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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN KIMIA


PROCESS SIMULATION LABORATORY (CPE613)

NAME (STUDENT ID)

: SHEH MUHAMMAD AFNAN BIN SEH HANAFI


(2013210382)
: MOHD ADAFI BIN OMAR
(2013632232)
: ARIF ISKANDAR BIN ISMAIL
(2013293746)

EXPERIMENT

: LAB 4 (PRODUCTION OF ACETIC ANHYDRIDE


COLUMN)
: 20/10/2015
:5
: EH221
: DR. RAHIDA WATI

DATE PERFORMED
SEMESTER
PROGRAM
SUBMIT TO
No.

Title

Allocated Marks (%)

1
2
3
4

Procedure
Process Flow Diagram (PFD)
Workbook/Stream Summary
Questions & Discussions

10
20
30
40

TOTAL MARKS
Remarks:
Checked by:

------------------------------(DR. RAHIDA WATI)


Date:

100

Marks

TABLE OF CONTENT
Objective

Procedure

2-3

Process Flow Diagram

Workbook/stream summary

5-6

Question and Answer

Discussion

Conclusion

Reference

OBJECTIVE
1. To install and converge a plug flow reactor
2. To simulate a process involving reaction
PROCEDURE
1.

Firstly ,a new iCON project is started by selecting the New Project Button.

2.

Then ,a property package window will appear.

In the window , All Property package from the Chemical System Categories is
selected.

Then, WILSON is selected from the Thermodynamic Model drop-down list.


After that click the Apply button.

3.

Compenent window is opened.

Add

all

the

chemicals

being

used

which

are

Acetone(C2H6O),

Ketene(C2H2O), Methane(CH4) being entered into the compound list.


4.

In the Visio PFD flowsheet, all the equipments involved in production of acetic
anhydride were put in correct order.

5.

The stream was chosen and labeled FEED then the Plug Flow Reactor(PFR) is added
and connected to the outlet stream Stream_out.

6.

In Worksheet of inlet stream, the feed condition of the process is adjusted at


Conditions button which:
Temperature : 760oC

7.

Pressure

: 150 kPa

Mass flow

: 8000 kg/hr

In order to adjust the composition of the feed stream, click the Composition button:
Acetone : 1.00
Ketene : 0.00
Methane: 0.00
2

6.

All the information given is being key in the streams and reactors.
Hint:

Use Wilson property package.

Qout = 0 W, P = 50 kPa

Assume :
Length: 30 m
Inner diameter: 0.5 m

Kinetics :
Forward: A = 8.2 x 1014 , E = 2.85 x 105 kJ/mol
Reverse: A = 0, E = 0

The length and inner diameter can be changed to achieve specific goal.

8. The simulation is run by clicking the run button and the result are obtained which will
be discussed in the discussion section and to answer the question given.

PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM

Based on the figure above, it shows the PFD for the production of acetic anhydride. Vapour
phase cracking of acetone is used in order to produce ketene and methane.
C2H6O

C2H2O+ CH4

This reaction is first order with respect to acetone. The energy out is Q(out)=0 W

STREAM SUMMARY

Name

Feed

Stream_out

Description
Upstream Op

PFR-1.Out

Downstream Op
VapFrac
T [C]
P [kPa]
MoleFlow/Composition

PFR-1.In
1.00

1.00

760.0

642.0

150.00

100.00

Fraction

kmol/h

Fraction

kmol/h

ACETONE

1.00000

137.74

0.66637

110.17

KETENE

0.00000

0.00

0.16681

27.58

METHANE

0.00000

0.00

0.16681

27.58

1.00

137.74

1.00

165.32

Total
Mass Flow [kg/h]
Volume Flow [m3/h]
Std Liq Volume Flow [m3/h]
Std Gas Volume Flow [Sm3/d]

8000.00

8000.00

7888.098

12579.257

10.044

11.216

7.8317E+4

9.3996E+4

Energy [W]

4.182E+6

3.456E+6

H [kJ/kmol]

109297.0

75254.4

381.335

302.483

S [kJ/kmol-K]
MW
Mass Density [kg/m3]
Cp [kJ/kmol-K]
Thermal Conductivity [W/m-K]
Viscosity [Pa-s]

58.08

48.39

1.0142

0.6360

166.152

129.756

0.1223

0.0984

2.6609E-5

2.4650E-5

Molar Volume [m3/kmol]

57.267

76.090

Z Factor

1.0000

1.0000

Surface Tension
Speed of Sound

The diagram shows the volume for the volume of PFR to achieve at least 20% conversion of
acetone is 0.044m3 which the length is 13.01m and the inner diameter is 6.550cm.

QUESTIONS
What is the volume of PFR to achieve at least 20% conversion of acetone?
Based from the result, to achieve at least 20% conversion of acetone the volume of PFR is
0.044 m3. The flow rate of the feed is 137.74 kgmole/hr and the stream out is 110.19
kgmole/hr. The length and diameter was adjusted until the conversion is 20%. From the table,
the length is 13.01m and the diameter is 6.55cm.
DISCUSSION
The objective of this experiment is to determine the volume, length, and diameter of the PFR
for desired conversion of product. In this experiment, the desired conversion of acetone is
20%. In order to get the 20% conversion, the length and diameter are adjusted. When the
length and diameter were adjust, the flow of the feed and stream out of the product will
change significantly. Thus, the conversion can be determine from the flow of the feed and
product by using equation. In this experiment, to get the 20% conversion, the length is
13.01m and the diameter of the PFR is 6.55cm. The result also show the volume of the PFR
which is 0.044m3. In real situation, to build a PFR reactor, a certain specification shoud be
follow. An ICON software is a theoretically calculation in order to get the 1 st idea of
manufacture of the reactor.
A plug flow reactor (PFR) is a type of chemical reactor where the influent is pumped into the
pipe. Chemical reactions occur through the length of the PFR and the reaction rate is not a
constant. A conversion factor is a ratio (or fraction) which represents the relationship between
two different units. A conversion factor is always equal to 1.

CONCLUSION
As conclusion, a desired conversion of a product can be achieve by adjusting the length and
diameter of the PFR reactor.

REFRENCE
1. Springer Production, 2007, Chemical Reactor Development: from Laboratory
Synthesis to Industrial Production By D. Thoenes.
2. Plug Flow Reactor,
http://www.umich.edu/~elements/5e/asyLearn/bits/pfrfinal/index.htm
3. Mann, U. (2009) Plug-Flow Reactor, in Principles of Chemical Reactor Analysis and
Design: New Tools for Industrial Chemical Reactor Operations, Second Edition, John
Wiley & Sons, Inc.,
4. Held, H., Rengstl, A. and Mayer, D. 2000. Acetic Anhydride and Mixed Fatty Acid
Anhydrides. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. .