Sunteți pe pagina 1din 74
ENGLEZA BUSINESS Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 1 Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială

ENGLEZA BUSINESS

ENGLEZA BUSINESS Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 1 Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială
ENGLEZA BUSINESS Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 1 Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială
ENGLEZA BUSINESS Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 1 Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială
ENGLEZA BUSINESS Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 1 Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială
ENGLEZA BUSINESS Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 1 Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială
ENGLEZA BUSINESS Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 1 Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială
ENGLEZA BUSINESS Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 1 Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

1

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

CONTENS Lesson 1 SUPPLY, DEMAND, PRICE AND COMPETITION Lesson 2 WHAT COMMERCE IS ABOUT Lesson

CONTENS

CONTENS Lesson 1 SUPPLY, DEMAND, PRICE AND COMPETITION Lesson 2 WHAT COMMERCE IS ABOUT Lesson 3
CONTENS Lesson 1 SUPPLY, DEMAND, PRICE AND COMPETITION Lesson 2 WHAT COMMERCE IS ABOUT Lesson 3
CONTENS Lesson 1 SUPPLY, DEMAND, PRICE AND COMPETITION Lesson 2 WHAT COMMERCE IS ABOUT Lesson 3
CONTENS Lesson 1 SUPPLY, DEMAND, PRICE AND COMPETITION Lesson 2 WHAT COMMERCE IS ABOUT Lesson 3
CONTENS Lesson 1 SUPPLY, DEMAND, PRICE AND COMPETITION Lesson 2 WHAT COMMERCE IS ABOUT Lesson 3
CONTENS Lesson 1 SUPPLY, DEMAND, PRICE AND COMPETITION Lesson 2 WHAT COMMERCE IS ABOUT Lesson 3

Lesson 1

SUPPLY, DEMAND, PRICE AND COMPETITION

Lesson 2

WHAT COMMERCE IS ABOUT

Lesson 3

WHOLESALING

Lesson 4

ASPECTS OF MANAGEMENT

Lesson 5

TEAMWORK IN ORGANISATIONS

Lesson 6

MANAGER TYPES

Lesson 7

GRAMMAR

Lesson 8

BUSINESS LETERS

VOCABULARY

7 GRAMMAR Lesson 8 BUSINESS LETERS VOCABULARY Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 2 Uniunea Europeană

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

2

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

LESSON 1 SUPPLY, DEMAND, PRICE AND COMPETITION OBJECTIVES: After studying this lesson , you should
LESSON 1 SUPPLY, DEMAND, PRICE AND COMPETITION OBJECTIVES: After studying this lesson , you should
LESSON 1 SUPPLY, DEMAND, PRICE AND COMPETITION OBJECTIVES: After studying this lesson , you should
LESSON 1 SUPPLY, DEMAND, PRICE AND COMPETITION OBJECTIVES: After studying this lesson , you should
LESSON 1 SUPPLY, DEMAND, PRICE AND COMPETITION OBJECTIVES: After studying this lesson , you should
LESSON 1 SUPPLY, DEMAND, PRICE AND COMPETITION OBJECTIVES: After studying this lesson , you should
LESSON 1 SUPPLY, DEMAND, PRICE AND COMPETITION OBJECTIVES: After studying this lesson , you should

LESSON 1

SUPPLY, DEMAND, PRICE AND COMPETITION

OBJECTIVES: After studying this lesson , you should be able to:

o understand the concepts of supply and demand and competition;

o comprehend how supply and demand determine price in competitive markets;

LEAD-IN

1. What forms of competition do you know?

2. What determines the price of a product?

3. Explain the demand for a particular product.

4. Explain the supply of a particular product.

A free-market system implies competition among sellers of products and resources. Economists recognize four different degrees of competition, ranging from ideal competition to no competition at all. These are pure competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly and monopoly. Pure (or perfect) competition is the market situation in which there are many buyers and sellers of a product, and no single buyer or seller is powerful enough to affect the

no single buyer or seller is powerful enough to affect the Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

3

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

price of that product. In pure competition, sellers and buyers must accept the going price.
price of that product. In pure competition, sellers and buyers must accept the going price.
price of that product. In pure competition, sellers and buyers must accept the going price.
price of that product. In pure competition, sellers and buyers must accept the going price.
price of that product. In pure competition, sellers and buyers must accept the going price.
price of that product. In pure competition, sellers and buyers must accept the going price.
price of that product. In pure competition, sellers and buyers must accept the going price.

price of that product. In pure competition, sellers and buyers must accept the going price. But who determines the price? Actually, everyone does. The price of each product is determined by the actions of all buyers and sellers together, through the forces of supply and demand. It is this interaction of buyers and sellers, working for their best interest, that Adam Smith referred to as the "invisible hand" of competition. The supply of a particular product is the quantity of the product that producers are willing to sell at each of various prices. Supply is thus a relationship between prices and the quantity offered by producers. The demand for a particular product is the quantity that buyers are willing to purchase at each of various prices. Demand is thus a relationship between prices and the quantities purchased by buyers. Buyers, too, are usually rational, so we would expect them – as a group – to buy more of a product when its price is low and to buy less of the product when its price is high. Under pure competition, the market price of any product is the price at which the quantity demanded is exactly equal to the quantity supplied. In theory and in the real market, prices are affected by anything that affects supply and demand. Other changes that can affect competitive prices are shifts in buyer tastes, the development of new products that satisfy old needs and fluctuations in income due to inflation or recession. Many real market, however, are examples of monopolistic competition.

market, however, are examples of monopolistic competition . Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 4 Uniunea Europeană

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

4

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

Monopolistic competition is a market situation in which there are many buyers along with relatively
Monopolistic competition is a market situation in which there are many buyers along with relatively
Monopolistic competition is a market situation in which there are many buyers along with relatively
Monopolistic competition is a market situation in which there are many buyers along with relatively
Monopolistic competition is a market situation in which there are many buyers along with relatively
Monopolistic competition is a market situation in which there are many buyers along with relatively
Monopolistic competition is a market situation in which there are many buyers along with relatively

Monopolistic competition is a market situation in which there are many buyers along with relatively many sellers who differentiate their product from the products of competitors, by providing unique product features – an attention-getting brand name, unique packing or services such as free delivery or a “lifetime” warranty. By differentiating its product from all similar products, the producer obtains some limited control over the market price of its product. An oligopoly is a market situation (or industry) in which there are few sellers. Generally, these sellers are quite large, and sizable investments are required to enter into their market. Examples of oligopolistic industries are the American automobile, industrial chemicals and oil refining industries. Because there are few sellers in an oligopoly, each seller has considerable control over price. At the same time, the market actions of each seller can have a strong effect on competitors’ sales. If one firm reduces its price, the other firms in the industry usually do the same to retain their market shares. This usually results in similar prices for similar products. A monopoly is a market (or industry) with only one seller. Because only one firm is the supplier of a product, it has complete control over price.

supplier of a product, it has complete control over price. Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 5

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

5

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

GRAMMAR – THE ARTICLE • The indefinite article “a”/ “an” “A” – indefinite article; is

GRAMMAR – THE ARTICLE

The indefinite article “a”/ “an”

THE ARTICLE • The indefinite article “a”/ “an” “A” – indefinite article; is used when the
THE ARTICLE • The indefinite article “a”/ “an” “A” – indefinite article; is used when the
THE ARTICLE • The indefinite article “a”/ “an” “A” – indefinite article; is used when the
THE ARTICLE • The indefinite article “a”/ “an” “A” – indefinite article; is used when the
THE ARTICLE • The indefinite article “a”/ “an” “A” – indefinite article; is used when the
THE ARTICLE • The indefinite article “a”/ “an” “A” – indefinite article; is used when the

“A” – indefinite article; is used when the word start with a consonant

Examples: Pure competition is only a theoretical concepts. Supply is a relationship between the price and the quantity offerd by

producers. “An” – indefinite article; is used when the word start with a vowel. Examples: In his own design for an organization, Max Weber describe the bureaucracy as an lick a model to perform complex tasks efficiently.

The definite article “ the”

- we don’t use the article when we talk about things in generally

(ex. I am interested in buying certain economics books).

- we don’t use the article when we talk about meals, days, transports, seasons, names of citys and countries. From this rule are excepted the countries who represent a geographical collection ( ex. The United States, The United Kingdom).

- in other situation we do use the definite article.

- in other situation we do use the definite article. Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 6

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

6

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

1. Answer the following questions : 1. Why is pure competition only a theoretical concept?

1. Answer the following questions :

1. Why is pure competition only a theoretical concept?

: 1. Why is pure competition only a theoretical concept? 2. What are the implications of
: 1. Why is pure competition only a theoretical concept? 2. What are the implications of
: 1. Why is pure competition only a theoretical concept? 2. What are the implications of
: 1. Why is pure competition only a theoretical concept? 2. What are the implications of
: 1. Why is pure competition only a theoretical concept? 2. What are the implications of
: 1. Why is pure competition only a theoretical concept? 2. What are the implications of

2. What are the implications of monopolistic competition on the various sellers?

3. What did Adam Smith call the “invisible hand” of competition?

4. Why isn’t it possible for the companies in a monopoly to set their prices at high

levels?

