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AN-9742
Device Selection Guide for Half-Bridge Welding Machine
(IGBT & Diode)
Summary

Duty Cycle of a Welding Machine

Various topologies; including two SW-forward, half-bridge


and full-bridge, have been used for low-voltage / highcurrent DC-ARC welding machines for system minimization
and efficiency improvement. Of these topologies, halfbridge is the most commonly used for small form factor, less
than 230A capacity welding machines. Compared to fullbridge topology with the same power rating, half-bridge
requires more transformer wiring and higher current
capacity of inverter; but requires fewer power devices.
Taking a Fairchild evaluation board as the example, this
article presents a device selection guide for a half-bridge
welding machine application.

In the welding industry; duty cycle refers to the minutes out


of a 10-minute period a welder can be operated at maximum
rated output without overheating or burning up the power
source. For instance, a 140A welder with a 60% duty cycle
must be rested for at least 4 minutes after 6 minutes of
continuous welding at maximum rated output current 140A.

Allowable Duty Cycle


If actual current in use is smaller than a rated output current,
the welder internal heating decreases. The welder then can
be used at a higher rate than the specified duty cycle. Its
allowable duty cycle can be calculated as:
2

Description of Welding Machine

rated output current


duty cycle of welding machine
=
using output current

Generally, based on the type of welding machine, the output


voltage can be calculated as shown in Table 1.

For example, since only 80A to 130A current would be


required to weld a 3.2 welding rod, a 140A welder with a
60% duty cycle can operate for a longer time for this
application. Assuming 100A is used to weld a 3.2 welding
rod, actual duty cycle is more than 78.4%.

Table 1.

Welding Machine Output Voltage

Welding
Machine

Output Voltage

Example

CO2

0.04IAC+15

0.04200A+15=23V

TIG

0.04IAC+10

0.04200A+10=18V

DC ARC

0.04IAC+20

0.04200A+20=28V

Table 2.

(1)

Besides the actual output current, the temperature also


affects the allowable duty cycle of a welding machine.
Do NOT overheat welder machines.

Feasible Welding Materials by Welding Machine

Welding Machine

Gas

Welding Type Steel

CO2

CO2

Mild, High Tensile

MIG

He + Ar

Aluminum, SUS, Aluminum Alloy

MAG

Sheet Metal, Low Alloy, High Tensile

DC-TIG

Stainless, Mild, Copper Alloy, Nickel Alloy, Titanium Alloy, Low Alloy

AC-TIG

Aluminum Alloy, Magnesium Alloy, Bass

Mixed TIG

Light Alloy, Clad Plate

DC-ARC

Steel, Nonferrous Metals

AC-ARC

Aluminum

2011 Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation


Rev. 1.0.0 9/9/11

www.fairchildsemi.com

AN-9742

APPLICATION NOTE

Fairchild DC-ARC Welding Machine Evaluation Board


 Input Voltage and Frequency: 220VAC 60Hz

Evaluation Board Features

 Output Voltage (VOUT) and Output Current (IWEL):


26VDC, 140A

 Input Stage: 50A Bridge Diode (600V, 50A, SquareBridge Type)

 Efficiency: > 80%

 Input Filter Stage: Designed Under Consideration of


Conductive Noise and Radiation Noise

 Idle Power: < 4W


 Switching Frequency: 20KHz
Figure 2 shows the main block diagram of the welding
machine evaluation board. The output current and output
voltage of the DC-ARC welding machine evaluation board
are 26V and 140A, which constitutes a 3kW-class welding
machine. Various Fairchild Semiconductor components are
used to meet the design requirements. The switching
frequency of the machine is 20KHz. Due to their size; the
transformer and inductor are installed beside the board. An
air fan is attached for cooling.

