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# CHAPTER

Trigonometric
Functions
Ig^\dcdbZig^XgVi^dhXVcWZjhZYidZmiZcYi]Z
XdcXZeid[[jcXi^dchid^cXajYZig^\dcdbZig^X
[jcXi^dch#I]ZhZ[jcXi^dchVcYi]Z^gigVch[dgbVi^dch
XVcWZjhZYidbdYZabVcngZVa"ldgaYe]ZcdbZcV!
hjX]Vhi^YVaVXi^dcdgi]ZcjbWZgd[]djghd[YVna^\]i^c
>ci]^hX]VeiZg!ndjl^aa^ckZhi^\ViZi]ZWVh^Xig^\dcdbZig^X
[jcXi^dchVcYaZVgc]dlidigVch[dgbi]Zb#Ndjl^aaaZVgcid
gZVa"ldgaYVeea^XVi^dch#Ndjl^aaVahdjhZi]ZhZbdYZahidedhZVcY
VchlZgfjZhi^dchVcYbV`ZegZY^Xi^dch#
By the end of this chapter, you will
describe key properties of periodic functions arising
from real-world applications, given a numerical or
graphical representation
predict, by extrapolating, the future behaviour of a
relationship modelled using a numeric or graphical
representation of a periodic function

## sketch graphs of y = af [k(x d)] + c by applying one

or more transformations to the graphs of f (x) = sin x
and f (x) = cos x, and state the domain and range of
the transformed functions
represent a sinusoidal function with an equation,
given its graph or its properties

## make connections between the sine ratio and the

sine function and between the cosine ratio and the
cosine function by graphing the relationship between
angles from 0 to 360 and the corresponding sine
ratios or cosine ratios, with or without technology,
defining this relationship as the function f (x) = sin x
or f (x) = cos x, and explaining why the relationship is
a function

## collect data that can be modelled as a sinusoidal

function from primary sources or from secondary
sources, and graph the data

## sketch the graphs of f (x) = sin x and f (x) = cos x for

angle measures expressed in degrees, and determine
and describe key properties

## determine, through investigation, how sinusoidal

functions can be used to model periodic phenomena
that do not involve angles

## determine, through investigation using technology,

and describe the roles of the parameters a, k, d, and c
in functions of the form y = af [k(x d)] + c in terms
of transformations of the graphs of f (x) = sin x
and f (x) = cos x with angles expressed in degrees

## predict the effects on a mathematical model of an

application involving sinusoidal functions when the
conditions in the application are varied

## determine the amplitude, period, phase shift, domain,

and range of sinusoidal functions whose equations
are given in the form f (x) = a sin [k(x d)] + c or
f (x) = a cos [k(x d)] + c

## identify sinusoidal functions, including those that

arise from real-world applications involving periodic
phenomena, given various representations, and
explain any restrictions that the context places on
the domain and range

## pose and solve problems based on applications

involving a sinusoidal function by using a given
graph or a graph generated with technology from its
equation

281

Prerequisite Skills
Refer to the Prerequisite Skills Appendix on
pages 496 to 516 for examples of the topics and
further practice.

## Use the Cosine Law

1. 6X^gXaZd[gVY^jh*Xb]VhVed^cidc^ih

Shift Functions

hVbZhZid[VmZh#


i)yx'

ii)yx'(
iii)yx''

X^gXjb[ZgZcXZZkZgn(%#

b) 9ZhXg^WZi]ZigVch[dgbVi^dchd[i]Z

hZXdcYVcYi]^gY[jcXi^dchl^i]gZheZXi
idi]Z[^ghi#

hVbZhZid[VmZh#

30
4

2 0

i)yx '
ii)yx('

iii)yx''

b) 9ZhXg^WZi]ZigVch[dgbVi^dchd[i]Z

hZXdcYVcYi]^gY[jcXi^dchl^i]gZheZXi
idi]Z[^ghi#
a) ;^cYi]ZY^hiVcXZWZilZZcildVY_VXZci

ed^cih#GdjcYndjgVchlZgiddcZ
YZX^bVaeaVXZ#

7. a) I]ZeVgVWdaVyx'^higVchaViZY

*jc^ihidi]ZaZ[iVcY(jc^ihYdlc#
Lg^iZi]ZZfjVi^dcd[i]ZigVch[dgbZY
[jcXi^dc#

b) ;^cYi]ZY^hiVcXZWZilZZcilded^cih

hZeVgViZYWn+%#

b) I]ZeVgVWdaVyx'^higVchaViZY

c) L]Vi^hi]ZY^hiVcXZWZilZZcilded^cih

)jc^ihidi]Zg^\]iVcY,jc^ihje#Lg^iZ
i]ZZfjVi^dcd[i]ZigVch[dgbZY[jcXi^dc#

hZeVgViZYWn&-%4

8. I]ZeVgVWdaVyx'^higVchaViZY

## Find Trigonometric Ratios of Special Angles

2. JhZVjc^iX^gXaZidYZiZgb^cZi]ZZmVXih^cZ

VcYXdh^cZgVi^dhd[i]ZVc\aZh^cZVX]hZi#
a) (%VcY+%
b) &'%!&*%!'&%!')%!(%%!VcY((%
c) )*!&(*!''*!VcY(&*
d) %!.%!&-%!VcY',%

## Determine the Domain and Range of a Function

3. 8dch^YZgi]Z[jcXi^dcf xx'#Lg^iZi]Z

YdbV^cVcYgVc\Zjh^c\hZicdiVi^dc#
4. Lg^iZi]ZZfjVi^dcd[V[jcXi^dcl^i]

YdbV^cpx2!*x*rVcYgVc\Z
py2!%y*r#

## 282 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

]dg^odciVaanVcYkZgi^XVaanhdi]Vi^ih
kZgiZmeVhhZhi]gdj\]'!'#9ZhXg^WZi]Z
igVchaVi^dchVcYkZg^[nndjgVchlZg#

Stretch Functions

hVbZhZid[VmZh#


i)yx'

ii)y'x'
&
iii)yTx'
'
b) 9ZhXg^WZi]ZigVch[dgbVi^dchd[i]Z
hZXdcYVcYi]^gY[jcXi^dchl^i]gZheZXi
idi]Z[^ghi#


hVbZhZid[VmZh#


'

i)yx(

'

ii)y'x(
&
iii)yTx('
'
b) 9ZhXg^WZi]ZigVch[dgbVi^dchd[i]Z
hZXdcYVcYi]^gY[jcXi^dchl^i]gZheZXi
idi]Z[^ghi#
'

## 11. I]ZeVgVWdaVyx ^hhigZiX]ZYkZgi^XVaan

hdi]Vi^ieVhhZhi]gdj\]i]Zed^ci'!&+#
L]Vi^hi]ZZfjVi^dcd[i]ZhigZiX]ZY
eVgVWdaV4KZg^[nndjgVchlZg#
'

## 12. I]ZeVgVWdaVyx) ^hhigZiX]ZY

]dg^odciVaanhdi]Vi^ieVhhZhi]gdj\]i]Z
ed^ci'!(+#L]Vi^hi]ZZfjVi^dcd[i]Z
higZiX]ZYeVgVWdaV4KZg^[nndjgVchlZg#

Reflect Functions

hVbZhZid[VmZh#


i)yx''
ii)yx''

b) JhZVgZ[aZXi^dcidYZhXg^WZi]Z

igVch[dgbVi^dcd[i]ZhZXdcY[jcXi^dc
l^i]gZheZXiidi]Z[^ghi#

14. a) 9ZiZgb^cZ

Vc
ZfjVi^dc
[dgZVX]
d[i]Z
[jcXi^dch
h]dlc#

y
6
i

ii

2
6

2 0

6x

b) JhZV

gZ[aZXi^dc
idYZhXg^WZi]ZigVch[dgbVi^dcd[
[jcXi^dc^^l^i]gZheZXiid[jcXi^dc^#

Combine Transformations
15. a) I]Z\gVe]d[yx'^higVchaViZY)jc^ih

idi]ZaZ[i!higZiX]ZY]dg^odciVaanWnV
[VXidgd['!VcYi]ZcigVchaViZY&jc^ije#
Lg^iZi]ZZfjVi^dcd[i]ZigVch[dgbZY
[jcXi^dc#
b) <gVe]i]Zdg^\^cVaVcYigVch[dgbZY

[jcXi^dchdci]ZhVbZhZid[VmZh#
16. 9ZhXg^WZi]ZigVch[dgbVi^dchVeea^ZYid

yx'idegdYjXZi]Z\gVe]YZ[^cZYWn
y(x)'-#

## Solve Equations Involving Rational Expressions

(+% (%#
17. HdakZT
k
(+%
&#
18. HdakZT
T
(%
k

Chapter Problem
6aai]ZhdjcYhi]Vindj]ZVgVgZbVYZjed[lVkZhd[egZhhjgZ
eVhh^c\i]gdj\]i]ZV^gVcYk^WgVi^c\dcndjgZVgYgjbh#HdjcY
lVkZhXVcWZgZegZhZciZYjh^c\ig^\dcdbZig^X[jcXi^dch#I]ZhZ
gZegZhZciVi^dchXVcWZjhZY[dgY^kZghZejgedhZh!hjX]Vhkd^XZ
gZXd\c^i^dc!VhlZaaVhi]ZYZh^\cd[XdcXZgi]VaahVcY
cd^hZ"XVcXZaa^c\]ZVYe]dcZh#
>ci]^hX]VeiZg!ndjl^aaaZVgc]dlhdjcYXVcWZbdYZaaZYWn
ig^\dcdbZig^X[jcXi^dchVcY]dligVch[dgbVi^dchd[i]Z[jcXi^dch
VcYfjVa^in#Ndjl^aaaZVgc]dlig^\dcdbZig^X[jcXi^dchVgZjhZY^cbjh^Xhnci]Zh^h!
[gdbi]ZhdjcYhd[ndjg[Vkdjg^iZWVcYidhdjcYigVX`h[dgbdi^dce^XijgZh#

## Prerequisite Skills MHR 283

5.1
Modelling Periodic Behaviour
L]ViYdi]ZhdjcYhd[ndjg[Vkdjg^iZWVcY!i]Z^Ya^c\d[VXVgZc\^cZ!
i]Ze]VhZhd[i]Zbddc!VcYndjg]ZVgiWZViVaa]VkZ^cXdbbdc46aaVgZ
ZmVbeaZhd[egdXZhhZhi]VigZeZVi^cVgZ\jaVgeViiZgc#Ndjg]ZVgi!l]Zc
]Vhbdk^c\eVgihi]VigZeZVii]ZhVbZbdi^dchdkZgVcYdkZg#>ci]Z
ajcVgXnXaZ!i]Zbddc\gdlh[gdbVi^cnha^kZg!idVWZVji^[ja[jaabddc!
VcYi]ZclVcZhjci^a^iY^hVeeZVgh!dcanidgZVeeZVgVii]ZWZ\^cc^c\
d[i]ZcZmiXnXaZ#Ndjg[Vkdjg^iZWVcYeaVnh^chigjbZcihi]ViXgZViZ
gZeZi^i^kZegZhhjgZeViiZgch^ci]ZV^gi]VindjgZVgh^ciZgegZiVhbjh^X#
EZg^dY^XeViiZgchXVcWZbdYZaaZYWnig^\dcdbZig^X[jcXi^dch#
Tools
grid paper
protractor
ruler
compasses
or
graphing calculator

Investigate
How can you model periodic behaviour mathematically?
6ci^fjZXVgdjhZah[ZVijg^c\^cig^XViZan
eV^ciZY]dghZhVcYdi]ZgVc^bVahVgZhi^aa
edejaVgViigVXi^dch#HZkZgVaidlch^cDciVg^d
[ZVijgZi]Zb!VhYdbVcnVbjhZbZcieVg`h#
HjeedhZi]ViVXVgdjhZa]VhVY^VbZiZgd[
&%b#?d]c^hhiVcY^c\Vii]ZZY\Zd[i]Z
XVgdjhZa!lViX]^c\]^hh^hiZgHjoVccZdc
V]dghZdci]ZXVgdjhZahdjiZgZY\Z#=dl
YdZhi]ZY^hiVcXZWZilZZc?d]cVcYHjoVccZ
X]Vc\ZVhi]ZXVgdjhZaXdbeaZiZhV[jaaijgc4
EgZY^Xii]Zh]VeZd[V\gVe]i]VigZegZhZcih
Y^hiVcXZkZghjhVc\aZ[dgdcZgZkdaji^dc#

5m
30
30
30

Suzanne

John

1. 9gVlVX^gXaZidgZegZhZcii]ZXVgdjhZa#BVg`Ved^ci_jhidjih^YZ

i]ZX^gXaZidgZegZhZci?d]c#BVg`Ved^cidci]ZX^gXjb[ZgZcXZid
gZegZhZciHjoVccZVii]Zed^cil]ZgZh]ZeVhhZh?d]c#

i]Vii]ZY^hiVcXZWZilZZc?d]cVcYi]ZZY\Zd[i]ZXVgdjhZaXVcWZ
^\cdgZY#BVg`ed^cihdci]ZX^gXaZidgZegZhZciHjoVccZhedh^i^dc
Vi(%^ciZgkVah[dgdcZXdbeaZiZgZkdaji^dc#;dgZVX]edh^i^dc!
YZiZgb^cZi]ZY^hiVcXZWZilZZc?d]cVcYHjoVccZjh^c\Veegdeg^ViZ
ig^\dcdbZig^Xiddah#I]ZY^V\gVb^aajhigViZhi]Z[^ghii]gZZY^hiVcXZh
idbZVhjgZ#GZXdgYndjggZhjaih^cViVWaZl^i]Vc\aZ^ci]Z[^ghi
XdajbcVcYY^hiVcXZ!^cbZigZh!^ci]ZhZXdcYXdajbc#

## 284 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

3. ReflectEgZY^Xii]ZkVajZh[dgHjoVccZhedh^i^dcVhi]ZXVgdjhZa

Xdci^cjZhidgdiViZi]gdj\](+%id,'%#?jhi^[nndjgegZY^Xi^dch#
4. JhZi]ZkVajZh^cndjgiVWaZidh`ZiX]i]Z\gVe]d[Y^hiVcXZkZghjh

5. Reflect8dbeVgZi]Z\gVe]idndjgegZY^XiZY\gVe]#=dlVgZi]Z

\gVe]hh^b^aVg4=dlVgZi]ZnY^[[ZgZci4
6. a) >cheZXii]Z\gVe][dgildgZkdaji^dchd[i]ZXVgdjhZa#EgZY^Xi

i]ZidiVaVc\aZd[gZkdaji^dci]ViHjoVccZbdkZhi]gdj\]^c[^kZ
gZkdaji^dch#
b) >[Vg^YZXdch^hihd[&'gZkdaji^dch!l]Vi^hi]ZidiVaVc\aZd[

gZkdaji^dci]ViHjoVccZbdkZhi]gdj\]4
7. a) JhZi]Z\gVe]idZhi^bViZildVc\aZhYjg^c\i]Z[^ghigZkdaji^dc

Vc\aZhdcndjgY^V\gVbd[i]ZXVgdjhZa#
b) >ci]Zi]^gYgZkdaji^dc!egZY^Xii]ZVc\aZhl]Zci]ZY^hiVcXZ

WZilZZc?d]cVcYHjoVccZ^h-b#
8. =dlbVcncyclesVgZh]dlc^ci]Z\gVe]4

cycle

9. I]Zperiodd[VeViiZgc^hbZVhjgZY^cjc^ihVeegdeg^ViZidi]Z

## one complete repetition

of a pattern

egdWaZb#L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dYd[i]^heViiZgc4

period

## 10. Reflect=dlYdZhVperiodic functionY^[[Zg[gdbVa^cZVg[jcXi^dc

dgVfjVYgVi^X[jcXi^dc4
11. L]Vi^hi]Zb^c^bjbY^hiVcXZWZilZZc?d]cVcYHjoVccZYjg^c\i]Z

[^ghigZkdaji^dc4L]Vi^hi]ZbVm^bjbY^hiVcXZ4

## the horizontal length of

one cycle on a graph

periodic function
a function that has a
pattern of y-values
that repeats at regular
intervals

12. L]Vi^hi]Zamplituded[i]^h[jcXi^dc4
13. ReflectHjeedhZi]ViHjoVccZ^hdcV]dghZi]Vi^h'b[gdbi]Z

XZcigZd[i]ZXVgdjhZa#EgZY^Xi]dli]Z\gVe]l^aaX]Vc\Z[gdbi]Z
dcZi]VindjYgZl^chiZe)#H`ZiX]ndjgegZY^Xi^dcd[i]Z\gVe]
d[Y^hiVcXZkZghjhVc\aZd[gZkdaji^dc[dgildgZkdaji^dchd[i]Z
XVgdjhZa#

amplitude
half the distance
between the maximum
and minimum values of
a periodic function

## 5.1 Modelling Periodic Behaviour MHR 285

Example 1
Classify Functions
a) :mVb^cZZVX]\gVe]#9ZiZgb^cZl]Zi]Zgi]Z[jcXi^dc^heZg^dY^X#>[^i

^h!YZiZgb^cZi]ZeZg^dY#
ii)

i)

y
4

y
4

6x

b) :mVb^cZi]Z\gVe]#9ZiZgb^cZ

6x

6x

y
4

l]Zi]Zgi]Z[jcXi^dc^heZg^dY^X#>[^i
^h!YZiZgb^cZi]ZVbea^ijYZ#

2
6

0
2
4

Solution
a)  i)6eZg^dY^X[jcXi^dc]VhVeViiZgc

d[y"kVajZhi]VigZeZVihVigZ\jaVg
^ciZgkVah#I]ZeZg^dY^hi]ZaZc\i]
d[i]Z^ciZgkVa#>ci]^hZmVbeaZ!
i]ZeViiZgcd[y"kVajZh^cdcZ
hZXi^dcd[i]Z\gVe]gZeZVih^c
i]ZcZmihZXi^dc#I]ZgZ[dgZ!i]Z
[jcXi^dc^heZg^dY^X#

y
4
One Period

One Period
2

6x

2
4

 I
 dYZiZgb^cZi]ZeZg^dY!hZaZXiV
XdckZc^ZcihiVgi^c\ed^ciVcYcdiZi]Zx"XddgY^cViZ#>ci]^hXVhZ!
X]ddhZ+!%#BdkZidi]Zg^\]i!VcYZhi^bViZi]Zx"XddgY^cViZ
l]ZgZi]ZcZmiXnXaZWZ\^ch#I]^hVeeZVghidWZVii]Zdg^\^c#
HjWigVXii]Zildx"XddgY^cViZh#I]ZeZg^dY^h%+!dg
+jc^ih#
ii)>ci]^hZmVbeaZ!i]ZeViiZgcd[

y"kVajZh^cdcZhZXi^dcd[i]Z
\gVe]YdZhcdigZeZVi^ci]ZcZmi
hZXi^dc#I]ZgZ[dgZ!i]Z[jcXi^dc^h
cdieZg^dY^X#

y
4
2
6

0
2
4

## 286 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

6x

b) I]Z[jcXi^dc^aajhigViZY

y
4

Maximum
^ci]Z\gVe]^heZg^dY^X
Amplitude
WZXVjhZi]ZgZ^hVgZeZVi^c\
2
eViiZgcd[y"kVajZhdcV
gZ\jaVgWVh^h#6eZg^dY^X
6 4 2 0
4
6x
2
Minimum
[jcXi^dcjhjVaan]VhV
2
bVm^bjbkVajZVcYV
4
b^c^bjbkVajZZkZgn
XnXaZ#I]ZVbea^ijYZ^h
]Va[i]ZY^[[ZgZcXZWZilZZci]ZbVm^bjbVcYb^c^bjbkVajZh#>c
i]Z\gVe]h]dlc!i]ZbVm^bjb^h(VcYi]Zb^c^bjb^h&#
(&
 
!dg'jc^ih#
I]ZgZ[dgZ!i]ZVbea^ijYZ^hTT

'

Example 2
Predicting With Periodic Functions
8dch^YZgi]ZeZg^dY^X[jcXi^dch]dlc#

y
4

a) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dYd[i]Z[jcXi^dc4

b) 9ZiZgb^cZf 'VcYf*#
c) EgZY^Xif-!f&%!VcYf&)#

6x

d) L]Vi^hi]ZVbea^ijYZd[i]Z[jcXi^dc4
e) 9ZiZgb^cZ[djgx"kVajZhhjX]i]Vi

fx'#

Solution
a) HZaZXiVXdckZc^ZcihiVgi^c\ed^ci!hjX]Vh,!%#BdkZidi]Zg^\]i

jci^ai]ZeViiZgcWZ\^chidgZeZVi#I]^hdXXjghVi&!%#I]ZeZg^dY^h
ZfjVaidi]Z]dg^odciVaaZc\i]d[i]^hXnXaZ!XVaXjaViZYWnhjWigVXi^c\
i]Zx"XddgY^cViZh#I]jh!i]ZeZg^dY^h&,!dg+jc^ih#
b) GZVYkVajZh[gdbi]Z\gVe]/f'&VcYf*%#
c) f-f'+f&%f&%++f&)f&)++




f'
&

f'
&

f'
&

d) I]ZbVm^bjbkVajZ^h(#I]Zb^c^bjbkVajZ^h'#I]ZVbea^ijYZ

('
 
!dg'#*jc^ih#
^hTT

'

## From part a), the period

of the function is 6. The
value of the function at x
is the same as the value
at x plus or minus any
multiple of 6.

e) ;gdbi]Z\gVe]!i]ZkVajZd[f%^h'#9ZiZgb^cZdi]Zgx"kVajZh

WnVYY^c\i]ZeZg^dYiddghjWigVXi^c\i]ZeZg^dY[gdbx%#Ild
edhh^WaZVchlZghVgZx+!x&'!VcYx&-!dgx+!x&'!
VcYx&-#

## 5.1 Modelling Periodic Behaviour MHR 287

Example 3
Natural Gas Consumption in Ontario

a) :meaV^cl]ni]Z\gVe]]Vh

i]^hh]VeZ#

## Residential Natural Gas Consumption

Thousands of Cubic Metres

I]Z\gVe]h]dlhgZh^YZci^Va
cVijgVa\VhXdchjbei^dc^c
DciVg^deZgbdci]!WZ\^cc^c\^c
?VcjVgn'%%&#9ViVVgZdWiV^cZY
[gdbHiVi^hi^Xh8VcVYVi]gdj\]
^ihdca^cZ:"HI6I^ciZgVXi^kZ
idda#

1 600 000
1 400 000
1 200 000
1 000 000
800 000
600 000
400 000
200 000

b) 9di]ZYViVVeeZVgidWZ

12 24 36 48 60
Month Starting January 2001

eZg^dY^X4?jhi^[nndjg
VchlZg#
c) 6hhjbZi]Vii]ZXdchjbei^dcd[cVijgVa\Vh^cDciVg^dXVcWZ

bdYZaaZYjh^c\VeZg^dY^X[jcXi^dc#9ZiZgb^cZi]ZVeegdm^bViZ
bVm^bjbkVajZ!b^c^bjbkVajZ!VcYVbea^ijYZd[i]^h[jcXi^dc#
d) :hi^bViZi]ZeZg^dYd[i]^h[jcXi^dc#9dZhi]^hkVajZbV`ZhZchZ4

:meaV^cl]n#
e) :hi^bViZi]ZYdbV^cVcYgVc\Zd[i]Z[jcXi^dc#
f) :meaV^c]dli]Z\gVe]XVcWZjhZYidZhi^bViZi]ZcVijgVa\Vh

Xdchjbei^dc^c;ZWgjVgn'%&&#

Solution
a) I]ZXdchjbei^dcd[cVijgVa\Vh^cDciVg^dkVg^Zhl^i]i]ZhZVhdc#

i]ZhjbbZgbdci]h#
b) I]ZYViVVgZVeegdm^bViZaneZg^dY^X#I]ZkVajZhYdcdiZmVXian

bViX][gdbXnXaZidXnXaZ#
c) 6gZVhdcVWaZZhi^bViZ[dgi]ZbVm^bjb^h&+%%%%%i]djhVcYXjW^X

bZigZh&+%%%%%%%%b(#I]Zb^c^bjb^hVWdji'%%%%%i]djhVcY
XjW^XbZigZh'%%%%%%%%b(#

TTTT
6bea^ijYZ&+%%%%%'%%%%%


 


'
&)%%%%%

TT




'


,%%%%%

I]ZVbea^ijYZ^hVWdji,%%%%%i]djhVcYXjW^XbZigZh
,%%%%%%%%b(#
d) ;gdbi]Z\gVe]!i]ZeZg^dY^hVWdji&'bdci]h#I]^h^hgZVhdcVWaZ#

DcZZmeZXihi]ZhZVhdcVaXnXaZ[dgXdchjbei^dcd[cVijgVa\VhidWZ
nZVgan#

## 288 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

e) AZitgZegZhZcii]Zi^bZ!^cbdci]h!VcYaZiggZegZhZcii]Z

Xdchjbei^dcd[cVijgVa\Vh!^ci]djhVcYhd[XjW^XbZigZh#I]Z
YdbV^c^hcdi%#I]ZYViVWZ\^c^c?VcjVgn!l]^X]^hi]Z[^ghibdci]#
I]ZgVc\Z^hVeegdm^bViZanpg2!'%%%%%g&+%%%%%r#
f) IddWiV^cVgZVhdcVWaZZhi^bViZd[\VhXdchjbei^dcYjg^c\i]Zbdci]

d[;ZWgjVgn!jhZi]Z\gVe]id[^cYi]ZXdchjbei^dc[dgZVX];ZWgjVgn
h]dlc#IV`Zi]ZVkZgV\Zd[i]ZhZkVajZh#I]^h^hVgZVhdcVWaZ
Zhi^bViZd[i]ZXdchjbei^dcegZY^XiZY[dg;ZWgjVgn'%&&#

Key Concepts
6eViiZgci]VigZeZVih^ihZa[gZ\jaVgan^heZg^dY^X#

6eZg^dY^XeViiZgcXVcWZbdYZaaZYjh^c\VeZg^dY^X
[jcXi^dc#

Period
Amplitude

4
2

DcZgZeZi^i^dcd[VeZg^dY^XeViiZgc^hXVaaZY
VXnXaZ#

I]Z]dg^odciVaaZc\i]d[VXnXaZdcV\gVe]^hXVaaZY
i]ZeZg^dY#I]ZeZg^dYbVnWZ^cjc^ihd[i^bZdg
di]Zgjc^ihd[bZVhjgZbZci#

6 x

2
4

6[jcXi^dc^heZg^dY^X^[i]ZgZ^hVedh^i^kZcjbWZg!
p!hjX]i]Vifxpfx[dgZkZgnx^ci]Z
YdbV^cd[fx#I]ZaZVhikVajZd[pi]Vildg`h^hi]Z
eZg^dYd[i]Z[jcXi^dc#
fxnpfx!l]ZgZp ^hi]ZeZg^dYVcYn^hVcn^ciZ\Zg#
I]ZVbea^ijYZd[VeZg^dY^X[jcXi^dc^h]Va[i]ZY^[[ZgZcXZWZilZZci]ZbVm^bjbkVajZ
VcYi]Zb^c^bjbkVajZ^cVXnXaZ#

C1  I]ZedejaVi^dcd[Vb^c^c\idlc]Vh^cXgZVhZYVcYYZXgZVhZYhZkZgVai^bZh^ci]ZeVhi[Zl

YZXVYZh#9dndjZmeZXii]ZedejaVi^dcVhV[jcXi^dcd[i^bZidWZeZg^dY^X4?jhi^[nndjg
VchlZg#

C2  a) 8dch^YZgV[jcXi^dchjX]i]Vifxqfx#H`ZiX]i]Z\gVe]d[Vh^beaZ[jcXi^dci]Vi

b)>hi]Z[jcXi^dc^ceVgiVeZg^dY^X4?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg#

T& 

C3  8dch^YZgi]ZYZX^bVaZmeVch^dcd[i]Z[gVXi^dc #>[ndj\gVe]ZVX]Y^\^i^ci]ZZmeVch^dcdc

,
i]ZkZgi^XVaVm^hkZghjh^ihYZX^bVaeaVXZdci]Z]dg^odciVaVm^h!^hi]ZeViiZgceZg^dY^X4JhZV
\gVe]idhjeedgindjgVchlZg#

## 5.1 Modelling Periodic Behaviour MHR 289

A Practise
For help with questions 1 to 5, refer to
Example 1.
1. 8aVhh^[nZVX]\gVe]VheZg^dY^Xdgcdi
eZg^dY^X#?jhi^[nndjgVchlZgh#
a)

y
4

2
4

b)

y
6
4
2
6

2 0

l^i]VcVbea^ijYZd[)VcYVeZg^dYd[+#
5. 9dndjg\gVe]h^cfjZhi^dch(VcY)bViX]

i]dhZd[ndjgXaVhhbViZh4:meaV^cl]ndg
l]ncdi#
For help with questions 6 to 8, refer to
Example 2.