 

2.

Fill in

the following

text

with

a,

the,

or

the zero article, where

appropriate:

Riddell Inc

sporting

goods company controls 65 percent of

market

for

football

helmets. One reason for

size

of its market share is

that

Riddell

executives

convinced

officials of the National

Football League to adopt

Kodak currently controls 80 percent of

use

of their company’s helmets for NFL players.

consumer film market and 50

U.S.

percent of

global

consumer film market. When you consider that one share

point of

global

market is equal to about $40 million in revenues, then you

begin to realize how successful

competitor

Kodak really is.

3. Choose the most suitable phrase a. She had to go. She’s in a hurry/in hurry. b. I think I prefer the other play on the whole/on whole.

b. I think I prefer the other play on the whole/on whole . Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

7

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

c. Jack was in pain/in a pain after he twisted his wrist. d. Margaret recovered
c. Jack was in pain/in a pain after he twisted his wrist. d. Margaret recovered
c. Jack was in pain/in a pain after he twisted his wrist. d. Margaret recovered
c. Jack was in pain/in a pain after he twisted his wrist. d. Margaret recovered
c. Jack was in pain/in a pain after he twisted his wrist. d. Margaret recovered
c. Jack was in pain/in a pain after he twisted his wrist. d. Margaret recovered
c. Jack was in pain/in a pain after he twisted his wrist. d. Margaret recovered

c. Jack was in pain/in a pain after he twisted his wrist.

d. Margaret recovered from the accident and is now out of danger/out of the danger.

e. The teacher was under an impression/under the impression that I had not learned

the lesson.

f. Excuse me, but you are in the way/in a way.

g. How many hours do you work, on average/on the average, every week?

4.Answer the following questions on the text below:

a. Why has it become a matter of survival for American firms to become more competitive?

b. Which are the methods that companies can use in order to enhance productivity?

c. What effects do these methods have on the employees in the respective companies? Strengthening Competitiveness through Quality Improvement Years ago, “Made in the U.S.A.” meant high quality, unsurpassed technology, and the world’s most efficient productivity. Now, foreign companies are vigorously challenging American firms. Over 70 percent of U.S. products compete with foreign goods, and this percentage will likely grow. Americans eagerly purchase German

cars, Japanese electronic equipment, Russian vodka, and Italian fashion accessories. In their struggle to be more competitive, U. S. companies have cut costs,

more

improved

efficiency,

and

have

begun

to

market

products

and

services

8

efficiency, and have begun to market products and services 8 Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de Uniunea

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

aggressively. Technological improvements, restructuring and salary freezing have turned many U.S. firms into leaner,
aggressively. Technological improvements, restructuring and salary freezing have turned many U.S. firms into leaner,
aggressively. Technological improvements, restructuring and salary freezing have turned many U.S. firms into leaner,
aggressively. Technological improvements, restructuring and salary freezing have turned many U.S. firms into leaner,
aggressively. Technological improvements, restructuring and salary freezing have turned many U.S. firms into leaner,
aggressively. Technological improvements, restructuring and salary freezing have turned many U.S. firms into leaner,
aggressively. Technological improvements, restructuring and salary freezing have turned many U.S. firms into leaner,

aggressively. Technological improvements, restructuring and salary freezing have turned many U.S. firms into leaner, meaner machines. Many business analysts rank poor product quality as the greatest enemy of U.S. productivity and competitiveness. Improved quality, more than anything else, enables a corporation to reduce costs and enhance profits. A typical American factory invests 20 to 25 percent of its entire operating costs on discovering and then fixing mistakes. Almost one quarter of all factory workers must rework products that were not made correctly the first time. The cost of warranties and replacing defective merchandise is enormous. It has become a matter of survival for some U.S. companies: they must improve product quality or close the company doors.

5. Translate into English:

Productivitatea ridicata este legata de implicarea angajatilor. Muncitorii mai motivati realizeza produse si ofera servicii mai bune decat cei apatici. Managerii din Statele Unite au descoperit ca, daca lucratorilor li se cere parerea, eficienta creste. Firmele din SUA care concureaza cu firme straine, lupta pentru supravietuire. Exact la fel cum firmele americane incearca sa-si imbunatateasca produsele si productivitatea si sa reduca costurile, toti concurentii lor straini fac acelasi lucru.

costurile, toti concurentii lor straini fac acelasi lucru. Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 9 Uniunea Europeană

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

9

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

VOCABULARY auction = licitatie demand = cerere de bunuri, servicii sales revenue = venit obtinut
VOCABULARY auction = licitatie demand = cerere de bunuri, servicii sales revenue = venit obtinut
VOCABULARY auction = licitatie demand = cerere de bunuri, servicii sales revenue = venit obtinut
VOCABULARY auction = licitatie demand = cerere de bunuri, servicii sales revenue = venit obtinut
VOCABULARY auction = licitatie demand = cerere de bunuri, servicii sales revenue = venit obtinut
VOCABULARY auction = licitatie demand = cerere de bunuri, servicii sales revenue = venit obtinut
VOCABULARY auction = licitatie demand = cerere de bunuri, servicii sales revenue = venit obtinut

VOCABULARY auction = licitatie demand = cerere de bunuri, servicii sales revenue = venit obtinut din vanzari, cifra de afaceri public utilities = servicii utilitare shift = schimbare; modificare to operate = a functiona to purchase = a achizitiona needs = nevoi; trebuinte income = venit inflation = inflatie

to develop = a desface; a patrunde (pe o piata, pe un segment de piata)

market = piata supplier = furnizor competition = competitie; concurenta buyers = comparator seller = vanzator productivity = productivitate employees = anjaja goods = bunuri

= productivitate employees = anjaja goods = bunuri Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 10 Uniunea Europeană

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

10

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

costs = costuri, cheltuieli improved efficiency = cresterea, imbunatatire eficientei merchandise = marfa to struggle
costs = costuri, cheltuieli improved efficiency = cresterea, imbunatatire eficientei merchandise = marfa to struggle
costs = costuri, cheltuieli improved efficiency = cresterea, imbunatatire eficientei merchandise = marfa to struggle
costs = costuri, cheltuieli improved efficiency = cresterea, imbunatatire eficientei merchandise = marfa to struggle
costs = costuri, cheltuieli improved efficiency = cresterea, imbunatatire eficientei merchandise = marfa to struggle
costs = costuri, cheltuieli improved efficiency = cresterea, imbunatatire eficientei merchandise = marfa to struggle
costs = costuri, cheltuieli improved efficiency = cresterea, imbunatatire eficientei merchandise = marfa to struggle

costs = costuri, cheltuieli improved efficiency = cresterea, imbunatatire eficientei merchandise = marfa to struggle = a lupta, a se stradui to enhance = a crestere, a mari to enable = a permite, a oferi oportunitatea

a mari to enable = a permite, a oferi oportunitatea Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 11

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

11

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

WHAT COMMERCE IS ABOUT LESSON 2 OBJECTIVES: After studying this lesson, you should be able

WHAT COMMERCE IS ABOUT

WHAT COMMERCE IS ABOUT LESSON 2 OBJECTIVES: After studying this lesson, you should be able to:
WHAT COMMERCE IS ABOUT LESSON 2 OBJECTIVES: After studying this lesson, you should be able to:
WHAT COMMERCE IS ABOUT LESSON 2 OBJECTIVES: After studying this lesson, you should be able to:
WHAT COMMERCE IS ABOUT LESSON 2 OBJECTIVES: After studying this lesson, you should be able to:
WHAT COMMERCE IS ABOUT LESSON 2 OBJECTIVES: After studying this lesson, you should be able to:
WHAT COMMERCE IS ABOUT LESSON 2 OBJECTIVES: After studying this lesson, you should be able to:

LESSON 2

OBJECTIVES: After studying this lesson, you should be able to:

o

explain the commerce system;

o

define home/domestic trade and foreign/overseas trade;

o

understand and explain channels of distribution;

o

understand the difference between wholesaling and retailing;

o know some trends in present-day retailing; LEAD-IN

1. What is commerce?

2. What commercial services do you know?

3. Examine the role played by commercial workers in the light of the statement:

“Commercial workers produce nothing”.

4. Give reasons why the distribution of goods is as important as their production.

5. What problems face the exporter which do not exist in the home trade?

As a human activity commerce is concerned with the study of trade – i.e. the moving of the goods from the seller to the buyer – and the aids to trade, of the business units which provide goods and services.