 Controller: PIC16F716 (8-Bit ADC and 10-Bit PWM)


 Inverter Stage: FGH40N60SMD (within Co-Pak Diode)
Single or Parallel
 Output Rectifier: FFA60UP30DN * Six Units (Three
Ultra-Fast Diode in Parallel)
 Gate Driver: Opto-Coupler for the Isolation between
Switching Devices and Controller Dual Power Supply
+15V, -5V for IGBT Gate Voltage
 AUX Power Supply: Lower Standby Consumption Green
Integrated PWM IC

Figure 1. Evaluation Board

Figure 2. Main Block Diagram


2011 Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation
Rev. 1.0.0 9/9/11

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2

AN-9742

APPLICATION NOTE

Half-Bridge Inverter Design

IGBT Selection for Welding Machine

The turn ratio of the primary and secondary of the


transformer in a half-bridge topology can be obtained from
the equation:

Among various power switching components, Insulated Gate


Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) is the most suitable device for
welding machines thanking for its high current handling
capability and high switching speed. IGBT is a voltagecontrolled power transistor, similar to the power MOSFET
in operation and construction. This device offers superior
performance to the bipolar-transistors. It is the most costeffective solution for high power and wide frequency-range
applications. Table 3 shows the characteristics comparison
of IGBT with BJT and MOSFET.

N1 =

N1 =

VIN ( MIN ) DMAX


4 B Ae f SW

(VO + VF + VI ) N1
DMAX VIN ( MIN )

(2)
(3)

where VI = VS, IWEL = output current, Id1 & Id2 = diode


current (output high side & output low side).

Table 3.

Output voltage under no load condition is given by:


Vnolaod =

(VO + VF = VI )
DMAX

(4)

where:
VO=output voltage;
VF=diode drop voltage; and
VI=inductor voltage drop.
Transformers primary and secondary current can be
obtained by:
I1rms =

N2
IWEL
N1

1
I 2rms = IWEL
2

(2 DMAX )

(5)

(1 + 2 DMAX )

(6)

N2
IWEL
N1

(7)

Output rectifier diode voltage and current:


Vr =

N2
VIN ( MAX ) , IWEL = I d12 + I d 2 2
N1

Features

BJT

MOSFETS

IGBT

Drive Method

Current

Voltage

Voltage

Drive Circuit

Complex

Simple

Simple

Input Impedance

Low

High

High

Drive Power

High

Low

Low

Switching Speed

Slow(s)

Fast(ns)

Middle

Operating
Frequency

Low

Fast
(less than 1MHz)

Middle

S.O.A

Narrow

Wide

Wide

Saturation
Voltage

Low

High

Low

Power losses of an IGBT include conduction loss and


switching loss. The conduction loss is determined by
IGBTs Vce(sat) value and the duty rate. The switching loss is
determined by turn-on and turn-off action during IGBTs
switching transient. For IGBTs, there are technical trade-off
characteristics between the Vce(sat) and the switching loss. If
Vce(sat) is high, switching loss becomes low and vice versa.
Therefore, the designer should select an IGBT based on the
system configuration and its switching frequency. The total
loss of an IGBT can be expressed as:

Current running through the IGBT and secondary-side


rectifier diode can be calculated by:
IGBT Current : I D =

Device Characteristics Comparison

(8)

Total 1 Pulse Switching


Switching
Conduction Loss
=
X
+
(9)
Loss Loss (EON + EOFF) Frequency
(VCS(SAT) X IC X Duty)

2011 Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation


Rev. 1.0.0 9/9/11

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3

AN-9742

APPLICATION NOTE

Figure 3 curves show the characteristics comparison


between PT IGBT and field-stop IGBT. PT IGBT has NTC
temperature characteristic: as temperature rises, Vce(sat)
decreases. Field-stop IGBT has PTC temperature
characteristic: as temperature rises, Vce(sat) increases.
Therefore, PT IGBT with NTC characteristic is more
suitable for the application where IGBT is operated solely.
However, if parallel operation of IGBTs is required for
current sharing, field-stop IGBT with PTC characteristic
would be more appropriate.
FGH40N60SMD
FGH40N60UFD
FGH40N60SFD
HGTG20N60A4D

70

Collector Current, Ic[A]

2.0

Total Switching Loss[Eon+Eoff], Ets[mJ]

80

The following figures show that the switching loss becomes


the dominant factor over conduction loss in 25kHz and
above switching frequency area.