2
6

4. H`ZiX][djgXnXaZhd[VeZg^dY^X[jcXi^dc

6x

6. 6eZg^dY^X[jcXi^dc

## Reasoning and Proving

Representing

Selecting Tools

fx]VhVeZg^dY
Problem Solving
d[-#I]ZkVajZhd[
f&!f*!VcYf,
Connecting
Reecting
VgZ(!'!VcY-!
Communicating
gZheZXi^kZan#EgZY^Xi
egZY^Xi^dc^hcdiedhh^WaZ!ZmeaV^cl]ncdi#
a) f.

b) f'.

c) f+(

d) f)%

7. a) H`ZiX]i]Z\gVe]d[VeZg^dY^X[jcXi^dc!

fx!l^i]VbVm^bjbkVajZd[,!V
b^c^bjbkVajZd[&!VcYVeZg^dYd[*#

2
4

b) HZaZXiVkVajZa[dgx!VcYYZiZgb^cZfa#

c) 9ZiZgb^cZilddi]ZgkVajZh!bVcYc!

hjX]i]Vifafbfc#

c)

y
4

## B Connect and Apply

2
6

8. Hjc^iVYgVlhVeZg^dY^X[jcXi^dchdi]Vi
2

6x

d)

y
4

9. 6cVk^\Vi^dca^\]idcVed^ci^cVaV`Z

[aVh]Zh&hdcVcY&hd[[#6[iZgi]gZZ
[aVh]Zh!i]Za^\]ihiVnhd[[[dgVcZmigV'h#

2
6

fpfq#8VcndjXdcXajYZi]Vii]Z
eZg^dYd[i]Z[jcXi^dc^hi]ZY^[[ZgZcXZ
WZilZZcpVcYq4?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg!
^cXajY^c\VY^V\gVb#

6x

2. 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZVbea^ijYZVcYeZg^dY[dg

Vcn\gVe]^cfjZhi^dc&i]Vi^heZg^dY^X#
3. H`ZiX][djgXnXaZhd[VeZg^dY^X[jcXi^dc

l^i]VcVbea^ijYZd[*VcYVeZg^dYd[(#
290 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

a) AZi&gZegZhZcidcVcY%gZegZhZci

d[[#H`ZiX]V\gVe]l^i]i^bZdci]Z
]dg^odciVaVm^hidgZegZhZcii]Z[aVh]^c\
d[i]Za^\]i#>cXajYZi]gZZXnXaZh#
b) :meaV^cl]ni]^heViiZgc^heZg^dY^X#
c) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dYd[i]ZeViiZgc4
d) L]Vi^hi]ZVbea^ijYZ4

10. I]ZeZdeaZbdkZgViVcV^gedgih]jiiaZh

WZilZZci]ZbV^ciZgb^cVaVcYVhViZaa^iZ
iZgb^cVa(%%bVlVn#6dcZ"lVnig^e!
bdk^c\ViVXdchiVciheZZY!iV`Zh&b^c!
VcYi]ZXVggZbV^chViZVX]iZgb^cVa[dg
(%hWZ[dgZaZVk^c\#
a) H`ZiX]V\gVe]idgZegZhZcii]ZY^hiVcXZ

d[i]ZXVg[gdbi]ZbV^ciZgb^cVal^i]
gZheZXiidi^bZ#>cXajYZ[djgXdbeaZiZ
XnXaZh#

14. L]^aZk^h^i^c\i]ZZVhiXdVhid[8VcVYV!

GVcdj[cdi^XZhi]Vii]ZlViZgaZkZaViV
idlcYdX`X]Vc\ZhYjg^c\i]ZYVnVhi]Z
i^YZhXdbZ^cVcY\ddji#BVg`^c\hdcdcZ
d[i]Ze^aZhhjeedgi^c\i]ZYdX`h]dlV
d[%#,bVi&'/)%e#b#!VcYV]^\]i^YZ
V\V^cVi+/*%e#b#
a) :hi^bViZi]ZeZg^dYd[i]Z[ajXijVi^dcd[

i]ZlViZgaZkZaVii]ZidlcYdX`#

b) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dYd[i]Zbdi^dc4

b) :hi^bViZi]ZVbea^ijYZd[i]ZeViiZgc#

c) L]Vi^hi]ZVbea^ijYZd[i]Zbdi^dc4

11. L]^X]d[i]Z

YdndjZmeZXiid
eViiZgc4?jhi^[n
ndjgVchlZg[dg
ZVX]XVhZ#

dXXjg#

## Reasoning and Proving

Representing

Selecting Tools
Problem Solving

Connecting

Reecting
Communicating

hjeZgbVg`ZiViY^[[ZgZcii^bZhd[i]ZnZVg
b) i]Z^ciZgZhigViZd[[ZgZYdcVc^ckZhibZci

WnVWVc`dkZgViZgbd[*nZVgh
c) i]ZeZgXZcid[i]Zbddch[VXZi]Vi^h

^aajb^cViZYdkZghZkZgVabdci]h
d) i]ZkdajbZd[V^g^cndjgajc\hYjg^c\

15. I]ZX^ind[Fj^id!

Rotation of Earth

hZkZgVab^cjiZhd[cdgbVaWgZVi]^c\
12. Use TechnologyHjchedihVgZ]j\Z

hidgbhi]ViiV`ZeaVXZdci]Zhjc#I]Zn
XVcegdYjXZZaZXigdbV\cZi^XlVkZhi]Vi
^ciZg[ZgZl^i]gVY^d!iZaZk^h^dc!VcYdi]Zg
Xdbbjc^XVi^dchnhiZbhdc:Vgi]#>hi]Z
cjbWZgd[hjchedihViVcneVgi^XjaVg
VeZg^dY^XeViiZgc4JhZi]Z>ciZgcZiid
[^cYV\gVe]dgiVWaZd[hjchediVXi^k^in
dkZghZkZgVaYZXVYZh#>cheZXii]ZYViVVcY
YZX^YZl]Zi]Zgi]ZcjbWZgd[hjchedih
dkZgi^bZbVnWZXdch^YZgZYeZg^dY^X#
?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg#
13. >h^iedhh^WaZ[dgVeZg^dY^X[jcXi^dcid

WZZ^i]ZgXdci^cjdjhan^cXgZVh^c\dg
Xdci^cjdjhanYZXgZVh^c\4?jhi^[nndjg
VchlZg!^cXajY^c\VY^V\gVb#

## Reasoning and Proving

Selecting Tools
dci]ZZfjVidg!
Problem Solving
VWdji+)%%`b[gdb
Reecting
Connecting
i]ZXZcigZd[:Vgi]#
Communicating
6h:Vgi]ijgch!
Fj^idgdiViZhVWdji
Vhi]ZhiVgi^c\i^bZVcYi]Zedh^i^dcd[
AZidgZegZhZcii]ZY^hiVcXZ^cVhigV^\]i

Location
at Time t
d
6400 km

Quito at
Midnight

a) :meaV^cl]ni]Z\gVe]d[dkZghjhtl^aa

h]dlVeZg^dY^XeViiZgc#
b) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dYd[i]^hbdi^dc4
c) L]Vi^hi]ZVbea^ijYZd[i]^hbdi^dc4
d) HjeedhZi]VindjlVciid\ZcZgViZV

iVWaZd[kVajZh[dgdVhV[jcXi^dcd[t#
9ZiZgb^cZVcVeegdeg^ViZig^\dcdbZig^X
iddaidjhZ#:meaV^cl]n^i^hi]Zbdhi
Veegdeg^ViZidda[dgi]^hegdWaZb#
9ZhXg^WZ]dlndjldjaYjhZi]Ziddaid
\ZcZgViZi]ZiVWaZd[kVajZh#

## 5.1 Modelling Periodic Behaviour MHR 291

16. I]ZVkZgV\Zbdci]aniZbeZgVijgZhdkZg

eZg^dY^XeViiZgc#
a) :hi^bViZi]ZbVm^bjbkVajZ!b^c^bjb

kVajZ!VcYVbea^ijYZd[i]^heViiZgc[dg
l]ZgZndja^kZ#
b) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dYd[i]^heViiZgc4

:meaV^c#
17. 9ZhXg^WZVgZVa"ldgaYeViiZgci]Vindj

i]^c`b^\]iWZeZg^dY^X#9dcdijhZV
eViiZgci]Vi]VhVagZVYnWZZcjhZY^ci]^h
hZXi^dc#IgVYZeViiZgchl^i]VXaVhhbViZ#
EZg[dgbVc^ckZhi^\Vi^dcidYZiZgb^cZ
l]Zi]Zgi]ZeViiZgc^heZg^dY^X#>[ndj
YZiZgb^cZi]Vii]ZeViiZgc^heZg^dY^X!
YZiZgb^cZi]ZeZg^dYVcYi]ZVbea^ijYZ#>[
^i^hcdi!ZmeaV^cl]ncdi#
18. Chapter ProblemGVcYnXdccZXih]^h

V7`Zni]Vi]Z`cdlhegdYjXZhVhdjcY
hZXdcY!dg*%%=o]Zgio#I]ZeViiZgc^h
h]dlc#I^bZ!^chZXdcYh!^hh]dlcdci]Z
]dg^odciVaVm^h#

## 19. Use TechnologyJhZYncVb^X\ZdbZign

hd[ilVgZidh`ZiX]VbdYZad[i]ZXVgdjhZa
^ci]Z>ckZhi^\ViZdceV\Z'-)#6c^bViZ
i]Zed^cii]VigZegZhZcihHjoVccZ!VcY
cdiZ]dli]ZbZVhjgZbZcihd[Vc\aZVcY
Y^hiVcXZX]Vc\ZYjg^c\VgZkdaji^dc#
20. I]Z]djghVcYb^cjiZhd[YVna^\]idci]Z

[^ghid[ZVX]bdci]d['%%+^cL^cYhdg!
DciVg^d!VgZh]dlc^ci]ZiVWaZ#
Date

Daylight
(Hours:Minutes)

Jan. 1

9:09

Feb. 1

10:00

Mar. 1

11:14

Apr. 1

12:43

May 1

14:04

Jun. 1

15:04

Jul. 1

15:14

Aug. 1

14:28

Sep. 1

13:10

Oct. 1

11:45

Nov. 1

10:21

Dec. 1

9:19

a) :meaV^cl]ni]ZhZYViVl^aah]dlV

eZg^dY^XeViiZgcdkZghZkZgVanZVgh#

2
0

0.002

0.004

0.006 t (s)

a) :meaV^c]dlndj`cdli]Vii]ZeViiZgc

^heZg^dY^X#
b) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dY4
c) 9ZiZgb^cZVgZaVi^dcWZilZZci]ZeZg^dY

VcYi]Z[gZfjZcXnd[i]ZcdiZWZ^c\
eaVnZY#
Co nne ct io ns
One of the oldest purely electronic
instruments is the theremin,
invented in 1919 by Leon Theremin,
a Russian engineer. Players control
the instruments sound by moving
their hands toward or away from the
instruments two antennas. One antenna controls the
pitch of the sound; the other controls the volume. You
have probably heard the eerie, gliding, warbling sounds
of a theremin in science fiction or horror films.

## 292 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

b) EgZY^Xii]ZcjbWZgd[]djghd[YVna^\]i

dcBVn&!'%&%#
c) EgZY^Xii]ZcjbWZgd[]djghd[YVna^\]i

dcHZeiZbWZg&*!'%%-#
Achievement Check
21. 6ii]ZYdXidghd[[^XZ[dgVgdji^cZe]nh^XVa

egZhhjgZX]ZX`ZY#=Zcdi^XZhi]Vii]Z
egZhhjgZgZVX]ZhV]^\]kVajZhnhida^X
egZhhjgZd[-%!bZVhjgZY^cb^aa^bZigZhd[
bZgXjgnbb=\#I]ZYdXidgXdjcih
egZhhjgZeViiZgceZg^dY^X4?jhi^[nndjg
VchlZg#

a) 8dchigjXiViVWaZd[kVajZhd[ykZghjhx!

Extend

22. 6a^\]i]djhZWZVXdcgdiViZhi]gdj\](+%

d[[i]Zh]dgZd[Vc^haVcYl^i]VXdVhia^cZ
d[hiZZeXa^[[hgjcc^c\cdgi]VcYhdji]#6h
[gdbcdgi]Y^gZXi^dcd[%!^ihig^`ZhhdbZ
eVgid[i]ZXa^[[#

gZXdgY^c\i]ZbVm^bjbkVajZ[dgZVX]
XnXaZ^ci]ZyXdajbc#
c) L]Vi`^cYd[bdYZaYdi]ZYViVVeeZVg

d) JhZndjg`cdlaZY\Z[gdbVegZk^djh

X]VeiZgidXdchigjXii]ZbdYZa#

North

8dbbZcidci]Z[^i#

T* 

## 24. Math Contest>[i]Z[gVXi^dc  ^hlg^iiZc

Lighthouse

Sweep
100 m

idgZVX]VcVc\aZd[(%4L]Vi^hi]Z
Y^hiVcXZigVkZaaZYWni]ZWZVbidi]Z
Xa^[[Vii]Vii^bZ4GZXdgYi^bZVcY
Y^hiVcXZ^cViVWaZ#
b) GZeZVieVgiV[dg+%!.%!&'%!VcY

,
^cZmeVcYZYYZX^bVa[dgb!l]Vi^hi]Z
&%%i]Y^\^iV[iZgi]ZYZX^bVaed^ci4
A &

B )

C '

D -

## 25. Math Contest6cjbWZg]Vhi]ZeViiZgc

.,-+,*%#=dlbVcnY^\^ihYdZhi]^h
cjbWZg]VkZ4
A &)

B &+

C &-

D '%

## 26. Math Contest6hZfjZcXZ^hXgZViZYjh^c\

&*%#
c) L]Vi]VeeZchidi]ZY^hiVcXZVhi]Z

WZVbVeegdVX]Zh&-%4

iV`Zjci^ai]ZWZVbhig^`Zhi]ZXa^[[
V\V^cVihdbZed^ci4
e) JhZndjgiVWaZidh`ZiX]i]Z\gVe]d[

Y^hiVcXZkZghjhi^bZ[dgdcZgZkdaji^dc
d[i]Za^\]i#
f) :meaV^cl]nndjg\gVe]h]dlhV

eZg^dY^XeViiZgc#L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dY4
g) L]Vi^hi]ZVbea^ijYZd[i]ZeViiZgc4

:meaV^c#
23. >chdbZXVhZh!i]ZVbea^ijYZd[V[jcXi^dc

YZXgZVhZhl^i]i^bZ#6cZmVbeaZ^hV
[jcXi^dcjhZYidbdYZai]ZhdjcYd[V
eajX`ZY\j^iVghig^c\#6hi^bZ\dZhdc!i]Z
hdjcYWZXdbZh[V^ciZgVcYY^Zh#I]^h^h
`cdlcVhVYVbeZYeZg^dY^X[jcXi^dc#6c
ZmVbeaZ^hh]dlc#

>[i]ZcjbWZg^hdYY!i]ZcZmicjbWZg
^h[djcYWnVYY^c\&idi]ZcjbWZgVcY
i]ZcY^k^Y^c\Wn'#
>[i]ZcjbWZg^hZkZc!i]ZcZmicjbWZg^h
i]ZcjbWZgY^k^YZYWn'#
>[ndjhiVgil^i]i]ZcjbWZg'&&!l]Vi^h
i]Z*(gYcjbWZg^ci]ZhZfjZcXZ4
A ',

B (

C &

D &%%

## 27. Math ContestD[*%hijYZcihhjgkZnZY#

(%hVni]Zna^`ZVa\ZWgV!'&hVni]Zna^`Z
ig^\dcdbZign!VcY-hVni]Zna^`ZWdi]#
=dlbVcnhijYZcihYdcdia^`ZZ^i]Zg
Va\ZWgVdgig^\dcdbZign4
A ,

B %

C &'

D &

y
2
0

100

200

300

## 5.1 Modelling Periodic Behaviour MHR 293

5.2
The Sine Function and
the Cosine Function
L]ViYdVcdXZVcd\gVe]Zg!VhidX`VcVanhi!
VcVjY^dZc\^cZZg!VcYVbjh^X^VceaVn^c\
ZaZXigdc^X^chigjbZcih]VkZ^cXdbbdc4
I]ZnVaaYZVal^i]eZg^dY^XeViiZgch#EZg^dY^XeViiZgchXVcWZgZegZhZciZYVh\gVe]h!ZfjVi^dch!
iVWaZh!VcYdi]ZgbVi]ZbVi^XVa[dgbh#:kZcVXdbeaZmeZg^dY^XeViiZgcXVcWZWgd`ZcYdlc^cid
Vhjbd[iZgbh!ZVX]d[l]^X]^hgZegZhZciZYVhVh^cZdgVXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc#I]^hegdXZhh^h`cdlc
Vh;djg^ZgVcVanh^h!l]^X]^hVeea^ZY^chjX]Y^kZghZ[^ZaYhVhbjh^Xhnci]Zh^h!Xgneid\gVe]n!
VXdjhi^Xh!dXZVcd\gVe]n!hidX`dei^dceg^X^c\!VcYegdWVW^a^ini]Zdgn#
Xdh^cZ[jcXi^dch#Ndjl^aa^ckZhi^\ViZi]ZegdeZgi^Zhd[i]ZhZ[jcXi^dchVcYWZXdbZ[Vb^a^Vgl^i]
i]ZX]VgVXiZg^hi^Xhd[i]Z^g\gVe]h#

Tools
calculator
grid paper

Investigate A
How can you use a table and grid paper with the sine ratio to construct
a function?
>ci]^hX]VeiZg!ndjl^aaXdch^YZgl^YZgVeea^XVi^dchd[i]Zig^\dcdbZig^X
gVi^dh!^cXajY^c\Veea^XVi^dchl]ZgZi]Z^cYZeZcYZcikVg^VWaZYdZh
cdigZegZhZciVcVc\aZ#>ci]ZhZVeea^XVi^dch!^i^hVeegdeg^ViZidjhZx
gVi]Zgi]VcidgZegZhZcii]ZkVg^VWaZVcYidi]^c`d[h^cZVcYXdh^cZVh
[jcXi^dchd[x/fxh^cxVcYgxXdhx#
1. JhZVjc^iX^gXaZid[^cYZmVXikVajZh[dgh^cx#JhZVXVaXjaVidgid

YZiZgb^cZVeegdm^bViZkVajZh[dgh^cx#7Z\^cVi%VcYXdci^cjZ
ZkZgn(%jci^andjgZVX](+%#8denVcYXdbeaZiZi]ZiVWaZ#
sin x
x
0

Rounded to
One Decimal Place

0.0

30

T1 

0.5

360

## 294 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

Exact Value

x(+%#JhZi]ZYZX^bVakVajZh[dgh^cx#EaVXZi]Z\gVe]WZh^YZ
i]Zjc^iX^gXaZ#
b) 9gVlVhbddi]XjgkZi]gdj\]i]Zed^cih#
3. ReflectL]nYdndji]^c`i]Vii]^h\gVe]^hd[iZcXVaaZYVh^cZ

lVkZ4
4. 8dci^cjZndjgiVWaZeVhi(+%[dghZkZgVabdgZgdlh#L]ViYdndj

cdi^XZVWdjii]ZZcig^Zh4
5. a) EgZY^Xii]Zh]VeZd[i]Z\gVe]eVhi(+%#?jhi^[nndjgegZY^Xi^dc#
b) KZg^[nndjgegZY^Xi^dc#
6. JhZndjgiVWaZVcY\gVe]idXdenVcYXdbeaZiZi]ZiVWaZd[egdeZgi^Zh

[dgyh^cx[dg%id(+%#AZVkZi]Zi]^gYXdajbcWaVc`[dgcdl#
Ndjl^aajhZi]Zi]^gYXdajbc^c>ckZhi^\ViZ8#
Property

y = sin x

maximum
minimum
amplitude
period
domain
range
y-intercept
x-intercepts
intervals of
increase
intervals of
decrease

7. Reflect:meaV^cl]ni]Z\gVe]d[yh^cx^heZg^dY^X#
8. =dlXVcndjkZg^[ni]Viyh^cx^hV[jcXi^dc4EZg[dgbi]Z

kZg^[^XVi^dc#Lg^iZi]Z[jcXi^dcjh^c\[jcXi^dccdiVi^dc#

gZegZhZciZYVhVh^beaZh^cZdgXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc#DcZd[i]ZhZeViiZgch
^hi]ZVaiZgcVi^c\XjggZcid[ZaZXig^X^ini]Viegdk^YZhZcZg\n[dg
a^\]ihVcYVeea^VcXZh^cndjg]dbZ#Di]ZgeViiZgchXVcWZbdYZaaZY
jh^c\XdbW^cVi^dchd[ilddgbdgZh^cZVcYXdh^cZ[jcXi^dch!dg
igVch[dgbVi^dchd[i]ZhZ[jcXi^dch#Ndjl^aahZZhdbZd[i]ZhZaViZg^c
i]^hX]VeiZg#

sinusoidal
having the curved form
of a sine wave

5.2 The Sine Function and the Cosine Function MHR 295

Investigate B
Tools
TI-83 Plus or TI-84 Plus
graphing calculator

How can you use technology with the sine ratio to construct a
function?
Method 1: Use a Graphing Calculator
1. EgZhh 2nd PI7AH:IRidVXXZhhi]ZTABLE

i]ZhiVgi^c\kVajZVcYi]Z^cXgZbZci[dgViVWaZ
d[kVajZh#HZiTblStartid%VcYNTblid&%!Vh
h]dlc#BV`ZhjgZIndpntVcYDependVgZhZiid
AUTO#
2. EgZhh MODE VcYZchjgZi]VindjgXVaXjaVidg^h^cDEGREEbdYZ#

i]ZZmegZhh^dch^cM^cY1#

EgZhh GRAPH #
4. Reflect8dbeVgZi]Z\gVe]h]dlcWni]Z\gVe]^c\XVaXjaVidgidi]Z

\gVe]i]Vindjh`ZiX]ZY^c>ckZhi^\ViZ6#JhZi]ZhXVaZdcZVX]Vm^h
id]ZaendjXdbeVgZhZkZgVaed^cih#EgZhh 2nd P86A8R#HZaZXi1:
valueidZkVajViZy[dgndjghZaZXi^dcd[x#
5. EgZhh 2nd PI67A:RidVXXZhhi]ZiVWaZd[kVajZh#HXgdaaYdlcVcY

XdbeVgZi]ZiVWaZidi]ZdcZndjXdchigjXiZY^c>ckZhi^\ViZ6#
6. 8dci^cjZhXgdaa^c\eVhi(+%id[^cYi]ZcZmibVm^bjb#=dlYdZh

^iXdbeVgZidndjgegZY^Xi^dc^chiZe*Vd[>ckZhi^\ViZ64EgZY^Xi
l]ZgZi]ZcZmibVm^bjbl^aadXXjg#HXgdaaYdlcidX]ZX`ndjg
VchlZg#
7. HXgdaaWVX`jeVcYXdci^cjZeVhi%#EgZY^Xil]ZgZi]ZcZmibVm^bjb

l^aadXXjg^ci]^hY^gZXi^dc#8dci^cjZhXgdaa^c\idX]ZX`ndjgVchlZg#
8. ReflectHjeedhZi]VindjXVchZZi]Z\gVe]d[fxh^cx[gdb

x,'%idx,'%#=dlbVcnXnXaZhldjaYndjZmeZXiid
hZZ4L]ZgZldjaYi]ZbVm^bjbkVajZhdXXjg4L]ZgZldjaYi]Z
b^c^bjbkVajZhdXXjg4
9. 6Y_jhindjgl^cYdlkVg^VWaZhhdi]VindjXVchZZi]Z\gVe]d[

fxh^cx[gdbx,'%idx,'%#8]ZX`ndjgegZY^Xi^dch[gdb
hiZe-#

## Method 2: Use a TI-Nspire CAS Graphing Calculator

1. a) EgZhhcVcYhZaZXi8:System Info#HZaZXi2:System Settings...#JhZ

i]Ze`ZnidhXgdaaYdlcidAngle!VcYZchjgZi]Vi^i^hhZiid
Degree#8dci^cjZdcidAuto or ApproxVcYZchjgZi]Vi^i^hhZiid
Auto#8dci^cjZYdlcidOKVcYegZhhxil^XZ#

Tools
TI-NspireTM CAS
graphing calculator

## b) EgZhhcVcYhZaZXi6:New Document#HZaZXi

c) IneZh^cm[dg[jcXi^dcf1#EgZhh#
d) EgZhhb#HZaZXi4:Window#HZaZXi

1:Window Settings#HZiXMinid
(+%!XMaxid(+%!Yminid'!
VcYYMaxid'#IVWYdlcidOK
VcYegZhh#I]Z\gVe]l^aaWZ
Y^heaVnZYVhh]dlc#
2. Reflect8dbeVgZi]Z\gVe]h]dlcWni]Z\gVe]^c\XVaXjaVidgid

 i]Z\gVe]i]Vindjh`ZiX]ZY^c>ckZhi^\ViZ6#
b) EgZhhb#HZaZXi6:Points & Lines#HZaZXi2:Point On#BdkZi]Z