12

of the business units which provide goods and services. 12 Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de Uniunea

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

The goods are almost always produced far away from the place of consumption and their
The goods are almost always produced far away from the place of consumption and their
The goods are almost always produced far away from the place of consumption and their
The goods are almost always produced far away from the place of consumption and their
The goods are almost always produced far away from the place of consumption and their
The goods are almost always produced far away from the place of consumption and their
The goods are almost always produced far away from the place of consumption and their

The goods are almost always produced far away from the place of consumption and their way from the producer to the consumer is long and very complicated. Therefore, it is the function of commerce to offer a link between the stages of this process and the necessary instruments to make it work. Trade is the basic commercial activity. It is essentially the exchange of goods and services between producers and consumers. Trade consists of home/domestic trade

including wholesale trade and retail trade, and foreign/overseas trade dealing with import and export trade. But commerce includes more other functions in addition to trade. Distribution involves getting goods from the manufacturer to the consumer. Without sophisticated systems for storing goods and selling them to the consumers, it would be impossible for firms to find customers for their goods. Banking and financial services offered by banks and other institutions assist commerce by providing loans and other services which allow business to function and invest in future production, and enable consumers to purchase goods and services. Communications, in both written and electronic form, allow firms to order and sell their goods efficiently and cheaply. No transaction is possible without communications.

cheaply. No transaction is possible without communications. Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 13 Uniunea Europeană

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

13

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

Insurance allows risks to be taken without fear of loss. It gives security and stability
Insurance allows risks to be taken without fear of loss. It gives security and stability
Insurance allows risks to be taken without fear of loss. It gives security and stability
Insurance allows risks to be taken without fear of loss. It gives security and stability
Insurance allows risks to be taken without fear of loss. It gives security and stability
Insurance allows risks to be taken without fear of loss. It gives security and stability
Insurance allows risks to be taken without fear of loss. It gives security and stability

Insurance allows risks to be taken without fear of loss. It gives security and stability to commerce as it enables the business people to survive losses by damage, fire, burglary etc. Without adequate insurance many enterprises would be too risky to undertake. Advertising also plays an important part as it enables firms to let prospective customers know their offer. It includes a wide range of forms from hand-distributed leaflets to highly sophisticated television commercials.

1. Answer the following questions:

1. Explain the meaning of the term: trade

2 Could you underline the importance of commercial services in the economic life of Romania?

3 What is considered the usual way of distribution?

4 What is the difference between a wholesaler and a retailer?

5 What does import trade deal with?

6.What does export trade deal with? 7.Why is insurance so important to businessmen or businesswomen?

is insurance so important to businessmen or businesswomen? Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 14 Uniunea Europeană

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

14

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

2. Give synonyms for: Commerce , commercial   , foreign trade , home trade ,

2. Give synonyms for:

2. Give synonyms for: Commerce , commercial   , foreign trade , home trade , to
2. Give synonyms for: Commerce , commercial   , foreign trade , home trade , to
2. Give synonyms for: Commerce , commercial   , foreign trade , home trade , to
2. Give synonyms for: Commerce , commercial   , foreign trade , home trade , to
2. Give synonyms for: Commerce , commercial   , foreign trade , home trade , to
2. Give synonyms for: Commerce , commercial   , foreign trade , home trade , to

Commerce

,

commercial

 

,

foreign

trade

,

home

trade

,

to

provide

,

to

enable

,

aid

,

to

assist

,

prospective

 

,

customer

,

link

,

goods

 

3. In each of the following questions there is only one right answer. Explain

the meaning of your answer .

A. Mass production is possible only if:

a. there is a wide market for increased production.

b. customers will pay a high price for the product.

c. the raw materials required are found locally.

d. a lot of unskilled workers live near the factories. B.The term “producer” refers to one who:

a. provides raw materials or food.

b. grows crops or manufactures goods.

c. adds value to a product.

d. advertises goods or services for sale.

C. Which one of these statements is false?

15

for sale. C. Which one of these statements is false? 15 Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

a. Every stage of production employs commercial services. b. Commercial services cannot begin until the
a. Every stage of production employs commercial services. b. Commercial services cannot begin until the
a. Every stage of production employs commercial services. b. Commercial services cannot begin until the
a. Every stage of production employs commercial services. b. Commercial services cannot begin until the
a. Every stage of production employs commercial services. b. Commercial services cannot begin until the
a. Every stage of production employs commercial services. b. Commercial services cannot begin until the
a. Every stage of production employs commercial services. b. Commercial services cannot begin until the

a. Every stage of production employs commercial services.

b. Commercial services cannot begin until the manufacturing processes have been

completed.

c. If there were no commercial services most goods would not be produced.

d. Commercial services add value to products. D. Which one of these statements is true?

a. A wholesaler insists on cash payment from his customers.

b. A wholesaler is a connecting link between the retailer and manufacturer.

c. A wholesaler deals only with manufacturers.

d. A wholesaler sells cheap goods to the householders on their door steps.

4. Match the following words with their corresponding definition:

Goods; services; profit; turnover; stock; producer goods/industrial goods; consumer

goods; commodity; consumer outlet; trade

a) The moving of the goods from the seller to the buyer. …………………….

b) The amount of money that is made by a business, e.g. when it sells something for more than it costs. ……………………………

c) Articles of trade or commerce; wares, merchandise; products as opposed to

services. ………………………

products as opposed to services. ……………………… Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 16 Uniunea Europeană

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

16

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

d) The work provided for others as an occupation or a business…………………
d) The work provided for others as an occupation or a business…………………
d) The work provided for others as an occupation or a business…………………
d) The work provided for others as an occupation or a business…………………
d) The work provided for others as an occupation or a business…………………
d) The work provided for others as an occupation or a business…………………
d) The work provided for others as an occupation or a business…………………

d)

The

work

provided

for

others

as

an

occupation

or

a

business…………………

 

e)Items

such

as

food

or

clothing

produced

for

the

final

consumer……………………………

 

f)

Items

meant

to

be

used

in

producing

other

products………………………………………………

g) The rate at which goods are sold and restocked……………………….

h) Any specific market where consumers buy goods, such as a shop, a store, a

merchant, an agency, an open-air stall…………………………… i) An accumulated supply of goods; to keep a supply of goods……………….

j)A raw material such as grain, cocoa, coffee, wool, cotton, rubber/ a good

and

the

regarded

exchange……………………….

in

economics

as

basic

of

production

5. Explain and comment THE COMMERCE SYSTEM

6.

Rephrase the following sentences keeping their meaning unchanged.

Use the verbs and phrases given in brackets. 1. I think we ought to change our pricing policy. (think) …………………………………………………………….

Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 17 Uniunea Europeană

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

17

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

2. We must launch the new product by June. (insist) …………………………………………………………. 3.

2. We must launch the new product by June. (insist)

2. We must launch the new product by June. (insist) …………………………………………………………. 3.
2. We must launch the new product by June. (insist) …………………………………………………………. 3.
2. We must launch the new product by June. (insist) …………………………………………………………. 3.
2. We must launch the new product by June. (insist) …………………………………………………………. 3.
2. We must launch the new product by June. (insist) …………………………………………………………. 3.
2. We must launch the new product by June. (insist) …………………………………………………………. 3.

………………………………………………………….

3. They always try to give good advice to their prospective customers. (make a point)

……………………………………………………………………………………… 4. Our company has always been able to forecast what their customers want. (succeed) ………………………………………………………………………………………

5. I’m delighted our sales have been much higher this month’ said the Managing

Director to the Sales Manager. (congratulate)

…………………………………………………………………………………………

6. The shopkeeper is very pleased when his customers are satisfied. (take pleasure)

………………………………………………………………………………………

7. The new multiples have managed to attract fashion-conscious customers. (to be

successful)

………………………………………………………………………………………

8. They are making efforts to improve their warehousing facilities. (concentrate)

…………………………………………………………………………………………

9. The company’s manager is confident that the bank will give him a credit to extend

the chain stores. (depend) …………………………………………………………………………………………

Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 18 Uniunea Europeană

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

18

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

10. He is considering giving his superstore a face-lift. (think)
10. He is considering giving his superstore a face-lift. (think)
10. He is considering giving his superstore a face-lift. (think)
10. He is considering giving his superstore a face-lift. (think)
10. He is considering giving his superstore a face-lift. (think)
10. He is considering giving his superstore a face-lift. (think)
10. He is considering giving his superstore a face-lift. (think)