60

Tc=25deg.C

50

Vge=15V

1.5

Tc=25deg.C
Tc=125deg.C

1.0

0.5

Test Condition :
Vcc=400V, Rg=10 ohm, Vge=15V

0.0
10

40

20

30

40

Collector Current, Ic[A]


30

Figure 5. Total Switching Loss Ets


vs. Collector Current IC

20
10

250

0
0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

Total power loss of IGBT, Pd [W]

0.0

Collector-Emitter Voltage, Vce(sat)[V]

Figure 3. HGTG20N60A4D(PT) vs. FGH40N60UFD/SFD


(Field-Stop Gen1)
80

FGH40N60SMD
FGH40N60UFD
FGH40N60SFD
HGTG20N60A4D

70

Collector Current, Ic[A]

FGH40N60SMD
FGH40N60UFD
FGH40N60SFD
HGTG20N60A4D

60

Tc=125deg.C
Vge=15V

50

200

FGH40N60SMD
FGH40N60UFD
FGH40N60SFD
HGTG20N60A4D

s
los
er
w
po
Vcc=400V, Rg=10 ohm,
tal
150 Vge=15V, Ic=40A, Tc=125deg.C To
Test Condition :

100

ing
itch
Sw

50

E
n+
Eo
[
s
los

]
off

Conduction loss
0
20.0k

40

40.0k

60.0k

80.0k

100.0k

Switching Frequency, Fsw[KHz]


30

Figure 6. Total Power Loss of IGBT Pd


vs. Switching Frequency

20

The gate resistor is also very critical to the switching loss.


High gate resistance results in high switching loss. On the
other hand, high gate resistance improves EMI performance
as the di/dt is lower during the switching transient. A
properly selected gate resistor should minimize the
switching loss without sacrificing system EMI performance.

10
0
0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

Collector-Emitter Voltage, Vce(sat)[V]

Figure 4. FGH40N60SMD (Field-Stop Gen2)

Reduction of conduction loss and total device cost with


better thermal performance would be the advantage of the
parallel operation of IGBTs. However, for such kind
application, the following must be considered:

 Using high-temperature PTC characteristic IGBT


 Using gate resistor with 1% tolerance for each IGBT
 Proper gate PCB layout for symmetrical current paths
 Identical heat sink size and airflow for each IGBT
 Same threshold voltage and saturation voltage
characteristics
2011 Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation
Rev. 1.0.0 9/9/11

www.fairchildsemi.com
4

AN-9742

APPLICATION NOTE

Below are the IGBT turn-off characteristics measurements


with JIG testing. Under the same conditions, FS Planar
Gen2 IGBT FGH40N60SMD shows faster switching
characteristic, lower Vce(sat), and tremendously lower turn-off
loss compared to previous technology devices - PT and FS
Planar Gen1 IGBT.

Figure 9 and Figure 10 show the IGBT operation waveforms


of the evaluation board with R-load and welding load. These
waveforms reveal that welding load consumes three times
the current that R-load consumes. Therefore, it is important
to select IGBT with suitable Icm parameter to avoid
saturation at peak-current condition.