Xjghdgidi]Z\gVe]!VcYegZhh#
c) EgZhh/xid\gVWi]Zed^ci#JhZi]ZXjghdg`ZnhidbdkZi]Z

ndjgiVWaZ[gdb>ckZhi^\ViZ6#

eV\Z#
b) EgZhhb#HZaZXi5:Function Table#

## HZaZXi1:Switch to Function Table#

EgZhh#6iVWaZl^aaVeeZVg#
c) EgZhhb#HZaZXi5:Function Table#

## HZaZXi3:Edit Function Table Settings#

HZiTable Startid%#HZiTable Step
id&%#IVWYdlcidOKVcYegZhh#I]Z[jcXi^dciVWaZl^aaWZ
Y^heaVnZYVhh]dlc#
4. HXgdaaYdlcVcYXdbeVgZi]ZiVWaZidi]ZdcZndjXdchigjXiZY^c

>ckZhi^\ViZ6#
5. 8dci^cjZhXgdaa^c\eVhi(+%id[^cYi]ZcZmibVm^bjb#=dlYdZh

^iXdbeVgZidndjgegZY^Xi^dc^chiZe*Vd[>ckZhi^\ViZ64EgZY^Xi
l]ZgZi]ZcZmibVm^bjbl^aadXXjg#HXgdaaYdlcidX]ZX`ndjg
VchlZg#
6. HXgdaaWVX`jeVcYXdci^cjZeVhi%#EgZY^Xil]ZgZi]ZcZmibVm^bjb

l^aadXXjg^ci]^hY^gZXi^dc#8dci^cjZhXgdaa^c\idX]ZX`ndjgVchlZg#

5.2 The Sine Function and the Cosine Function MHR 297

7. a)EgZhh/VcYi]ZaZ[iXjghdg`ZnidgZijgcidi]Z\gVe]Y^heaVn#
b) HjeedhZi]VindjXdjaYhZZi]Z\gVe]d[fxh^cx[gdb

x,'%idx,'%#=dlbVcnXnXaZhldjaYndjZmeZXiid
hZZ4L]ZgZldjaYi]ZbVm^bjbkVajZhdXXjg4L]ZgZldjaYi]Z
b^c^bjbkVajZhdXXjg4
8. Reflect6Y_jhindjgl^cYdlhZii^c\hhdi]VindjXVchZZi]Z\gVe]

d[fxh^cx[gdbx,'%idx,'%#8]ZX`ndjgegZY^Xi^dch
[gdbhiZe,#

Investigate C
How can you use the cosine ratio to construct a function?
I]ZXdh^cZXjgkZ]Vhh^b^aVg^i^Zhidi]Zh^cZXjgkZ!VhlZaaVhhdbZ
^ckZhi^\ViZi]ZXdh^cZXjgkZ#L]Zcndj[^c^h]!XdbeaZiZi]Zi]^gYXdajbc
d[i]ZiVWaZ^chiZe+d[>ckZhi^\ViZ6idhjbbVg^oZi]ZegdeZgi^Zhd[i]Z
Xdh^cZ[jcXi^dc#

Key Concepts
Xdh^cZ[jcXi^dch#
7di]i]Zh^cZVcYXdh^cZ[jcXi^dch]VkZVlVkZ"a^`ZVeeZVgVcXZ!l^i]VeZg^dYd[(+%#
y = sin x

Properties
sketch of graph

y = cos x

y
1
0

y
1
90

180

270

x
360

90

180

270

x
360

maximum value

minimum value

amplitude

domain

{x 2}

{x 2}

range

{y 2, 1  y  1}

{y 2, 1  y  1}

x-intercepts

y-intercept

intervals of

## {x 2,0  x  90, 270  x  360}

{x 2,180  x  360}

{x 2,90  x  270}

{x 2,0  x  180}

increase (over
one cycle)
intervals of
decrease (over
one cycle)

## 298 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

C1  L^i]djiV\gVe]!egZY^Xii]ZkVajZhd[x[dgl]^X]i]Z\gVe]hd[yh^cxVcYyXdhx l^aa

^ciZghZXi^ci]Z^ciZgkVa[gdb%id(+%#?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg#I]Zc!jhZ\gVe]hVcYiVWaZhid
kZg^[nndjgVchlZg#

C2  GZk^Zli]Zx"^ciZgXZeih[dgi]Zh^cZVcYXdh^cZ[jcXi^dch#Lg^iZVcZmegZhh^dc[dgZVX]\gVe]!

^ckdak^c\Vc^ciZ\Zgn!i]Vin^ZaYhi]Zx"^ciZgXZeihl]ZcY^[[ZgZcikVajZhd[nVgZhjWhi^ijiZY#

Y^gZXi^dc#

a)L]^X][jcXi^dcgZegZhZcihi]Z]dg^odciVaY^heaVXZbZcid[i]Zed^ci

b)L]^X][jcXi^dcgZegZhZcihi]ZkZgi^XVaY^heaVXZbZcid[i]Zed^ci

c)?jhi^[nndjgX]d^XZhd[[jcXi^dch^ceVgihVVcYW#

l^i]gZheZXiidi]Zdg^\^c4
l^i]gZheZXiidi]Zdg^\^c4

## B Connect and Apply

1. NdjVgZ^cVXVgd[V;Zgg^hl]ZZa#I]Z

l]ZZa]VhVgVY^jhd[-bVcYijgch
XZcigZd[i]Zl]ZZa#7Z\^cZVX]h`ZiX]^c
eVgihVVcYWl]Zci]ZgVY^jh[gdbi]Z
edh^i^kZx"Vm^h#
a) H`ZiX]i]Z\gVe]d[ndjg]dg^odciVa

Y^heaVXZbZcikZghjhi]ZVc\aZi]gdj\]
l]^X]ndjijgc[dgdcZgdiVi^dcd[i]Z
l]ZZa#L]^X][jcXi^dcbdYZahi]Z
]dg^odciVaY^heaVXZbZci4?jhi^[nndjg
X]d^XZ#
b) H`ZiX]i]Z\gVe]d[ndjgkZgi^XVa

Y^heaVXZbZcikZghjhi]ZVc\aZi]gdj\]
l]^X]ndjijgc[dgdcZgdiVi^dcd[i]Z
l]ZZa#L]^X][jcXi^dcbdYZahi]Z
kZgi^XVaY^heaVXZbZci4?jhi^[nndjg
X]d^XZ#

hdjcY[gdbVhig^c\ZY^chigjbZciXVcWZ
[jcXi^dchjX]Vhyh^cxh^c'x#

i]Z\gVe]hd[yh^cxVcY
yh^cxh^c'x#
b) =dlYdi]Z\gVe]hY^[[Zg4=dlVgZi]Zn

h^b^aVg4
Con n ec t i on s
In musical terms, you have added the second harmonic,
sin 2x, to the fundamental, sin x. An electronics
engineer can mimic the sounds of conventional
instruments electronically by adding harmonics, or
overtones. This process is known as music synthesis
and is the basic principle behind the operation of
harmonics changes a sound, go to the Functions 11
page of the McGraw-Hill Ryerson Web site and follow

c) 6YYi]Zi]^gY]Vgbdc^X!h^c(x!idndjg
2. Chapter ProblemHdjcYhXVcWZbdYZaaZY

jh^c\h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dch#6h^beaZ
^chigjbZcihjX]VhV[ajiZegdYjXZhV
jh^c\i]Z[jcXi^dcyh^cx#6hhdjcYh
WZXdbZbdgZXdbeaZm!i]ZbdYZabjhi
WZXdbZbdgZXdbeaZm#;dgZmVbeaZ!i]Z

bdYZaVcYh`ZiX]i]Z\gVe]#8dbeVgZ
i]Z\gVe]idi]Zh^beaZh^cZlVkZVcY
idi]Zh^cZlVkZid\Zi]Zgl^i]i]Z
hZXdcY]Vgbdc^X#

5.2 The Sine Function and the Cosine Function MHR 299

3. I]Z]djg]VcY

aZc\i]d[&'Xb#
AZii]Zdg^\^cWZ
Vii]ZXZcigZd[i]Z

## Reasoning and Proving

Representing

Selecting Tools

Problem Solving
Connecting

Reecting

Communicating

a) H`ZiX]i]Z

\gVe]d[i]ZkZgi^XVaedh^i^dcd[i]Z
i^ed[i]Z]djg]VcYkZghjhi]ZVc\aZ
i]gdj\]l]^X]i]Z]VcYijgch[dgVi^bZ
eZg^dYd[,']#6hhjbZi]Vii]Z]djg
]VcYhiVgihVi.#
b) H`ZiX]i]Z\gVe]d[i]Z]dg^odciVa

edh^i^dcd[i]Zi^ed[i]Z]djg]VcY
kZghjhi]ZVc\aZi]gdj\]l]^X]i]Z
]VcYijgch[dgVi^bZeZg^dYd[,']#
6hhjbZi]Vii]Z]djg]VcYhiVgihVi(#
c) =dlbVcnXnXaZhVeeZVg^ci]Z\gVe]

^ceVgiV4
d) =dlbVcnXnXaZhl^aaVeeZVg^ci]Z

\gVe]^ceVgiV^[ndjjhZi]Zb^cjiZ
]VcYgVi]Zgi]Vci]Z]djg]VcY4
:meaV^cndjgegZY^Xi^dc#

Extend

a^`Z4JhZVXVaXjaVidgid^ckZhi^\ViZ#GdjcY
kVajZhd[iVcxidi]gZZYZX^bVaeaVXZh#
a) 8dchigjXiViVWaZd[kVajZh[dgxVcY

iVcx#JhZ&%^cXgZbZcihjeid,%#
I]Zc!jhZ*^cXgZbZcihjeid-*#
8]Vc\Zid&^cXgZbZcihjeid-.#
b) L]Vi]VeeZchidi]ZkVajZd[

iVcxVhxVeegdVX]Zh.%4GZk^Zl
i]Zjc^iX^gXaZVcYZmeaV^cl]ni]^h
]VeeZch#L]Vi^hi]ZkVajZd[iVc.%4
c) 8dci^cjZndjgiVWaZd[kVajZhjeid

(+%#6Y_jhii]Z^cXgZbZciVhgZfj^gZY#
d) JhZndjgiVWaZd[kVajZhidYgVlV

\gVe]d[yiVcx#Id`ZZei]ZhXVaZ
bVcV\ZVWaZ!jhZy"kVajZh[gdb&%id
x"kVajZh[gdb,'%id,'%#

## 300 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

e) 9gVli]ZVhnbeidiZhVhkZgi^XVaYVh]ZY

a^cZhVix.%VcYx',%dci]^h
\gVe]#I]Z\gVe]d[i]ZiVc\Zci[jcXi^dc
VeegdVX]Zh!WjicZkZggZVX]Zh!ZVX]d[
i]ZhZVhnbeidiZh#

^i^hZmiZcYZYeVhix(+%idx,'%#
L]ZgZl^aai]ZVhnbeidiZhWZYgVlc4
JhZi]ZXVaXjaVidgidX]ZX`V[Zl
ed^cih#I]Zc!h`ZiX]i]Z\gVe][gdb
x(+%idx,'%#

^i^hZmiZcYZYaZ[ieVhix%#L]ZgZ
l^aai]ZVhnbeidiZhWZYgVlc4JhZi]Z
XVaXjaVidgidX]ZX`V[Zled^cih#I]Zc!
h`ZiX]i]Z\gVe][gdbx,'%id
x%#
h) >hi]Z\gVe]d[yiVcxeZg^dY^X4

?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg#>[i]Z[jcXi^dc^h
eZg^dY^X!YZiZgb^cZi]ZeZg^dY#
5. a) H]dli]Vi

yiVcx^hV
[jcXi^dc#
b) >h^iedhh^WaZ

## Reasoning and Proving

Representing

Selecting Tools

Problem Solving
Connecting

id^YZci^[ni]Z
Vbea^ijYZd[
i]Z[jcXi^dc4
?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg#

Reecting

Communicating

c) ;dgl]Vi^ciZgkVahd[kVajZh[dgx[gdb

%id(+%^hi]Z[jcXi^dc^cXgZVh^c\4
;dgl]Vi^ciZgkVah^h^iYZXgZVh^c\4
d) Use TechnologyJhZV\gVe]^c\

[gdbx(+%idx(+%#8dbeVgZ
i]Z\gVe]dci]ZXVaXjaVidgidi]Z\gVe]
i]Vindjh`ZiX]ZY^cfjZhi^dc)#
e) NdjXVcVYYVhnbeidiZhViVeegdeg^ViZ

kVajZhd[x#GZijgcidi]Z]dbZhXgZZc#
EgZhh 2nd P9G6LR#HZaZXi
4:Vertical!VcYineZ.%#GZijgcidi]Z
\gVe]#CdiZi]ViVkZgi^XVaa^cZVeeZVgh
Vix.%#6YYdi]ZgVhnbeidiZhVh
Veegdeg^ViZ#

f) L]Vi^hi]ZYdbV^cd[i]ZiVc\Zci

9. 8dch^YZgi]Z[jcXi^dcyh^cxXdhx#

[jcXi^dc4L]Vi^hi]ZgVc\Z4Lg^iZZVX]
jh^c\hZicdiVi^dc#

a) EgZY^Xii]Zy"^ciZgXZeid[i]Z[jcXi^dc#
b) EgZY^Xii]Zx"^ciZgXZeih[gdb%id(+%#

?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg#

6. a) H`ZiX]i]Z[jcXi^dcfxh^cx[gdb

x%idx(+%#

c) JhZV\gVe]dgV\gVe]^c\XVaXjaVidgid

kZg^[nndjgVchlZghideVgihVVcYW#

b) GZk^Zli]ZYZ[^c^i^dcd[XdhZXVci#Jh^c\

ndjg\gVe][gdbeVgiV!YZiZgb^cZi]Z
h]VeZd[i]Z\gVe]d[yXhXx#

## 10. Math Contest;dg%(+%!dkZg

l]Vi^ciZgkVah^hh^cXdh4

c) JhZ\g^YeVeZgVcYVhX^Zci^[^X

## 11. Math Contest;dg.%.%![dg

XVaXjaVidg!dgV\gVe]^c\XVaXjaVidg!
idX]ZX`ndjgVchlZgideVgiW#6YY
VhnbeidiZhl]ZgZVeegdeg^ViZ#

l]VikVajZhd[YdZhiVcXdi4
12. Math Contest;gdbVa^hid[[^kZcjbWZgh!

d) H]dli]ViyXhXx^hV[jcXi^dc#

VeV^gVgZX]dhZcVcYi]ZcidiVaaZY#I]Z
hjbhd[Vaaedhh^WaZeV^ghVgZ)!-!&%!&'!
&)!&-!'%!''!'+!VcY(%#L]Vi^hi]Zhjb
d[Vaa[^kZcjbWZgh4

e) L]Vi^hi]ZYdbV^cd[i]Z[jcXi^dc4

L]Vi^hi]ZgVc\Z4
7. JhZVbZi]dYh^b^aVgidi]Vi^cfjZhi^dc+

A &+)B-'

idVcVanhZi]Z\gVe]d[yhZXx#

C )&Dcdiedhh^WaZidYZiZgb^cZ

8. JhZVbZi]dYh^b^aVgidi]Vi^cfjZhi^dc+

idVcVanhZi]Z\gVe]d[yXdix#

Career Connection
gZhe^gVidgni]ZgVenVi8VcVYdgZ8daaZ\ZVcYi]Zc
VXXjbjaViZYi]gZZnZVghd[ZmeZg^ZcXZ#Cdl
h]Z^hVeZg[jh^dc^hi!l]ZgZh]ZVhh^hihYjg^c\
deZc"]ZVgihjg\ZgnWndeZgVi^c\i]Z]ZVgi"ajc\
bVX]^cZ#I]^hbVX]^cZ[jcXi^dch^ceaVXZ
d[VeVi^Zcih]ZVgiVcYajc\hl]^aZi]ZnVgZ
dmn\ZcViZh^i!VcYejbeh^iWVX`^cidi]ZWdYn#
hdi]Vi^iXVcWZldg`ZYdc#BVg^V]^hdeZgVi^c\
i]ZeVi^Zciha^[Za^cZh]Zbjhibdc^idgk^iVa
h^\chVcYbV`ZcZXZhhVgnVY_jhibZcihidi]Z
]ZVgi"ajc\bVX]^cZVhlZaaVhVYb^c^hiZgYgj\h!

5.2 The Sine Function and the Cosine Function MHR 301

Use Technology
Dynamically Unwrap the Unit Circle
Tools
graphing calculator

XddgY^cViZhd[Ved^cidci]Zjc^iX^gXaZXVcWZZmegZhhZYVh
Xdh!h^c!l]ZgZ^hVcVc\aZ^chiVcYVgYedh^i^dc#>bV\^cZi]Zed^ci
Vc\aZ^cXgZVhZh[gdb%id(+%#6ii]ZhVbZi^bZ!i]Zy"XddgY^cViZd[
1. EgZhh MODE #HZii]Z[djgi]a^cZideVgVbZig^X

bdYZPARVcYi]Zh^mi]a^cZidh^bjaiVcZdjh
bdYZSIMUL#

Te c h n o l o g y

Tip

## When you are in

parametric mode,
pressing X, T, U, n will
return a T.

2. >ceVgVbZig^XbdYZ!ndjXVcZciZgVhZeVgViZZfjVi^dc[dgZVX]d[

xVcYy^ciZgbhd[Vi]^gYeVgVbZiZg#I]ZXVaXjaVidgVhh^\chi]Z
\gVe]hVii]ZhVbZi^bZ!gVi]Zgi]VcdcZV[iZgi]Zdi]Zg#EgZhh Y= #
id#:ciZgi]ZZmegZhh^dcXdhI[dgX1TVcYh^cI[dgY1T#
3. Reflect8dbeVgZi]ZhZZmegZhh^dchidi]ZXddgY^cViZhd[Ved^cidc

i]Zjc^iX^gXaZ#

i]ZhVbZhZid[VmZh#I]Zjc^iX^gXaZ]VhV
gVY^jhd[&VcYi]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dccZZYhVc
^ciZgkVad[%id(+%[dgdcZXnXaZ#I]ZhZ
hXVaZhVgZcdiXdbeVi^WaZ#IdXdbeZchViZ!
VY_jhii]ZhXVaZ[dgi]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dcWn
l^cYdli]ViXVcVXXdbbdYViZWdi]\gVe]h#
:ciZgI\$+%[dgX2TVcYh^cI[dgY2T#

## 302 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

[gdbl]VindjVgZjhZYid#HZii]ZI^ciZgkVa[gdb%id(+%l^i]V
hXVaZd[&!i]ZM^ciZgkVa[gdb'id-l^i]VhXVaZd[&!VcYi]Z
N^ciZgkVa[gdb(id(l^i]VhXVaZd[&#

## 6. EgZhh GRAPH #LViX]]dli]Zjc^iX^gXaZVcY

i]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dcVgZYgVlc^chiZel^i]ZVX]
di]Zg#Note:@ZZe^cb^cYi]Vii]ZhXVaZhVgZ
Y^[[ZgZci[dgi]Zild\gVe]hhdi]VindjXVc
Y^heaVni]Zbdci]ZhVbZhXgZZc#;dgi]Zjc^i
X^gXaZ!ZVX]bVg`dci]Zx"Vm^hgZegZhZcih
&jc^i#;dgi]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dc!ZVX]bVg`dci]Z
x"Vm^hgZegZhZcih+%#

7. ReflectI]Z^chigjXi^dchY^gZXindjiddeZgViZi]Z\gVe]^c\

XVaXjaVidg^cVbdYZi]Vi^hegdWVWancZlidndj#GZk^ZlZVX]
hiZeidZchjgZi]VindjjcYZghiVcYl]Vi^hWZ^c\YdcZ^ci]VihiZe#
:meaV^ci]ZgdaZd[I^ci]Z[jcXi^dchWZ^c\\gVe]ZY#

XjgkZ#L]ViX]Vc\ZhYdndjcZZYidbV`Z4:meaV^cl]ni]ZhZ
X]Vc\ZhVgZcZXZhhVgn#

Extend

XdhZXVci!hZXVci!VcYXdiVc\ZciXjgkZh!dcZViVi^bZ#

Te c h n o l o g y

Tip

## If you want to watch

the graphs be drawn
again, you cannot just
press QUIT and then
press GRAPH . The
graphing calculator
remembers the last
for, and will just
display it, provided
that you have not
that affect the graph.
There are several
ways to get around
this feature. One is
to select PlotsOn
from the STATPLOT
PlotsOff. When you
press GRAPH , the unit
circle and sine function
will be drawn again.

a) :meaV^cl]^X]d[hiZeh&id+cZZYidWZX]Vc\ZYVcYl]^X]Yd

cdi#

[djg\gVe]h#

## Use Technology: Dynamically Unwrap the Unit Circle MHR 303

5.3
Investigate
Transformations of Sine
and Cosine Functions
BVcngZVa"ldgaYegdXZhhZhXVcWZbdYZaaZYl^i]h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dch#=dlZkZg!i]ZWVh^Xh^cZ
[jcXi^dcjhjVaangZfj^gZhdcZdgbdgZigVch[dgbVi^dchid[^ii]ZeVgVbZiZghd[i]ZegdXZhh#DcZ
ZmVbeaZ^hi]Zedh^i^dcd[i]ZhjcVWdkZi]Z]dg^odccdgi]d[i]Z6gXi^X8^gXaZ^chjbbZg#7ZXVjhZ
i]ZhjcYdZhcdihZiYjg^c\i]^hi^bZ!i]ZgZ^hcdcZ\Vi^kZkVajZ[dg^ihedh^i^dcgZaVi^kZidi]Z
]dg^odc#6hVgZhjai!i]ZWVh^Xh^cZ[jcXi^dcbjhiWZVY_jhiZYhdi]Vii]ZgVc\Z]VhcdcZ\Vi^kZ
kVajZh#
>ci]^hhZXi^dc!ndjl^aaaZVgc]dlidigVch[dgbi]Zh^cZVcYXdh^cZ[jcXi^dchhdi]VindjXVcjhZ
i]ZbVhbdYZah[dggZVa"ldgaYVeea^XVi^dchaViZg^ci]ZX]VeiZg#

Investigate

Tools
graphing calculator
Optional
graphing software

## How can you investigate transformations of sine and cosine functions

using technology?
A: Graph y = a sin x
1. a) JhZV\gVe]^c\XVaXjaVidgdg\gVe]^c\hd[ilVgZid\gVe]yh^cx

VcYy'h^cxdci]ZhVbZhZid[VmZh![gdbx%idx(+%#
b) =dlVgZi]Z\gVe]hh^b^aVg4=dlVgZi]ZnY^[[ZgZci4
2. a) 6YYi]Z\gVe]d[y(h^cxidi]ZhVbZhZid[VmZh#
b) L]Vi^hi]ZZ[[ZXid[bjai^ean^c\i]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dcWnVXdchiVci

[VXidg4
Te c h n o l o g y

Tip

Another way to
compare two graphs
is to toggle them on
and off. In the Y=
editor, move the cursor
over the equal sign
and press ENTER .
When the equal sign is
highlighted, the graph
is displayed. When
the equal sign is not
highlighted, the graph
is not displayed.