10. He is considering giving his superstore a face-lift. (think) …………………………………………………………………………………………

7. Translate into English:

Directorul a propus organizarea unei sedinte cu intregul personal. Proprietarul nu este interesat sa-si vanda nici unul din cele doua magazine. Acesta poate fi un mod mai putin costisitor de a-si organiza depozitele de marfuri. Ne gandim sa cream (to develop) noi produse. Marile magazine au reusit intotdeauna sa satisfaca cerintele clientilor proprii. Comertul depinde nu numai de activitatea comercial propriu-zisa ci si de gama de srvicii vitale pentru buna desfasurare a acesteia cum ar fi:distributia,depozitarea, servicii financiar-bancare, publicitate. Comertul inerior se ocupa cu distributia marfurilor in interiorul tarii, in timp ce comertu exterior se ocupa cu exportul si importul marfurilor.

exterior se ocupa cu exportul si importul marfurilor. Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 19 Uniunea Europeană

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

19

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

VOCABULARY aid = ajutor, mijloc consumption = consum link = veriga, legatura therefore = asadar,

VOCABULARY aid = ajutor, mijloc consumption = consum link = veriga, legatura therefore = asadar, deci exchange = schimb home/domestic trade = comert interior foreign/overseas trade = comert exterior wholesale trade = comert angro retail trade = comert cu amanuntul to deal with = a se ocupa cu loan = imprumut in addition to = in plus, pe langa to involve = a presupune, a implica to store = a depozita warehouse = deposit producer = producator consumer = consumator customer = client to assist = a ajuta

consumer = consumator customer = client to assist = a ajuta 20 Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat
consumer = consumator customer = client to assist = a ajuta 20 Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat
consumer = consumator customer = client to assist = a ajuta 20 Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat
consumer = consumator customer = client to assist = a ajuta 20 Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat
consumer = consumator customer = client to assist = a ajuta 20 Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat

20

= consumator customer = client to assist = a ajuta 20 Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de
= consumator customer = client to assist = a ajuta 20 Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

to purchase = a cumpara, a achizitiona order = comanda to order = a comanda

to purchase = a cumpara, a achizitiona order = comanda to order = a comanda insurance = asigurare loss = pierdere damage = stricaciune, defectare burglary = spargere, jaf prospective = potential, posibil offer = oferta leaflet = prospect commercial = commercial meeting = sedinta owner = proprietar

commercial = commercial meeting = sedinta owner = proprietar Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 21 Uniunea
commercial = commercial meeting = sedinta owner = proprietar Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 21 Uniunea
commercial = commercial meeting = sedinta owner = proprietar Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 21 Uniunea
commercial = commercial meeting = sedinta owner = proprietar Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 21 Uniunea
commercial = commercial meeting = sedinta owner = proprietar Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 21 Uniunea
commercial = commercial meeting = sedinta owner = proprietar Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 21 Uniunea
commercial = commercial meeting = sedinta owner = proprietar Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 21 Uniunea

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

21

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

WHOLESALING LESSON 3 OBJESCIVES : After studying this lesson , you should be able to:

WHOLESALING

WHOLESALING LESSON 3 OBJESCIVES : After studying this lesson , you should be able to: o
WHOLESALING LESSON 3 OBJESCIVES : After studying this lesson , you should be able to: o
WHOLESALING LESSON 3 OBJESCIVES : After studying this lesson , you should be able to: o
WHOLESALING LESSON 3 OBJESCIVES : After studying this lesson , you should be able to: o
WHOLESALING LESSON 3 OBJESCIVES : After studying this lesson , you should be able to: o
WHOLESALING LESSON 3 OBJESCIVES : After studying this lesson , you should be able to: o

LESSON 3

OBJESCIVES : After studying this lesson , you should be able to:

o understand the concepts of wholesaler and retailer;

o comprehend the relation between manufacturer - wholesaler - retailer;

o understand haw can the wholesalers influence the price on the competitives markets.

LEAD-IN

1. Is the distribution of goods as important as the production of them? Why? Give

your reasons.

2. Is the wholesaler a necessary link in the distribution chain?

3. What is the wholesaler’s fundamental role? 4. What types of wholesaler do you know? Mention some of them.

Wholesaling is part of the chain of distribution: • manufacturer • wholesaler • retailer • consumer. It is the link between the manufacturer of goods and the retailer. The wholesaler’s fundamental role is to act as a “middleman”, buying in large quantities from manufacturers and “breaking bulk” by selling smaller quantities.

22

and “breaking bulk” by selling smaller quantities. 22 Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de Uniunea Europeană

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

Types of wholesaler : • Consumer goods wholesalers. They may be general stockists or concentrate

Types of wholesaler :

Types of wholesaler : • Consumer goods wholesalers. They may be general stockists or concentrate on
Types of wholesaler : • Consumer goods wholesalers. They may be general stockists or concentrate on
Types of wholesaler : • Consumer goods wholesalers. They may be general stockists or concentrate on
Types of wholesaler : • Consumer goods wholesalers. They may be general stockists or concentrate on
Types of wholesaler : • Consumer goods wholesalers. They may be general stockists or concentrate on
Types of wholesaler : • Consumer goods wholesalers. They may be general stockists or concentrate on

Consumer goods wholesalers. They may be general stockists or concentrate on a particular item. A large number are cash-and-carry warehouses which do not deliver the goods or offer credit. Cutting out the costs of these services allows them to offer very competitive prices. Industrial wholesalers. They are involved in distributing producer goods such as raw materials, components and machinery. These involve sales to firms rather than retailers, and are important to the economy.

Agricultural wholesalers.The traditional system for distributing agricultural produce depends upon an involved network of local markets. The wholesaler perform several functions during the distribution process:

Breaks bulk. The wholesaler buys large amounts from the manufacturer and sells in smaller quantities to the retailer. This is called breaking bulk. Provides services for the manufacturer. By breaking bulk the wholesaler saves the manufacturer a lot of money and trouble. It would be difficult and expensive for the manufacturers to sell small amounts of items to thousands of different retailers. This would involve processing millions of orders every year, each involving sorting, packing and delivery. The wholesaler also takes responsibility for storing goods, and

wholesaler also takes responsibility for storing goods, and Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 23 Uniunea Europeană

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

23

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

may help the manufacturer’s cash flow by holding reserve stocks of goods, especially helpful where
may help the manufacturer’s cash flow by holding reserve stocks of goods, especially helpful where
may help the manufacturer’s cash flow by holding reserve stocks of goods, especially helpful where
may help the manufacturer’s cash flow by holding reserve stocks of goods, especially helpful where
may help the manufacturer’s cash flow by holding reserve stocks of goods, especially helpful where
may help the manufacturer’s cash flow by holding reserve stocks of goods, especially helpful where
may help the manufacturer’s cash flow by holding reserve stocks of goods, especially helpful where

may help the manufacturer’s cash flow by holding reserve stocks of goods, especially helpful where there is seasonal demand.

Provides services for the retailer. The wholesaler enables the retailers to buy in

small quantities as the latter have limited storage space and credit. The wholesaler holds available stocks and may provide credit terms.

Provides market information. Through contact with retailers and manufacturers,

the wholesaler learns a lot about the demand for different products. The retailer learns about new products and suppliers from the wholesaler’s displays and sales literature.

1. Answer the following questions on the text:

1. What types of wholesalers do you know?

2. What is the basic function of a wholesaler?

3. Name two wholesalers in your area.

4. What services are provided by a wholesaler?

5. Can the wholesaler be by-passed?

6. Study the following contrasting views of the activities of wholesalers and give your

own opinion:

“middlemen are performing a useful function which helps everyone” “middlemen are more likely to help themselves than help the public”

are more likely to help themselves than help the public” Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 24

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

24

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

2. Fill in the blanks choosing from the words in the box: middleman, stock-control, chain,
2. Fill in the blanks choosing from the words in the box: middleman, stock-control, chain,
2. Fill in the blanks choosing from the words in the box: middleman, stock-control, chain,
2. Fill in the blanks choosing from the words in the box: middleman, stock-control, chain,
2. Fill in the blanks choosing from the words in the box: middleman, stock-control, chain,
2. Fill in the blanks choosing from the words in the box: middleman, stock-control, chain,
2. Fill in the blanks choosing from the words in the box: middleman, stock-control, chain,

2. Fill in the blanks choosing from the words in the box:

middleman, stock-control, chain, overheads, turnover, discount, security, wholesaler, demand.

a) The amount of money taken (without any deduction) or the amount of goods

sold is the……………………………

b) Deciding how many items should be ordered and when is a matter of

………………………

c) A number of shops belonging to one company is a ………………………….

d) Shops possess safes for……………………

e) A wholesaler offers his goods at a……………………to enable the retailer to

produce a profit.

f) A retailer buys his stock from a………………………….

g) The costs of running a business caused by lighting, heating, rent, wages etc.

are its………………………….

h) The wholesaler is the……………….between the manufacturer and the

retailer. i) There are industries where goods have to be made several months in advance of the main buying for seasonal

several months in advance of the main buying for seasonal Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 25

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

25

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

3. Replace the words in italics by an infinitive construction: Ex . The company has
3. Replace the words in italics by an infinitive construction: Ex . The company has
3. Replace the words in italics by an infinitive construction: Ex . The company has
3. Replace the words in italics by an infinitive construction: Ex . The company has
3. Replace the words in italics by an infinitive construction: Ex . The company has
3. Replace the words in italics by an infinitive construction: Ex . The company has
3. Replace the words in italics by an infinitive construction: Ex . The company has

3. Replace the words in italics by an infinitive construction:

Ex. The company has decided that it will close down uneconomic factories. The company has decided to close down uneconomic factories.

