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SAQFA

It is impossible to study the incidents after the Prophets demise in connection with the leadership of the society without paying attention to the then political parties in Medina. The Ansr (Helpers) were one of the important political parties who
were worried about problems and their future after the demise of the Prophet (s) since the fall of Mecca to Muslims. They gathered in Saqfa, fearing the rule of the Quraysh, although they had sworn allegiance to Imm Al (a) who was, they
believed, less probable to assume power. Hubb Ibn Mundhir, one of the influential leaders of Ansr, in his remarks in Saqfa, considered the Ansr better than the Qurayshand said, It was their sword that gained victory for Islam.
He addressed the Ansr and said, These people (Muhdjirn (Immigrants)) are your booties and your subjects and dare not stand against you.[1]Hubbs words have to mean that whatever made the Ansr do this unwise act, was their fear
from and competition with the Quraysh. On the other hand, a number of the Muhdjirn who had shown suspicious behavior two weeks before the Prophets passing, hearing about the Saqfa gathering, wasted no time in attending the place and
arguing with the Ansr.
The news of the negotiations was revealed later in Medina by the second caliph in one of his sermons. He was in Mecca when he was told that someone had said, Swearing allegiance to Ab Bakr happened all of a sudden. This made Umar
very angry and he decided to talk to the people about it in Mecca.
Abd al-Rahmn Ibn Awf said to Umar, You are in a city where all Arab tribes are present. If you say something now, it will be spread in all cities.
When Umar came to Medina, he went to the pulpit and addressed the people, I have been told that some people have said swearing allegiance to Ab Bakr took place suddenly. I swear by my life that it was so. But God bestowed you its good
and protected you against its bad side. After the Prophets demise, we were told that the Ansr had gathered with Sad Ibn Ubda in the vicinity of Ban Sida. Ab Bakr, Ab Ubayda and I went to them and on our way, we came across two men
from the Ansr. They assured us that the Ansr did not intend to do something contrary to our views, but we decided to see for ourselves.
The spokesman of the Ansr said, We, the Ansr, are the unified army of Islam and you, O Quraysh, were a small group of us and a minority among us!
I wanted to respond to him but Ab Bakr prevented me and he himself said, Whatever you say about the Ansr is, of course, true but the Arabs do not recognize caliphate except for the Qurayshrace. They are the best of Arabs in lineage
and in noble birth. I propose swearing allegiance to Umar or Ab Ubayda (who were the only men of the Muhdjirn in the gathering).
The speaker of Ansr said, Let there be an emir from us and another from you.[2]
I responded, Two swords cannot be put in a scabbard. Then, I raised Ab Bakrs hand and swore allegiance to him.
Umar added, The Muhdjirn and the Ansr swore allegiance to him. (Of course, there were only three men of the Muhdjirn in the gathering.) We feared to leave the gathering lest they might swear allegiance to another one and force us to
obey him! Or make a tumult with our opposition. Of course, swearing allegiance to Ab Bakr was impromptu, and it was not other than a divine blessing to repel a bad omen from us, and there is no likeness of. Therefore, whoever swears
allegiance with a person without Muslims consultation, neither he nor the sworn one deserves obedience; otherwise, both will be in danger of assassination.[3]
The caliph gave a brief report on Saqfa, but it was enough for disclosing part of the realities. The comprehensive report on Saqfa is available in Ab BakrDjuwhars (323 AD) al-Saqfa.[4]
Ibn Atham writes, Before the arrival of the Muhdjirn, serious arguments were raised among the Ansr. One of the Ansr said, Select someone whose countenance frightens the Qurayshand makes the Ansr feel safe. A few proposed Sad
Ibn Ubda.
Usayd Ibn Hudayr, one of the nobles of Aws, rose in objection and said, Caliphate should remain in the Quraysh. Others spoke against him. Bashr Ibn Sad defended the Qurayshand Uwaym Ibn Sida said, Caliphate will be exclusive to
the Infallible Household of the Prophet(s). Put it where God has placed it.[5]Ibn Athams report shows the internal oppositions inside the Ansr.
Usayd Ibn Hudayr from Aws and Bashr Ibn Sad who was Sad Ibn Ubdas cousin, were the first men of the Ansr who swore allegiance to Ab Bakr in Saqfa. We all know that later on, the Ansr became dissatisfied with the rule of the
Quraysh.
