&"b^chideVii]ZeVg`^c\adi
VcYV&"b^chideVii]ZiZgb^cVa#
a) H`ZiX]V\gVe]idgZegZhZcii]Zedh^i^dc

d[i]ZWjhl^i]gZheZXiidi]ZeVg`^c\
adiVhV[jcXi^dcd[i^bZ#>cXajYZild
XnXaZh#
b) L]Vi^hi]ZVbea^ijYZd[i]ZeViiZgc4
c) HjeedhZi]Vii]ZWjh^cXgZVhZh^ih

heZZY#:meaV^c]dli]^hV[[ZXihi]Z
\gVe]#
5.2 The Sine Function and the Cosine
Function, pages 294 to 301

5.4 Graphing and Modelling With


y = a sin [k(x d)] + c and
y = a cos [k(x d)] + c, pages 313 to 321
6. 6gdWdiVgb^hjhZYidXVeWdiiaZhdcVc

VhhZbWana^cZ#I]ZkZgi^XVaedh^i^dc!y!^c
XZci^bZigZh!d[i]ZVgbV[iZgthZXdcYhXVc
WZbdYZaaZYWni]Z[jcXi^dc
y(%h^cP(+%t%#'*R)*#
a) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZVbea^ijYZ!eZg^dY!e]VhZ

h]^[i!VcYkZgi^XVah]^[i#
b) L]Vi^hi]ZadlZhikZgi^XVaedh^i^dci]Vi

i]ZVgbgZVX]Zh4
c) HiViZi]ZYdbV^cVcYgVc\Zd[

i]Zdg^\^cVah^cZ[jcXi^dcVcYi]Z
igVch[dgbZY[jcXi^dc^chZicdiVi^dc#
d) HjeedhZi]Vii]ZVhhZbWana^cZgZXZ^kZh

cZlWdiiaZhi]VigZfj^gZVadlZhi
kZgi^XVaedh^i^dcd['%Xb#=dlYdZh
i]ZZfjVi^dcbdYZaa^c\i]ZgdWdiVgb
X]Vc\Z4

3. L^i]djijh^c\iZX]cdad\n!h`ZiX]V\gVe]

d[i]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dc[dgkVajZhd[x[gdb
*)%id*)%#AVWZai]ZVmZhl^i]Vc
Veegdeg^ViZhXVaZ#
4. L^i]djijh^c\iZX]cdad\n!h`ZiX]V\gVe]

d[i]ZXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc[dgkVajZhd[x[gdb
*)%id*)%#AVWZai]ZVmZhl^i]Vc
Veegdeg^ViZhXVaZ#
344 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

5.5 Data Collecting and Modelling, pages


322 to 332
7. Hjcg^hZi^bZh[dg&nZVg^c;dgi:g^Z!

DciVg^d!bZVhjgZYdci]Z'&hid[ZVX]
bdci]!hiVgi^c\^c?VcjVgn!VgZh]dlc
jh^c\:VhiZgcHiVcYVgYI^bZ:HI#

5.6 Use Sinusoidal Functions to Model


Periodic Phenomena Not Involving Angles,
pages 333 to 341

Month (21st day)

Time (EST)

7:40

7:04

6:17

9. I]ZkdajbZd[WaddY^ci]ZaZ[ikZcig^XaZd[

5:25

4:47

4:37

4:55

5:28

VcVkZgV\Z"h^oZY]jbVc]ZVgikVg^Zh[gdbV
b^c^bjbd[VWdji*%bAidVbVm^bjbd[
VWdji&(%bA#@Zc]VhVcVkZgV\Z"h^oZY
]ZVgiVcYVgZhi^c\ejahZd[+%WZVih
eZgb^cjiZ#6hhjbZi]VidcZ]ZVgiWZVi
gZegZhZcihi]ZeZg^dY#