1. The minister of labour agreed that he would meet the union leaders.

The minister of labour agreed…………

2. He claimed that he had expertise in such matters.

He claimed……………… in such matters.

3. The chairman threatened that he would resign if his policies were not adopted.

The chairman threatened……………….if his policies were not adopted.

4. The management promised that they would raise the workers’ pay.

The management promised……………… the workers’ pay.

5. They couldn’t guarantee that they would meet all their customers’ demands.

They couldn’t guarantee…………

6. The sales manager resolved that he would increase the turnover next year.

The sales manager resolved……………………

the union leaders.

all their customers’ demands.

the

turnover next year.

4. Write sentences based on the given facts, beginning your answers as suggested.

1. Mr. Jones will be leading the sales mission to America. The sales manager thinks

the sales mission to America. The sales manager thinks Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 26 Uniunea

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

26

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

he is the best man for the job. The sales manager has chosen…………………………………………… 2. The
he is the best man for the job. The sales manager has chosen…………………………………………… 2. The
he is the best man for the job. The sales manager has chosen…………………………………………… 2. The
he is the best man for the job. The sales manager has chosen…………………………………………… 2. The
he is the best man for the job. The sales manager has chosen…………………………………………… 2. The
he is the best man for the job. The sales manager has chosen…………………………………………… 2. The
he is the best man for the job. The sales manager has chosen…………………………………………… 2. The

he is the best man for the job.

The sales manager has chosen……………………………………………

2. The personnel manager is very strict on punctuality.

He expects…………………………………

3. John will never finish all this work by himself.

Shall I………………………… ?

4. Tom has been terribly inefficient lately. I wonder whether he will keep his job any

longer The company will probably as……………………

5. I’d like some information and you are the only person to give it to me I want………………………………………

5. Translate into English:

Firma noastra isi dezvolta in permanenta reteaua de distributie. Marfurile ajung de la producator la consumator prin intermediul angrosistului si detailistului. Uneori producatorul il ocoleste (to bay-pass) pe angrosist si trateaza direct cu detailistul. Depozitul este folosit pentru stocarea marfurilor. Depozitele cu plata in numerar (cash-and-carry) nu livreaza marfurile si nu ofera credite, iar acest lucru le permite sa practice preturi competitive. Exista si un alt tip de angrosist (the drop shipper), care

27

si un alt tip de angrosist (the drop shipper), care 27 Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

nu intra niciodata in posesia marfurilor (to take possession of), ci doar (merely) preia comenzile
nu intra niciodata in posesia marfurilor (to take possession of), ci doar (merely) preia comenzile
nu intra niciodata in posesia marfurilor (to take possession of), ci doar (merely) preia comenzile
nu intra niciodata in posesia marfurilor (to take possession of), ci doar (merely) preia comenzile
nu intra niciodata in posesia marfurilor (to take possession of), ci doar (merely) preia comenzile
nu intra niciodata in posesia marfurilor (to take possession of), ci doar (merely) preia comenzile
nu intra niciodata in posesia marfurilor (to take possession of), ci doar (merely) preia comenzile

nu intra niciodata in posesia marfurilor (to take possession of), ci doar (merely) preia comenzile (to take orders) pe care producatorul sau furnizorul le executa (to fill) direct catre client.

VOCABULARY manufacturer = producator wholesaler = angrosist retailer = detailist in bulk = in vrac to break bulk = a desface marfa consumer goods = bunuri de larg consum cash-and-carry = vanzare cu plata in numerar warehouse = depozit to cut out = a reduce raw material = materie prima producer goods = bunuri de investitii machinery = masini industriale produce = produs (agricol); produse agricole to save = a economisi, a cruta to pack = a ambala

28

to save = a economisi, a cruta to pack = a ambala 28 Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

delivery = livrare cash flow = flux monetar seasonal demand = cerere sezoniera credit terms
delivery = livrare cash flow = flux monetar seasonal demand = cerere sezoniera credit terms
delivery = livrare cash flow = flux monetar seasonal demand = cerere sezoniera credit terms
delivery = livrare cash flow = flux monetar seasonal demand = cerere sezoniera credit terms
delivery = livrare cash flow = flux monetar seasonal demand = cerere sezoniera credit terms
delivery = livrare cash flow = flux monetar seasonal demand = cerere sezoniera credit terms
delivery = livrare cash flow = flux monetar seasonal demand = cerere sezoniera credit terms

delivery = livrare cash flow = flux monetar seasonal demand = cerere sezoniera credit terms = conditii de credit display = expunere, prezentare, expozitie to by-pass = a ocoli to fill an order = a executa o comanda drop shipper = angrosist care nu preia marfurile, ci se ocupa numai de executarea comenzilor to take possession of = a intra in posesie

comenzilor to take possession of = a intra in posesie Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 29

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

29

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

ASPECTS OF MANAGEMENT LESSON 4 OBJECTIVES: After studying this chapter you should be able to:

ASPECTS OF MANAGEMENT

ASPECTS OF MANAGEMENT LESSON 4 OBJECTIVES: After studying this chapter you should be able to: o
ASPECTS OF MANAGEMENT LESSON 4 OBJECTIVES: After studying this chapter you should be able to: o
ASPECTS OF MANAGEMENT LESSON 4 OBJECTIVES: After studying this chapter you should be able to: o
ASPECTS OF MANAGEMENT LESSON 4 OBJECTIVES: After studying this chapter you should be able to: o
ASPECTS OF MANAGEMENT LESSON 4 OBJECTIVES: After studying this chapter you should be able to: o
ASPECTS OF MANAGEMENT LESSON 4 OBJECTIVES: After studying this chapter you should be able to: o

LESSON 4

OBJECTIVES: After studying this chapter you should be able to:

o

understand the various meanings of the term management

o

have a brief outline of the evolution of the idea of management

o

become acquainted with the basic principle of Taylor, Fayol and Weber

o

revise and practise the use of adjectives

o

distinguish and use word easily confused

LEAD-IN 1.What does the term management mean to you? 2. Do you consider that the role of the manager changes according to time and place or is it a universal one? 3. How old is the preoccupation of mankind with management?

The term management is one of the most widely used nowadays and as such we might expect that all those who use it have a quick definition at hand. For most people management mean: a process by which scarce resources are combined to achieve given ends or a process through which a suitable environment is

30

ends or a process through which a suitable environment is 30 Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

created so that efforts can be organised to accomplish desired goals . For the specialist
created so that efforts can be organised to accomplish desired goals . For the specialist
created so that efforts can be organised to accomplish desired goals . For the specialist
created so that efforts can be organised to accomplish desired goals . For the specialist
created so that efforts can be organised to accomplish desired goals . For the specialist
created so that efforts can be organised to accomplish desired goals . For the specialist
created so that efforts can be organised to accomplish desired goals . For the specialist

created so that efforts can be organised to accomplish desired goals. For the specialist management is therefore a social process entailing responsibility for the effective and economical planning and regulation of the

operation of an enterprise to fulfil a given purpose or task, such a responsibility involving:

a) judgement and decision in determining plans and strategies, procedures to support the control of performance and the progress made against plans;

b) the guidance, integration, motivation and supervision of the staff of the

enterprise or the organization and carrying out its operations or programmes. Without management, people would pursue their own objectives independently and this would lead to waste and inefficiency. Management is therefore needed to reach objectives, maintain a balance between conflicting goals, and achieve efficiency

and effectiveness. But is management a modern invention? However, a short look at some historical considerations will reveal that the basic concepts of management, even if not the term itself, have been around for centuries. In his best known work The Prince, Niccolo Machiavelli of Florence puts some ideas which are still relevant today. 1) If you want your plans to be carried out you need to rely on the consent of the majority of the. 2) Machiavelli suggested that the leader should inspire people to greater

suggested that the leader should inspire people to greater Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 31 Uniunea

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

31

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

achievements, offer rewards and incentives, and take advantage of all opportunities. 3) He considered that
achievements, offer rewards and incentives, and take advantage of all opportunities. 3) He considered that
achievements, offer rewards and incentives, and take advantage of all opportunities. 3) He considered that
achievements, offer rewards and incentives, and take advantage of all opportunities. 3) He considered that
achievements, offer rewards and incentives, and take advantage of all opportunities. 3) He considered that
achievements, offer rewards and incentives, and take advantage of all opportunities. 3) He considered that
achievements, offer rewards and incentives, and take advantage of all opportunities. 3) He considered that

achievements, offer rewards and incentives, and take advantage of all opportunities. 3) He considered that survival was the main objectives of any organisation and no matter what measures were taken to achieves this end, they should be taken. The end justifies the means – is the slogan that Machiavelli launched on the political market. The Industrial Revolution changed not only the nature of production, but also society as a whole. Greater productivity gradually raised the standard of material comforts by introducing countless new products and services into an expanding market. From these basic experiments a system of management thought developed which came to be known as scientific management. Frederick W. Taylor, in his book Principles of Scientific Management he argued that work should be studied and analysed in a systematic and throughout way. The way of doing a job will no longer be according to tradition or quesswork, but according to scientific methods worked out by management for producing the best results with a minimum effort. He warned people against confusing techniques with aims.