3. a) =^YZi]Z\gVe]hd[y'h^cxVcYy(h^cx#EgZY^Xii]Zh]VeZ

&h^cx#?jhi^[nndjgegZY^Xi^dc#
d[i]Z\gVe]d[yT
'
&
T
b) <gVe]y  h^cxVcYXdbeVgZi]Z\gVe]idi]Z\gVe]d[yh^cx#
'
LVhndjgegZY^Xi^dcXdggZXi4


T& 

## 4. a) =^YZi]Z\gVe]d[y  h^cx#EgZY^Xii]Zh]VeZd[i]Z\gVe]d[

'
yh^cx#?jhi^[nndjgegZY^Xi^dc#

b) <gVe]yh^cxVcYXdbeVgZi]Z\gVe]idi]Z\gVe]d[

yh^cx#LVhndjgegZY^Xi^dcXdggZXi4
c) EgZY^Xii]Zh]VeZd[i]Z\gVe]d[y'h^cx#KZg^[nndjg

## 304 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

egZY^Xi^dcWn\gVe]^c\#

5. Reflect8dch^YZgi]ZigVch[dgbVi^dcd[i]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dci]VigZhjaih

[gdbbjai^ean^c\i]Z[jcXi^dcWnV[VXidga/yah^cx#9ZhXg^WZi]Z
a) a& 

b) % a &

c) a &

d) & a %

B: Graph y = sin kx
1. a) <gVe]i]Z[jcXi^dchyh^cxVcYyh^c'xdci]ZhVbZhZid[

VmZh[gdbx%idx(+%#
b) =dlVgZi]Z\gVe]hh^b^aVg4=dlVgZi]ZnY^[[ZgZci4
c) =dlVgZi]ZeZg^dYhgZaViZY4
2. a) =^YZi]Z\gVe]d[yh^c'x#EgZY^Xii]ZeZg^dYd[i]Z\gVe]d[

yh^c(x#
b) <gVe]yh^c(xidkZg^[nndjgegZY^Xi^dc#
3. a) =^YZi]Z\gVe]d[yh^c(x#EgZY^Xii]ZeZg^dYd[i]Z\gVe]d[

&x#
yh^cT
'
&
b) <gVe]yh^cTxidkZg^[nndjgegZY^Xi^dc#NdjbVncZZYid
'
&x.
VY_jhindjgl^cYdlidVXXdbbdYViZdcZ[jaaXnXaZd[yh^cT
'


4. Reflect8dch^YZgi]ZigVch[dgbVi^dcd[i]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dci]VigZhjaih

[gdbbjai^ean^c\i]ZkVg^VWaZxWnV[VXidgk/yh^ckx#
a) =dl^hi]ZeZg^dYd[yh^ckxgZaViZYidi]ZeZg^dYd[yh^cx4
b) 9ZhXg^WZi]ZigVch[dgbVi^dci]VidXXjghl]Zck&VcYl]Zc

% k &#
c) 9ZhXg^WZi]ZigVch[dgbVi^dci]VidXXjghl]Zck &VcYl]Zc

## & k %#<gVe]idX]ZX`ndjgXdc_ZXijgZh#

C: Graph y = sin (x d)
1 a) <gVe]i]Z[jcXi^dchyh^cxVcYyh^cx(%dci]ZhVbZ

hZid[VmZh[gdbx%idx(+%#
b) =dlVgZi]Z\gVe]hh^b^aVg4=dlVgZi]ZnY^[[ZgZci4

ndjgegZY^Xi^dc#
b) <gVe]yh^cx+%idkZg^[nndjgegZY^Xi^dc#

ndjgegZY^Xi^dc#
b) <gVe]yh^cx(%idkZg^[nndjgegZY^Xi^dc#
4. Reflect8dch^YZgi]ZigVch[dgbVi^dcd[i]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dci]VigZhjaih

[gdbhjWigVXi^c\VeVgVbZiZgd[gdbi]ZkVg^VWaZx/yh^cxd#
a) d3% 

b)d1%
5.3 Investigate Transformations of Sine and Cosine Functions MHR 305

D: Graph y = sin x + c
1. a) <gVe]i]Z[jcXi^dchyh^cxVcYyh^cx&dci]ZhVbZhZi

d[VmZh[gdbx%idx(+%#
b) =dlVgZi]Z\gVe]hh^b^aVg4=dlVgZi]ZnY^[[ZgZci4

egZY^Xi^dc#
b) <gVe]yh^cx&idkZg^[nndjgegZY^Xi^dc#

egZY^Xi^dc#
b) <gVe]yh^cx(idkZg^[nndjgegZY^Xi^dc#NdjbVncZZYid

VY_jhindjgl^cYdlkVg^VWaZhidY^heaVni]Z\gVe]egdeZgan#
4. Reflect8dch^YZgi]ZigVch[dgbVi^dcd[i]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dci]VigZhjaih

[gdbVYY^c\VeVgVbZiZgcidi]Z[jcXi^dc/yh^cxc#9ZhXg^WZ
a) c% 

b) c %

5. ReflectGZk^ZlndjggZ[aZXi^dch[gdbeVgih6!7!8!VcY9#8denVcY

XdbeaZiZViVWaZh^b^aVgidi]ZdcZh]dlcidhjbbVg^oZi]ZZ[[ZXi
i]Vii]ZkVajZd[ZVX]d[i]ZhZ[VXidgh]Vhdci]Z[dgbd[i]Z\gVe]#
I]Z[^ghia^cZd[i]ZiVWaZ^h[^aaZY^c[dgndj#
Factor

Value

Effect

a>1

## amplitude is greater than 1

0<a<1
1 < a < 0
a < 1
k>1

0<k<1
1 < k < 0
k < 1

d
c

d>0
d<0
c>0
c<0

Example 1
Functions of the Form y = a sin kx
8dch^YZgi]Z[jcXi^dcy(h^c)x#
a) L]Vi^hi]ZVbea^ijYZ4
b) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dY4
c) =dlbVcnXnXaZhl^aadXXjgWZilZZcx%VcYx(+%4
d) <gVe]i]Z[jcXi^dc[gdbx%idx(+%#
306 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

Solution
8dbeVgZy(h^c)xidyah^ckx#
a) a(0i]Zy"kVajZhd[i]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dcVgZbjai^ea^ZYWnV[VXidgd[

(#I]ZVbea^ijYZ^h(jc^ih#
(+%
T
 
.%#

b) k)0idYZiZgb^cZi]ZeZg^dY!Y^k^YZ(+%Wnk/

I]ZeZg^dY^h.%#
c) H^cXZi]ZeZg^dY^h.%VcYk)![djgXnXaZhl^aadXXjgWZilZZc

%VcY(+%#
d)

y
3

90

270

180

360 x

Example 2
Functions of the Form y = a sin (x d) + c
8dch^YZgi]Z[jcXi^dcyh^cx)*'#
a) L]Vi^hi]ZVbea^ijYZ4
b) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dY4
c) 9ZhXg^WZi]Ze]VhZh]^[i!dg]dg^odciVaigVchaVi^dc#

Con n ec t i on s

d) 9ZhXg^WZi]ZkZgi^XVah]^[i!dgkZgi^XVaigVchaVi^dc#

In a sinusoidal function,
a horizontal translation
is also known as a
phase shift. A vertical
translation is also
known as a vertical
shift.

e) <gVe]i]Z[jcXi^dc[gdbx%idx,'%#

Solution
8dbeVgZyh^cx)*'idyah^cxdc#
a) a&0i]ZVbea^ijYZd[i]Z[jcXi^dc^h&#
b) k&0i]ZeZg^dYd[i]Z[jcXi^dc^h(+%#
c) d)*0i]Ze]VhZh]^[i^h)*idi]Zg^\]i#
d) c'0i]ZkZgi^XVah]^[i^h'jc^ihje#
e)

y
4
2
0

180

360

540

720 x

## 5.3 Investigate Transformations of Sine and Cosine Functions MHR 307

Example 3
Functions of the Form y = a sin [k(x d)] + c
8dch^YZgi]Z[jcXi^dcy'h^cP(x(%R&#
a) L]Vi^hi]ZVbea^ijYZ4
b) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dY4
c) 9ZhXg^WZi]Ze]VhZh]^[i#
d) 9ZhXg^WZi]ZkZgi^XVah]^[i#
e) <gVe]i]Z[jcXi^dc[gdbx%idx(+%#

Solution
8dbeVgZy'h^cP(x(%R&idyah^cPkxdRc#
a) a'0i]ZVbea^ijYZd[i]Z[jcXi^dc^h'#

(+%
T
 
&'%#

b) k(0i]ZeZg^dYd[i]Z[jcXi^dc^h
The value of d is negative.
This indicates a horizontal
translation to the left.

c) d(%0i]Ze]VhZh]^[i^h(%idi]ZaZ[i#
d) c&0i]ZkZgi^XVah]^[i^h&jc^iYdlc#
e)

y
2
0

90

180

270

360 x

Key Concepts
I]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dcbVnWZigVch[dgbZYWn^cigdYjX^c\
[VXidgha!k!d!VcYc/yah^cPkxdRc
 aYZiZgb^cZhi]ZVbea^ijYZd[i]Z[jcXi^dc#I]ZVbea^ijYZ^hqaq#

(+%
 kYZiZgb^cZhi]ZeZg^dY!p!d[i]Z[jcXi^dcVXXdgY^c\idi]ZgZaVi^dcpT
#
qkq
 dYZiZgb^cZhi]Z]dg^odciVaigVchaVi^dc!dge]VhZh]^[i!d[i]Z[jcXi^dc#>[d^hedh^i^kZ!
i]Zh]^[i^hidi]Zg^\]i#>[d^hcZ\Vi^kZ!i]Zh]^[i^hidi]ZaZ[i#
 cYZiZgb^cZhi]ZkZgi^XVaigVchaVi^dc!dgkZgi^XVah]^[i!d[i]Z[jcXi^dc#>[c^hedh^i^kZ!i]Z
h]^[i^hje#>[c^hcZ\Vi^kZ!i]Zh]^[i^hYdlc#
I]ZXdh^cZ[jcXi^dcbVnWZigVch[dgbZY^ci]ZhVbZlVn/yaXdhPkxdRc.Ndj
l^aaldg`i]gdj\]ZmVbeaZh^ckdak^c\i]ZXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc^ci]ZZmZgX^hZh#

## 308 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

C1  8dch^YZgi]Z\gVe]d[y*h^c'xc#L]VikVajZhd[cVgZgZfj^gZYhdi]Vii]Z\gVe]]Vh

dcanedh^i^kZy"kVajZh4:meaV^c]dlndj[djcYndjgVchlZg#

\gVe]V^cid\gVe]W#

a)

b)

2
180

2
180

360

180

180

360 x

C3  8dch^YZgi]Z\gVe]hd[yh^cxVcYyXdhx#9ZiZgb^cZildlVnh^cl]^X]i]Z\gVe]d[i]Z

Xdh^cZ[jcXi^dcXVcWZZmegZhhZYVhV]dg^odciVaigVchaVi^dcd[i]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dc#

A Practise
For help with questions 1 to 3, refer to
Example 1.

## For help with Questions 4 to 8, refer to

Examples 2 and 3.

1. H`ZiX]dcZXnXaZ[dgZVX][jcXi^dc#>cXajYZ

VcVeegdeg^ViZhXVaZdcZVX]Vm^h#HiViZ
i]ZkZgi^XVahigZiX]VcYVbea^ijYZd[i]Z
[jcXi^dc#
(
a) y)h^cx
b) yT h^cx
'
*
c) y*h^cx
d) yT h^cx
)

4. Lg^iZildZfjVi^dch!dcZ^ci]Z[dgb

yah^ckxVcYdcZ^ci]Z[dgb
yaXdhPkx  dR!idbViX]ZVX]\gVe]#
a)

y
6
4
2

2. H`ZiX]dcZXnXaZ[dgZVX][jcXi^dc#>cXajYZ

VcVeegdeg^ViZhXVaZdcZVX]Vm^h#HiViZi]Z
kZgi^XVahigZiX]VcYi]Zci]ZVbea^ijYZd[
i]Z[jcXi^dc#
&
a) y(Xdhx
b) yT Xdhx
'
'
c) y'Xdhx
d) yT Xdhx
(
3. 9ZiZgb^cZi]Z]dg^odciVahigZiX]VcYi]Z

eZg^dYd[ZVX][jcXi^dc#

T' 
(
&
&
T
T
y h^c x

a) y'h^c*x

b) y(h^c x

&
c) n-h^cTx

d)

e) y)Xdhx

f) y'Xdh-x

T& 

'

'

'

T* 

90

180

270

360 x

90

180

270

360 x

2
4
6

b)

y
3

0
3

T( 
)

## 5.3 Investigate Transformations of Sine and Cosine Functions MHR 309

5. Lg^iZildZfjVi^dch!dcZ^ci]Z[dgb

9. a) HiViZi]ZkZgi^XVah]^[iVcYi]Z

Vbea^ijYZd[ZVX]h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc#

yaXdhkxVcYdcZ^ci]Z[dgb
yah^cPkx  dR!idbViX]ZVX]\gVe]#

i)yXdhx,%

a)

ii)y(Xdhx&

iii)yXdhx(*'

iv)y)Xdhx&'%(

y
4
2

b) H`ZiX]ildXnXaZhd[i]Z\gVe]d[ZVX]
0

90

180

270

360 x

[jcXi^dc#>cXajYZVcVeegdeg^ViZhXVaZ
dcZVX]Vm^h#

2
4

## B Connect and Apply

b)

10. I]ZkZgi^XVa

y
2

## Reasoning and Proving

h]^[il^i]gZheZXiidyh^cx[dgZVX]
[jcXi^dc#

edh^i^dc!y!^c
Representing
Selecting Tools
XZci^bZigZh!d[V
Problem Solving
ed^cidci]Zg^b
d[i]Zl]ZZad[V
Connecting
Reecting
hiVi^dcVgnZmZgX^hZ
Communicating
W^XnXaZV[iZgi^bZ!t!
^chZXdcYh!XVcWZbdYZaaZYWni]Z
ZfjVi^dcy)%h^c,'%t*%#

a) yh^cx*%(

90

180

270

360 x

6. 9ZiZgb^cZi]Ze]VhZh]^[iVcYi]ZkZgi^XVa

i]Zed^cigZVX]Zh4

b) y'h^cx)*&
c) y*h^cx'*)

b) L]Vi^hi]Z]^\]ZhikZgi^XVaedh^i^dc

i]Vii]Zed^cigZVX]Zh4

d) y(h^cP'x+%R'

c) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dYd[gdiVi^dcd[i]Z
7. 9ZiZgb^cZi]Ze]VhZh]^[iVcYi]ZkZgi^XVa

h]^[il^i]gZheZXiidyXdhx[dgZVX]
[jcXi^dc#

l]ZZa!^chZXdcYh4
d) HjeedhZi]Vii]ZeZg^dYd[i]ZgdiVi^dc

d[i]Zl]ZZaig^eaZh#=dlYdZhi]Z
ZfjVi^dcX]Vc\Z4?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg#

a) yXdhx(%
b) y)Xdhx('+
c) y.Xdhx&'%*

11. a) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZVbea^ijYZ!i]ZeZg^dY!

i]Ze]VhZh]^[i!VcYi]ZkZgi^XVah]^[id[
ZVX][jcXi^dc#

d) y&'XdhP*x&*%R,

i)y*h^cP)x+%R'

h]^[id[ZVX]h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc#

i)yh^cx&%%&

ii)y'h^cx(

ii)y'XdhP'x&*%R*
&
&
iii)yT h^c Tx+%  &
'
'
iv)y%#-XdhP(#+x)%R%#)

iii)yh^cx)*'

## b) Use Technology<gVe]ZVX][jcXi^dc

iv)y(h^cx&'%'

8. a) HiViZi]Ze]VhZh]^[iVcYi]ZkZgi^XVa

b) H`ZiX]ildXnXaZhd[i]Z\gVe]d[ZVX]

[jcXi^dc#>cXajYZVcVeegdeg^ViZhXVaZ
dcZVX]Vm^h#

## 310 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

P

i]ZX]VgVXiZg^hi^XhndjZmeZXiZY#

12. I]Zi]Zdgnd[W^dg]ni]bhhZZ`hidZmeaV^c

l]neZdeaZ]VkZ\ddYYVnhVcYWVY
YVnh#6XXdgY^c\idi]Zi]Zdgn!i]gZZ
eZg^dY^X[jcXi^dchWZ\^cViW^gi]VcYhiVn
l^i]ndji]gdj\]djindjga^[Z#I]Ze]nh^XVa
XnXaZ]VhVeZg^dYd['(YVnh!i]ZZbdi^dcVa
XnXaZ]VhVeZg^dYd['-YVnh!VcYi]Z
^ciZaaZXijVaXnXaZ]VhVeZg^dYd[((YVnh#
6hVeZghdcbdkZhi]gdj\]a^[Z!i]ZXnXaZh
VcYi]Zcidi]ZhVbZe]VhZ!hjX]i]ViVaa
i]gZZbVm^bjbkVajZhXd^cX^YZ#L]ZcZkZg
Vg]ni]bXgdhhZhi]Zi^bZVm^h!VXg^i^XVa
YVndXXjgh#

VhdjcYlVkZXVcWZbdYZaaZYVh
y+)h^cktViVY^hiVcXZd[&b[gdb^ih
hdjgXZ#6iVY^hiVcXZd['b!
+)
aT
''
 &+
I]ZbdYZaa^c\ZfjVi^dcWZXdbZh
y&+h^ckt#
a) Lg^iZi]ZbdYZaa^c\ZfjVi^dcViV

Y^hiVcXZd[)b[gdbi]ZhdjgXZ#
b) Lg^iZi]ZbdYZaa^c\ZfjVi^dcViV

Y^hiVcXZd[-b[gdbi]ZhdjgXZ#
c) =dl[Vg[gdbi]ZhdjgXZYdZhi]Z

bdYZaa^c\ZfjVi^dcWZXdbZ
&h^ckt4
yT
)

14. I]Z\gVe]d[

a) 6hhjb^c\VcVbea^ijYZd[&!bdYZa

ZVX]W^dg]ni]be]nh^XVa!Zbdi^dcVa!
VcY^ciZaaZXijVal^i]Vh^cZ[jcXi^dc
i]ViWZ\^chViW^gi]#

i]gZZ[jcXi^dchdci]ZhVbZhZid[VmZh
[dgi]Z[^ghi&*%YVnhd[a^[Z#
c) >YZci^[n\ddYYVnhl]ZcilddgbdgZ

idVbVm^bjb#
d) >YZci^[nWVYYVnhl]ZcilddgbdgZ

idVb^c^bjb#
13. Chapter ProblemI]Z]jbVcZVg

^ciZgegZihi]ZVbea^ijYZd[VhdjcYlVkZ
lVkZbdYZaaZYWnyh^ckt#7ZXVjhZi]Z
]jbVcZVgYdZhcdideZgViZdcVa^cZVg
cdiVXijVaan'/&#L]ZcVc^chigjbZci^h
eaVnZY!i]ZhdjcYlVkZhegZVYhdji^cV
he]Zg^XVaeViiZgc#I]ZVbea^ijYZYZXgZVhZh
Vhi]ZhfjVgZd[i]ZY^hiVcXZ#HjeedhZi]Vi

## Reasoning and Proving

yh^cx^h
Representing
Selecting Tools
igVch[dgbZYhdi]Vi
Problem Solving
^i]VhVcVbea^ijYZ
Reecting
d[)VcYx"^ciZgXZeih Connecting
Communicating
i]ViXd^cX^YZl^i]
i]Zb^c^bjb
kVajZh#I]ZeZg^dY^h(+%VcYi]Ze]VhZ
h]^[i^h%#
a) Lg^iZi]ZZfjVi^dcd[i]ZigVch[dgbZY

[jcXi^dc#
b) L]Vie]VhZh]^[i^hcZZYZY[dgi]Z

igVch[dgbZY[jcXi^dc[gdbeVgiVid
]VkZVy"^ciZgXZeid['49gVlV\gVe]id
h]dli]VindjgVchlZg^hXdggZXi#
c) 8Vci]ZgZfj^gZYy"^ciZgXZei^ceVgiW

WZVX]^ZkZYWnVaiZg^c\i]ZeZg^dYgVi]Zg
i]Vci]Ze]VhZh]^[i4?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg#
15. a) Lg^iZi]ZZfjVi^dcd[VigVch[dgbZY

h^cZ[jcXi^dci]Vi^cXajYZhViaZVhi
i]gZZigVch[dgbVi^dch#<ZcZgViZV
b^c^bjbcjbWZgd[XajZhVWdjii]Z
igVch[dgbVi^dc#:chjgZi]Vii]ZXajZhXVc
WZjhZYidYZiZgb^cZi]ZigVch[dgbVi^dc#
b) IgVYZXajZhl^i]VXaVhhbViZ#9ZiZgb^cZ

i]ZigVch[dgbVi^dchgZfj^gZYidbViX]
i]ZXajZh#>[bdgZi]VcdcZVchlZg^h
edhh^WaZ!ZmeaV^cl]n#
c) IgVYZZfjVi^dchVcYY^hXjhhVcn

dWhZgkVi^dchdgXdcXZgch#
5.3 Investigate Transformations of Sine and Cosine Functions MHR 311

16. a) Lg^iZi]ZZfjVi^dcd[VigVch[dgbZY

Xdh^cZ[jcXi^dci]Vi^cXajYZhVi
aZVhii]gZZigVch[dgbVi^dch#9dcdi
jhZi]ZhVbZi]gZZigVch[dgbVi^dch
ndjjhZY^cfjZhi^dc&*#<ZcZgViZV
b^c^bjbcjbWZgd[XajZhVWdjii]Z
igVch[dgbVi^dc#
b) IgVYZXajZhl^i]VXaVhhbViZ#9ZiZgb^cZ

i]ZigVch[dgbVi^dchgZfj^gZYidbViX]
i]ZXajZh#>[bdgZi]VcdcZVchlZg^h
edhh^WaZ!ZmeaV^cl]n#
c) IgVYZZfjVi^dchVcYY^hXjhhVcn

dWhZgkVi^dchdgXdcXZgch#
Achievement Check

[jcXi^dcy+XdhP*x)*R(#
?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg#


i)i]ZVbea^ijYZ

ii)i]ZeZg^dY

iii)i]Ze]VhZh]^[i

iv)i]ZkZgi^XVah]^[id[i]Z[jcXi^dc

b) H`ZiX]i]Z[jcXi^dc^ceVgiVdc\g^Y

eVeZgl^i]djijh^c\ViVWaZd[kVajZh#
:meaV^cndjggZVhdc^c\#

Extend

18. 6h^cZ[jcXi^dc]Vh]Va[i]ZeZg^dYd[

yh^cx#6aadi]ZgeVgVbZiZghd[i]Zild
[jcXi^dchVgZi]ZhVbZ#
a) EgZY^Xii]ZcjbWZgd[ed^cihd[

d) HjeedhZi]Vii]Z\gVe]^hXdci^cjZY

idx,'%#=dlbVcned^cihd[
^ciZghZXi^dcYdndjZmeZXi^ci]Z
cZlhZXi^dcd[i]Z\gVe]4?jhi^[nndjg
i]^c`^c\#
e) :miZcYi]Z\gVe]VcYX]ZX`ndjg

egZY^Xi^dc^ceVgiY#LVhndjg
egZY^Xi^dcXdggZXi4>[cdi!ZmeaV^cl]n
cdi#
f) HjeedhZi]Vii]ZhZXdcY[jcXi^dc]VYV

eZg^dYd[dcZ"i]^gYi]Z[^ghi#=dlYdZh
ndjgVchlZgideVgiVX]Vc\Z4
19. 8dch^YZgi]Z[jcXi^dcyiVcx VcY^ih

igVch[dgbVi^dcyaiVcPkxdRc#
JhZV\gVe]^c\XVaXjaVidgid^ckZhi^\ViZi]Z
Z[[ZXihd[a!k!d!VcYcdci]Z\gVe]d[
yiVcx#Lg^iZVWg^Z[gZedgid[ndjg
[^cY^c\h#
20. Math ContestI]Zhjbd[Z^\]i

XdchZXji^kZedh^i^kZ^ciZ\Zgh^h)%)#
L]Vi^hi]Zhjbd[i]ZaZVhiVcY\gZViZhi
cjbWZgh^ci]^hhZfjZcXZ4
TTTT
A *%#*

B 'q &%&

C &%&

D '*#'*

## 21. Math ContestIldX^gXaZhVgZiVc\Zciid

ZVX]di]Zg#6a^cZhZ\bZciYgVlc[gdb
i]ZXZcigZ!9!d[i]ZaVg\ZgX^gXaZ^hiVc\Zci
idi]ZhbVaaZgX^gXaZVi6#6cdi]Zga^cZ
hZ\bZciYgVlc[gdbi]ZXZcigZ!7!d[i]Z
hbVaaZgX^gXaZ^hiVc\Zciidi]ZaVg\ZgX^gXaZ

^ciZghZXi^dc^[i]Zild[jcXi^dchVgZ
\gVe]ZY[gdbx%idx(+%#?jhi^[n
ndjgegZY^Xi^dc#
b) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZcjbWZgd[ed^cihd[

^ciZghZXi^dc^[i]Zild[jcXi^dchVgZ
\gVe]ZY[gdbx%idx(+%#LVh
ndjgegZY^Xi^dcXdggZXi4>[cdi!ZmeaV^c
l]n#
c) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZXddgY^cViZhd[i]Z[^ghi

ed^ciidi]Zg^\]id[i]Zdg^\^cl]ZgZi]Z
\gVe]hd[i]Zild[jcXi^dch^ciZghZXi#

A
B
D

5.4

## Graphing and Modelling With

y = a sin [k(x d)] + c and
y = a cos [k(x d)] + c
>cdgYZgidbdYZaVgZVa"ldgaYh^ijVi^dcjh^c\Vh^cZdgVXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc!ndjbjhiVcVanhZi]Z
h^ijVi^dcVcYi]ZcigVch[dgbi]ZVbea^ijYZ!eZg^dY!kZgi^XVah]^[i!VcYe]VhZh]^[iVXXdgY^c\an#;dg
ZmVbeaZ!i^YZh^ci]ZdXZVcXVcWZbdYZaaZYjh^c\Vh^cZ[jcXi^dcl^i]VeZg^dYd[VWdji&']#
>ci]^hhZXi^dc!ndjl^aaaZVgc]dlidjhZV\gVe]dgVa^hid[egdeZgi^Zhd[i]ZYZh^gZY[jcXi^dcid
lg^iZVXdggZhedcY^c\ZfjVi^dc#

Example 1
Determine the Characteristics of a Sinusoidal Function From an
Equation
6cZc\^cZZgjhZhi]Z[jcXi^dcy(XdhP'x*R)idbdYZai]Z
kZgi^XVaedh^i^dc!y!^cbZigZh!d[VgdY^cVbVX]^cZxhZXdcYhV[iZgi]Z
bVX]^cZ^hhiVgiZY#
a) L]ViVgZi]ZVbea^ijYZ!eZg^dY!e]VhZh]^[i!VcYkZgi^XVah]^[id[i]Z

edh^i^dc[jcXi^dc4

gZVX]Zh4

VchlZgh^ceVgiWjh^c\i]Z\gVe]#
d) HiViZi]ZYdbV^cVcYgVc\Zd[i]Zdg^\^cVaXdh^cZ[jcXi^dcVcYi]Z

igVch[dgbZY[jcXi^dc#

Solution
a) 8dbeVg^c\i]Z\^kZcZfjVi^dcy(XdhP'x*R)idi]Z\ZcZgVa

ZfjVi^dcyaXdhPkxdRc\^kZha(!k'!d*!VcY
c)#
H^cXZa(!i]ZVbea^ijYZ^h(b#

5.4 Graphing and Modelling With y = a sin [k(x d)] + c and y = a cos [k(x d)] + c MHR 313

9ZiZgb^cZi]ZeZg^dY#
(+%
(+%
T
T


k

'
&-%

I]ZeZg^dY^h&-%h#
H^cXZd*!i]Ze]VhZh]^[i^h*hidi]Zg^\]i#
H^cXZc)!i]ZkZgi^XVah]^[i^h)bjelVgY#
b) I]ZaZVhikVajZd[i]ZWVh^XXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc^h&#H^cXZi]Z

Vbea^ijYZ^h(!i]^hhigZiX]ZhYdlcid(#I]ZkZgi^XVah]^[id[
I]Z\gZViZhikVajZd[i]ZWVh^XXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc^h&#H^cXZi]Z
Vbea^ijYZ^h(!i]^hhigZiX]Zhjeid(#I]ZkZgi^XVah]^[id[)jelVgY
ejh]Zhi]^hid,#I]Z]^\]ZhikZgi^XVaedh^i^dc^h,b#
c) Method 1: Use a Graphing Calculator

## I]Z\gVe]^hh]dlc#EgZhh 2nd P86A8R#JhZ4:maximumid

YZiZgb^cZi]ZbVm^bjbkVajZVcY3:minimumidYZiZgb^cZi]Z
b^c^bjbkVajZ#


## Method 2: Use a TI-NspireTM CAS Graphing Calculator

GZ[Zgidi]Z^chigjXi^dch[dg\gVe]^c\
Ved^cidci]Z[jcXi^dc#<gVWi]Zed^ci
VcYYgV\^iidlVgYi]ZbVm^bjb#L]Zc
ndjgZVX]i]ZbVm^bjb!i]ZldgY
XddgY^cViZh#
H^b^aVgan!ndjXVcYgV\i]Zed^ciidlVgY
i]Zb^c^bjb#L]Zcndj]VkZgZVX]ZY
i]Zb^c^bjb!i]ZldgYb^c^bjb

d) ;dgi]Z[jcXi^dcyXdhx!i]ZYdbV^c^hpx2r#

I]ZgVc\Z^hpy2!&y&r#
;dgi]Z[jcXi^dcy(XdhP'x*R)!i]ZYdbV^c^hpx2r#
I]ZgVc\Z^hpy2!&y,r#

## 314 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

Example 2
Sketch a Graph
a) 9ZhXg^WZi]ZigVch[dgbVi^dchi]VibjhiWZVeea^ZYidi]Z\gVe]d[

fxh^cxiddWiV^ci]Z\gVe]d[gx)h^c(x&#6eeani]ZhZ
igVch[dgbVi^dchidh`ZiX]i]Z\gVe]d[gx#
b) HiViZi]ZYdbV^cVcYgVc\Zd[fxVcYgx#
c) BdY^[ni]ZZfjVi^dc[dggxid^cXajYZVe]VhZh]^[id[(%idi]Z

g^\]i#8Vaai]^h[jcXi^dchx#6eeani]Ze]VhZh]^[iidi]Z\gVe]d[
gxVcYigVch[dgb^iidhx#

Solution
a) HiVgil^i]i]Z\gVe]d[

iv

iii

fxh^cx!XjgkZ^#
4
ii
6eeani]ZVbea^ijYZd[)id\Zi
2
XjgkZ^^#
i
6eeani]ZkZgi^XVah]^[id[&
0
90
180
270
360
jc^ijelVgYid\ZiXjgkZ^^^#
2
NdjbVn^cXajYZV]dg^odciVa
gZ[ZgZcXZa^cZViy&id]Zae
4
ndj#
6eeani]Z]dg^odciVaXdbegZhh^dcWnV[VXidgd[(id\ZiXjgkZ^k#

b) ;dgi]Z[jcXi^dcfxh^cx!i]ZYdbV^c^hpx2r#I]ZgVc\Z^h

py2!&y&r#;dgi]Z[jcXi^dcgx)h^c(x&!i]ZYdbV^c
^hpx2r#I]ZgVc\Z^hpy2!(y*r#
c) I]ZZfjVi^dcl^i]Ve]VhZh]^[i

d[(%idi]Zg^\]i^h
hx)h^cP(x(%R&#
I]Z\gVe]hd[gxVcYhxVgZ
h]dlc#

y
4

g(x)
h(x)

2
0

90

180

270

360 x

1. H`ZiX]i]ZWVh^X[jcXi^dc#
2. 6eeani]ZkZgi^XVahigZiX]dgXdbegZhh^dcidVX]^ZkZi]ZYZh^gZY

Vbea^ijYZ#
3. 6eeani]ZkZgi^XVah]^[i#JhZV]dg^odciVagZ[ZgZcXZa^cZid]Zaendj#
4. 6eeani]Z]dg^odciVahigZiX]dgXdbegZhh^dcidVX]^ZkZi]ZYZh^gZY

eZg^dY#
5. 6eeani]Ze]VhZh]^[i#
5.4 Graphing and Modelling With y = a sin [k(x d)] + c and y = a cos [k(x d)] + c MHR 315

Example 3
Represent a Sinusoidal Function Given Its Properties
a) 6h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc]VhVcVbea^ijYZd[(jc^ih!VeZg^dYd[&-%!