According to Zubayr Ibn Bakkr, the people of Aws said, It was Bashr Ibn Sad ofKhazradjwho swore allegiance first. And the people ofKhazradjsaid it was Usayd Ibn Hudayr.[6]
Ab Bakr knew about such a contention, so in Saqfa he said, If the men of Aws assume power, the people ofKhazradjwill not accept it and there will be bloody fights among them all the time.[7]
According to Yaqb, Abd al-Rahmn Ibn Awf, too, was in Saqfa. This is not true. Whatever Yaqb has quoted from him were told a day later in the mosque.
He addressed the Ansr and said, Although you are people of essential excellence but there is no likeness of Ab Bakr, Umar and Al (a) among you.
Mundhir Ibn Arqam stood up and said, We do not deny excellence of the people you named. If one of these people seeks caliphate (he meant Imm Al (a)), there will be no objection to his request. Then Bashr Ibn Sad and Usayd Ibn
Hudayr rose and swore allegiance; and many followed them so that Sad Ibn Ubda was about to be killed in the stampede.[8]
Bar Ibn zib went to the The Hshimites and said, They swore allegiance to Ab Bakr.
The men of the Hshimites said Muslims would never do that in their absence. We are the offspring of Muhammad (s)!
Abbs said, I swear by the God of Kaba, they did.
Yaqb adds, The Muhdjirn and the Ansr had no doubts on Imm Al (a).[9]
Tabar and Ibn Athr have said the Ansr or a number of them present in Saqfa said they swore allegiance only to Al (a).[10]
According to Ibn Qutayba, Hubb Ibn Mundhir took his sword off its sheath when he saw the Ansr swearing allegiance but they disarmed him.
He addressed the Ansr, You must wait and see your children begging for a bowl of water and a loaf of bread in the doorsteps of the Quraysh.[11]
According to all historians, the most important reasoning of Ab Bakr and Umar was Ab Bakrs kinship with the Prophet (s) and his age, although there are some references to his merits in some documents.
They addressed the Ansr and said, Arabs will only accept this race of Quraysh[12]and they will never accept prophethood in a family and caliphate in another family.[13]
Ab Bakr in Saqfa said, We are from the Qurayshand the Imms must be from us.[14]
Later on, when Imm Al (a) expressed his objections to Ab Bakr and Umar about how they had relied on kinship knowing that he was closer to the Prophet (s), Umar said, Arabs do not want to see prophethood and caliphate in a single
family.[15]Prophethood belonged to you, so let the caliphate be for other families!
There is no doubt that after avoiding allegiance to Al (a) in Saqfa, tribal opposition began and finally, the Qurayshintroduced its tribal superiority to make use of the internal conflicts of the Ansr and win the caliphate despite their limited

influence in Medina. Followers of Ab Bakr considered his age as a criterion at a time when Imm Al (a) was young.
When Salmn heard the news of the allegiance, he said, You selected the most aged one but made a mistake about the Infallible Household of your prophet. If you swore allegiance to them, two people would not oppose you.[16]
It should be noted that no reliable and documented words were uttered on the issue of Saqfa and the way of the caliphs selection. Of course, we must ignore the false quotations made up to show Ab Bakr rightful[17]for the caliphate that said
the Prophet (s) had chosen not only Ab Bakr, but also the succeeding caliphs.[18]What is important to us, is the Saqfa talks and the sideline incidents. The Ansr considered caliphate to themselves; the Muhdjirn - Ab Bakr, Umar and Ab
Ubayda - went to Saqfa and said caliphate was exclusive to the Quraysh. They did not rely on any traditions such as The Imms are from the Quraysh, and said Arabs would not obey any other race than the Quraysh. Among them, some great
companions of the Prophet (s) such as Zubayr and Talha[19]did not consider Ab Bakr the right one to assume power.
Therefore, there was no recognized method or preconditions for selecting Ab Bakr except his kinship with the Prophet (s), tribal superiority of the Qurayshand tribal criteria. Being from the Quraysh was in no sense a prerequisite for
assuming the title of caliph. Many years after his caliphate, Umar wished Slim Mawl Hudhayfa Ibn Yamn were alive to rule after him.[20]Slim was not a man of the Quraysh. Some believe that the prerequisite of being from the Qurayshby
descent was introduced in the Sunnites political jurisprudence since the third century.[21]The only criteria in Saqfa were linkage to the Qurayshand Ab Bakrs age. These were the only criteria of the Dark Age along with the political conflicts that
granted him caliphate, not a combination of the pagan and Islamic criteria that Dr.Khayr al-Dn Saw has stated.[22]There are other documents at hand that Ab Bakr attached special significance to the Qurayshand its nobility.