6:01

10

6:36

11

7:15

12

7:43

a) Jh^c\Vh^cZ[jcXi^dc! bdYZai]Z

kdajbZd[WaddY^c@ZchaZ[ikZcig^XaZ
l^i]gZheZXiidi^bZ#
b) H`ZiX]V\gVe]d[kdajbZ^cgZaVi^dcid

i^bZ[dg[djgXnXaZh#

a) 8dckZgii]Zi^bZhidYZX^bVa[dgbVi#

GdjcYZVX]kVajZidildYZX^bVa
eaVXZh#8gZViZVhXViiZgeadi!l^i]i]Z
bdci]dci]Z]dg^odciVaVm^hVcYi]Z
i^bZdci]ZkZgi^XVaVm^h#
b) 8dchigjXiVbdYZad[i]Zhjcg^hZ

i^bZhjh^c\Vh^cZ[jcXi^dc#HiViZi]Z
Vbea^ijYZ!eZg^dY!e]VhZh]^[i!VcY
kZgi^XVah]^[i#
c) <gVe]i]ZbdYZadci]ZhVbZVmZhVh

i]ZYViV#8dbbZcidci]Z[^i#

c) =dlbjX]WaddY^hejbeZY[gdbi]Z

aZ[ikZcig^XaZZkZgnb^cjiZ4
d) =dlYdZhi]Z[jcXi^dcX]Vc\Z^[ndj

jhZVXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc4
e) L]Zc@Zcgjch!]^h]ZVgigViZg^hZh

id&'%WZViheZgb^cjiZ#6Y_jhindjg
bdYZa[gdbeVgiVidgZ[aZXi@Zch]ZVgi
gViZl]^aZgjcc^c\#
f) :meaV^cl]ni]ZVbea^ijYZYdZhcdi

X]Vc\Z^ceVgiX#

8. JhZndjgbdYZa[gdbfjZhi^dc,idegZY^Xi

i]Zhjcg^hZi^bZdc?VcjVgn,VcY?jan,#

Chapter Problem

WRAP-UP

Ndj]VkZhZZc]dlVeea^XVi^dch^cbjh^Xhnci]Zh^h!
kd^XZeViiZgcgZXd\c^i^dc!VcYheZX^VaZ[[ZXihhdjcYhXVc
WZbdYZaaZYjh^c\h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dch#
a) =dlYdZhi]ZVbea^ijYZd[i]ZbdYZaa^c\[jcXi^dc

gZaViZidi]ZhdjcYi]Vindj]ZVg4<^kZZmVbeaZh#
b) =dlYdZhi]ZeZg^dYd[i]ZbdYZaa^c\[jcXi^dcgZaViZ

idi]ZhdjcYi]Vindj]ZVg4<^kZZmVbeaZh#
c) L]Vi^hi]Ze]VhZh]^[ihgdaZ^cbjh^XeaVnZYdc

igVY^i^dcVa^chigjbZcih!hdc\hhjc\WnVX]d^g!VcY
bjh^Xhnci]Zh^h4

Chapter 5 Review MHR 345

Chapter 5 Practice Test


For questions 1 to 8, select the best answer.
For questions 1 to 3, refer to the graph of the
periodic function shown.

c) 9ZhXg^WZi]Ze]VhZh]^[id[i]Z[jcXi^dc#

d) 9ZhXg^WZi]ZkZgi^XVah]^[id[i]Z

[jcXi^dc#
2

e) <gVe]i]Z[jcXi^dcdcZhiZeViV

6x

i^bZ#AVWZaZVX]hiZeVXXdgY^c\idi]Z
igVch[dgbVi^dciV`^c\eaVXZ#
f) HiViZi]ZYdbV^cVcYgVc\Zd[i]Z

1. I]ZeZg^dYd[i]Z[jcXi^dc^h
B '

C (

D +

B '

C (

D &

C '

D (

For questions 4 to 7, consider the function


3  cos [5(x  30)]  T
3 .
y=T
4
8
4. I]ZeZg^dYd[i]Z[jcXi^dc^h
A ,'

B &-%

C (+%

D &-%%

5. I]Zb^c^bjbkVajZd[i]Z[jcXi^dc^h

T( 
-

A  

B %

)jc^ih!VeZg^dYd[.%!VcYVbVm^bjbVi
%!'#
a) GZegZhZcii]Z[jcXi^dcl^i]VcZfjVi^dc

3. I]ZkVajZd[f&'^h
B %

igVch[dgbZY[jcXi^dc#JhZhZicdiVi^dc#
10. 6h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc]VhVcVbea^ijYZd[