VcYVbVm^bjbVi%!*#GZegZhZcii]Z[jcXi^dcl^i]VcZfjVi^dc^c
ildY^[[ZgZcilVnh#
b) JhZ\g^YeVeZgdgV\gVe]^c\XVaXjaVidgidkZg^[ni]Vindjgild

bdYZahgZegZhZcii]ZhVbZ\gVe]#

Solution
a) Method 1: Use a Cosine Function

I]ZVbea^ijYZ^h(!hda(#
I]ZeZg^dY^h&-%#
(+%
T


&-%
k
 k'
6bVm^bjbdXXjghVi%!*#L]Zcx%!Xdhx&!l]^X]^h^ih
bVm^bjbkVajZ#I]ZVbea^ijYZ]VhVagZVYneaVXZYi]ZbVm^bjb
Vi(#I]ZVYY^i^dcVakZgi^XVah]^[igZfj^gZY^hjelVgY'jc^ihid*#
I]ZgZ[dgZ!c'#
I]Z[jcXi^dcXVcWZbdYZaaZYWni]ZZfjVi^dcfx(Xdh'x'#
Method 2: Use a Sine Function
JhZi]ZhVbZkVajZhd[a!k!VcYcVh^cBZi]dY&#I]Zc!Veeani]Z
Veegdeg^ViZe]VhZh]^[iidWg^c\i]ZbVm^bjbid%!*#
I]ZbVm^bjbd[i]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dccdgbVaandXXjghVix .%#
=dlZkZg!i]ZeZg^dY^ci]^hXVhZ^h&-%!hdi]ZbVm^bjbdXXjghVi
.%
T
 
)*#IdbdkZi]ZbVm^bjbidi]Zy"Vm^h!Ve]VhZh]^[id[)*
'
idi]ZaZ[i^hgZfj^gZY#
I]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dc^hgx(h^cP'x)*R'#
b) :ciZgi]ZXdh^cZbdYZa^cY1VcYi]Zh^cZbdYZa^cY2#8]Vc\Zi]Z

## a^cZhinaZ[dgY2id]ZVkn#L]ZcndjegZhh GRAPH !i]ZXdh^cZbdYZa

l^aaWZYgVlc[^ghi#I]Zc!i]Zh^cZbdYZal^aaWZYgVlc#NdjXVc
eVjhZi]Z\gVe]^c\egdXZhhWnegZhh^c\ ENTER l]^aZi]Z\gVe]^h
WZ^c\YgVlc#EgZhh ENTER V\V^cidgZhjbZ#

## 316 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

Example 4
Determine a Sinusoidal Function Given a Graph
9ZiZgb^cZi]ZZfjVi^dcd[V
h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dci]VigZegZhZcih
i]Z\gVe]#8]ZX`ndjgZfjVi^dcjh^c\
V\gVe]^c\XVaXjaVidg#

y
2
0

## 60 120 180 240 300 360 x

2
4

Solution
;gdbi]Z\gVe]!i]ZbVm^bjbkVajZ
d[y^h(VcYi]Zb^c^bjbkVajZ^h
*#
(*
aTT
 


'
 )

y
2
0

## 60 120 180 240 300 360 x

2
4

I]ZVbea^ijYZ^h)#
8djciYdlc)jc^ih[gdbi]Z
bVm^bjbdgje)jc^ih[gdbi]Z
b^c^bjbVcYYgVlV]dg^odciVagZ[ZgZcXZa^cZ#I]ZZfjVi^dcd[i]^ha^cZ
^hy&#I]ZkZgi^XVah]^[i^h&jc^iYdlclVgY#I]ZgZ[dgZ!c&#
JhZZ^i]ZgVh^cZ[jcXi^dcdgVXdh^cZ[jcXi^dcidXdchigjXii]ZbdYZa#
;dgi]^hZmVbeaZ!jhZVh^cZ[jcXi^dc#9ZiZgb^cZi]ZhiVgid[i]Z[^ghih^cZ
a^cZ#I]^hdXXjghVix+%#I]Ze]VhZh]^[i^h+%idi]Zg^\]i#I]ZgZ[dgZ!
d+%#
I]^hdXXjghVix&-%#I]ZeZg^dY^h&-%+%&'%#
(+%
&'%
T
k
k(
HjWhi^ijiZi]ZeVgVbZiZgha)!k(!d+%!VcYc&^cidi]Z
\ZcZgVaZfjVi^dcyah^cPkxdRc#
y)h^cP(x+%R&#
8]ZX`jh^c\V\gVe]^c\XVaXjaVidg#I]Z\gVe]dci]ZXVaXjaVidgbViX]Zh
i]Z\^kZc\gVe]#

5.4 Graphing and Modelling With y = a sin [k(x d)] + c and y = a cos [k(x d)] + c MHR 317

Key Concepts
I]ZVbea^ijYZ!eZg^dY!e]VhZh]^[i!VcYkZgi^XVah]^[id[h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dchXVcWZ
YZiZgb^cZYl]Zci]ZZfjVi^dchVgZ\^kZc^ci]Z[dgb
fxah^cPkxdRcdgfxaXdhPkxdRc#
I]ZYdbV^cd[Vh^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc^hpx2r#I]ZgVc\ZZmiZcYh[gdbi]Zb^c^bjb
kVajZidi]ZbVm^bjbkVajZd[i]Z[jcXi^dc#6cnXnXaZXVcWZjhZYidYZiZgb^cZi]Z
b^c^bjbVcYi]ZbVm^bjb#
IgVch[dgbVi^dchXVcWZjhZYidVY_jhii]ZWVh^Xh^cZVcYXdh^cZ[jcXi^dchidbViX]V\^kZc
Vbea^ijYZ!eZg^dY!e]VhZh]^[i!VcYkZgi^XVah]^[i#
I]ZZfjVi^dcd[Vh^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dcXVcWZYZiZgb^cZY\^kZc^ihegdeZgi^Zh#
I]ZZfjVi^dcd[Vh^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dcXVcWZYZiZgb^cZY\^kZc^ih\gVe]#

C1  I]ZZfjVi^dcd[Vh^cZ[jcXi^dc^hy*h^c(x+%'#:meaV^cl]ni]Ze]VhZh]^[i^h

cdi+%#9ZiZgb^cZi]Ze]VhZh]^[i#

C2  I]ZZfjVi^dcd[VXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc^hyXdhP'x+%R#

a) HiVgil^i]i]ZWVh^XXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc#BV`ZVgdj\]h`ZiX]d[i]ZZ[[ZXid[Veean^c\i]Z

b) HiVgil^i]i]ZWVh^XXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc#BV`ZVgdj\]h`ZiX]d[i]ZZ[[ZXid[Veean^c\i]Ze]VhZ

d) L]^X]YZhXg^WZhi]ZXdggZXiegdXZYjgZ!eVgiVdgeVgiW4?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg#JhZV

]dg^odciVaXdbegZhh^dc[^ghiVcYi]ZcbV`ZVhZXdcYh`ZiX]d[i]ZZ[[ZXid[Veean^c\i]Z
e]VhZh]^[i#
h]^[i[^ghiVcYi]ZcbV`ZVhZXdcYh`ZiX]d[i]ZZ[[ZXid[Veean^c\i]Z]dg^odciVaXdbegZhh^dc#
bVm^bjbidi]ZaZ[id[i]Zy"Vm^h#:meaV^cVcnY^[[ZgZcXZh#
\gVe]^c\XVaXjaVidgidX]ZX`ndjgegZY^Xi^dc#

C3  >c:mVbeaZ(!i]ZYZh^gZY[jcXi^dcXVcWZgZegZhZciZYjh^c\Z^i]ZgVh^cZ[jcXi^dcdgVXdh^cZ

[jcXi^dc#>hi]^hValVnhi]ZXVhZ4?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg#

A Practise
For help with questions 1 and 2, refer to
Example 1.
1. 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZVbea^ijYZ!i]ZeZg^dY!i]Z

2. 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZVbea^ijYZ!i]ZeZg^dY!i]Z

e]VhZh]^[i!VcYi]ZkZgi^XVah]^[id[ZVX]
[jcXi^dcl^i]gZheZXiidyXdhx#

e]VhZh]^[i!VcYi]ZkZgi^XVah]^[id[ZVX]
[jcXi^dcl^i]gZheZXiidyh^cx#

a) y(XdhP*x)*R)

a) y*h^cP)x'*R(

c) y(XdhP,'x&%R(

b) y'h^cP&-x)%R*

## d) y  Xdh  x )%   

c) y(h^cP&'%x(%R'

T( 

PT'(

T& 

## 318 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

'

b) y'XdhP')x-%R&

T* 
'

PT()

T& 
'

## For help with questions 3 and 4, refer to

Example 2.
3. a) 9ZhXg^WZi]ZigVch[dgbVi^dchi]Vibjhi

WZVeea^ZYidi]Z\gVe]d[fxh^cx
iddWiV^ci]Z\gVe]d[
gx(h^c'x&#6eeanZVX]
igVch[dgbVi^dc!dcZhiZeViVi^bZ!id
h`ZiX]i]Z\gVe]d[gx#
b) HiViZi]ZYdbV^cVcYgVc\Zd[fxVcY

gx#
c) BdY^[ni]ZZfjVi^dc[dggxid^cXajYZ

Ve]VhZh]^[id[+%idi]ZaZ[i#8Vaai]^h
[jcXi^dchx#6eeani]Ze]VhZh]^[i
idi]Z\gVe]d[gxVcYigVch[dgb^iid
hx#
4. a) IgVch[dgbi]Z\gVe]d[

fxXdhxidgx)Xdh(x'Wn
Veean^c\igVch[dgbVi^dchidi]Z\gVe]
dcZhiZeViVi^bZ#
b) HiViZi]ZYdbV^cVcYgVc\Zd[fxVcY

## For help with question 7, refer to Example 4.

7. a) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZZfjVi^dcd[VXdh^cZ

[jcXi^dcidgZegZhZcii]Z\gVe]^c
:mVbeaZ)#
b) 8]ZX`ndjgZfjVi^dcjh^c\V\gVe]^c\

XVaXjaVidg#

## B Connect and Apply

8. 8dch^YZgi]Z[jcXi^dc

fx&%h^cx)*&%#
a) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZVbea^ijYZ!i]ZeZg^dY!

i]Ze]VhZh]^[i!VcYi]ZkZgi^XVah]^[id[
i]Z[jcXi^dcl^i]gZheZXiidyh^cx#
b) L]ViVgZi]ZbVm^bjbVcYb^c^bjb

kVajZhd[i]Z[jcXi^dc4
c) 9ZiZgb^cZi]Z[^ghii]gZZx"^ciZgXZeihid

i]Zg^\]id[i]Zdg^\^c#
d) 9ZiZgb^cZi]Zy"^ciZgXZeid[i]Z

[jcXi^dc#
9. 8dch^YZgi]Z[jcXi^dc

gx#
c) BdY^[ni]ZZfjVi^dc[dggxid^cXajYZ

Ve]VhZh]^[id[+%idi]Zg^\]i#8Vaa
i]^h[jcXi^dchx#6eeani]Ze]VhZh]^[i
idi]Z\gVe]d[gxVcYigVch[dgb^iid
hx#
For help with questions 5 and 6, refer to
Example 3.
5. 6h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc]VhVcVbea^ijYZd[

*jc^ih!VeZg^dYd[&'%!VcYVbVm^bjb
Vi%!(#
a) GZegZhZcii]Z[jcXi^dcl^i]VcZfjVi^dc

jh^c\Vh^cZ[jcXi^dc#
b) GZegZhZcii]Z[jcXi^dcl^i]VcZfjVi^dc

jh^c\VXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc#
6. 6h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc]VhVcVbea^ijYZ

&jc^ih!VeZg^dYd[,'%!VcYV
d[T
'
( #
bVm^bjbVi %!T
'
a) GZegZhZcii]Z[jcXi^dcl^i]VcZfjVi^dc
jh^c\Vh^cZ[jcXi^dc#



gx*XdhP'x(%R#
a) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZVbea^ijYZ!i]ZeZg^dY!

i]Ze]VhZh]^[i!VcYi]ZkZgi^XVah]^[id[
i]Z[jcXi^dcl^i]gZheZXiidyXdhx#
b) L]ViVgZi]ZbVm^bjbVcYb^c^bjb

kVajZhd[i]Z[jcXi^dc4
c) 9ZiZgb^cZi]Z[^ghii]gZZx"^ciZgXZeihid

i]Zg^\]id[i]Zdg^\^c#
d) 9ZiZgb^cZi]Zy"^ciZgXZeid[i]Z

[jcXi^dc#
10. Use TechnologyJhZV\gVe]^c\XVaXjaVidg

dg\gVe]^c\hd[ilVgZidkZg^[nndjgVchlZgh
idfjZhi^dch-VcY.#
11. a) IgVch[dgbi]Z\gVe]d[fxh^cxid

gx*h^cP+x&'%R)#H]dl
ZVX]hiZe^ci]ZigVch[dgbVi^dc#
b) HiViZi]ZYdbV^cVcYgVc\Zd[fxVcY

gx#
c) Use TechnologyJhZV\gVe]^c\

XVaXjaVidgidX]ZX`ndjg[^cVa\gVe]#

b) GZegZhZcii]Z[jcXi^dcl^i]VcZfjVi^dc

jh^c\VXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc#

5.4 Graphing and Modelling With y = a sin [k(x d)] + c and y = a cos [k(x d)] + c MHR 319

a) >[i]ZhZXdcY^chigjbZciXdjaYeaVn

12. a) IgVch[dgbi]Z\gVe]d[fxXdhx

eZg[ZXian^ce]VhZl^i]i]Z[^ghi!i]Zild
hdjcYhldjaYWZgZegZhZciZYWn

idgx+XdhP*x+%R'#H]dl
ZVX]hiZe^ci]ZigVch[dgbVi^dc#
b) HiViZi]ZYdbV^cVcYgVc\Zd[fxVcY

gx#

yh^cxh^cx
'h^cx

<gVe]i]^hgZegZhZciVi^dcVcY
yh^cxdci]ZhVbZhZid[VmZh#=dl
VgZi]ZildgZaViZY4

c) Use TechnologyJhZV\gVe]^c\

XVaXjaVidgidX]ZX`ndjg[^cVa\gVe]#
13. a) GZegZhZcii]Z\gVe]d[

fx'h^cP(x(%Rl^i]Vc
ZfjVi^dcjh^c\VXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc#

b) >cgZVa^in!i]Zild^chigjbZcihl^aaWZ

b) Use TechnologyJhZV\gVe]^c\

XVaXjaVidgidX]ZX`ndjg\gVe]#
14. a) 9ZiZgb^cZi]Z

## Reasoning and Proving

ZfjVi^dcd[V
Representing
Selecting Tools
h^cZ[jcXi^dc
Problem Solving
i]VigZegZhZcih
Reecting
i]Z\gVe]h]dlc# Connecting
Communicating
8]ZX`ndjg
ZfjVi^dcjh^c\V
\gVe]^c\XVaXjaVidg#
y
4
2
0

## 60 120 180 240 300 x

b) Use Technology9ZiZgb^cZi]Z

ZfjVi^dcd[VXdh^cZ[jcXi^dci]Vi
gZegZhZcihi]Z\gVe]#8]ZX`ndjg
ZfjVi^dcjh^c\V\gVe]^c\XVaXjaVidg#
15. Chapter ProblemHjeedhZi]Viild

igjbeZieaVnZgheaVni]ZhVbZcdiZ#9dZh
i]ZgZhjaihdjcYa^`ZdcZigjbeZieaVn^c\
id\Zi]Zg4Ndj]VkZegdWVWancdi^XZYi]Vi
ild^chigjbZcihd[i]ZhVbZ`^cYeaVn^c\
i]ZhVbZcdiZValVnhhdjcYa^`Zild
^chigjbZcih!VcYcdia^`ZdcZ^chigjbZci
eZdeaZh^c\^c\#I]ZgZVhdc^hi]Vii]Zild
cdiZhl^aaValVnhY^[[ZgWnVe]VhZh]^[i#
IdhZZ]dli]^hldg`h!aZii]ZZfjVi^dc
yh^cxgZegZhZcidcZ^chigjbZcieaVn^c\
VcdiZ#
320 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

djid[e]VhZ#E^X`VcVgW^igVgne]VhZ
Y^[[ZgZcXZd[.%#I]Z[jcXi^dci]Vi
gZegZhZcihi]Zild^chigjbZciheaVn^c\
id\Zi]Zg^hyh^cxh^cx.%#
<gVe]i]^h[jcXi^dc#=dlYdZh^i
XdbeVgZidy'h^cx4

c) 6bjh^Xhnci]Zh^oZgXVcbV`Z

ZaZXigdc^XX^gXj^ihi]Vih^bjaViZ
^chigjbZciheaVn^c\^ce]VhZl^i]
ZVX]di]Zg#I]^h^h\ZcZgVaancdikZgn
^ciZgZhi^c\!h^cXZi]ZhdjcY^hi]ZhVbZ
:aZXigdc^XZc\^cZZghejgedhZanX]Vc\Z
i]Ze]VhZd[ZVX]^chigjbZciidVX]^ZkZ
VX]dgjhZ[[ZXid[hZkZgVa^chigjbZcih
eaVn^c\id\Zi]Zg#8]ddhZY^[[ZgZci
e]VhZh]^[ihVcYlg^iZV[jcXi^dci]Vi
gZegZhZcih[djg^chigjbZciheaVn^c\
id\Zi]Zg#<gVe]i]Z[jcXi^dcVcY
YZhXg^WZi]Z\gVe]#
Con n ec t i on s
Robert Moog invented the electronic synthesizer in
1964. Although other electronic instruments existed
before this time, Moog was the first to control the
electronic sounds using a piano-style keyboard. This
allowed musicians to make use of the new technology
without first having to learn new musical skills. Visit
the Functions 11 page on the McGraw-Hill Ryerson
Web site and follow the links to Chapter 5 to find out

TTTTT
16. 6ii]ZZcYd[V

## Reasoning and Proving

YdX`!]^\]i^YZd[
Representing
Selecting Tools
&)b^hgZXdgYZYVi
Problem Solving
Connecting
Reecting
d[+b^hgZXdgYZY
Communicating
Vi(/%%e#b#6
h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc
XVcbdYZai]ZlViZgYZei]kZghjhi^bZ#

## 19. 8dch^YZgi]ZgZaVi^dcyq h^cx 

#
a) H`ZiX]i]Z\gVe]d[i]Z[jcXi^dc

yh^cxdkZgildXnXaZh#
b) JhZi]Z\gVe][gdbeVgiVidh`ZiX]V

iVWaZd[kVajZhidX]ZX`ndjgegZY^Xi^dc#
GZhdakZVcnY^[[ZgZcXZh#

a) 8dchigjXiVbdYZa[dgi]ZlViZgYZei]

jh^c\VXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc!l]ZgZi^bZ^h
bZVhjgZY^c]djgheVhi]^\]i^YZ#
b) 8dchigjXiVbdYZa[dgi]ZlViZgYZei]

jh^c\Vh^cZ[jcXi^dc!l]ZgZi^bZ^h
bZVhjgZY^c]djgheVhi]^\]i^YZ#
c) 8dchigjXiVbdYZa[dgi]ZlViZgYZei]

jh^c\Vh^cZ[jcXi^dc!l]ZgZi^bZ^h
d) 8dchigjXiVbdYZa[dgi]ZlViZgYZei]

jh^c\VXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc!l]ZgZi^bZ^h
e) 8dbeVgZndjgbdYZah#L]^X]^hi]Z

h^beaZhigZegZhZciVi^dc^[i^bZ^h
:meaV^cl]ni]ZgZ^hVY^[[ZgZcXZ#
Achievement Check
17. a) 9ZhXg^WZi]ZigVch[dgbVi^dchi]Vibjhi

WZVeea^ZYidi]Z\gVe]d[
fxh^cxiddWiV^ci]Z\gVe]d[
gx'h^cP)x)%R(#
b) H`ZiX]i]Z\gVe]d[gxWnVeean^c\i]Z

igVch[dgbVi^dchYZhXg^WZY^ceVgiV#
c) HiViZi]ZYdbV^cVcYgVc\Zd[gx#

?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg#

Extend

18. HjeedhZi]VindjVgZ\^kZci]Z

XddgY^cViZh!p!q!d[Ved^ci#8Vcndj
ValVnhYZiZgb^cZVkVajZd[ahjX]i]Vi
i]Z\gVe]d[yah^cxl^aaeVhhi]gdj\]
i]Zed^ci4>[hd!ZmeaV^cl]n!egdk^Y^c\V
Y^V\gVb#>[cdi!ZmeaV^cl]n!VcY^cY^XViZ
i]ZaZVhiVbdjcid[^c[dgbVi^dci]VicZZYh
idWZVYYZY#

egZY^Xi^dc[dgi]Zh]VeZd[i]Z\gVe]d[
TTTTT
yqh^cx 
#

d) =dlYdndji]^c`i]Z\gVe]d[

TTTTTTTTT
yqh^cx&
l^aaY^[[Zg[gdbi]Z
TTTTT
 \gVe]d[yq h^cx 
4
TTTTTTTTT
e) <gVe]yq h^cx&
VcYXdbeVgZ

^iidndjgegZY^Xi^dc#GZhdakZVcn
Y^[[ZgZcXZh#

20. a) 9ZiZgb^cZi]Zb^c^bjbcjbWZgd[

igVch[dgbVi^dchi]ViXVcWZVeea^ZYid
yh^cxhjX]i]Vii]ZbVm^bjbkVajZh
d[i]ZigVch[dgbZY[jcXi^dcXd^cX^YZ
l^i]i]Zx"^ciZgXZeihd[yXdhx#>[i]^h
^hcdiedhh^WaZ!ZmeaV^cl]n!^cXajY^c\
VY^V\gVb#
b) 9ZiZgb^cZi]Zb^c^bjbcjbWZgd[

igVch[dgbVi^dchi]ViXVcWZVeea^ZYid
yh^cxhjX]i]Vii]ZbVm^bjbkVajZh
d[i]ZigVch[dgbZY[jcXi^dcXd^cX^YZ
l^i]i]Zx"^ciZgXZeihd[yiVcx#>[i]^h
^hcdiedhh^WaZ!ZmeaV^cl]n!^cXajY^c\
VY^V\gVb#
21. Math Contest<^kZci]Z[jcXi^dc

y(h^cP'x(%R![^cYi]ZhbVaaZhi
edh^i^kZkVajZ[dgx i]Vi\^kZhVbVm^bjb
kVajZ[dgy.
22. Math ContestI]ZeZg^dYd[

yq)Xdh(x(%q^h
A (+%

B .%

C +%

D &'%

## 23. Math ContestL]ZcVcjbWZg^hY^k^YZY

Wn'&!i]ZgZbV^cYZg^h&,#L]Vi^hi]Z
gZbV^cYZgl]Zci]ZcjbWZg^hY^k^YZY
Wn,4
A &

B (

C *

D +

5.4 Graphing and Modelling With y = a sin [k(x d)] + c and y = a cos [k(x d)] + c MHR 321

5.5
Data Collecting and
Modelling
DcZd[i]ZgZVa"ldgaYVeea^XVi^dchd[h^cjhd^YVa
bdYZah^hi]Zbdi^dcd[VeZcYjajb#6;djXVjai
eZcYjajb^hjhZYidbZVhjgZi]ZgdiVi^dcd[:Vgi]#
6h:Vgi]ijgch!i]ZVm^hd[hl^c\d[i]ZeZcYjajb
gdiViZhl^i]^i#
>ci]^hhZXi^dc!ndjl^aaaZVgcidXdaaZXiYViVi]ViXVcWZbdYZaaZYl^i]h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dchVcY
i]ZcXdchigjXiVhj^iVWaZbdYZajh^c\igVch[dgbVi^dch#
Tools

Investigate

graphing calculator
motion sensor
pendulum

How can you collect data on the motion of a pendulum and use the
data to construct a sinusoidal model?

Te c h n o l o g y

Tip

These instructions
assume the use of a
CBRTM motion sensor
with a TI-83 Plus or
TI-84 Plus graphing
calculator. If you
are using different
technology, refer to
the manual.

