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# ENG 466 CONCRETE

DESIGN

Solution to Tutorial 11
Q1.
The calculations are performed using a spreadsheet. After several trials, the
required depth of neutral axis dn is found to be 460mm. The calculations are
illustrated for this value of dn.
Eq 22.10 Cc 0.85 0.822 32 350 460 3600kN
From Eq 22.24 & 22.25,
0.003
(460 60) sy
460
s1 400MPa
Fs1 (400) 2400 960kN
0.003
s2
(460 260) 1.30 10 3
460
s2 (1.30 10 3 ) 200 10 3 260MPa
Fs2 (260) 1600 416kN
0.003
s3
(460 460) 0
460
s3 Fs3 0
0.003
s4
(460 660) 1.3 10 3
460
s4 (1.3 10 3 ) 200 10 3 260Mpa

s1

## Fs4 (260) 2400 624kN

Eq 22.26 : N u 3600 960 416 0 624 4352kN
Eq 22.27 : dN [(3600 0.82 460 /2) (960 60) (416 260)
(0 460) (624 660)] / 4352 100mm
For the section, dq = 360mm and therefore e = 360 100 = 260mm. This agrees

with the given value. Alternatively, summoning moments of forces about the
plastic centroid given:
M u 3600(360 0.822 460 /2) 960(360 60) 416(360 260)
0(360 460) (626)(360 660) 1133kNm
e 1133 10 3 /4352 260mm , which is the same as the given value.

## Therefore, Nu = 4352 kN.

Q2.
1) When e = 165 mm, Nub = 3014 kN and eb = 321 mm.
Nu = 4739 kN
As e is less than eb, Nu > Nub and = 0.6(Eq 22.30).
Hence:
N ub 0.6 4739 2843kN

## M u 0.6 4739 0.165 469kNm

2) When e = 380 mm,
From example 22.3 (step 3), Nu = 2416 kN
As e is greater than eb, Nu < Nub and Eq 22.31 governs.

2416
0.6 0.2 1
0.64

3014
Eq 22.31:
Hence:
N u 0.64 2416 1546kN
M
u 0.64 0.38 2416 522kNm
Q3.
Take f = 32 MPa, fsy = 400 MPa and D/b = 1.5
The design actions are:
M * 1.25 120 1.5 90 285kNm
N * 1.25 800 1.5 650 1975kN

## 1) Try (p + pc) = 0.016, F = 1

1975 10 3
bD
130622
0.75 0.6(0.85 32 400 0.016)
Eq 22.33: D 1.56, D 450mm, b 300mm

285 10 6
131 10 6 mm 3
0.8 0.85 400 0.008
2) Eq 22.34:
With
D
=
1.1d
and
D/b = 1.5, we obtain that D = 620mm.

## Considering a 10% reduction in D, we take D = 560mm, b = 375mm

3) As first trial, choose the larger section from steps 1 and 2:

## D = 560 mm, b = 375 mm and d = 560/1.1 = 510mm

Ast = Asc = 0.008 x 375 x 510 = 1530 mm2, try 4 Y24 bars.
bd 2

## This trial section must now be checked for adequacy.

Q4.
1) Calculate Z :
N uz N * / z 1200 / z
Since z 0.6, N uz 1200 /0.6 2000kN

From
Example 22.3, for this section Nubz = 3014 kN
Thus Nuz < Nubz
Using Chapter 7, we find that for this section ku in pure bending is 0.16

(<0.4)
Since Nuz < Nubz and ku < 0.4, Z must be determined from Eq. 22.31.
With Nuz = 1200 / Z we have:
Eq 22.31: z 0.6 0.2(1 1200 /3014 z ) and Z = 0.68
2) Calculate Muz

Muz is determined
from
Eqs 22.15, 22.16 and 22.19

## Then from Eq 22.15 we find that dn = 191 mm

From Eq 22.16, h = 710 mm
From Fig 22.13 and by Eq 22.19: Muz = 1765 [710 (530-300)] = 847 kNm

3) Calculate y
For bending about the y-axis, the steel is distributed throughout the section.
The effective depth, d (as defined in Clause 1.6.3 of AS 3600), must be

## found by a trial and error method as described in Chapter 7. It is found that

d = 260 mm.
For the balanced condition, the strain in the section varies linearly from
0.003 at the compression surface to 0.002 tension at depth 260 mm. The
force in the concrete compression zone and in each layer of steel can thus
be calculated.
Summation of these forces gives:
Nuby = 1463 kN

## Hence, y is determined from Eq 22.30, ie. y = 0.6

4) Calculate Muy
Nuy =
1200 / 0.6 = 2000 kN
The neutral axis depth corresponding to this value of Nuy is found by trial

and error. For any trial value of dn, and with u = 0.003, the forces in the

concrete and in each layer of steel are determined. For the correct dn, the
sum of the forces must be 2000 kN. We find that dn = 176 mm.
The sum of the moments of the element forces about the y-axis of the
section Muy = 484 kNm
5) Check the adequacy of the section
Eq 22.7: Nuo = (0.85 x 32 x 600 x 425) + (400 x 2 x 2480) = 8920 kN

1200
n 0.7 1.7
1.08
0.6 8920
1.08
1.08

204
144

0.8
0.68 847
0.6 484
This is less than 1.0, hence the section is adequate.