2. I]ZVbea^ijYZd[i]Z[jcXi^dc^h

A &

a) L]Vi^hi]ZVbea^ijYZd[i]Z[jcXi^dc4
b) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dYd[i]Z[jcXi^dc4

A &

y(h^cP)x+%R'#

2 0

A &

9. 8dch^YZgi]Z[jcXi^dc

T(

T(
)

6. L^i]gZheZXiidyXdhx!i]Ze]VhZh]^[i

d[i]Z[jcXi^dc^h
A (%aZ[i

B (%g^\]i

C +%aZ[i

D +%g^\]i

7. L^i]gZheZXiidyXdhx!i]ZkZgi^XVah]^[i

d[i]Z[jcXi^dc^h
(
A T je
(
C T je
)

T(Ydlc

(
T
D
Ydlc
)

jh^c\VXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc#
b) GZegZhZcii]Z[jcXi^dcl^i]VcZfjVi^dc

jh^c\Vh^cZ[jcXi^dc#
11. 6h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc]VhVcVbea^ijYZ

&jc^ih!VeZg^dYd[,'%!VcYV
d[T
)
( #
bVm^bjbed^ciVi %!T
)
a) GZegZhZcii]Z[jcXi^dcl^i]VcZfjVi^dc
jh^c\Vh^cZ[jcXi^dc#

 

b) <gVe]i]Z[jcXi^dcdkZgildXnXaZh#
12. 8dch^YZgi]Z[jcXi^dc

fx'XdhP(x&'%R#
a) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZVbea^ijYZ!eZg^dY!e]VhZ

h]^[i!VcYkZgi^XVah]^[il^i]gZheZXiid
yXdhx#
b) L]ViVgZi]ZbVm^bjbVcYb^c^bjb

kVajZh4
c) ;^cYi]Z[^ghii]gZZx"^ciZgXZeihidi]Z

g^\]id[i]Zdg^\^c#
d) ;^cYi]Zy"^ciZgXZei#

8. 8dch^YZgi]Z[jcXi^dc

y'Xdh(x&'%#L]Vi^hi]Ze]VhZ
h]^[id[i]Z[jcXi^dc4
A )%aZ[i

B )%g^\]i

C &'%aZ[i

D &'%g^\]i

346 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

13. a) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZZfjVi^dcd[i]Zh^cZ

[jcXi^dch]dlc#

gZXZhh^dc[dgi]Z[daadl^c\nZVgi]Vi
l^aaYZXgZVhZZbeadnbZciaZkZah[dg
ZVX]bdci]Wn&%#9ZhXg^WZi]ZZ[[ZXi
i]Vii]^hl^aa]VkZdci]Z\gVe]d[i]Z
[jcXi^dc#

y
3
2

15. I]Z;Zgg^hl]ZZaViV

1
0

30

60

90 120 x

b) HjeedhZi]Vii]ZbVm^bjbkVajZhdc

i]Z\gVe]VgZ]Va[Vh[VgVeVgi#=dlYdZh
i]ZZfjVi^dc^ceVgiVX]Vc\Z4?jhi^[n
ndjgVchlZg#
14. 6hjbbZggZhdgiidlcd[iZch]dlh

hZVhdcVakVg^Vi^dch^ci]ZeZgXZcid[i]Z
ldg`[dgXZZbeadnZY#I]ZiVWaZa^hihi]Z
eZgXZciZbeadnZYdci]Z[^ghid[ZVX]
bdci]!hiVgi^c\^c?VcjVgn![dg&nZVg#
Month

d) :Xdcdb^X[dgZXVhiZghegZY^XiVb^aY

Employment (%)

62

67

75

80

87

92

96

93

89

10

79

11

72

12

65

XVgc^kVa]VhV
Y^VbZiZgd[&-b
VcYYZhXZcYhid
'bVWdkZi]Z
\gdjcYVi^ih
adlZhied^ci#
6hhjbZi]ViV
g^YZgZciZghV
XVgVii]^hed^ci
VcYg^YZhi]Z
l]ZZa[dgild
gZkdaji^dch#
a) BdYZai]Z

g^YZgh]Z^\]i
VWdkZi]Z
\gdjcYkZghjh
i]ZVc\aZd[gdiVi^dcjh^c\V
igVch[dgbZYh^cZ[jcXi^dc#
b) HjeedhZi]Vii]Zg^YZgZciZghi]ZXVg