1. HZijeVeZcYjajb#JhZVaVg\ZdW_ZXiVhi]ZWdWViaZVhii]Zh^oZd[V

WVh`ZiWVaahd^iXVcWZYZiZXiZYWni]Zbdi^dchZchdg#JhZVhig^c\dg
2. a) 8dccZXii]Z87GIBbdi^dchZchdgidi]Z\gVe]^c\XVaXjaVidgjh^c\

i]ZXVWaZegdk^YZY#
b) EgZhh APPS VcYhZaZXi2:CBL/CBR#CdiZi]Vii]ZVeea^XVi^dcdc

ndjgXVaXjaVidgbVn]VkZVY^[[ZgZcicjbWZg#
c) 6ii]ZCBL/CBRhXgZZc!egZhh ENTER #HZaZXi3:RangerVcYegZhh
ENTER #CdiZi]Vii]ZGVc\Zgegd\gVbdcndjgXVaXjaVidgbVn]VkZ
VY^[[ZgZcicjbWZg#

d) HZaZXi1:SETUP/SAMPLE[gdbi]ZbV^cbZcj#BdkZi]ZXjghdg
Te c h n o l o g y

Tip

## The motion sensor

cannot measure
distances less than
never closer than this.
The maximum distance
that it can measure is
pendulum may be too
small a target to return
a usable signal from
this distance.

## jeidSTART NOW#EgZhh ENTER #

3. HiVgii]ZeZcYjajbhl^c\^c\#Ed^cii]Zbdi^dchZchdgVii]ZWdWd[

i]ZeZcYjajbhjX]i]Vii]ZWdWhl^c\hY^gZXianidlVgYVcYVlVn
[gdbi]ZhZchdg#EgZhh ENTER VcYXdaaZXiYViV[dg&*h#6ii]ZZcYd[
i]ZXdaaZXi^dci^bZ!V\gVe]d[Y^hiVcXZkZghjhi^bZ^hh]dlc#
4. Reflect>cheZXii]Z\gVe]#9dZh^iVeeZVgh^cjhd^YVa46gZi]ZgZVcn

he^`Zhdgdi]ZghjYYZc_jbehi]Vi^cY^XViZVb^hVa^\cbZcid[i]Z
eZcYjajbVcYbdi^dchZchdgYjg^c\i]ZYViVXdaaZXi^dcegdXZhh4>[
hd!VY_jhindjge]nh^XVahZije#EgZhh ENTER VcYhZaZXi
REPEAT SAMPLE#8dci^cjZgZ[^c^c\ndjgZmeZg^bZciVaVggVc\ZbZci
jci^andj]VkZVhbddi]\gVe]#

## 5. a) EgZhh ENTER VcYhZaZXiSHOW PLOT#8dc[^gbi]Vii]Z\gVe]^hV

hbddi][jcXi^dci]ViVeeZVghh^cjhd^YVa#
b) EgZhh ENTER VcYhZaZXiQUIT#I]Zi^bZYViVl^aaWZhidgZY^ca^hi

L1VcYi]ZY^hiVcXZYViVl^aaWZhidgZY^ca^hiL2#
6. a) EgZhh GRAPH VcYi]Zc TRACE #JhZi]ZXjghdg

`ZnhidYZiZgb^cZi]ZbVm^bjbVcY
b^c^bjbd[ndjg\gVe]#9ZiZgb^cZi]Z
Vbea^ijYZ!a#

b) 6YYi]ZVbea^ijYZidi]Zb^c^bjbidYZiZgb^cZi]ZkZgi^XVah]^[i!

kVajZ#6aiZgcVi^kZan!ndjXVcjhZi]ZDRAWbZcjVcYhZaZXi
3:Horizontal#
c) GZijgcidi]Z\gVe]#JhZi]ZgZ[ZgZcXZa^cZid]ZaendjigVXZi]Z

Con n ec t i on s
For help in determining
an equation given a
graph, refer to
Example 4 in Section 5.4.

hiVgid[i]Z[^ghih^cZlVkZidi]Zg^\]id[i]ZkZgi^XVaVm^h#GZVYi]Z
e]VhZh]^[i!d#
d) 8dci^cjZidi]ZZcYd[i]Z[^ghiXnXaZ#JhZi]ZhiVgiVcYZcYid

YZiZgb^cZi]ZeZg^dY#DcXZndj]VkZi]ZeZg^dY!YZiZgb^cZi]Z
kVajZd[k#
7. a) JhZi]ZkVajZhd[a!c!d!VcYkidlg^iZi]ZZfjVi^dcidbdYZai]Z

bdi^dcd[i]ZeZcYjajb#

i]ZgZVgZbV_dgY^hXgZeVcX^Zh!X]ZX`ndjgXVaXjaVi^dch#
8. ReflectHiVgii]ZeZcYjajbhl^c\^c\VcYZhi^bViZi]ZVbea^ijYZ

VcYeZg^dY#GZk^Zli]ZVbea^ijYZVcYeZg^dYd[i]ZeZcYjajbi]Vi
ndjXVaXjaViZY^ceVgihVVcYYd[hiZe+#8dbeVgZi]ZildhZihd[
kVajZh#

\gVe]#8dch^YZgZVX]dcZhZeVgViZan#
i)i]ZaZc\i]d[i]ZeZcYjajb^hh]dgiZcZY
ii)i]ZVbea^ijYZ^h^cXgZVhZY
b) 8]ZX`ndjgegZY^Xi^dch^ceVgiVjh^c\i]ZeZcYjajbVcYi]Z

bdi^dchZchdg#

## 5.5 Data Collecting and Modelling MHR 323

Example 1
Jh^c\YViV[gdbHiVi^hi^Xh8VcVYV!YZiZgb^cZ^[i]ZgZ^hVeZg^dYd[i^bZ
dkZgl]^X]X]Vc\Zh^ci]ZedejaVi^dcd[8VcVY^VchV\ZY'%id')XVcWZ
bdYZaaZYjh^c\Vh^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc#

Solution
K^h^illl#hiViXVc#\X#XV\$ZYj\$ZYj%*T%%&-X"Zc\#]ib#
HZaZXiSinusoidal#
HZaZXitable 051-0001#
JcYZgSex!hZaZXiBoth sexes#
JcYZgAge group!hZaZXi20 to 24 years#
HZii]ZgZ[ZgZcXZeZg^dYidfrom 1976 to 2005#
HZaZXiRetrieve as individual Time Series#>[ndjeaVcidVcVanhZi]ZYViV
VhCSV (comma-separated values)!l^i]Time as rows#
Di]Zgl^hZ!ndjXVchZaZXii]ZhXgZZcdjiejiVhVc=IBAiVWaZ!l^i]Time
as rows#HZaZXiRetrieve Now#I]ZiVWaZ^hh]dlc#
Population of Canada, Aged 20 to 24 Years, Both Sexes, By Year
Year

Population

Year

Population

Year

Population

1976

2 253 367

1986

2 446 250

1996

2 002 036

1977

2 300 910

1987

2 363 227

1997

2 008 307

1978

2 339 362

1988

2 257 415

1998

2 014 301

1979

2 375 197

1989

2 185 706

1999

2 039 468

1980

2 424 484

1990

2 124 363

2000

2 069 868

1981

2 477 137

1991

2 088 165

2001

2 110 324

1982

2 494 358

1992

2 070 089

2002

2 150 370

1983

2 507 401

1993

2 047 334

2003

2 190 876

1984

2 514 313

1994

2 025 846

2004

2 224 652

1985

2 498 510

1995

2 009 474

2005

2 243 341

HdjgXZ/HiVi^hi^Xh8VcVYV

I]ZedejaVi^dcd[eZdeaZ^c
8VcVYVV\ZY'%id')[gdb
&.,+id'%%*VeeZVghid

1976 to 2005
Population

<gVe]i]ZYViV#

3 000 000
2 500 000
2 000 000
1 500 000
1 000 000
500 000
0

## 324 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

10 20 30
Year Relative to 1976

Example 2
Make Predictions
I]ZgZaVi^dch]^eWZilZZci]Z]Z^\]iVWdkZi]Z\gdjcYd[VeZghdcg^Y^c\
V;Zgg^hl]ZZaVcYi^bZXVcWZbdYZaaZYjh^c\Vh^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc#
a) 9ZhXg^WZi]ZZ[[ZXidci]^h[jcXi^dc^[i]ZeaVi[dgb[gdbl]^X]i]Z

eZghdcZciZghi]Zg^YZ^hgV^hZYWn&b#
b) 9ZhXg^WZi]ZZ[[ZXidci]^h[jcXi^dc^[i]Z;Zgg^hl]ZZaijgchil^XZVh

[Vhi#

Solution
a) 7ZXVjhZi]ZeaVi[dgb^hcdiVi

e]VhZh]^[i^h^cigdYjXZY#I]Z
ed^cijci^ai]Zl]ZZaijgch
i]gdj\]i]Ze]VhZh]^[i#
>[i]ZeaVi[dgbjhZYidZciZg
i]Zg^YZ^hgV^hZYWn&b!i]Z
e]VhZh]^[i^cXgZVhZhVcY^i
Platform
g^YZ#I]Z\gVe]l^aah]^[iidi]Zg^\]i#

Direction
of
Rotation

Phase
Shift

&#
I]Z\gVe]l^aaWZXdbegZhhZY]dg^odciVaanWnV[VXidgd[T
'

Example 3
Use a Sinusoidal Model to Determine Values
I]Z]Z^\]i!h!^cbZigZh!VWdkZi]Z\gdjcYd[Vg^YZgdcV;Zgg^hl]ZZa
V[iZgthZXdcYhXVcWZbdYZaaZYWni]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dc
ht&%h^cP(t(%R&'#
i)i]ZbVm^bjbVcYb^c^bjb]Z^\]ihd[i]Zg^YZgVWdkZi]Z\gdjcY

ii)i]Z]Z^\]id[i]Zg^YZgVWdkZi]Z\gdjcYV[iZg(%h
iii)i]Zi^bZgZfj^gZY[dgi]Z;Zgg^hl]ZZaidXdbeaZiZdcZgZkdaji^dc

## 5.5 Data Collecting and Modelling MHR 325

Solution


a)

b) I]ZkVajZhXVcWZYZiZgb^cZYZ^i]ZgWnXVaXjaVi^dcdgWnjh^c\

Method 1: Use the Equation
i)I]ZVbea^ijYZ^h&%bVcYi]ZkZgi^XVah]^[i^h&'b#I]ZgZ[dgZ!
i]ZbVm^bjb]Z^\]id[i]Zg^YZgVWdkZi]Z\gdjcY^h
&%b&'b!dg''b#I]Zb^c^bjb]Z^\]i^h&%b&'b!dg
'b#
ii)IdYZiZgb^cZi]Z]Z^\]id[i]Zg^YZgVWdkZi]Z\gdjcYV[iZg(%h!
hjWhi^ijiZ(%[dgt^ci]ZZfjVi^dc#
 ht&%h^cP(t(%R&'

&%h^cP((%(%R&'

&%h^c%&'

%&'

&'


I]Z]Z^\]id[i]Zg^YZgVWdkZi]Z\gdjcYV[iZg(%h^h&'b#

iii)I]ZkVajZd[k^h(#





Te c h n o l o g y

Tip

## If you are using a

TI-NspireTM CAS
graphing calculator,
refer to the
instructions on
page 33 to determine
the maximum and
minimum values and
the period.

(+%
(+%
T
T


(
k
k&'%
 ]ZeZg^dY^h&'%h#I]Zi^bZgZfj^gZY[dgi]Z;Zgg^hl]ZZaid
I
XdbeaZiZdcZgZkdaji^dc^h&'%h#

## Method 2: Use the Graph

i)EgZhh 2nd P86A8R#JhZi]Zmaximum
deZgVi^dc[gdbi]ZCALCULATEbZcj#


## 326 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

 ]ZbVm^bjb]Z^\]id[i]Zg^YZgVWdkZi]Z
I
\gdjcY^h''b#

 ^b^aVgan!jhZi]ZminimumdeZgVi^dc[gdb
H
i]ZCALCULATEbZcjidYZiZgb^cZi]Z
b^c^bjb#

I]Zb^c^bjb]Z^\]i^h'b#

Con n ec t i on s

ii)JhZi]ZvaluedeZgVi^dc[gdbi]Z

CALCULATEbZcjidYZiZgb^cZi]Z]Z^\]i
V[iZg(%h#
I]Z]Z^\]iV[iZg(%h^h&'b#

iii)IdYZiZgb^cZi]ZeZg^dY!hjWigVXii]ZXddgY^cViZhd[i]ZVY_VXZci

A maximum and an
half a cycle apart. To
obtain the value of
the full period, it is
necessary to multiply
by 2.

bVm^bjbVcYb^c^bjbVcYbjai^eanWn'#I]ZeZg^dY^h
'&-%h&'%h!dg&'%h#

Key Concepts
9ViVXVcWZXdaaZXiZY[gdbe]nh^XVabdYZahjh^c\iddahhjX]VhVbdi^dchZchdg#
9ViVXVchdbZi^bZhWZbdYZaaZYjh^c\Vh^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc#
JhZV\gVe]dgViVWaZidWj^aYVbdYZaidYZiZgb^cZi]ZVbea^ijYZ!e]VhZh]^[i!eZg^dY!
VcYkZgi^XVah]^[id[Vh^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc#
EgZY^Xi^dchVWdjii]ZWZ]Vk^djgd[VcVaiZgZYbdYZaXVcWZbVYZWnXdch^YZg^c\i]ZZ[[ZXi
d[X]Vc\^c\VeVgVbZiZgdci]Z\gVe]d[i]Zdg^\^cVaZfjVi^dc#
I]Z\gVe]dgZfjVi^dcXVcWZjhZYidYZiZgb^cZkVajZh#

C1  8dch^YZgi]ZbdYZandjXdchigjXiZY^ci]Z>ckZhi^\ViZ#=dlYdZhndjgVcVanh^hX]Vc\Z^[ndj

YZX^YZidbdYZai]Zbdi^dcl^i]VXdh^cZ[jcXi^dcgVi]Zgi]VcVh^cZ[jcXi^dc4

C2  8dch^YZgi]ZedejaVi^dc\gVe][dgeZdeaZ^c8VcVYVV\ZY'%id')#L]Vi`^cYd[bdYZa^h

Veegdeg^ViZ[dgi]ZeZg^dY[gdb&.,+id&.-%4[gdb&.-&id&.--4<^kZgZVhdch[dgndjg
VchlZgh#

C3  HjeedhZi]Vii]ZZci^gZ;Zgg^hl]ZZa^c:mVbeaZ(^hbdkZYjelVgY&bVcYi]Ze]VhZh]^[i

^hYZXgZVhZYid'%#L]ViX]Vc\ZhYdndjZmeZXiidhZZ^ci]Z\gVe]4?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg#

## 5.5 Data Collecting and Modelling MHR 327

A Practise

1. 6hZchdg^hjhZY

id\Vi]ZgYViVdc
i]Zbdi^dcd[V
eZcYjajb#9ViVVgZ
gZXdgYZYdcV\gVe]
l^i]i^bZ!^chZXdcYh!
[gdb%hid&%h!dci]Z]dg^odciVaVm^hVcY
Y^hiVcXZ!^cbZigZh![gdb%bid*b!dc
i]ZkZgi^XVaVm^h#
a) JhZi]Z\gVe]idZhi^bViZi]ZbVm^bjb

VcYb^c^bjbkVajZh#I]Zc!jhZi]ZhZ
kVajZhid[^cYi]ZVbea^ijYZ!a#
b) 8deni]Z\gVe]VcYh`ZiX]V]dg^odciVa

d
Distance (metres)

## For help with questions 1 and 2, refer to the

Investigate.

3
2
1
0

4
6
8
Time (seconds)

10 t

a) JhZi]Z\gVe]idZhi^bViZi]ZbVm^bjb

VcYb^c^bjbkVajZh#I]Zc!jhZ
i]ZhZkVajZhid[^cYi]ZVeegdm^bViZ
Vbea^ijYZ!a#
b) 8deni]Z\gVe]VcYh`ZiX]V]dg^odciVa

gZ[ZgZcXZa^cZ#:hi^bViZi]ZkZgi^XVa
h]^[i!c#

gZ[ZgZcXZa^cZ#:hi^bViZi]ZkZgi^XVa
h]^[i!c#

c) JhZi]Z]dg^odciVagZ[ZgZcXZa^cZid

c) JhZi]Z]dg^odciVagZ[ZgZcXZa^cZid

d) JhZi]Z]dg^odciVagZ[ZgZcXZa^cZid

Zhi^bViZi]Ze]VhZh]^[i!d#
d) JhZi]Z]dg^odciVagZ[ZgZcXZa^cZid

Zhi^bViZi]ZeZg^dY#JhZi]ZeZg^dYid
[^cYi]ZkVajZd[k#
e) 8dchigjXiVbdYZa[dgi]Zbdi^dcWn

lg^i^c\VcZfjVi^dcjh^c\Vh^cjhd^YVa
[jcXi^dc#

\gVe]ndjgbdYZa#8dbeVgZndjgbdYZa
idi]Z\gVe]h]dlc#>[ndjhZZVcn
h^\c^[^XVciY^[[ZgZcXZh!X]ZX`VcYVY_jhi
ndjgbdYZa#
2. 6bdi^dchZchdg

## Reasoning and Proving

^hjhZYid\Vi]Zg
Representing
Selecting Tools
YViVdci]Zbdi^dc
Problem Solving
d[VeZcYjajb#
Reecting
I]ZiVWaZd[kVajZh Connecting
Communicating
^hZmedgiZYidV
XdbejiZg!VcY
\gVe]^c\hd[ilVgZ^hjhZYidYgVli]Z
\gVe]h]dlc#I^bZ!^chZXdcYh!^hdci]Z
]dg^odciVaVm^h#9^hiVcXZ!^cbZigZh!^hdc
i]ZkZgi^XVaVm^h#

Zhi^bViZi]Ze]VhZh]^[i!d#
Zhi^bViZi]ZeZg^dY#JhZi]ZeZg^dYid
[^cYi]ZkVajZd[k#
e) 8dchigjXiVbdYZa[dgi]Zbdi^dcWn

lg^i^c\VcZfjVi^dcjh^c\Vh^cjhd^YVa
[jcXi^dc#

\gVe]ndjgbdYZa#8dbeVgZndjgbdYZa
idi]Z\gVe]h]dlc#>[ndjhZZVcn
h^\c^[^XVciY^[[ZgZcXZh!X]ZX`VcYVY_jhi
ndjgbdYZa#
For help with questions 3 and 4, refer to
Example 3.
3. I]Z]Z^\]i!h!^cbZigZh!d[i]Zi^YZ^cV

V[iZgb^Yc^\]iXVcWZbdYZaaZYjh^c\i]Z
h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc
ht*h^cP(%t*R,#
a) ;^cYi]ZbVm^bjbVcYb^c^bjb

kVajZh[dgi]ZYZei]!h!d[i]ZlViZg#
b) L]Vii^bZ^h]^\]i^YZ4L]Vii^bZ^h

c) L]Vi^hi]ZYZei]d[i]ZlViZgVi

./%%V#b#4
d) ;^cYVaai]Zi^bZhYjg^c\V')"]eZg^dY

l]Zci]ZYZei]d[i]ZlViZg^h(b#
328 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

4. I]ZedejaVi^dc!P!d[VaV`Zh^YZidlcl^i]

a) BdYZai]Zg^YZgh]Z^\]iVWdkZi]Z

VaVg\ZcjbWZgd[hZVhdcVagZh^YZcihXVcWZ
bdYZaaZYjh^c\i]Z[jcXi^dc
Pt*%%%h^cP(%t,R-%%%!l]ZgZt
^hi]ZcjbWZgd[bdci]hV[iZgCZlNZVgh
9Vn#

b) BdYZai]Zg^YZgh]Z^\]iVWdkZi]Z

a) ;^cYi]ZbVm^bjbVcYb^c^bjb

c) HjeedhZi]Vii]ZeaVi[dgb^hbdkZY

kVajZh[dgi]ZedejaVi^dcdkZgVl]daZ
nZVg#

\gdjcYkZghjhVc\aZjh^c\VigVch[dgbZY
h^cZ[jcXi^dc#
\gdjcYkZghjhVc\aZjh^c\VigVch[dgbZY
Xdh^cZ[jcXi^dc#
edh^i^dcd[i]ZXVg#=dll^aai]Z
ZfjVi^dch^ceVgihVVcYWX]Vc\Z4
Lg^iZi]ZcZlZfjVi^dch#

b) L]Zc^hi]ZedejaVi^dcVbVm^bjb4

L]Zc^h^iVb^c^bjb4
c) L]Vi^hi]ZedejaVi^dcdc

7. HjeedhZi]Vii]ZXZcigZd[i]Z;Zgg^hl]ZZa

HZeiZbWZg(%4
d) L]Zc^hi]ZedejaVi^dcVWdji&%%%%4

## For help with question 5, refer to Example 1.

5. a) I]ZdlcZgd[Vc^XZ"XgZVbh]de`Zei

gZXdgYhd[VkZgV\ZYV^anhVaZh[dgZVX]
bdci][dgi]ZeVhinZVg!Vhh]dlc!
WZ\^cc^c\^c?VcjVgn#8dchigjXiV
h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dcidbdYZai]Z
VkZgV\ZYV^anhVaZhkZghjhi]Zbdci]#
b) DkZgl]ViYdbV^cVcYgVc\Z^hndjg

bdYZakVa^Y4
Month

^cfjZhi^dc+^hbdkZYjelVgY'b!Wji
i]ZeaVi[dgb^haZ[i^ceaVXZViVed^ci(%
=dlYdi]ZZfjVi^dch^ceVgihVVcYW
d[fjZhi^dc+X]Vc\Z4Lg^iZi]ZcZl
ZfjVi^dch#
8. I]ZbdkZbZcid[Ve^hidc^cVc

VjidbdW^aZZc\^cZXVcWZbdYZaaZYWni]Z
[jcXi^dcy*%h^c&%-%%t'%!l]ZgZ
y^hi]ZY^hiVcXZ!^cb^aa^bZigZh![gdbi]Z
XgVc`h]V[iVcYt^hi]Zi^bZ!^chZXdcYh#

Daily Sales
Daily Sales
(\$)
Month
(\$)

45

355

115

285

195

205

290

10

105

360

11

42

380

12

18

## For help with Questions 6 and 7, refer to

Example 2.
6. 6;Zgg^hl]ZZa]VhVY^VbZiZgd['%bVcY

ed^ci#6hhjbZi]ViVg^YZgZciZghVXVg
ed^ci#

a) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dYd[i]Zbdi^dc4
b) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZbVm^bjb!b^c^bjb!

VcYVbea^ijYZ#
c) L]ZcYdi]ZbVm^bjbVcYb^c^bjb

kVajZhdXXjg4
d) L]Vi^hi]ZkZgi^XVaedh^i^dcd[i]Z

& 
h4
e^hidcVitT
&'%

## 5.5 Data Collecting and Modelling MHR 329

c) IgnY^[[ZgZcigZaVi^kZaZc\i]hWZilZZc

## B Connect and Apply

9. I]ZeZg^dY!T!

^chZXdcYh!d[
VeZcYjajb^h
gZaViZYidi]Z
aZc\i]! !^c
bZigZh!VXXdgY^c\

## Reasoning and Proving

Selecting Tools

Representing
Problem Solving
Connecting

Reecting

Communicating

idi]ZgZaVi^dc
TT
!
T' T
g

l]ZgZg^hi]ZVXXZaZgVi^dcYjZid\gVk^in!
VWdji.#-b\$h'!cZVgi]Zhjg[VXZd[:Vgi]#
a) >[i]ZaZc\i]^hYdjWaZY!Wnl]Vi[VXidg

YdZhi]ZeZg^dY^cXgZVhZ4
b) >[ndjlVciVeZcYjajbl^i]]Va[i]Z

eZg^dYd[i]Z\^kZceZcYjajb!l]Vi
bjhindjYdidi]ZaZc\i]4
c) HjeedhZi]VindjbV`ZVeZcYjajb

l^i]]Va[i]ZeZg^dYd[i]ZeZcYjajb
jhZY^ci]Z>ckZhi^\ViZ#BdY^[ni]Z
ZfjVi^dci]VibdYZahi]Zbdi^dcd[i]Z
eZcYjajbidgZ[aZXii]ZcZleZg^dY#
d) HjeedhZi]VindjiV`Zi]ZeZcYjajb^c

i]Z>ckZhi^\ViZidi]Zbddc!l]ZgZi]Z
gViZd[VXXZaZgVi^dcYjZid\gVk^in^h
&i]Vid[i]ZgViZVi:Vgi]h
VWdjiT
+
 hjg[VXZ#EgZY^Xii]ZZ[[ZXidci]ZeZg^dY
d[i]ZeZcYjajb#
e) BdY^[ni]ZZfjVi^dci]VibdYZahi]Z
bdi^dcd[i]ZeZcYjajbhdi]Vi^i^h
VXXjgViZ[dgajcVg\gVk^in#

i]ZildeZcYjajbhig^c\h#8Vcndj
YZiZgb^cZVgVi^di]VigZhjaih^c
h^cjhd^YVabdi^dc4

YZZeWgZVi]^c\WZ
bdYZaaZYjh^c\
Vh^cjhd^YVa
[jcXi^dc4

## Reasoning and Proving

Representing

Selecting Tools

Problem Solving
Connecting

Reecting

Communicating

YZZeWgZVi]^c\!
[^aa^c\ndjgajc\hidXVeVX^in!VcYi]Zc
Zm]Va^c\jci^andjXVccdiZmeZaVcnbdgZ
VcYZm]Va^c\ZVX]iV`ZViaZVhi*h#
b) ;^aaV'"AeaVhi^XWdiiaZl^i]lViZg#

>ckZgii]ZWdiiaZ^cVh^c`]Va[[jaad[
lViZg#:m]VaZi]gdj\]VijWZhjX]VhV
[aZm^WaZhigVl!VcYXVeijgZi]ZZm]VaZY
V^g^ci]ZWdiiaZ#JhZi]ZVbdjcid[
lViZgY^heaVXZYidZhi^bViZi]ZkdajbZ
d[V^gi]VindjWgZVi]ZYdji#>[ndj]VkZ
VaVg\Zajc\XVeVX^in!ndjbVncZZYid
jhZbdgZi]VcdcZWdiiaZ#JhZV[ZaieZc
idbVg`i]ZaZkZaZVX]hZXdcY#




10. 6YdjWaZeZcYjajbXVcWZbVYZWn

XdccZXi^c\VhZXdcYeZcYjajbidi]Z
WdWd[i]Z[^ghi#BV`ZVbdYZad[VYdjWaZ
eZcYjajbjh^c\VcnbViZg^VahVkV^aVWaZ!
VcYhZi^i^cbdi^dc#
a) LViX]i]ZWdWd[i]Z[^ghieZcYjajb#

9ZhXg^WZi]Zbdi^dc#LdjaY^iWZ
edhh^WaZidbdYZa^ijh^c\Vh^cjhd^YVa
[jcXi^dc4
b) LViX]i]ZWdWd[i]ZhZXdcYeZcYjajb#

9ZhXg^WZi]Zbdi^dc#LdjaY^iWZ
edhh^WaZidbdYZa^ijh^c\Vh^cjhd^YVa
[jcXi^dc4

## 330 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

c) BV`ZViVWaZd[kVajZhd[kdajbZ

Zm]VaZYkZghjhi^bZ#JhZi]ZiVWaZid
h`ZiX]V\gVe]#
d) JhZndjgiVWaZVcY\gVe]idXdchigjXiV

h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dcidbdYZai]ZYViV#
e) <gVe]i]ZbdYZadci]ZhVbZhZid[

Con n ec t i on s
You cannot actually expel all of the air from your lungs.
Depending on the size of your lungs, 1 L to 2 L of air
remains even when you think your lungs are empty.