1.0

FGH40N60SMD
FGH40N60UFD
FGH40N60SFD
HGTG20N60A4D

Switching Loss, Eoff[mJ]

0.8

Tc=25deg.C
Tc=125deg.C

0.6

0.4

Test Condition :
Vcc=400V, Ic=40A, Vge=15V

0.2
5

10

15

20

25

30

Gate Resistance, Rg[ohm]

Figure 9. R-Load Test at IOUT=14A

Figure 7. Turn-Off Loss EO vs. Gate Resistance Rg


16

Switching loss, Eoff / A[uJ]

Tc=25deg.C
FGH40N60UFD

12

HGTG20N60A4D

FGH40N60SFD

FGH40N60SMD
8
1.6

1.8

2.0

2.2

2.4

Collector-Emitter Voltage, Vce(sat)[V]

Figure 10. Welding-Load Test at 3.2 Pie Welding Rod

Figure 8. Turn-Off Loss EOFF vs. Collector-Emitter


Vce(sat)

2011 Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation


Rev. 1.0.0 9/9/11

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AN-9742

APPLICATION NOTE

Figure 11 through Figure 16 show turn-off switching loss


EOFF measurement with welding load and R-load. Due to the
leakage inductance and capacitor element, there is huge

difference in EOFF measurement compared with the JIG test


result. The EOFF of FGH40N60SMD shows the lowest loss
from the test.

Figure 11. EOFF Comparison Under


R-Load (FGH40N60SMD)

Figure 12. EOFF Comparison Under


R-Load (FGH40N60UFD)

Figure 13. EOFF Comparison Under


R-Load (FGH40N60SFD)

Figure 14. EOFF Comparison Under


Welding Load (FGH40N60SMD)

Figure 15. EOFF Comparison Under


Welding Load (FGH40N60UFD)

Figure 16. EOFF Comparison Under


Welding Load (FGH40N60SFD)

2011 Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation


Rev. 1.0.0 9/9/11

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AN-9742

APPLICATION NOTE

Rectifier Diode for Welding Machine

Qrr =

Fairchild Semiconductor provides five kinds of diodes that


cater to different applications. Diodes with lower Vf, Irr, and
Trr characteristics are ideal for welding applications;
however, the common P_N theory dictates that the lower the
Vf, the longer the Trr and vice versa. A designer chooses a
diode with a trade-off point where Vf and Trr benefit the
system efficiency the most. The following figures show
performance comparisons for 600V/8A diodes from each
Fairchild Semiconductor diode technology.
2.6
2.4

Stealth

2.2

Hyperfast2

VF [V]

The figures below show the performance of diodes used in


single and parallel configuration. Although the reverse
recovery loss increases, Vf is reduced with parallelized
diodes and better thermal performance can be expected.
Designer caution is required for parallel diode application to
ensure that the air flow does not cause unbalanced current
conditions, as the Vf of diode tends to decrease when the
temperature rises.

Ulrafast
Hyperfast
Hyperfast2
Stealth
Stealth2

Stealth2

Hyperfast

2.0

(10)

Generally, the rectifier diode of welding machine has higher


conduction loss than reverse recovery loss. Therefore, the
diode VF value is more critical for a welding application.
For this reason, ultra-fast diode FFA60UP30DN (30A dual
diode) is used for this evaluation board. Three diodes are
used in parallel for each tap of transformer to lower the VF.

FCS Rectifier Diode Vf vs Qrr, 600V 8A

2.8

1
I rr t rr
2

Tc=25deg.C

1.8

Diode I-V charateristic

100

1.6

Tc=25deg.C
Tc=125deg.C

Ultrafast
1.4

80

IF, Forward Current [A]

1.2
1.0
0

20

40

60

80

Qrr [nC]

Figure 17. VF vs. Qrr Trade-Off


FSC Rectifier performance @ 600V, 8A

10

Ultrafast
Hyperfast
Hyperfast2
Stealth
Stealth2
Tc=125deg.C

8
6
4

IF [A]

60

40

FFA60UP30DN-Dual
20

FFA60UP30DN-single
0
0.0

0.6

1.2

1.8

VF, Forward Voltage [V]

-2
-4

Figure 20. Diode I-V Characteristic

-6
-8

FFA60UP30DN Qrr charateristic

-10

360
-12
-80.0n

-40.0n

0.0

40.0n

80.0n

120.0n

VR = 150V
IF = 30A
Single
Dual

160.0n

Stored Recovery charge Qrr [nC]

Time [sec]

Figure 18. Reverse Recovery Performance

300

Tc=125deg.C

240

180

120

60

Tc=25deg.C

0
100

200

300

400

500

di/dt [ A/us]

Figure 21. Stored Recovery Charge Qrr vs.