[gdbVeaVi[dgbadXViZY)*Vadc\i]Z
g^bd[i]Zl]ZZaWZ[dgZi]ZXVggZVX]Zh
^ihadlZhied^ci#6Y_jhindjgbdYZa^c
eVgiVidgZ[aZXii]^hh^ijVi^dc#
c) <gVe]i]ZZfjVi^dch[gdbeVgihVVcYW

dci]ZhVbZhZid[VmZh#=dlVgZi]Zn
h^b^aVg4=dlVgZi]ZnY^[[ZgZci4:meaV^c
i]ZY^[[ZgZcXZh#

a) 8dchigjXiVbdYZa[dgi]ZhZYViVjh^c\

Z^i]ZgVh^cZ[jcXi^dcdgVXdh^cZ
[jcXi^dc#HiViZi]ZVbea^ijYZ!eZg^dY!
e]VhZh]^[i!VcYkZgi^XVah]^[i#
b) <gVe]i]ZbdYZadci]ZhVbZhZid[VmZh

Vhi]ZYViV#8dbbZcidci]Z[^i#
c) JhZndjgbdYZaidegZY^Xii]Z

ZbeadnbZciaZkZadc?jcZ&*#

Chapter 5 Practice Test MHR 347

Task
Tools

Modelling a Rotating Object


Ldg`l^i]VeVgicZg#DcZeVgicZgeZg[dgbhi]ZVXi^dch^ceVgihVVcYW!
VcYi]Zdi]ZgeVgicZgbV`Zhi]ZbZVhjgZbZcih#

string
large paper clip
tape measure
grid paper

a) 6iiVX]VaVg\ZeVeZgXa^eidi]ZZcYd[Vhig^c\#=daY^c\i]Zdeedh^iZZcY





d[i]Zhig^c\!aZindjgVgbVcYi]Zhig^c\]Vc\YdlcidlVgYi]Z[addg#
BZVhjgZi]ZY^hiVcXZ[gdbi]Ze^kdied^cid[ndjgh]djaYZgid
i]Z[addg
i]ZZcYd[i]ZeVeZgXa^e
i]ZlVaa^c[gdcid[ndj

b) GdiViZndjgVgbkZgi^XVaanViVXdchiVciheZZY!Zcdj\]id`ZZei]Zhig^c\

iVji#BZVhjgZi]ZeZg^dYd[i]ZgdiVi^dc#
c) 9ZiZgb^cZVcZfjVi^dc[dgVh^cZ[jcXi^dci]Vi\^kZhi]Z]Z^\]id[

i]ZeVeZgXa^egZaVi^kZidi]ZVc\aZd[gdiVi^dc!hiVgi^c\[gdbi]ZgZhi
edh^i^dc#
d) 9ZiZgb^cZVcZfjVi^dc[dgi]Z]Z^\]id[i]ZeVeZgXa^egZaVi^kZidi^bZ!

WZ\^cc^c\[gdbi]ZgZhiedh^i^dc#
e) 9ZiZgb^cZVcZfjVi^dc[dgi]ZY^hiVcXZ[gdbi]ZeVeZgXa^eidi]ZlVaa

gZaVi^kZidi]ZVc\aZd[gdiVi^dc!hiVgi^c\[gdbi]ZgZhiedh^i^dc#
f) 9ZiZgb^cZVcZfjVi^dc[dgi]ZY^hiVcXZ[gdbi]ZeVeZgXa^eidi]ZlVaa

gZaVi^kZidi^bZ!WZ\^cc^c\[gdbi]ZgZhiedh^i^dc#
g) H`ZiX]i]Z\gVe]d[ZVX]gZaVi^dc#
h) 9ZhXg^WZ]dlZVX]ZfjVi^dcldjaYX]Vc\Z^[ndjgZkZghZYi]ZY^gZXi^dc

d[gdiVi^dc#?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg#
i) =dlldjaYi]ZZfjVi^dc^ceVgiXX]Vc\Z^[ndjlZgZgZaVi^c\i]Z

gdiVi^dcVaY^hiVcXZigVkZaaZY!^chiZVYd[i]Z]Z^\]i!idi]ZVc\aZd[
gdiVi^dc4?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg#
350 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5