12. Hbd\^hV\ZcZg^XiZgbjhZYidYZhXg^WZ

edaajiVcih^ci]ZV^g#6hbd\VaZgi^h
jhjVaan^hhjZYl]Zci]ZV^gfjVa^in^cYZm
^h\gZViZgi]Vc*%#6^gfjVa^inXVckVgn
i]gdj\]djii]ZYVn!^cXgZVh^c\l]ZcbdgZ
XVghVgZdci]ZgdVY#8dch^YZgVbdYZad[
i]Z[dgbI(%h^cP&*t)R'*!l]ZgZ
I ^hi]ZkVajZd[i]ZV^gfjVa^in^cYZmVcYt
bZVhjgZhi]Zi^bZV[iZgb^Yc^\]i!^c]djgh#
a) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dYd[i]ZbdYZaaZY

[jcXi^dc4:meaV^cl]ni]^hbV`Zh
hZchZ#
b) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZbVm^bjb!b^c^bjb!

VcYVbea^ijYZ#
c) L]ZcYdi]ZbVm^bjbVcYb^c^bjb

dXXjg4
d) 9jg^c\l]Vii^bZ^ciZgkValdjaYVhbd\

VaZgiWZ^hhjZY!VXXdgY^c\idi]^hbdYZa4
13. a) ;^cYndjgejahZ#JhZVlViX]id

YZiZgb^cZ]dlbVcni^bZhndjg]ZVgi
WZVih^c&b^c#JhZi]^hbZVhjgZbZciid
XVaXjaViZi]ZeZg^dYd[dcZ]ZVgiWZVi#
b) 6hhjb^c\VcVbea^ijYZd[&jc^i!jhZ

Vh^cZ[jcXi^dcidXdchigjXiVbdYZad[
ndjg]ZVgiWZVikZghjhi^bZ#
c) JhZi]Za^WgVgndgi]Z>ciZgcZiiddWiV^c

VigVX^c\[gdbVbZY^XVa]ZVgibdc^idg#
=dl\ddY^hVh^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dcVhV
bdYZa[dgV]jbVcejahZ4
14. Chapter ProblemNdjgkd^XZ^hVhjc^fjZ

VhV[^c\Zgeg^ci!VcYndjgkd^XZeViiZgc
XVcWZjhZYid^YZci^[nndj#:kZc^[ndj
]VkZVXdbeaZmkd^XZ!VXdbejiZgXVcWZ
egd\gVbbZYidVcVanhZndjgkd^XZeViiZgc
VcYWgZV`^i^cidVhjbd[h^cjhd^YVa
[jcXi^dchd[kVgn^c\eZg^dYh!Vbea^ijYZh!
VcYe]VhZh]^[ih#I]^hegdXZhh^h`cdlcVh
;djg^ZgVcVanh^h#
a) IdhZZ]dli]^hegdXZhhldg`h!hiVgi

l^i]i]ZbdYZayh^cx#E^X`i]gZZ
Y^[[ZgZcieV^ghd[Vbea^ijYZhVcY
eZg^dYh#6eeanZVX]eV^gidi]ZWVh^X
h^cZ[jcXi^dcVcYVYYid[dgbi]Zkd^XZ
bdYZa#6cZmVbeaZ^h

yh^cx%#*h^c'x%#,*h^c(x
 %#'*h^c*x
<gVe]i]ZbdYZa#6YYVcdi]ZgiZgbid
ndjgbdYZa!VcY\gVe]^iV\V^c#L]Vi
X]Vc\ZhYdndjcdi^XZ4

[gdbi]Ze]nh^XhYZeVgibZciVindjg
hX]dda#H^c\Vh^c\aZcdiZVcYhZZndjg
dlckd^XZeViiZgc#8dbeVgZeViiZgch
l^i]di]Zgh^cndjgXaVhh#
15. K^h^illl#hiViXVc#\X#XV\$ZYj\$ZYj%*T%%&-X"

Zc\#]ib#HZaZXiSinusoidal#
HZaZXiInternational travellers into
HZaZXitable 075-0013#
JcYZgTravel category!hZaZXiInbound
international travel#
JcYZgSex!hZaZXiBoth sexes#
JcYZgInternational Travellers!hZaZXi
Total travel#
HZii]ZgZ[ZgZcXZeZg^dYidfrom Mar 1986
to Mar 2006#
>[ndjlVciidhZZi]ZYViVdcndjg
XdbejiZghXgZZc!hZaZXiRetrieve as a Table
VcYi]ZcRetrieve Now#
>[ndjeaVcidVcVanhZi]ZYViVl^i]V
hegZVYh]ZZidgdi]Zghd[ilVgZ!hZaZXi
Retrieve as individual Time Series#HZaZXi
CSV (comma-separated values)!l^i]
Time as rows#
a) HZaZXiVgZXZcinZVg#8dchigjXiV

h^cjhd^YVabdYZaidgZegZhZcii]Z
cjbWZgd[^ciZgcVi^dcVaigVkZaaZghid
8VcVYV[dgi]VinZVg#
b) >cheZXii]ZYViV[gdbdi]ZgnZVgh#9dZh

ndjgbdYZaVeeanidVcnnZVg4?jhi^[n
ndjgVchlZg#

## 5.5 Data Collecting and Modelling MHR 331

c) BV`ZV\gVe]d[i]ZbVm^bjbkVajZh

kZghjhnZVg[dgZVX]nZVgi]Vindj]VkZ
igZcYVbdc\i]ZbVm^bjbkVajZh
VeeZVghidWZeZg^dY^X#
d) 8dchigjXiVh^cjhd^YVabdYZaid

gZegZhZcii]ZkVg^Vi^dc^cbVm^bjb
kVajZh[gdbnZVgidnZVg#L]Vi^hi]Z
kVg^Vi^dc4
16. K^h^illl#hiViXVc#\X#XV\$ZYj\$ZYj%*T%%&-X"

Time, t
(s)

Height, y
(m)

Time, t
(s)

Height, y
(m)

110

35

103

60

85

10

85

60

11

103

35

12

110

17

13

103

10

14

85

17

15

60

Zc\#]ibHZaZXiSinusoidal#

i]ZYViV#
b) EdhZVfjZhi^dci]ViXVcWZVchlZgZYWn

XdchigjXi^c\Vh^cjhd^YVabdYZad[i]Z
YViV#
c) HdakZndjgfjZhi^dcidZchjgZi]Vi^i

ldg`h#
d) :mX]Vc\ZfjZhi^dchl^i]VXaVhhbViZ#

HdakZZVX]di]ZghfjZhi^dc#
e) :mX]Vc\Zhdaji^dch!VcYY^hXjhh

l]Zi]Zgi]ZnVgZXdggZXi#
Achievement Check
17. 7jc\ZZ_jbe^c\

^hi]dj\]iid]VkZ
dg^\^cViZY^c
FjZZchidlc!CZl
OZVaVcY!Yjg^c\i]Z
&.-%h#9ViV[dgV
Wjc\ZZ_jbeZgVgZ
h]dlc#I^b^c\WZ\^ch
l]Zci]ZWjc\ZZXdgY
^h[jaanZmiZcYZY#
I]ZkZgi^XVa]Z^\]i
d[i]Z_jbeZgVWdkZ
i]Z\gdjcY[dg&*h^hh]dlc#JhZVh^cZ
[jcXi^dcidbdYZai]Z_jbe#

Extend

18. 8dch^YZgV&%"b"iVaaigZZ#DcVXZgiV^c

YVn!i]Zhjcg^hZhVi+/%%V#b#!^hY^gZXian
dkZg]ZVYVicddc!VcYhZihVi+/%%e#b#
;gdb+/%%V#b#jci^acddc!i]ZaZc\i]!
s!^cbZigZh!d[i]ZigZZhh]VYdlXVcWZ
bdYZaaZYWni]ZgZaVi^dc
s&%Xdi&*t!l]ZgZt^hi]Zi^bZ!^c
]djgh!eVhi+/%%V#b#
a) BdY^[ni]ZbdYZahdi]Vi^i^hkVa^Y

[gdbcddcjci^a+/%%e#b#
b) <gVe]i]ZbdYZaVcYi]ZbdY^[^ZY

bdYZa^ceVgiVdci]ZhVbZhZid[VmZh#
19. Math Contest6XjWZl^i]h^YZhd[+Xb

]VhZVX]h^YZ^cXgZVhZYid&-Xb#=dl
bVcnd[i]ZhbVaaZgXjWZhl^aa[^i^ci]Z
aVg\ZgXjWZ4
A (

B ',

C .

D -&

## 20. Math Contest6\aVhhXdciV^cZg^h[^aaZY

l^i]*%Ad[lViZg#&%Ad[lViZg^h
gZbdkZYVcYgZeaVXZYl^i]&%Ad[\gVeZ
_j^XZ#I]Zb^mijgZ^hh]V`ZclZaa#I]Zc!
'%Ad[i]Zb^mijgZ^hgZbdkZYVcY
gZeaVXZYl^i]'%Ad[\gVeZ_j^XZ#=dl
bVcna^igZhd[\gVeZ_j^XZVgZcdl^ci]Z
XdciV^cZg4
A '%

B ')

C '*

D '+

## 21. Math Contest>[i]ZcjbWZg(%%%^h

lg^iiZc^ci]Z[dgb'x(y*z!l]Vi^hi]Z
kVajZd[xyz4
A (

## 332 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

B )

C +

D ,

5.6
Use Sinusoidal
Functions to Model
Periodic Phenomena
Not Involving Angles
Ndj]VkZldg`ZYl^i]h^cjhd^YVaVeea^XVi^dchi]ViYdcdi^ckdakZVc\aZh![dgZmVbeaZ!i]Z]Z^\]ih
d[i^YZhkZghjhi^bZ#>ci]^hhZXi^dc!ndjl^aaldg`l^i]di]ZggZVa"ldgaYh^ijVi^dchi]ViXVcWZ
bdYZaaZYWnh^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dchWjiYdcdicZXZhhVg^an^ckdakZVcVc\aZVhi]Z^cYZeZcYZci
kVg^VWaZ#HjchediVXi^k^in^hVcZmVbeaZ#HjchedihVgZ]j\ZhdaVghidgbh#I]Z^gVXi^k^inVeeZVgh
egZY^XiY^hgjei^dchidgVY^d"WVhZYXdbbjc^XVi^dchdc:Vgi]#

Investigate

Tools

## How can you use sinusoidal functions to model the tides?

1. I]Z[jcXi^dcht*h^cP(%t(RXVcWZjhZYidbdYZai]Z

gZaVi^dch]^eWZilZZci]Z]Z^\]i!^cbZigZh!d[i]Zi^YZh^cVXZgiV^c
eVhib^Yc^\]i#<gVe]i]ZbdYZadkZgVeZg^dYd[')]#
2. JhZndjg\gVe]idYZiZgb^cZl]Zci]Z[^ghi]^\]i^YZdXXjgh#L]Vi^h

i]Z]Z^\]id[i]Zi^YZVWdkZbZVchZVaZkZa4

i^YZ4:meaV^cl]ni]ZVchlZg^hcZ\Vi^kZ#
5. L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dYd[i]Z[jcXi^dc4
6. ReflectJhZndjgVchlZghidZmeaV^cl]ni]Ze]VhZh]^[i^h(#

graphing calculator
Optional
graphing software or
other graphing tools

Con n ec t i on s
Tides are caused
principally by the
gravitational pull of the
moon on Earths oceans.
The physics of rotating
systems predicts that
one high tide occurs
when the water is
facing the moon and
another occurs when
the water is on the
opposite side of Earth,
away from the moon.
This results in two tide
cycles each day. To learn
the Functions 11 page
on the McGraw-Hill
Ryerson Web site and
Chapter 5.

5.6 Use Sinusoidal Functions to Model Periodic Phenomena Not Involving Angles MHR 333

Example 1

Co nne ct io ns
power transmission
in North America was
inventor Nikola Tesla.
He demonstrated that
AC power was easier
to transmit over long
distances than the
direct current favoured
by rival inventor Thomas
Edison. There is a statue
honouring Tesla on Goat
Island in Niagara Falls,
New York.

## Model Alternating Electric Current (AC)

I]ZZaZXig^X^injhZY^cbdhid[i]ZldgaY^hVaiZgcVi^c\XjggZci#Jca^`Z
68ZaZXig^X^ingZkZghZhY^gZXi^dc^cVXnXa^XVa[Vh]^dc#I]ZcjbWZgd[
XnXaZheZghZXdcY^hcdii]ZhVbZ^cVaaXdjcig^Zh#>c8VcVYV!i]ZJc^iZY
HiViZh!VcYhdbZdi]ZgXdjcig^Zh!i]Z
[gZfjZcXnhiVcYVgY^h+%=o]Zgio!
l]^X]bZVch+%XdbeaZiZXnXaZheZg
hZXdcY#I]ZbVm^bjbkdaiV\Z^hVWdji
&,%K#I]ZkdaiV\ZXVcWZbdYZaaZY
VhV[jcXi^dcd[i^bZjh^c\Vh^cZ
[jcXi^dc/Vah^cPktdRc#
a) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dYd[+%"=o684
b) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZkVajZd[k#
c) L]Vi^hi]ZVbea^ijYZd[i]Z

kdaiV\Z[jcXi^dc4
d) BdYZai]ZkdaiV\Zl^i]Vhj^iVWan

igVch[dgbZYh^cZ[jcXi^dc#

\gVe]i]ZkdaiV\Z[jcXi^dcdkZgild
XnXaZh#:meaV^cl]Vii]ZhXVaZhdc
i]ZVmZhgZegZhZci#

Solution

&
T

a) H^cXZi]ZgZVgZ+%XdbeaZiZXnXaZhZkZgnhZXdcY!i]ZeZg^dY^h  h#
b)

Te c h n o l o g y

Tip

## You can enter rational

expressions for the
window variables. To
set the maximum
1
T
value for x to
,
30
you can just type

1
30. When
you press ENTER , the
calculator will calculate
the desired value,
0.03333.

(+%
T
&

T

+%

+%
k'&+%%
I]ZkVajZd[k^h'&+%%#
k

c) I]ZVbea^ijYZ^h&,%K#
d) I]ZkdaiV\Z[jcXi^dc^hV&,%h^c'&+%%t#
e) Id\gVe]i]ZkdaiV\Z[jcXi^dcdkZgildXnXaZh!hZii]ZgVc\Zd[x[gdb

&hVcYi]Zx"hXVaZidT
& 
%hidT
h#:VX]i^X`dci]Zx"Vm^h
(%
&'%
& 
gZegZhZcihT
h#
&'%
HZii]ZgVc\Zd[y[gdb'%%Kid'%%KVcY
i]Zy"hXVaZid*%K#:VX]i^X`dci]Zy"Vm^h
gZegZhZcih*%K#
I]Z\gVe]^hh]dlc#

## 334 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

Example 2
Model the Angle of the Sun Above the Horizon on the Summer Solstice
in Inuvik
I]ZiVWaZh]dlhi]ZVc\aZd[i]ZhjcVWdkZi]Z]dg^odc[dgZVX]]djgdc
i]ZhjbbZghdahi^XZ^c>cjk^`!Cdgi]lZhiIZgg^idg^Zh#
Hour Past Midnight

10

11

Horizon ()

11

16

22

27

33

38

42

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

## Angle Above the

Horizon ()

45

46

45

42

38

33

27

22

17

12 7.5 4.3

a) JhZi]ZiVWaZidYZiZgb^cZVh^cjhd^YVabdYZa[dgi]ZVc\aZd[i]Zhjc

VWdkZi]Z]dg^odc#
b) <gVe]i]Zed^cih^ci]ZiVWaZdci]ZhVbZhZid[VmZhVhndjgbdYZaid

kZg^[ni]Z[^i#
c) >hi]Z[^iVhZmeZXiZY4:meaV^cVcnY^hXgZeVcX^Zh#

Solution
a) ;gdbi]ZiVWaZ!i]ZbVm^bjbVc\aZd[ZaZkVi^dc^h)+VcYi]Z

)+&#b^c^bjbVc\aZ^h&#-#I]ZVbea^ijYZ^hTT
 

''#&#I]ZgZ[dgZ!
'
i]ZkVajZd[a^h''#&#
I]ZkZgi^XVah]^[i^h&#-''#&'(#.#I]ZgZ[dgZ!i]ZkVajZd[c^h
'(#.#
I]Zh^cZlVkZhiVgihVi'(#.#I]^h^hVWdji,#*]eVhib^Yc^\]i#
I]ZgZ[dgZ!d,#*#
I]ZeZg^dY^h')]#
(+%
T


')
k
 k&*
I]ZVc\aZVWdkZi]Z]dg^odcXVcWZbdYZaaZYl^i]i]ZZfjVi^dc
ht''#&h^cP&*t,#*R'(#.#

b) I]Z\gVe]^hh]dlc!hjeZg^bedhZYdkZgi]ZYViVed^cih#
c) I]Z[^i^h\ddYVi[^ghi!WjiWZ\^chidYZeVgi

[gdbi]ZYViVed^cihVhi]ZYVnegd\gZhhZh#
:Vgi]hbdkZbZciVgdjcYi]ZhjcbVn
VXXdjci[dgi]ZYZeVgijgZ[gdbVejgZan
h^cjhd^YVabdYZa#I]ZgZVaeZg^dY^hcdi
ZmVXian')]#

5.6 Use Sinusoidal Functions to Model Periodic Phenomena Not Involving Angles MHR 335

Example 3
Predator-Prey Populations
L]ZcildVc^bVah]VkZV
egZYVidg\$egZngZaVi^dch]^e!i]Z
edejaVi^dcd[ZVX]dkZgi^bZXVc
WZbdYZaaZYl^i]Vh^cjhd^YVa
[jcXi^dc#>[i]ZedejaVi^dcd[
egZn^haVg\Z!i]ZedejaVi^dcd[
egZYVidgh^cXgZVhZhh^cXZi]ZgZ
^hVcVYZfjViZ[ddYhjeean#6h
i]ZedejaVi^dcd[egZYVidgh^cXgZVhZh!i]ZedejaVi^dcd[egZnYZXgZVhZh#
:kZcijVaan!i]ZgZ^hcdiZcdj\][ddY[dgi]ZegZYVidgh!VcYi]ZnVahd
WZ\^cidY^Zd[[#6hi]ZcjbWZgd[egZYVidghYZXa^cZh!bdgZegZnhjgk^kZ!
VcYi]ZedejaVi^dcd[egZn^cXgZVhZhV\V^c#
HjeedhZi]Vii]ZcjbWZg!N!d[egZn^cV\^kZcVgZVXVcWZbdYZaaZYWn
i]Z[jcXi^dcNt'*%h^c.%t*%%!l]ZgZt^hi]ZcjbWZgd[nZVgh
h^cXZVWVhZnZVgd[&..%#
a) L]VilVhi]ZedejaVi^dcd[egZn^c&..%4
b) L]ZcY^Yi]ZedejaVi^dcgZVX]VbVm^bjb4
c) L]VilVhi]ZbVm^bjbedejaVi^dcVii]^hi^bZ4
d) L]ZcY^Yi]ZedejaVi^dcgZVX]Vb^c^bjb4
e) L]VilVhi]Zb^c^bjbedejaVi^dcVii]Vii^bZ4
f) =dlbVcnnZVgheVhhZYWZilZZcbVm^bjbedejaVi^dch4

Solution
a) HjWhi^ijiZ%[dgt#H^cXZh^c%%!i]ZedejaVi^dc^c&..%lVh*%%#
b) Use TechnologyJhZV\gVe]^c\XVaXjaVidg

id\gVe]i]Z[jcXi^dcdkZgViaZVhiildXnXaZh#
6Y_jhii]Zl^cYdlkVg^VWaZhVXXdgY^c\an#
I]Zc!jhZi]ZmaximumdeZgVi^dc[gdbi]Z
CALCULATEbZcjidYZiZgb^cZi]Z[^ghi
bVm^bjb#>idXXjggZYV[iZg&nZVg!^c&..&#
c) I]ZedejaVi^dcd[egZn^c&..&lVh,*%#
d) JhZi]ZminimumdeZgVi^dc[gdbi]Z

CALCULATEbZcjidYZiZgb^cZi]Z[^ghi
b^c^bjb#>idXXjggZYVii]ZZcYd[(nZVgh!
^c&..(#
e) I]ZedejaVi^dcd[egZn^c&..(lVh'*%#
f) I]ZcZmibVm^bjbdXXjggZY^c&..*#;djgnZVgheVhhZYWZilZZc

bVm^bjbedejaVi^dch#

## 336 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

Key Concepts
H^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dchXVcWZjhZYidbdYZaeZg^dY^Xe]ZcdbZcVi]ViYdcdi^ckdakZVc\aZh
Vhi]Z^cYZeZcYZcikVg^VWaZ#
I]ZVbea^ijYZ!e]VhZh]^[i!eZg^dY!VcYkZgi^XVah]^[id[i]ZWVh^Xh^cZdgXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc
XVcWZVY_jhiZYid[^ii]ZX]VgVXiZg^hi^Xhd[i]Ze]ZcdbZcdcWZ^c\bdYZaaZY#
I]Z\gVe]XVcWZjhZYidhdakZegdWaZbhgZaViZYidi]Ze]ZcdbZcdc#

C1  6h^ijVi^dcbdYZaaZYWnVh^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc]Vhcdx"^ciZgXZeih#L]ViXdcXajh^dchXVcndj

YgVlVWdjii]ZgZaVi^dcWZilZZcaVcYc4

C2  6h^ijVi^dcXVcWZbdYZaaZYWni]Zh^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dcyah^cPkxdRc#>[i]Z\gVe]

eVhhZhi]gdj\]i]Zdg^\^c!XVcndjXdcXajYZi]Vii]Ze]VhZh]^[i!d!^h%4?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg!
^cXajY^c\VY^V\gVb#

C3  I]ZeZg^dYd[Vh^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc^h\gZViZgi]Vc(+%WjiaZhhi]Vc,'%#L]VigZhig^Xi^dch

YdZhi]^hXdcY^i^dceaVXZdci]ZkVajZd[k4?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg#

A Practise
For help with questions 1 and 2, refer to the
Investigate.
1. >ci]Z>ckZhi^\ViZ!i]Zh^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc

ht*h^cP(%t(R^hjhZYidbdYZa
dcVeVgi^XjaVgYVn#DcVY^[[ZgZciYVn!
i]ZbVm^bjb]Z^\]i^h-b!i]Zb^c^bjb
]Z^\]i^h -b!VcY]^\]i^YZdXXjghVi
*/(%V#b#
a) BdY^[ni]Z[jcXi^dchjX]i]Vi^i

bViX]Zhi]ZcZlYViV#
b) EgZY^Xii]Zi^bZh[dgi]ZcZmi]^\]VcY

2. HjeedhZi]ViVXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc^hX]dhZcid

bdYZai]Zi^YZh^ci]Z>ckZhi^\ViZ#

b) KZg^[ni]Vii]ZXdh^cZbdYZaXdggZXian

YVn#
For help with question 3, refer to Example 1.
3. HdbZi^bZhYZbVcY[dgZaZXig^X^inWZXdbZh

hd\gZVii]Vihjeea^ZghhjX]VhDciVg^d
EdlZg<ZcZgVi^dcXVccdibV^ciV^ci]Z
YZh^gZYbVm^bjbkdaiV\Zdci]ZZaZXig^X^in
\g^Y#I]^hXgZViZhVXdcY^i^dc`cdlcVh
VWgdlcdji#>cVWgdlcdji!^cXVcYZhXZci
aVbehY^bVcYhdbZVeea^VcXZhYdcdi
ldg`ViVaa#=dlYdZhi]Z\gVe]d[kdaiV\Z
kZghjhi^bZX]Vc\ZYjg^c\VWgdlcdji4
H`ZiX]i]ZcZl\gVe]VcY_jhi^[nndjg
X]Vc\Zh#

a) BdY^[ni]Z[jcXi^dchdi]ViVXdh^cZ

[jcXi^dc^hjhZYWjiVaaegZY^Xi^dchd[
i^YZhgZbV^ci]ZhVbZ#

5.6 Use Sinusoidal Functions to Model Periodic Phenomena Not Involving Angles MHR 337

## For help with question 4, refer to Example 3.

4. I]ZedejaVi^dcd[egZn^cVegZYVidg"egZn

gZaVi^dc^hh]dlc#I^bZ^h^cnZVghh^cXZ
&.-*#
N

Population

1000
800

b) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dYd[i]Z[jcXi^dc4
c) <gVe]i]ZlViZgaZkZadkZg')]#
d) >[i]ZlViZg^haZhhi]Vc(bYZZe!

aVcY^c\VhZVeaVcZ^hXdch^YZgZYjchV[Z#
9jg^c\l]Vii^bZ^ciZgkVah!WZilZZc
YVn!^h^iXdch^YZgZYjchV[ZidaVcYV
hZVeaVcZ4
e) L]Vidi]Zg[VXidghVgZ^bedgiVci^c

600

YZX^Y^c\l]Zi]Zg^i^hhV[ZidaVcY4

400

6. 6iVcdi]Zgi^bZd[nZVg^ci]ZhVbZ

200
0

8
12 16
Time (years)

20

a) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZbVm^bjbVcYb^c^bjb

kVajZhd[i]ZedejaVi^dc!idi]ZcZVgZhi
*%#JhZi]ZhZid[^cYi]ZVbea^ijYZ#
b) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZkZgi^XVah]^[i!c#
c) 9ZiZgb^cZi]Ze]VhZh]^[i!d#
d) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZeZg^dY#JhZi]ZeZg^dYid

YZiZgb^cZi]ZkVajZd[k#
e) BdYZai]ZedejaVi^dckZghjhi^bZl^i]

Vh^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc#
f) <gVe]ndjg[jcXi^dc#8dbeVgZ^iidi]Z

\gVe]h]dlc#

## B Connect and Apply

5. I]ZYZei]!d!^cbZigZh!d[lViZg^cV

hZVeaVcZ]VgWdjgdcV\^kZcYVnXVcWZ
bdYZaaZYjh^c\i]Z[jcXi^dc
d&'h^cP(%t*R&)!l]ZgZt^hi]Z
i^bZeVhib^Yc^\]i!^c]djgh#

]VgWdjgVh^cfjZhi^dc*!i]ZbVm^bjb
lViZgYZei]^h''bVcYi]Zb^c^bjb
YZei]^h+b#I]Z[^ghi]^\]i^YZdXXjghVi
*/%%V#b#
a) BdY^[ni]ZbdYZa^cfjZhi^dc*id

bViX]i]ZcZlYViV#
b) <gVe]i]ZlViZgaZkZadkZg')]#
c) 9jg^c\l]Vii^bZ^ciZgkVah!WZilZZc

YVn!^h^iXdch^YZgZYjchV[ZidaVcYV
hZVeaVcZ4
7. I]ZZaZXig^X^in

## Reasoning and Proving

hiVcYVgYjhZY^c
Representing
Selecting Tools
:jgdeZVcYbVcn
Problem Solving
di]ZgeVgihd[i]Z
Connecting
Reecting
ldgaY^hVaiZgcVi^c\
XjggZci68l^i]V
Communicating
[gZfjZcXnd[*%=o
VcYVbVm^bjbkdaiV\Zd[')%K#I]Z
kdaiV\ZXVcWZbdYZaaZYVhV[jcXi^dcd[
i^bZjh^c\Vh^cZ[jcXi^dc#
a) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dYd[*%"=o684
b) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZkVajZd[k#
c) L]Vi^hi]ZVbea^ijYZd[i]ZkdaiV\Z

[jcXi^dc4
d) BdYZai]ZkdaiV\Zl^i]Vhj^iVWan

igVch[dgbZYh^cZ[jcXi^dc#

\gVe]i]ZkdaiV\Z[jcXi^dcdkZgild
XnXaZh#:meaV^cl]Vii]ZhXVaZhdci]Z
VmZhgZegZhZci#
a) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZbVm^bjbVcYb^c^bjb

YZei]hd[i]ZlViZg^ci]Z]VgWdjg#

## 338 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

8. ?ja^VXdchigjXihVbdYZa68\ZcZgVidg^c

e]nh^XhXaVhhVcYXgVc`h^iWn]VcYVi
(gZkdaji^dcheZghZXdcY#H]Z^hVWaZida^\]i
jeV[aVh]a^\]iWjaWi]Vi^hgViZY[dg+K#
a) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dYd[i]Z68egdYjXZY4
b) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZkVajZd[k#

10. GZ[ZgidndjgbdYZa^cfjZhi^dc.#
a) EgZY^Xii]ZcZmii]gZZdXXjggZcXZhd[

bVm^bjbhjchediVXi^k^inV[iZg'%%+#
b) EgZY^Xii]ZcZmii]gZZdXXjggZcXZhd[

b^c^bjbhjchediVXi^k^inV[iZg'%%+#
c) L]Vi^hi]ZkVg^Vi^dc^ci]ZbVm^bjb

c) L]Vi^hi]ZVbea^ijYZd[i]ZkdaiV\Z

[jcXi^dc4
d) BdYZai]ZkdaiV\Zl^i]Vhj^iVWan

igVch[dgbZYh^cZ[jcXi^dc#
e) Use Technology<gVe]i]ZkdaiV\Z

[jcXi^dcdkZgildXnXaZh#:meaV^cl]Vi
i]ZhXVaZhdci]ZVmZhgZegZhZci#
9. I]ZiVWaZh]dlhVccjVaVkZgV\Zhjchedi

VcYb^c^bjbkVajZhdkZgi]ZYViV^c
i]ZiVWaZ4
Con n ec t i on s
Sunspots were observed as early as 165 B.C.E. Like
many phenomena in the sky, they were thought to
have a mystical significance to humans.