Diode Current Slop di/dt

Figure 19. Test Circuit and Waveforms


2011 Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation
Rev. 1.0.0 9/9/11

www.fairchildsemi.com
7

AN-9742

APPLICATION NOTE

Figure 22 shows the diode switching loss when the board is


operating at 20KHz. The conduction loss is about 336J,
while the reverse recovery loss is only about 4J.

Figure 24. UIS Test Circuit

Figure 22. Diode Conduction Loss During Welding


Figure 25. FFA60UP30DN Immunity Capability

Blocking Capacitor
For half-bridge topology; if the two series DC bank
capacitors or the turn-on time of IGBTs are not matched,
DC flux occurs in the transformer. The accumulated DC flux
eventually drives transformer into saturation. The IGBTs
can be destroyed by sharply increased current due to the
saturated transformer. To block the DC flux in the
transformer core, a small DC blocking capacitor is placed in
series with the transformer primary. The value of the DC
blocking capacitor is given by:
Figure 23. Diode Reverse Recovery Loss
During Welding

Cblocking =

Avalanche occurs in a diode with sudden current increase


when the voltage across a diode exceeds the specified Vr
value. Here, the area (Vr(AVL)*Isa) that diode does not fail is
called avalanche energy and the equation is:

1
Vr ( AVL )
]
EAVL = L Isa 2 [
2
(Vr ( AVL ) VDD)

D max ID
VP Fsw

(12)

where VP is the permissible droop in primary voltage due


to the DC blocking capacitor.
Below is the waveform of the transformer primary current.
The current abruptly rise due to the saturated transformer
caused by DC bias.

(11)

Q1 = IGBT ( BV ces ) > DUT (Vr ( AVL ))


Avalanche energy is occurred by the second output inductor,
as shown in the equation. The immunity capability is
proportional to the inductance. The inductance of a welding
machine is generally designed as small value as several H,
and diode immunity capability value becomes an important
factor for choosing a device.
Avalanche can occur in the secondary-side rectifier of a
welding machine; especially when the welding work is
completed and the reverse pass occurs by inductor.
Immunity capability is measured using a circuit as shown in
Figure 24 with the graph in Figure 25 showing avalanche
energy test result waveform.
2011 Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation
Rev. 1.0.0 9/9/11

Figure 26. IGBT Saturation Current


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AN-9742

APPLICATION NOTE

Figure 27. Zoom of IGBT Saturation Current

Figure 28. PWM Convert 40KHz to 20KHz

Power Supply Structure and Design


MOSFET integrated IC FSMG0465R is used for power
supply. Its simple peripheral circuit and 66KHz switching
frequency reduce the PCB and transformer size. In addition,
the efficiency of power has been maximized by the
minimization of idling power that can be achieved from low
power consumption in Standby Mode (<1W at 230VAC input
at 0.5W load). There are transformer type and SMPS type
for the substitute power supply. SMPS type, compared to
linear transformer type, has stable output power over the
influence of input serge, sag, and noise; and minimal design
of size and weight is possible. In addition, transformer type
has a fixed input voltage, whereas SMPS has a wide input
voltage range of 80VAC~264VAC, which can be used for free
voltage welding machine without additional operation.
However, it is necessary to consider counter measures for
noise as the switching noise may affect main inverter. For
further information about Fairchild Power Switches
(FPS), refer to the application note AN-4150 found at:
http://www.fairchildsemi.com/an/AN/AN-4150.pdf.