The following principles were suggested by him to guide management:

1) each worker should have a large, clearly defined, daily task; 2) standard conditions are needed to ensure the task is more easily accomplished; 3) high payment should be made for successful completion of tasks. Workers should suffer loss when they fail to meet the standards laid down.

32

loss when they fail to meet the standards laid down. 32 Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

Henry Fayol, said managers depended less upon technical knowledge of what they were managing and
Henry Fayol, said managers depended less upon technical knowledge of what they were managing and
Henry Fayol, said managers depended less upon technical knowledge of what they were managing and
Henry Fayol, said managers depended less upon technical knowledge of what they were managing and
Henry Fayol, said managers depended less upon technical knowledge of what they were managing and
Henry Fayol, said managers depended less upon technical knowledge of what they were managing and
Henry Fayol, said managers depended less upon technical knowledge of what they were managing and

Henry Fayol, said managers depended less upon technical knowledge of what they were managing and more on a knowledge of administration. He emphasised the role of administrative management and concluded that all activities that occur in business organisations could be divided into six main groups:

1) Technical (production, manufacturing). 2) Commercial (buying, selling, exchange). 3) Financial (obtaining and using capital). 4) Security (protection of property and persons). 5) Accounting (balance sheet, stocktaking, statistics, costing). 6) Managerial (planning, organising, commanding, coordinating, controlling). Fayol’s main contribution was the idea that management was not an inborn talent but a skill that could be taught Max Weber describes the bureaucracy, wich is defined as an organizational model rationally designed to perform complex tasks efficiently.

rationally designed to perform complex tasks efficiently. Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 33 Uniunea Europeană

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

33

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

GRAMMAR – ADJECTIVE   Adjective Comparative Superlative One-syllable adjectives old older the

GRAMMAR – ADJECTIVE

GRAMMAR – ADJECTIVE   Adjective Comparative Superlative One-syllable adjectives old older the
GRAMMAR – ADJECTIVE   Adjective Comparative Superlative One-syllable adjectives old older the
GRAMMAR – ADJECTIVE   Adjective Comparative Superlative One-syllable adjectives old older the
GRAMMAR – ADJECTIVE   Adjective Comparative Superlative One-syllable adjectives old older the
GRAMMAR – ADJECTIVE   Adjective Comparative Superlative One-syllable adjectives old older the
GRAMMAR – ADJECTIVE   Adjective Comparative Superlative One-syllable adjectives old older the
 

Adjective

Comparative

Superlative

One-syllable adjectives

old

older

the oldest

safe

safer

the safest

big

bigger

the biggest*

hot

hotter

the hottest*

Adjectives ending in -y

noisy

noisier

the noisiest

dirty

dirtier

the dirtiest

Adjectives with two or more syllables

boring

more boring more beautiful

the most boring** the most beautiful

beautiful

Irregular adjectives***

good

better

the best

bad

worse

the worst

far

farther

the farthest

* Adjectives which end in one vowel and one consonant double the consonant. ** We add -r/-st to adjectives that end with -e. *** Note that we usually use fewer with plural nouns and less with uncountable nouns (e.g. money):

There are fewer shops in the centre of the town than there used to be.

John earns less money that Mary.

there used to be. • John earns less money that Mary. Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

34

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

1. Answer the following questions on the text: a. What represent the term of management

1. Answer the following questions on the text:

1. Answer the following questions on the text: a. What represent the term of management in
1. Answer the following questions on the text: a. What represent the term of management in
1. Answer the following questions on the text: a. What represent the term of management in
1. Answer the following questions on the text: a. What represent the term of management in
1. Answer the following questions on the text: a. What represent the term of management in
1. Answer the following questions on the text: a. What represent the term of management in

a. What represent the term of management in your opinion?

b. What justification does the text give for the existence of management?

d. Why do you think that the school of management founded by F. W. Taylor was called scientific management? e. What was Henry Fayol’s main contribution to the development or managerial thinking?

f. Express you own opinion about the management like a process?

2. Match the terms below with the correct definition:

Management, objectives, goals, technical skills, supervisory (first line) management, strategic planning, middle management, top management.

attain.

a) Broad,

long-term

accomplishments

an

organization

wishes

to

…………

b) Ability to perform tasks of a specific department (such as selling or

bookkeeping)……………………………………

c) First level of management above employees; includes people directly

responsible for assigning specific jobs to employees and evaluating their daily performance………………………………………… d) Process of determining the major goals of the organization and the policies

the major goals of the organization and the policies Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 35 Uniunea

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

35

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

and strategies for obtaining and using resources to achieve those goals. ………………………………… e) The
and strategies for obtaining and using resources to achieve those goals. ………………………………… e) The
and strategies for obtaining and using resources to achieve those goals. ………………………………… e) The
and strategies for obtaining and using resources to achieve those goals. ………………………………… e) The
and strategies for obtaining and using resources to achieve those goals. ………………………………… e) The
and strategies for obtaining and using resources to achieve those goals. ………………………………… e) The
and strategies for obtaining and using resources to achieve those goals. ………………………………… e) The

and strategies for obtaining and using resources to achieve those goals. …………………………………

e) The process used to accomplish organizational goals through planning,

organizing, directing, and controlling organizational resources………………………… f) Level of management which includes plant managers and department heads who are responsible for tactical plans………………………………………………

g) Specific, short-term statements detailing how to achieve the organizational

goals……………………………

h) Highest level of management, consisting of the president and other key

company executives who develop strategic plans…………………………………

3. Write sentences to bring out the difference between the following pairs of words:

a. efficiency – effectiveness

b. economic – economical

c. reach – rich

d. empire – umpire

e. ensure – insure

f. practise – practice

– umpire e. ensure – insure f. practise – practice Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 36

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

36

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

4. Fill in the following table with the appropriate form of the adjective: good better
4. Fill in the following table with the appropriate form of the adjective: good better
4. Fill in the following table with the appropriate form of the adjective: good better
4. Fill in the following table with the appropriate form of the adjective: good better
4. Fill in the following table with the appropriate form of the adjective: good better
4. Fill in the following table with the appropriate form of the adjective: good better
4. Fill in the following table with the appropriate form of the adjective: good better

4. Fill in the following table with the appropriate form of the adjective:

good

better

the best

…………

worse

the worse

late

………………

the last

wet

………………

……………………

……………………

older

the oldest

………………….

……………

the luckiest

narrow

………………….

 

polutted

…………………

the most polluted

…………………

……………….

the least

5. Put in the most appropriate comparative or superlative adjective ar adverb.

1. The new sales clerk has only been doing the job for a month. Of all the staff he has

……………….experience.

2. That was a terrible meeting., I think it was one of……………meetings I’ve ever

attended.

I thought to the

next bus stop.

3. We have been walking for half an hour already. It’s……………

been walking for half an hour already. It’s…………… Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 37 Uniunea Europeană

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

37

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

4. I have to leave home………………. you do. You don’t get to the office until
4. I have to leave home………………. you do. You don’t get to the office until
4. I have to leave home………………. you do. You don’t get to the office until
4. I have to leave home………………. you do. You don’t get to the office until
4. I have to leave home………………. you do. You don’t get to the office until
4. I have to leave home………………. you do. You don’t get to the office until
4. I have to leave home………………. you do. You don’t get to the office until

4. I have to leave home………………. you do. You don’t get to the office until nine, but sometimes I start before 7.30 in the morning. 5. We have to continue our talk…………………. we discuss the matter, the more I realize the potential of this new plan.