11. >c:mVbeaZ(!i]ZedejaVi^dcd[egZnXVc

Sunspots
(Annual
Average)

Year
(since
1970)

Sunspots
(Annual
Average)

107.4

19

162.2

66.5

20

145.1

67.3

21

144.3

36.7

22

93.5

WZbdYZaaZYl^i]i]Z[jcXi^dc
Nt'*%h^c.%t*%%#GZhZVgX]h]dlh
i]ZeZg^dYd[i]ZedejaVi^dcd[egZn!
&d[VXnXaZidi]Z
l^i]Ve]VhZh]^[id[T
)
g^\]i#HjeedhZi]Vii]ZegZYVidgh]VkZ
Vb^c^bjbedejaVi^dcd[*%VcYV
bVm^bjbedejaVi^dcd[&%%#

32.3

23

54.5

a) 8dchigjXiVbdYZa[dgi]ZedejaVi^dcd[

14.4

24

31.0

egZYVidghjh^c\Vh^cZ[jcXi^dc#

11.6

25

18.2

b) <gVe]i]ZedejaVi^dcd[egZnVcY

26.0

26

8.4

86.9

27

20.3

145.8

28

61.6

10

149.1

29

96.1

11

146.5

30

123.3

12

114.8

31

123.3

egZYVidg"egZnh^bjaVi^dc\VbZ#

13

64.7

32

109.4

a) EaVni]Z\VbZ^cVhbVaa\gdjeVcY

14

43.5

33

65.9

15

16.2

34

43.3

16

11.0

35

30.2

17

29.0

36

15.4

18

100.9

VXi^k^in[gdb&.,%id'%%+#
Year
(since
1970)

a) JhZi]ZiVWaZidYZiZgb^cZVh^cjhd^YVa

bdYZa[dgi]ZcjbWZgd[hjchedih#
b) <gVe]i]Zed^cih^ci]ZiVWaZdci]Z

egZYVidghdci]ZhVbZhZid[VmZhdkZgV
eZg^dYd[&'nZVgh[gdbi]ZWVhZnZVg#
c) Hj\\ZhigZVhdchl]ni]ZgZ^hVe]VhZ

h]^[iidi]Zg^\]i#
12. Use TechnologyHZVgX]i]Z>ciZgcZi[dgV

\ZcZgViZViVWaZd[YViV#
b) <gVe]i]ZYViV[dgegZnVcYegZYVidgh#
c) JhZi]Z\gVe]VcYi]ZiVWaZidXdchigjXi

VbdYZa[dgi]ZedejaVi^dcd[egZnVcY
i]ZedejaVi^dcd[egZYVidgh#
d) <gVe]i]ZbdYZahdci]ZhVbZhZi

d[VmZhVhi]ZYViV#=dllZaaYdi]Z
bdYZahgZegZhZcii]ZYViV4

hVbZVmZhVhndjgbdYZaidkZg^[ni]Z[^i#
c) >hi]Z[^iVhndjZmeZXiZY4:meaV^cVcn

Y^hXgZeVcX^Zh#

5.6 Use Sinusoidal Functions to Model Periodic Phenomena Not Involving Angles MHR 339

13. I]Z\gVe]gZegZhZcihbdci]angZh^YZci^Va

cVijgVa\VhXdchjbei^dc^cDciVg^d[gdb
?VcjVgn'%%&id9ZXZbWZg'%%*#

VbdYZa[dgi]ZcjbWZgd[]djghd[
YVna^\]i#
c) <gVe]i]ZbdYZadci]ZhVbZhZid[VmZh

## Residential Natural Gas Consumption

Thousands of Cubic Metres

b) JhZi]Z\gVe]VcYi]ZiVWaZidXdchigjXi

Vhi]ZYViV#8dbbZcidci]Z[^i#
d) JhZndjgbdYZaidegZY^Xii]ZcjbWZg

1 600 000
1 400 000
1 200 000
1 000 000
800 000
600 000
400 000
200 000
0

d[]djghd[YVna^\]idc?VcjVgn(&#
15. Use TechnologyI]ZJ#H#CVkVa

DWhZgkVidgnXVaXjaViZhYVna^\]iiVWaZh[dg
Functions 11eV\Zd[i]ZBX<gVl"=^aa
VXXZhhi]ZdWhZgkVidgnhLZWh^iZ#

12 24 36 48 60
Month Starting January 2001

a) JhZi]Z\gVe]idXdchigjXiVh^cjhd^YVa

bdYZa[dgcVijgVa\VhXdchjbei^dc#
b) <gVe]i]ZbdYZa[dgVeZg^dYd[*nZVgh!

b) Dci]ZCVkVaDWhZgkVidgnhh^iZ!hZaZXi

hiVgi^c\^c?VcjVgn'%%&#
c) JhZi]ZbdYZaidegZY^XigZh^YZci^Va

cVijgVa\VhXdchjbei^dc^c9ZXZbWZg
'%%-#
14. I]ZcjbWZgd[]djghd[YVna^\]idci]Z

&*i]d[ZVX]
bdci]!WZ\^cc^c\
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a) JhZVcViaVhdgi]Z>ciZgcZiidYZiZgb^cZ

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Selecting Tools

Problem Solving
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## Duration of Daylight Table for One Year#

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8:30

10:07

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14:33

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10

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## 340 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

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## 17. Chapter ProblemHdjcYhnci]Zh^hXVc

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5.6 Use Sinusoidal Functions to Model Periodic Phenomena Not Involving Angles MHR 341

Extend

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C o nne ct io ns
Reflection from a film that is
much thinner than the
wavelength of the light
being used forms a
perfect window. No
light is reflected; it
is all transmitted.
This is why images
viewed through nonreflective eyeglasses
appear brighter than
when viewed through
lenses without the coating.
You can use a soap bubble kit
to see another example of this perfect window. Dip
the bubble blower into the solution, and hold it so
that the soap film is vertical. Orient the film to reflect
light. You will see a series of coloured bands as the
soap drains to the bottom. Then, you will see what
looks like a break in the film forming at the top. This
is the perfect window. You can test to see if there is
still soap there by piercing the window with a pin or a
sharp pencil.

## 342 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

a) JhZi]Za^WgVgndgi]Z>ciZgcZiid

YZiZgb^cZi]ZeZg^dYd[egZXZhh^dcd[
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Use Technology
Create a Scatter Plot and a Function Using a TI-NspireTM CAS
Graphing Calculator
GZ[Zgid:mVbeaZ'dceV\Z((*#
Hour Past Midnight

Tools
1

10

11

TI-Nspire CAS
graphing calculator

## Angle Above the Horizon () 2.4 1.8 2.4 4.2 7.2 11 16 22 27 33 38 42

Hour Past Midnight

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

## Angle Above the Horizon () 45 46 45 42 38 33 27 22 17 12 7.5 4.3

1. DeZcVcZlYdXjbZci#8gZViZVeV\Z

Veea^XVi^dc#
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3. :ciZgi]ZVc\aZYViV^cXdajbc7#
4. DeZcVcZlGraphs & GeometryeV\Z#

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y"Vm^hYgdeYdlcbZcj#
6. EgZhhb#HZii]ZWindow hZii^c\h[gdb

*id'*[dgi]Zx"Vm^hVcY[gdb&%id
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7. 8]Vc\Zi]Z\gVe]ineZWVX`idFunction#
8. GZ[Zgidi]Z[jcXi^dcYZg^kZY^c:mVbeaZ

'/ht''#&h^cP&*t,#*R'(#.#
IneZi]Z[jcXi^dcVhf1#EgZhh#
9. I]Z\gVe]^hh]dlc!hjeZg^bedhZYdkZg

i]ZYViVed^cih#I]Z[^i^h\ddYVi[^ghi
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Vhi]ZYVnegd\gZhhZh#:Vgi]hbdkZbZci
VgdjcYi]ZhjcbVnVXXdjci[dgi]Z
YZeVgijgZ[gdbVejgZanh^cjhd^YVa
bdYZa#I]ZgZVaeZg^dY^hcdiZmVXian
')]#

Use Technology: Create a Scatter Plot and a Function Using a TI-Nspire CAS Graphing Calculator MHR 343

Chapter 5 Review
5.1 Modelling Periodic Behaviour,
pages 284 to 293
1. 8dch^YZgi]Z\gVe]h]dlc#

## 5.3 Investigate Transformations of Sine and

Cosine Functions, pages 304 to 312
5. 8dch^YZgi]Z[jcXi^dcyXdhx+%(#

a) L]Vi^hi]ZVbea^ijYZ4

b) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dY4

c) 9ZhXg^WZi]Ze]VhZh]^[i#
d) 9ZhXg^WZi]ZkZgi^XVah]^[i#

360 180 0

180 360 x

a) :meaV^cl]ni]Z[jcXi^dcgZegZhZciZY^h

eZg^dY^X#
b) =dlbVcnXnXaZhVgZh]dlc4

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kVajZh4
d) L]Vi^hi]ZVbea^ijYZ4
e) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dY4
2. 6h]jiiaZWjhiV`ZheVhhZc\Zgh[gdbV

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b) L]Vi^hi]ZVbea^ijYZd[i]ZeViiZgc4
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heZZY#:meaV^c]dli]^hV[[ZXihi]Z
\gVe]#
5.2 The Sine Function and the Cosine
Function, pages 294 to 301

## 5.4 Graphing and Modelling With

y = a sin [k(x d)] + c and
y = a cos [k(x d)] + c, pages 313 to 321
6. 6gdWdiVgb^hjhZYidXVeWdiiaZhdcVc

VhhZbWana^cZ#I]ZkZgi^XVaedh^i^dc!y!^c
XZci^bZigZh!d[i]ZVgbV[iZgthZXdcYhXVc
WZbdYZaaZYWni]Z[jcXi^dc
y(%h^cP(+%t%#'*R)*#
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h]^[i!VcYkZgi^XVah]^[i#

i]ZVgbgZVX]Zh4
c) HiViZi]ZYdbV^cVcYgVc\Zd[

i]Zdg^\^cVah^cZ[jcXi^dcVcYi]Z
igVch[dgbZY[jcXi^dc^chZicdiVi^dc#
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kZgi^XVaedh^i^dcd['%Xb#=dlYdZh
i]ZZfjVi^dcbdYZaa^c\i]ZgdWdiVgb
X]Vc\Z4

d[i]Zh^cZ[jcXi^dc[dgkVajZhd[x[gdb
*)%id*)%#AVWZai]ZVmZhl^i]Vc
Veegdeg^ViZhXVaZ#

d[i]ZXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc[dgkVajZhd[x[gdb
*)%id*)%#AVWZai]ZVmZhl^i]Vc
Veegdeg^ViZhXVaZ#
344 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

## 5.5 Data Collecting and Modelling, pages

322 to 332
7. Hjcg^hZi^bZh[dg&nZVg^c;dgi:g^Z!

DciVg^d!bZVhjgZYdci]Z'&hid[ZVX]
bdci]!hiVgi^c\^c?VcjVgn!VgZh]dlc
jh^c\:VhiZgcHiVcYVgYI^bZ:HI#

## 5.6 Use Sinusoidal Functions to Model

Periodic Phenomena Not Involving Angles,
pages 333 to 341

## Month (21st day)

Time (EST)

7:40

7:04

6:17

5:25

4:47

4:37

4:55

5:28

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gZegZhZcihi]ZeZg^dY#

6:01

10

6:36

11

7:15

12

7:43

a) Jh^c\Vh^cZ[jcXi^dc! bdYZai]Z

l^i]gZheZXiidi^bZ#
b) H`ZiX]V\gVe]d[kdajbZ^cgZaVi^dcid

i^bZ[dg[djgXnXaZh#

a) 8dckZgii]Zi^bZhidYZX^bVa[dgbVi#

GdjcYZVX]kVajZidildYZX^bVa
bdci]dci]Z]dg^odciVaVm^hVcYi]Z
i^bZdci]ZkZgi^XVaVm^h#
b) 8dchigjXiVbdYZad[i]Zhjcg^hZ

i^bZhjh^c\Vh^cZ[jcXi^dc#HiViZi]Z
Vbea^ijYZ!eZg^dY!e]VhZh]^[i!VcY
kZgi^XVah]^[i#
c) <gVe]i]ZbdYZadci]ZhVbZVmZhVh

i]ZYViV#8dbbZcidci]Z[^i#

aZ[ikZcig^XaZZkZgnb^cjiZ4
d) =dlYdZhi]Z[jcXi^dcX]Vc\Z^[ndj

jhZVXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc4
e) L]Zc@Zcgjch!]^h]ZVgigViZg^hZh

id&'%WZViheZgb^cjiZ#6Y_jhindjg
bdYZa[gdbeVgiVidgZ[aZXi@Zch]ZVgi
gViZl]^aZgjcc^c\#
f) :meaV^cl]ni]ZVbea^ijYZYdZhcdi

X]Vc\Z^ceVgiX#

8. JhZndjgbdYZa[gdbfjZhi^dc,idegZY^Xi

i]Zhjcg^hZi^bZdc?VcjVgn,VcY?jan,#

Chapter Problem

WRAP-UP

Ndj]VkZhZZc]dlVeea^XVi^dch^cbjh^Xhnci]Zh^h!
kd^XZeViiZgcgZXd\c^i^dc!VcYheZX^VaZ[[ZXihhdjcYhXVc
WZbdYZaaZYjh^c\h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dch#
a) =dlYdZhi]ZVbea^ijYZd[i]ZbdYZaa^c\[jcXi^dc

gZaViZidi]ZhdjcYi]Vindj]ZVg4<^kZZmVbeaZh#
b) =dlYdZhi]ZeZg^dYd[i]ZbdYZaa^c\[jcXi^dcgZaViZ

idi]ZhdjcYi]Vindj]ZVg4<^kZZmVbeaZh#
c) L]Vi^hi]Ze]VhZh]^[ihgdaZ^cbjh^XeaVnZYdc

igVY^i^dcVa^chigjbZcih!hdc\hhjc\WnVX]d^g!VcY
bjh^Xhnci]Zh^h4

## Chapter 5 Practice Test

For questions 1 to 8, select the best answer.
For questions 1 to 3, refer to the graph of the
periodic function shown.

c) 9ZhXg^WZi]Ze]VhZh]^[id[i]Z[jcXi^dc#

d) 9ZhXg^WZi]ZkZgi^XVah]^[id[i]Z

[jcXi^dc#
2

e) <gVe]i]Z[jcXi^dcdcZhiZeViV

6x

i^bZ#AVWZaZVX]hiZeVXXdgY^c\idi]Z
igVch[dgbVi^dciV`^c\eaVXZ#
f) HiViZi]ZYdbV^cVcYgVc\Zd[i]Z

1. I]ZeZg^dYd[i]Z[jcXi^dc^h
B '

C (

D +

B '

C (

D &

C '

D (

## For questions 4 to 7, consider the function

3  cos [5(x  30)]  T
3 .
y=T
4
8
4. I]ZeZg^dYd[i]Z[jcXi^dc^h
A ,'

B &-%

C (+%

D &-%%

5. I]Zb^c^bjbkVajZd[i]Z[jcXi^dc^h

T( 
-

A  

B %

)jc^ih!VeZg^dYd[.%!VcYVbVm^bjbVi
%!'#
a) GZegZhZcii]Z[jcXi^dcl^i]VcZfjVi^dc

3. I]ZkVajZd[f&'^h
B %

igVch[dgbZY[jcXi^dc#JhZhZicdiVi^dc#
10. 6h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc]VhVcVbea^ijYZd[

2. I]ZVbea^ijYZd[i]Z[jcXi^dc^h

A &

a) L]Vi^hi]ZVbea^ijYZd[i]Z[jcXi^dc4
b) L]Vi^hi]ZeZg^dYd[i]Z[jcXi^dc4

A &

y(h^cP)x+%R'#

2 0

A &

9. 8dch^YZgi]Z[jcXi^dc

T(

T(
)

6. L^i]gZheZXiidyXdhx!i]Ze]VhZh]^[i

d[i]Z[jcXi^dc^h
A (%aZ[i

B (%g^\]i

C +%aZ[i

D +%g^\]i

7. L^i]gZheZXiidyXdhx!i]ZkZgi^XVah]^[i

d[i]Z[jcXi^dc^h
(
A T je
(
C T je
)

T(Ydlc

(
T
D
Ydlc
)

jh^c\VXdh^cZ[jcXi^dc#
b) GZegZhZcii]Z[jcXi^dcl^i]VcZfjVi^dc

jh^c\Vh^cZ[jcXi^dc#
11. 6h^cjhd^YVa[jcXi^dc]VhVcVbea^ijYZ

&jc^ih!VeZg^dYd[,'%!VcYV
d[T
)
( #
bVm^bjbed^ciVi %!T
)
a) GZegZhZcii]Z[jcXi^dcl^i]VcZfjVi^dc
jh^c\Vh^cZ[jcXi^dc#



b) <gVe]i]Z[jcXi^dcdkZgildXnXaZh#
12. 8dch^YZgi]Z[jcXi^dc

fx'XdhP(x&'%R#
a) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZVbea^ijYZ!eZg^dY!e]VhZ

h]^[i!VcYkZgi^XVah]^[il^i]gZheZXiid
yXdhx#
b) L]ViVgZi]ZbVm^bjbVcYb^c^bjb

kVajZh4
c) ;^cYi]Z[^ghii]gZZx"^ciZgXZeihidi]Z

g^\]id[i]Zdg^\^c#
d) ;^cYi]Zy"^ciZgXZei#

8. 8dch^YZgi]Z[jcXi^dc

y'Xdh(x&'%#L]Vi^hi]Ze]VhZ
h]^[id[i]Z[jcXi^dc4
A )%aZ[i

B )%g^\]i

C &'%aZ[i

D &'%g^\]i

## 346 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5

13. a) 9ZiZgb^cZi]ZZfjVi^dcd[i]Zh^cZ

[jcXi^dch]dlc#

ZVX]bdci]Wn&%#9ZhXg^WZi]ZZ[[ZXi
i]Vii]^hl^aa]VkZdci]Z\gVe]d[i]Z
[jcXi^dc#

y
3
2

15. I]Z;Zgg^hl]ZZaViV

1
0

30

60

90 120 x

b) HjeedhZi]Vii]ZbVm^bjbkVajZhdc

i]Z\gVe]VgZ]Va[Vh[VgVeVgi#=dlYdZh
i]ZZfjVi^dc^ceVgiVX]Vc\Z4?jhi^[n
ndjgVchlZg#
14. 6hjbbZggZhdgiidlcd[iZch]dlh

hZVhdcVakVg^Vi^dch^ci]ZeZgXZcid[i]Z
bdci]!hiVgi^c\^c?VcjVgn![dg&nZVg#
Month

d) :Xdcdb^X[dgZXVhiZghegZY^XiVb^aY

Employment (%)

62

67

75

80

87

92

96

93

89

10

79

11

72

12

65

XVgc^kVa]VhV
Y^VbZiZgd[&-b
VcYYZhXZcYhid
'bVWdkZi]Z
\gdjcYVi^ih
6hhjbZi]ViV
g^YZgZciZghV
XVgVii]^hed^ci
VcYg^YZhi]Z
l]ZZa[dgild
gZkdaji^dch#
a) BdYZai]Z

g^YZgh]Z^\]i
VWdkZi]Z
\gdjcYkZghjh
i]ZVc\aZd[gdiVi^dcjh^c\V
igVch[dgbZYh^cZ[jcXi^dc#
b) HjeedhZi]Vii]Zg^YZgZciZghi]ZXVg

g^bd[i]Zl]ZZaWZ[dgZi]ZXVggZVX]Zh
eVgiVidgZ[aZXii]^hh^ijVi^dc#
c) <gVe]i]ZZfjVi^dch[gdbeVgihVVcYW

dci]ZhVbZhZid[VmZh#=dlVgZi]Zn
h^b^aVg4=dlVgZi]ZnY^[[ZgZci4:meaV^c
i]ZY^[[ZgZcXZh#

a) 8dchigjXiVbdYZa[dgi]ZhZYViVjh^c\

Z^i]ZgVh^cZ[jcXi^dcdgVXdh^cZ
[jcXi^dc#HiViZi]ZVbea^ijYZ!eZg^dY!
e]VhZh]^[i!VcYkZgi^XVah]^[i#
b) <gVe]i]ZbdYZadci]ZhVbZhZid[VmZh

Vhi]ZYViV#8dbbZcidci]Z[^i#
c) JhZndjgbdYZaidegZY^Xii]Z

Tools

## Modelling a Rotating Object

Ldg`l^i]VeVgicZg#DcZeVgicZgeZg[dgbhi]ZVXi^dch^ceVgihVVcYW!
VcYi]Zdi]ZgeVgicZgbV`Zhi]ZbZVhjgZbZcih#

string
large paper clip
tape measure
grid paper

a) 6iiVX]VaVg\ZeVeZgXa^eidi]ZZcYd[Vhig^c\#=daY^c\i]Zdeedh^iZZcY





BZVhjgZi]ZY^hiVcXZ[gdbi]Ze^kdied^cid[ndjgh]djaYZgid
i]ZZcYd[i]ZeVeZgXa^e
i]ZlVaa^c[gdcid[ndj

b) GdiViZndjgVgbkZgi^XVaanViVXdchiVciheZZY!Zcdj\]id`ZZei]Zhig^c\

iVji#BZVhjgZi]ZeZg^dYd[i]ZgdiVi^dc#
c) 9ZiZgb^cZVcZfjVi^dc[dgVh^cZ[jcXi^dci]Vi\^kZhi]Z]Z^\]id[

i]ZeVeZgXa^egZaVi^kZidi]ZVc\aZd[gdiVi^dc!hiVgi^c\[gdbi]ZgZhi
edh^i^dc#
d) 9ZiZgb^cZVcZfjVi^dc[dgi]Z]Z^\]id[i]ZeVeZgXa^egZaVi^kZidi^bZ!

WZ\^cc^c\[gdbi]ZgZhiedh^i^dc#
e) 9ZiZgb^cZVcZfjVi^dc[dgi]ZY^hiVcXZ[gdbi]ZeVeZgXa^eidi]ZlVaa

gZaVi^kZidi]ZVc\aZd[gdiVi^dc!hiVgi^c\[gdbi]ZgZhiedh^i^dc#
f) 9ZiZgb^cZVcZfjVi^dc[dgi]ZY^hiVcXZ[gdbi]ZeVeZgXa^eidi]ZlVaa

gZaVi^kZidi^bZ!WZ\^cc^c\[gdbi]ZgZhiedh^i^dc#
g) H`ZiX]i]Z\gVe]d[ZVX]gZaVi^dc#
h) 9ZhXg^WZ]dlZVX]ZfjVi^dcldjaYX]Vc\Z^[ndjgZkZghZYi]ZY^gZXi^dc

d[gdiVi^dc#?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg#
i) =dlldjaYi]ZZfjVi^dc^ceVgiXX]Vc\Z^[ndjlZgZgZaVi^c\i]Z

gdiVi^dcVaY^hiVcXZigVkZaaZY!^chiZVYd[i]Z]Z^\]i!idi]ZVc\aZd[
gdiVi^dc4?jhi^[nndjgVchlZg#
350 MHR Functions 11 Chapter 5