Ibn Askir says, Some time after the conversion of Ab Sufyn to Islam; Bill; Suhayb Rm, and Salmn scorned him. Ab Bakr asked angrily why they behaved that way with theShiykhand master of the Quraysh. They complained about
this in the presence of the Prophet (s) and he asked Ab Bakr to apologize.[23]
After the allegiance in Saqfa, they left the place. According to Bar Ibn zib, they walked in the alleys and rubbed the hands of whoever they met to Ab Bakrs hands, not paying attention to the persons willingness or unwillingness.
Bara adds, I rushed to the door of the Hshimites to give the news.[24]Their interest in allegiance was so immense that according to Ibn AbShayba, they did not attend the funeral ceremony of the Prophet (s) and returned to the city after
the ceremony.[25]
Finishing the allegiance swearing, Umar stood up and apologized for whatever he had said the day before on the continuation of the Prophet's life until the death of his last companion, and indeed for his claim on offering guidance to the
Prophet (s). He said he believed that the Prophet (s) would live long to organize the affairs, but now he witnessed that the Qurn was left among them and the people swore allegiance to the best companion of the Prophet (s).[26]This shows that
Umar was waiting for the selection of the anticipated caliph and he had no problem after that.
Some people rose in objection. In addition to two distinguished personalities of the The Hshimites, i.e. Imm Al (a) and Abbs, there were some other influential people such as Zubayr Ibn Awm,Khlid Ibn Sad, Miqdd Ibn Amr, Salmn,
Abdhar, Ammr, Bar Ibn zib, and Ubayy Ibn Kab.[27]
Ab Bakrs followers went to visit Ubayy Ibn Kab but he did not open the door for them.[28]Umar, Ab UbaydaDjarrh, Mughra IbnShuba andKhlid Ibn Wald were the chief organizers of this program. At Imm Als doorstep, Umar
severely and seriously asked him to swear allegiance to Ab Bakr.
Imm said, Your greed for Ab Bakrs rule today is to have the caliphate tomorrow.[29]
Those who had gathered in Imm Als house faced the harsh behavior of Umar and his followers. Umar took Zubayrs sword and broke it, then threatened the residents of the house that he would set the house on fire. For the list of those
sitting in Imm Als house and the names of those who broke into the house, refer to the following sources.[30]
According to Ibn Abd Rabbih, Umar who had a brand of fire in his hand, threatened to set the house on fire. When Ftima (a) asked him whether he was serious, he said he was unless they accepted whatever the nation had
accepted.[31]Ftima asked the sit-in people to disperse because she was sure Umar would set the house ablaze.[32]
Getting allegiance by force and threatening to set the house on fire, which were followed later on by the other caliphs (such as Ibn Zubayr in his exacting allegiance from the Hshimites)[33]could have stemmed from here.
Of course, the Qurayshstarted talks in addition to using force. Upon Mughras advice, they went to Abbs to include him and his family, too, in the allegiance move and alleviate their problems by pleasing the Prophets uncle, but Abbs
rejected their invitation.[34]
Amr al-Muminn and Ftima did their best to return the right of caliphate from Ab Bakr to Imm Al (a) but it was fruitless. Their efforts have been recorded in the books of Ab BakrDjuwhar and others.[35]There is no doubt that Ftima (a)
was angry with Ab Bakr and Umar for trampling on her right in the issue of the Prophets heritage, the Fadak case[36]and the Imamate of Muslims and she passed away sore in the heart.[37]
Zuhr says, Imm Al (a) buried Ftimas body at night and did not let Ab Bakr know it. Until before her death, Imm Al (a) and none of the Hshimites men swore allegiance to Ab Bakr.[38]Later on, Imm Al (a) swore allegiance to protect
the unity of Muslims against the idolaters and infidels.[39]
In his response to Ab Sufyns request who asked him not to let caliphate remain in the hands of the Ban Taym, Imm Al said, You have always been an enemy of Islam and Muslims.[40]
At any rate, there is no doubt that Imm Al (a) did not swear allegiance to Ab Bakr until after the death of Ftima (a).[41]
Madin has written that with the beginning of the war against the infidels, Uthmn came to Imm Al (a) and said, No one will join you in your fight against infidels unless you swear allegiance to Ab Bakr. He insisted and took Imm to Ab
Bakrs place and Al (a) swore allegiance and it made Muslims very happy.[42]
Masd says, Ftima, sitting at the side of the Prophets grave, recited the following poem,

]43[

After you, there appeared events that if you had been alive to see them, you would have never made so many speeches.