6. Translate the following text into English:

Studiile Hawthorne au reprezentat o etapa importanta privind determinarea comportamentului uman in organizatii. Din aceasta perspectiva, cheia productivitatii este reprezentata de manifestarea unui interes mai mare fata de muncitori, ei sa se simta mult mai satisfacuti in legatura cu slujbele lor fiind astfel dispusi sa produca mai mult. Accentul este pus pe construirea de relatii mult mai apropiate si de colaborare intre supraveghetori si muncitori. Pe de alta parte, Maslow a dezvoltat o teorie a motivarii care are la baza trei conceptii privind natura umana : fiintele umane au nevoi care niciodata nu vor fi complet satisfacute; actiunea umana tinteste la indeplinirea unor nevoi care sunt nesatisfacute la un moment dat; nevoile sunt ierarhizate.

nesatisfacute la un moment dat; nevoile sunt ierarhizate. Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 38 Uniunea Europeană

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

38

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

VOCABULARY to entail = a determina, necesita, impune scarce = redus, diminua waste = pierdere,

VOCABULARY to entail = a determina, necesita, impune scarce = redus, diminua waste = pierdere, irosire emerging = in curs de formare/aparitie outstanding = distins, remarcabil scalar = ierarhic, scalar to acquire = a dobandi, a capata thorough = minutios, meticulos, amanuntit pathbreaking = deschizator de drumuri balance sheet = bilant contabil goal = tinta, scop rewards = recompense aim = tinta, tel, scop consent = consimtamant skill = talent, ingeniozitate

scop consent = consimtamant skill = talent, ingeniozitate Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 39 Uniunea Europeană
scop consent = consimtamant skill = talent, ingeniozitate Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 39 Uniunea Europeană
scop consent = consimtamant skill = talent, ingeniozitate Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 39 Uniunea Europeană
scop consent = consimtamant skill = talent, ingeniozitate Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 39 Uniunea Europeană
scop consent = consimtamant skill = talent, ingeniozitate Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 39 Uniunea Europeană
scop consent = consimtamant skill = talent, ingeniozitate Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 39 Uniunea Europeană
scop consent = consimtamant skill = talent, ingeniozitate Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 39 Uniunea Europeană

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

39

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

LESSON 5 TEAMWORK IN ORGANISATIONS OBJECTIVES : After studying this chapter you should be able
LESSON 5 TEAMWORK IN ORGANISATIONS OBJECTIVES : After studying this chapter you should be able
LESSON 5 TEAMWORK IN ORGANISATIONS OBJECTIVES : After studying this chapter you should be able
LESSON 5 TEAMWORK IN ORGANISATIONS OBJECTIVES : After studying this chapter you should be able
LESSON 5 TEAMWORK IN ORGANISATIONS OBJECTIVES : After studying this chapter you should be able
LESSON 5 TEAMWORK IN ORGANISATIONS OBJECTIVES : After studying this chapter you should be able
LESSON 5 TEAMWORK IN ORGANISATIONS OBJECTIVES : After studying this chapter you should be able

LESSON 5

TEAMWORK IN ORGANISATIONS

OBJECTIVES : After studying this chapter you should be able to:

o

become aware of the importance of team work

o

explain the advantages and disadvantages of team work

o

build up their management vocabulary

o

revise and practise the use of adverbs

o

distinguish and use word easily confused

LEAD-IN

1. Do you belong to a particular group of people? If yes, what are the features that

distinguish your group from another?

2. Why do people feel the need of belonging to a certain group?

3. What makes us call a number of people a group?

4. Do you think that the terms group and team cover an identical meaning?

Teamwork has become one of the buzz words of the last twenty years or so. Students are often assigned to teams to do classwork, in which case the purpose is to perform the assignment and receive an acceptable grade. Job advertisements require

40

receive an acceptable grade. Job advertisements require 40 Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de Uniunea Europeană

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

applicants with a capacity to work in teams. A team is a unit of two
applicants with a capacity to work in teams. A team is a unit of two
applicants with a capacity to work in teams. A team is a unit of two
applicants with a capacity to work in teams. A team is a unit of two
applicants with a capacity to work in teams. A team is a unit of two
applicants with a capacity to work in teams. A team is a unit of two
applicants with a capacity to work in teams. A team is a unit of two

applicants with a capacity to work in teams. A team is a unit of two or more people who interact and coordinate their work to accomplish a specific objective. The team concept implies a greater sense of mission and contest, although the words can be used interchangeably. A team is more than just a group with a common aim. It is a group in which the contributions of individuals are seen as complementary. Collaboration, working together, contributing to a sequence of activities rather than to a common task require people to be at the same time, in the same place, are elements that characterize a good effective team. The factors that influence team effectiveness begin with the organizational context. The organizational context includes such factors as: structure, strategy, environment, culture. Leaders must understand and manage stages of development, norms and conflict in order to establish an effective team. For a team to be successful over the long run it must be structured so as to both maintain its members’ social well being and accomplish the team’s task. In successful teams, the requirements for task performance and social satisfaction are met by the emergence of two types of roles:

task specialist and socioemotional role. People who play the task specialist role spend time and energy helping the team reach its goal. They often display the following behaviours: initiation, give/offer opinions on task solutions, give feedback on others suggestions, seek information,

give feedback on others suggestions, seek information , Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 41 Uniunea Europeană

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

41

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

pull ideas together into a summary perspective, stimulate the team into action when interest drops.
pull ideas together into a summary perspective, stimulate the team into action when interest drops.
pull ideas together into a summary perspective, stimulate the team into action when interest drops.
pull ideas together into a summary perspective, stimulate the team into action when interest drops.
pull ideas together into a summary perspective, stimulate the team into action when interest drops.
pull ideas together into a summary perspective, stimulate the team into action when interest drops.
pull ideas together into a summary perspective, stimulate the team into action when interest drops.

pull ideas together into a summary perspective, stimulate the team into action when interest drops. People who adopt a socioemotional role support team members’ emotional needs and help strengthen the social entity. They display the following behaviours:

encourage (are warm and receptive to others’ ideas), reconcile group conflicts, reduce tension, compromise (will shift own opinions to maintain team harmony). Teams with mostly socioemotional roles can be very satisfying, but they also can be unproductive. Teams may have positive impact on both the output productivity and satisfaction of members. On the other hand, teams may also create situations in which motivation and performance are actually decreased. Research has found that working in a team increases an individual’s motivation and performances. Simply being in the presence of other peoples has an energising effect, enhancing individual productivity, through the increased effort of its members. Employees have need for belonging and affiliation. Teams often increase the employees’ feeling of dignity and self-worth because the whole person is employed. The third major benefit of using teams is that employees also have the intellectual resources of several members who can suggest short-cuts and offer alternative points of view for team decisions. Potential disadvantages of using teams are power realignment, free riding and

of using teams are power realignment, free riding and Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 42 Uniunea

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

42

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

coordination costs. Communication within a team may be found difficult especially if members have a
coordination costs. Communication within a team may be found difficult especially if members have a
coordination costs. Communication within a team may be found difficult especially if members have a
coordination costs. Communication within a team may be found difficult especially if members have a
coordination costs. Communication within a team may be found difficult especially if members have a
coordination costs. Communication within a team may be found difficult especially if members have a
coordination costs. Communication within a team may be found difficult especially if members have a

coordination costs. Communication within a team may be found difficult especially if members have a markedly different status or set of values. Hidden agendas that individuals bring along to a team can highly affect the collaborative spirit within a group. These hidden agendas are personal aims that individuals wish to pursue such as: the desire to impress one’s boss, to get personal satisfaction or publicity or to make a particular alliance.

GRAMMAR – ADVERBS

Look at the following examples and notice the position of the underlined words:

Hidden agendas can highly affect the collaborative spirit within a group. The organisation is able to be responsive to rapidly changing customer needs.

The position of adverbs in a sentences is a matter of complicated rules and many exceptions. However, here are some tips on this subject that you will find useful:

the verb and its object are not separated in English:

The general manager often makes long-distance calls. I write reports very fast. Do you clean your desk every Friday afternoon? At the end of the corridor you’ll see the Sales Manager’s office on your left.

adverbs of place are usually placed before those of time:

adverbs of place are usually placed before those of time: Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 43

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

43

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

She’s flying to Rome on Thursday . We arrived at the airport early . I

She’s flying to Rome on Thursday.

We arrived at the airport early. I walk to the office every morning.

at the airport early . I walk to the office every morning . • adverbs of
at the airport early . I walk to the office every morning . • adverbs of
at the airport early . I walk to the office every morning . • adverbs of
at the airport early . I walk to the office every morning . • adverbs of
at the airport early . I walk to the office every morning . • adverbs of
at the airport early . I walk to the office every morning . • adverbs of

adverbs of time can be placed at the beginning of the sentence as well:

On Thursday she’s flying to Rome. Every morning I walk to the office.

adverbs of frequency (ever, never, often, always) usually come before the main verb, but after to be:

I sometimes go to the office by train. The new junior clerk is always late. The office manager has often shown you how to do it.