Gate Driver Design


A transformer, opto-coupler, or HVIC can be used for a gate
driver. Necessary supply voltages for different gate drivers
are listed as:

HVIC Driver: +15V, 0V (High and Low Gate),


+ 24V, 0V (Output Detect), +5V, 0V (Controller)
Otpo-Coupler Driver : +15V, 0V, -5V (High-Side Gate),
+15V, 0V, -5V (Low-Side Gate), +24V, 0V (Output Detect),
+5V, 0V (Controller)
Pulse Transformer: +24V, 0V (Output Detect),
+5V, 0V (Controller)

The opto-coupler and transformer provide isolation between


the control circuit and IGBTs. However, a transformer may
cause half bridge cross-conduction due to the offset voltage
of gate-pulse dead-time stage. Through an by integrated
high-voltage MOSFET, the HVIC provides isolations
between the control circuit and the high-side IGBT. This
does not work with negative supply voltage. A negative
supply voltage is necessary for HVIC during a fast
commutation in a half-bridge topology to prevent dv/dt
shoot-through. The shoot-through is linked to a fast voltage
variation across one of the two IGBTs. A current flowing
through collector-emitter capacitor can bring the gate
voltage of an IGBT, when turned off, to rise due to Miller
effect and obtain a cross conduction into the leg.

Controller Design
The evaluation board uses PIC16f716 for the control
circuits. PIC16f716 controller consists of four ports of 8-bit
AD converter and one port PWM timer with 9-bit, 40KHz
resolution. To generate two PWM pulses from one PWM
signal, a D flip-flop and an AND gate are used to divide the
40KHz PWM into 20KHz PWM pulse (see Figure 28).
R2
+5V

R3
1k

C2
104

17
18
+5V

R19
330

RA0/AN0

C12
104

RA1/AN1

2
RB3

3
+5V

Temp

VR3
5k

+5V
3
2
1

+5V
C19 C20 C21 C22 C23
104 104 104 104 104
R6
1K

R11

MCLR/VPP
RB7

2
Temp
R8

C4
104

ZD!
1

RB6

1N4099

D5

RB5
2

10k
J2
Output

C5
104

RA3/AN3/VREF
RB4

R9
1k

1N4937

RB0/INT

2
1

LVD

7
8

C6

R10
1K

RB1
RB2

RA4/TOCKI

C15
104

7409

8
6

Gate1_1

5
4

gate1_2

3
2n3904d/ON

7474

C13
470P

-15V

+5V
R20
330

C9
22P

330

R12

330

R13

330

+15V

U6
2 PS2501

8
6

3
U4B

5
4

Q1

R18 1K

12

C16
104
Gate2_1
gate2_2

6
5

11

7409
R14

330

R15

330

R16

330

2n3904d/ON

-15V

C14
470P

10
6
3

G1
Cont+

PC1
PC817

105

CLK Q

Q2
R17 1K

13

+5V
VR2
5k

GND

2
1
R7
1K

U3A
5

X1
20Mhz

15

C8
22P

560

U2A

U5
2 PS2501

16

J1

OSC2/CLKOUT
R4
36k R5

C3
104

Current Limit

TH

RA2/AN2
OSC1/CLKIN

J1
1

VR1
5k

BD1
+5V +5V +5V +5V +5V

14

C11
10uF/10V

C10
104

PRE

D4
1N4937

C1
22uF/10V

R1
10 ohm/3W

PIC16C711

C LR

D3
1N4937

U1

2
1

+5V

D2
1N4937

VD D

J3
CT

+15V

+5V

27k
D1
1N4937

G2
Cont-

RD1
SD

G3
PWR

Y1
WLD

RD2
ERR

C7
104

Figure 29. Controller Schematic


2011 Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation
Rev. 1.0.0 9/9/11

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AN-9742

APPLICATION NOTE

ICG = dv/ dt CCG

Q I CG = G CG dV / dt
Vge = Rg ICG

Figure 34. Opto-Driver Gate Waveform

Figure 30. Effect on dv/dt to VGE

DC Reactor Design
DC reactor helps stabilize arc current during welding
operation. As DC reactance grows, specter occurs smaller.
On the contrary, if the mobility of arc is lowered and the LDC
value gets too large, it is harder to create an arc. Therefore,
an appropriate reactor choice is necessary. If considering
VOPEN as output no-load voltage, VWEL and IWEL as rated
output voltage or current; the maximum LDC value can be
obtained from the equation:

: LDC
Figure 31. Effect on dV/dt to Gate Wave

R tR
IWEL
In(1
R)
Vopen

(13)

Based on the above considerations, an opto-coupler is used


for this welding machine evaluation board. Figure 32 and
Figure 33 present the gate waveforms captured with
different types of gate drivers. It is clear the opto-coupler is
the best choice for this welding application.

where R is the equivalent resistance of welding load and Tr


is the rising time of the output current from 0 to the rated
current. Once the maximum LDC value is obtained; the
optimum LDC value can be finalized through testing.

Figure 32. HVIC Gate Waveform

Figure 35. Soft-Start During Welding Operating

Figure 33. Transformer Gate Waveform


2011 Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation
Rev. 1.0.0 9/9/11

Figure 36. Welding Operating


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AN-9742

APPLICATION NOTE

When to chose an IGBT, its Vce(sat), Eoff turn-off loss, gate


driver resistor, and Icm characteristics are the critical factors
that require a designers careful attention.

Conclusion
Better performance is expected for a DC-ARC welding
machine when the inverter devices are selected properly
based on the inverter topology and its switching frequency.
This article presents a power device selection guide for a
half-bridge welding machine application.

For the secondary -side rectifier diodes, it is important to


determine which is the dominant factor, Vf or reverse
recovery loss, based on system switching frequency. The
evaluation
board
uses
three
ultra-fast
diodes
(FFA60UP30DN) in parallel for each tap of the transformer
to lower the Vf and therefore the conduction loss.

References
[1]

Aspandiar, Raiyo, Voids in Solder Joints, SMTA Northwest Chapter Meeting, September 21, 2005,
Intel Corporation.
[2] Bryant, Keith, Investigating Voids, Circuits Assembly, June 2004.
[3] Comley, David, et al, The QFN: Smaller, Faster, and Less Expensive, Chip Scale Review.com, August /
September 2002.
[4] Englemaier, Werner, Voids in solder joints-reliability, Global SMT & Package, December 2005.
[5] IPC Solder Products Value Council, Round Robin Testing and Analysis of Lead Free Solder Pastes with Alloys of
Tin, Silver, and Copper, 2005.
[6] IPC-A-610-D, Acceptance of Electronic Assemblies, February 2005.
[7] IPC J-STD-001D, Requirements for Soldered Electrical and Electronic Assemblies.
[8] IPC-SM-7525A, Stencil Design Guidelines, May 2000.
[9] JEDEC, JESD22-B102D, Solderability, VA, Sept. 2004.
[10] Syed, Ahmer, et al, Board-Level Assembly and Reliability Considerations for QFN Type Packages,
Amkor Technology, Inc., Chandler, AZ.

Related Resources
FGH40N60SMD 600V, 40A Field Stop IGBT
FFA60UP30DN 300V Ultrafast Recovery Power Rectifier
FSGM0465R SMPS Power Switch, 4A, 650V (Green)