Ftimas opposition was very important to the caliph as far as his public prestige was concerned. Ab Bakr did his best to come to terms with her but she never accepted. This made the caliph express his deep regret in the final years of his life
for invading Ftimas house. Many historians have quoted him as wishing he had never inspected Zahrs house.[44]
Sad Ibn Ubda was another opponent of Ab Bakr.[45]He did not swear allegiance with Ab Bakr and went to Damascus, and as has been quoted, was assassinated there in the time of the second caliph. The common news in historical
documents is that genies killed him and they composed two verses on this. But, fact according to Baldhur and Ibn Abd Rabbih, is that a man from Damascus was sent by Umar to ask him to swear allegiance and when Ubda did not accept, he
killed him.[46]
Ab Bakrs policy differed from that of Umar in that Umar believed in using force to get allegiance from his opponents, but Ab Bakr did not recommend it although he also believed in this principle. Both had dual policies but Umar, according to
authentic documents, used force while Ab Bakr said in one of his sermons, Al has no obligation or commitment to swear allegiance to me and he is free in his choice.[47]

[1]al-Imma wa l-siysa, vol.I, pp.24-25


[2]Hubb Ibn Mundhir said that neither Muhdjirn nor Ansr accepted each other. Masil al-imma, p.13
[3]Ibn Ab Shayba, al-Musannaf, vol.VII, p.431 (Umar said, Whoever calls on people do this, neither his allegiance nor that of someones who calls to his obedience is acceptable. Abd alRazzq, al-Musannaf, vol.V, pp.442-445 (briefly said); Tabaqt al-kubr, vol.III, p.344; Trkh al-tabar, vol.III, pp.204-206; see distorted and disgraceful narrations of Umars speech in, Ansb al-ashrf, vol.I, p.581
[4]This book is lost but major part of it is mentioned by Ibn Abi l-Hadd in Sharh nahdj al-balgha. These quotations have been collected by Muhammad Hd Amn in a separate book titled "Al-Saqfa wa Fadak" and published.
[5]al-Futh, vol.I, pp.3-4; Wqid, Kitb al-ridda, pp.32-33
[6]al-Muwaffaqiyyt, p.578; Ibn Abi l-Hadd, Sharh nahdj al-balgha, vol.II, p.272. Hubb Ibn Mundhir said to Bashr Ibn Sad in Saqfa, You swore allegiance to Ab Bakr out of envy towards Sad Ibn Ubda (Kitb al-ridda, p.42).
When Usayd Ibn Hudayr passed away, Umar paid off all his debts (al-Fiq f gharb al-hadth, vol.I, p.108). Hubb Ibn Mundhir composed poem in Saqfa in reproaching those two men, part of which is so (Kitb al-ridda, p.38)

Ibn Hudayr much embraced on evil-doings and Bashr did more than him.
[7]Nathr al-durr, vol.II, p.14; al-Bayn wa l-tabyn, vol.III, p.298; al-Imma wa l-siysa, vol.I, p.27; Masil al-imma, p.13
[8]Sad Ibn Ubda never paid allegiance to Ab Bakr and when he was in Damascus, caliph sent somebody to kill him and he was killed; Ansb al-ashrf, vol.I, p.250
[9]Tarkh al-yaqb, vol.II, pp.123-124; one of the Ansr is reported to have said, If Al and other people of the Hshimites had not been engaged in burying the Messenger (s) in the house and not been there in worry about him,
no one would have had caprice of caliphate, Kitb al-ridda, pp.45-46. Wqids report reveals that Abd al-Rahmn Ibn Awf talked to the Ansr after Saqfa event. Evidence of a good number indicates that nobody was present at
Saqfa except three people of Muhdjirn.
Later on, Bashr Ibn Sad Ansri, after hearing of Imm Als reasoning said to him, In case people had heard you speaking this way before, nobody would have disagreed with you and all would have paid allegiance to you. But
you stayed home and people thought you were not in need of caliphate!
Imm responded, O son of Bashr ! Should I have left the Messengers corpse at home and quarelling with people on succession?
Ab Bakr said, They have paid allegiance to me now and if I had known your will, I would have never sought after it myself. Youre free to swear allegiance to me.
Imm paid allegiance to him seventy five days after departure of the Messenger (s) when Ftima (a) passed away, Kitb al-ridda, p.47
[10]Trkh al-tabar, vol.III, p.208; al-Kmil fi l-trkh, vol.II, p.325
[11]al-Imma wa l-siysa, vol.I, p.27; Kitb al-ridda, p.42. Harra event, Djuwhar says, in 63 A.H. confirmed what Hubb said to Ab Bakr, I fear not of you but of those after you (Sharh nahdj al-balgha, vol.I, p.313). About
Ansrs repentance after Saqfa, al-Muwaffaqiyyt, p.583
Hubb said, Since we killed their fathers in wars, they would take revenge on us. (Ansb al-ashrf, vol.I, p.580); al-Fiq f gharb al-hadth, vol.III, p.166; Masil al-imma, p.135
In this case, we should see how Imm was treated. In Badr, they have murdered half of Quraysh totaling seventy people. Certainly, it has to be known that the Ansr felt remorseful of what they had done and so they stood against
defending Al, Quraysh and its political party, from Uthmn and Muwya to Talha, Zubayr and yisha in Djamal, Siffn or before by having a hand in Uthmns murder or staying silent towards it. Even a few days after Saqfa,
their remorse was revealed and Hassn Ibn Thbits then poems best prove that. Tarkh al-yaqb, vol.II, pp.127-128
[12]Ansb al-ashrf, vol.I, p.582
[13]Ibn Abi l-Hadd, Sharh nahdj al-balgha, vol.II, p.38
[14]Ansb al-ashrf, vol.I, p.583, Arabs never appoint you as ruler but those who were in touch with prophethood. Kitb al-ridda, p.39; Ab Bakr in his speech relied on
this, The Qurayshites are the most outstanding and noble Arab dynasty. Tabaqt al-kubr, vol.II, p.269; Following above sentence quoted from Ab Bakr, in Nathr al-durr, vol.II, p.13 it is added
through Ab Bakr, The most good-looking people were more among those who were given birth among Arabs. Ab Bakr said, We are the Qurayshites and Imms are from us as a
hadith although this was attributed to him later.
[15]al-dh, p.87. Umar said to Ibn Abbs, Your people did not want to have the prophethood and caliphate in your family because, in that case, pride elevated you to the sky; Nathr al-durr, vol.II, p.28
[16]al-Saqfa wa Fadak, p.43; Ibn Abi l-Hadd, Sharh nahdj al-balgha, vol.II, p.49 and Ansb al-ashrf, vol.I, p.590; Ab Ubayda Djarrh talked about Als younghood when Imm objected, Sharh nahdj al-balgha, vol.II, pp.2-5
[17]yisha is quoted to have been questioned, Whom did the Messenger (s) find as his successor?
Ab Bakr, she replied.
Who would be his successor?, she was asked.
Umar, she answered.
And after Umar, she was questioned.
Ab Ubayda Djarrh, she replied.
(Ibn Ab Shayba, al-Musannaf, vol.VII, p.433)
The date of forging this hadith shall be found within the hadith proper.
[18]al-Ghadr, vol.V (issue, Silsilat al-Mawdt fi l-khilfa) pp.333-356. According to Waqid in al-Ridda (pp.35-37) it seems that the Messenger (s) has placed Ab Bakr as his successor as clarified in Saqfa several times!
[19]Nihyat al-irab, vol.XIX, p.39
[20]Sharh nahdj al-balgha, vol.I, p.190; al-Iqd al-fard, vol.II, p.274, vol.III, p.407; Trkh al-madnat al-munawwara, vol.II, p.881; Masil al-imma, p.63; Mukhtasar Trkh Dimashq, vol.XII, p.69
[21]Tatawwur al-fikr al-siys Ind ahl al-Sunna, p.38
[22]Tatawwur al-fikr al-siys, p.38, footnote IV
[23]Mukhtasar Trkh Dimashq, vol.V, p.261
[24]al-Saqfa wa Fadak, p.46
[25]Ibn Ab Shayba, al-Musannaf, vol.VII, p.432
Hishm Ibn Urwa quotes his father, () Ab Bakr and Umar were with the Ansr when the Prophet (s) was to be buried, and before they came back, the Prophet (s) had been
buried
Wqid says, What seems correct to me is that the Prophet (s) has been buried Saturday. (al-Bad wa l-trkh, vol.V, p.47); therefore, it is clear that Ab Bakr and his fellow had been busy since Monday till tomorrow when the
Prophet (s) passed away and they could not come by his dead body. These two people are hardly mentioned among those named in reports concerned with his burial.