Appendix Circuit Diagrams


C23

R6
10

102

+ BUS

Z1
FGH40N60SMD

ZD1
1N4744

BD1
C54
1uF M275V

1
C1
400V 560uF

RV3
20D431K

C2
400V 560uF

GBP5006

ZD3
1N4744

ZD6
1N4744

L6
GND2

FAN
2

R3

10/3W

ZD4
1N4733

10/3W

FGA60UP30DN

630V
Z4
FGA40N60SMD

ZD8
1N4744
ZD9
1N4733

R9

T1
1

Gate2
R8

D3

CT1

C61

R4
4.7k

ZD7
1N4733

R7
4.7k

C50
10uF 630V

Gate1

Z3
FGA40N60SMD

Gate2

RV1
20D431K
1

10/3W

GND1

LF1R
FILTER

C62
472M

R1
R2
4.7k

ZD2
1N4733

D7 FGA60UP30DN

2
RV2
20D431K

C55
472M

P11
1

Z2
FGA40N60SMD

Gate1

1
P3

L5
P10

JF3250G
4

L4

52uH

8
D16

C51
10uF 630V

R39

C24

10/3W
10

+ Output

FGA60UP30DN

TRANSFORMER CT

102

C52
10nF 630V

R5
4.7k
D17

- BUS

D18

D19

FGA60UP30DN

FGA60UP30DN

C53
10nF 630V

FGA60UP30DN
- Output

Figure 37. Main Circuit

2011 Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation


Rev. 1.0.0 9/9/11

www.fairchildsemi.com
11

AN-9742

APPLICATION NOTE
C209 102

R211 10

D203
T101
EER3940S

L1 10uH
+15v

MBRF10H100
C223
470uF 35V

C224
470uF 35V

10
R212
C208
3.3nF 630V

R207
43K/1W

R208

2
BD201

5D-9
LF201
30mH

C222
470uF 35V

L2 10uH
-15V

U201
6

R201
1M/1W

2KBP06M3N25

C211102

R21310

D205

FGM0465R

L3 10uH

Drain

15+v

Vstr

12

MBRF10H100

C203
400V 100uF
R203
150K

FB

D201
3

Vcc

AC220V N
PC1

Q201
2N2222

C205
33nF 100V

C217
470uF 35V

C218
470uF 35V

D206

L4 10uH
-15V

ZD201
1N4745A
1

C204 R205
47nF 1K

1K 2

14

R204

C220
470uF 35V
GND2

C212 102

1W 5

R209
100 ohm/0.5W

250V 2A

C219
470uF 35V
13

R210

R214 10
UF4004

C202
275Vac 100nF

1N4007

1k

R202
270K

C201
275Vac 100nF

GND

NTC

F201

C211
470uF 35V

MBRF10H100

NTC1
AC220V H

TNR
10D471k

GND1

C210

10 D204
102

11

D202

R206
75K

C206
100nF

MBRF10H100

C207
47uF 50V

R215
10

15
D38
1N4744

C213

D207102

L5

5v
4.9uH

MBRF10H100
C215
470uF 10V

16
XY

C216
1000uF 10V
gnd

4.7nF/1KV

R216
R219

620

3
1

R218

C214

18K

47nF
R220
8K

U202
TL431

8K

R217
1.2k

PC2 817

Figure 38. Auxiliary Power Supply

Figure 39. Controller

DISCLAIMER
FAIRCHILD SEMICONDUCTOR RESERVES THE RIGHT TO MAKE CHANGES WITHOUT FURTHER NOTICE TO ANY PRODUCTS
HEREIN TO IMPROVE RELIABILITY, FUNCTION, OR DESIGN. FAIRCHILD DOES NOT ASSUME ANY LIABILITY ARISING OUT OF THE
APPLICATION OR USE OF ANY PRODUCT OR CIRCUIT DESCRIBED HEREIN; NEITHER DOES IT CONVEY ANY LICENSE UNDER ITS
PATENT RIGHTS, NOR THE RIGHTS OF OTHERS.
LIFE SUPPORT POLICY
FAIRCHILDS PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT DEVICES OR SYSTEMS
WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT OF FAIRCHILD SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION.
As used herein:
1.

Life support devices or systems are devices or systems


which, (a) are intended for surgical implant into the body, or
(b) support or sustain life, or (c) whose failure to perform
when properly used in accordance with instructions for use
provided in the labeling, can be reasonably expected to
result in significant injury to the user.

2011 Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation


Rev. 1.0.0 9/9/11

2.

A critical component is any component of a life support


device or system whose failure to perform can be
reasonably expected to cause the failure of the life support
device or system, or to affect its safety or effectiveness.

www.fairchildsemi.com
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