[26]al-Bad wa l-trkh, vol.IV, pp.65-66
[27]Tarkh al-yaqb, vol.II, p.124
[28]al-Saqfa wa Fadak, p.47
[29]Ansb al-ashrf, vol.I, p.587. According to Ibn Qutayba, Al said to him, Milk in a way you can have part of it; al-Imma wa l-siysa, vol.I, p.29
[30]Malim al-madrisatayn, vol.II, pp.163-166; Talkhs al-shf, pp.76, 156
[31]al-Iqd al-fard, vol.III, p.64; Trkh Abi l-fid, vol.I, p.156 quoted from, Malim al-madrisatayn, vol.II, p.167
About other sources talking about threat, Malim al-madrisatayn, vol.II, pp.167-168
Ab Bakr in his time of death was concerned about a few things, one was that he wished he had never opened Ftimas house door even if they had closed it with the aim of war (Malim al-madrisatayn,, vol.II, p.165, footnote LXV
from various sources)
[32]al-Mudhakkar wa l-tadhkr wa l-dhikr, p.91; Ibn Ab Shayba, al-Musannaf, vol. VII, p.432
[33]Ibn Abi l-Hadd, Sharh nahdj al-balgha, vol.XX, p.147
[34]Sharh nahdj al-balgha, vol.I, p.220; Tarkh al-yaqb, vol.II, pp.124-125
[35]Tarkh al-yaqb, vol.II, p.126; Sharh nahdj al-balgha, vol.II, pp.5-28 and 67; Waqat al-siffn, p.182; Kitb al-ridda, p.46
[36]About what happened to Fadak during the Umayya and the Abbsids, al-Khardj wa Sanat al-kitba, pp.259-260

[37]Abd al-Razzq, al-Musannaf, vol.V, p.472. The same quotation comes from Zuhr in Bukhr, vol.VI, p.122.Ibn Abi l-Hadd, Sharh nahdj al-balgha, vol.VI, pp.49-50; vol.XVI, pp.253,281,282; al-Bidya wa l-Nihya, vol.V,
pp.285,287
[38]Abd al-Razzq, al-Musannaf, vol.V, p.472
[39]It was for the same reason Imm opposed to Ab Sufyn who had been willing to pay allegiance to Imm, Nathr al-durr, vol.I, p.400
[40]Nihyat al-irab, vol.XIX, p.40
[41]Aside from false narrations against the chronicles, Imm swore allegiance just when Umar and Ab Bakr stopped by him in his house, Nihyat al-irab, vol.XIX, pp.39,40
[42]Talkhs al-shf, vol.III, p.77
[43]Murdj al-dhahab, vol.II, p.304; Ibn Abi l-Hadd, Sharh nahdj al-balgha, vol.II, p.50, vol.VI, p.43, vol.XVI, pp.212, 251; al-Bad wa l-trkh, vol.V, pp.68-69, there, "Wahaynama" is replaced with "Wahanbatha"; in addition,
another line is added too.
[44]Hayt al-sahaba, vol.II, p.24; Kanz al-Umml, vol.V, No.14113; Ibn Sallm, al-Amwl, p.194
[45]Nihyat al-irab, vol.XIX, p.38; it is cited there a group of Khazradjs failed to pay allegiance in Saqfa.
[46]al-Miyr wa l-Muwzana, p.232 (quoted from Baldhur and Ibn Abdirabbih in the footnote). Interestingly, Ibn Abi l-Hadd (XVII, 223-224) says that some knew Ab Bakr as his murderer but he has not found a historical report
concerningly. This is while the aforesaid report is cited in two historical sources, of course about caliph II.
[47]al-Srat al-halabiyya, vol.III, p.389 (al-Ghadr, vol.V, p.368)