1. Answer these questions on the text:

a. What is the difference between a group and a team?

b. What are the factors that contribute to team effectiveness?

c. Name some advantages for teamwork.

d. Reflect on the potential costs of using teams in a production unit.

on the potential costs of using teams in a production unit. Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

44

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

2. Match the terms below with the correct definition: Contingency planning, controlling, organizing, participative
2. Match the terms below with the correct definition: Contingency planning, controlling, organizing, participative
2. Match the terms below with the correct definition: Contingency planning, controlling, organizing, participative
2. Match the terms below with the correct definition: Contingency planning, controlling, organizing, participative
2. Match the terms below with the correct definition: Contingency planning, controlling, organizing, participative
2. Match the terms below with the correct definition: Contingency planning, controlling, organizing, participative
2. Match the terms below with the correct definition: Contingency planning, controlling, organizing, participative

2. Match the terms below with the correct definition:

Contingency planning, controlling, organizing, participative management, human relations skills, delegating, leadership

a) Creating a vision for others to follow, establishing corporate values and

ethics, and transforming the way the organization does business so it is more effective and efficient……………………….

b) Assigning authority and accountability to others, and letting them do it,

while retaining responsibility for results………………… c) Management function which involves anticipating future trends and

determining the best strategies and tactics to achieve organizational objectives……………………….

d) Management function which involves checking to determine whether or not

an organization is progressing toward its goals and objectives, and taking corrective action if it is not…………………………. e) Management function which involve designing the organizational structure, attracting people to the organization (staffing), and creating conditions and systems that ensure that everyone and everything work together to achieve the objectives of the organization…

f) Management style which involves employees in setting objectives and

making decisions; democratic and laissez-faire leadership are forms of this type of

and laissez-faire leadership are forms of this type of Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 45 Uniunea

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

45

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

management…………………………………………………… g) Ability to lead, communicate, motivate, coach,
management…………………………………………………… g) Ability to lead, communicate, motivate, coach,
management…………………………………………………… g) Ability to lead, communicate, motivate, coach,
management…………………………………………………… g) Ability to lead, communicate, motivate, coach,
management…………………………………………………… g) Ability to lead, communicate, motivate, coach,
management…………………………………………………… g) Ability to lead, communicate, motivate, coach,
management…………………………………………………… g) Ability to lead, communicate, motivate, coach,

management…………………………………………………… g) Ability to lead, communicate, motivate, coach, build morale, train, support and delegate………………………………………

3. Are the words printed in italics in the correct place? If not, move them to a correct place.

a. The secretary has not yet answered my fax.

b. Always I forget to give you my homework.

c. Ruxandra has since noon been on the phone.

d. The new executive secretary is extremely good at dealing with problems quickly.

e. Antonia quite types well actually.

f. He has lately been very busy.

g. We can’t anyway leave yet, it’s too early.

busy. g. We can’t anyway leave yet, it’s too early. Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 46

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

46

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

h. She isn’t ready to work of course in the new project team. 4.Translate into
h. She isn’t ready to work of course in the new project team. 4.Translate into
h. She isn’t ready to work of course in the new project team. 4.Translate into
h. She isn’t ready to work of course in the new project team. 4.Translate into
h. She isn’t ready to work of course in the new project team. 4.Translate into
h. She isn’t ready to work of course in the new project team. 4.Translate into
h. She isn’t ready to work of course in the new project team. 4.Translate into

h. She isn’t ready to work of course in the new project team.

4.Translate into English:

Planul de afaceri – itinerariul succesului Este mult mai usor sa ajungi intr-un loc necunoscut daca ai informatii precise si o harta buna. La fel stau lucrurile si in cazul infiintarii unei firme. Itinerariul pe care trebuie sa-l urmeaze intreprinzatorii se numeste „plan de afaceri“. Planul de afaceri este alcatuit din raspunsuri sistematice la o serie de intrebari vitale pentru initierea unei afaceri viabile. Cand vorbesc despre un plan de afaceri, oamenii se refera de obicei la un document scris. El este procesul de definire si evaluare a viitoarei companii. Viitori proprietari de firme mici vor sa deschida firma acum, nu sa stea sa

Ei nu vad rostul

raspunda la intrebari referitoare la o idee despre cum sa obtina profit

analizarii unei firme care nici macar nu exista inca. Rostul este urmatorul: un plan de afaceri este esential pentru ca va scoate in evidenta eventualele probleme, inca inainte

ca acestea sa se iveasca, si va sugera solulii, facandu-va sa economisiti timp, bani si dureri de cap.

facandu-va sa economisiti timp, bani si dureri de cap. Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 47 Uniunea

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

47

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

VOCABULARY Buz word = cuvant de mare circulatie To accomplish = a realiza, a indeplini

VOCABULARY Buz word = cuvant de mare circulatie To accomplish = a realiza, a indeplini In the long run = in timp To pull (ideas) together = a concentra To draw forth = a pune in evidenta, a stimula To shift = a schimba, a modifica Short-cut = scurtatura, varianta mai eficienta Individual productivity = productivitate individuala Applicant = solicitant, candidat Environment = mediu (de afaceri, de colaborare etc) Initiation = initiativa Seek information = cautare de informatii

= initiativa Seek information = cautare de informatii Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 48 Uniunea Europeană
= initiativa Seek information = cautare de informatii Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 48 Uniunea Europeană
= initiativa Seek information = cautare de informatii Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 48 Uniunea Europeană
= initiativa Seek information = cautare de informatii Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 48 Uniunea Europeană
= initiativa Seek information = cautare de informatii Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 48 Uniunea Europeană
= initiativa Seek information = cautare de informatii Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 48 Uniunea Europeană
= initiativa Seek information = cautare de informatii Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 48 Uniunea Europeană

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

48

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

MANAGER TYPES LESSON 6 1. In small groups discuss which of the following qualities are

MANAGER TYPES

MANAGER TYPES LESSON 6 1. In small groups discuss which of the following qualities are more
MANAGER TYPES LESSON 6 1. In small groups discuss which of the following qualities are more
MANAGER TYPES LESSON 6 1. In small groups discuss which of the following qualities are more
MANAGER TYPES LESSON 6 1. In small groups discuss which of the following qualities are more
MANAGER TYPES LESSON 6 1. In small groups discuss which of the following qualities are more
MANAGER TYPES LESSON 6 1. In small groups discuss which of the following qualities are more

LESSON 6

1. In small groups discuss which of the following qualities are more likely to characterize today’s top manager:

- charismatic/efficient

- thrilling/disciplined/business like

- visionary/pragmatic

- glamorous looks/business looks

2. Discuss which of the following statements are closer to your idea of the manager’s role in today’s business world:

“ A good manager should be an exceptionally intelligent, flamboyant and charismatic person who is able to communicate his/her vision to his/her team” “Good managers need not be geniuses highly admired by their employees, but rather effective, accountable organisers able to examine carefully and make the best judjments in order to improve the profitability of their company”. “Successful managers are exceptional human beings, with the necessary drive that enables them to build (multi)national conglomerates”

that enables them to build (multi)national conglomerates” Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 49 Uniunea Europeană

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

49

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

3. Qualities of managers 1. approachable, 2. articulate 3. assertive 4. committed 5. communicative 6.

3. Qualities of managers

1. approachable, 2. articulate

3. assertive

4. committed

5. communicative

6. competitive

7. consistent

8. cooperative

9. creative

10. decisive

11. discreet

12. honest

13. intelligent

14. loyal

15. patient

16. practical

17. rational

18. reliable

19. responsible

16. practical 17. rational 18. reliable 19. responsible 50 Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de Uniunea Europeană
16. practical 17. rational 18. reliable 19. responsible 50 Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de Uniunea Europeană
16. practical 17. rational 18. reliable 19. responsible 50 Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de Uniunea Europeană
16. practical 17. rational 18. reliable 19. responsible 50 Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de Uniunea Europeană
16. practical 17. rational 18. reliable 19. responsible 50 Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de Uniunea Europeană

50

16. practical 17. rational 18. reliable 19. responsible 50 Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de Uniunea Europeană
16. practical 17. rational 18. reliable 19. responsible 50 Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de Uniunea Europeană

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

20. sensitive 21. sincere 22. skilled 23. supportive Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 51 Uniunea

20. sensitive

21. sincere

22. skilled

23. supportive

20. sensitive 21. sincere 22. skilled 23. supportive Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 51 Uniunea Europeană
20. sensitive 21. sincere 22. skilled 23. supportive Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 51 Uniunea Europeană
20. sensitive 21. sincere 22. skilled 23. supportive Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 51 Uniunea Europeană
20. sensitive 21. sincere 22. skilled 23. supportive Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 51 Uniunea Europeană
20. sensitive 21. sincere 22. skilled 23. supportive Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 51 Uniunea Europeană
20. sensitive 21. sincere 22. skilled 23. supportive Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 51 Uniunea Europeană
20. sensitive 21. sincere 22. skilled 23. supportive Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 51 Uniunea Europeană

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

51

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

GRAMMAR Present tens simple LESSON 7 Present tens simple   Present tens simple interrogative Present

GRAMMAR

Present tens simple

GRAMMAR Present tens simple LESSON 7 Present tens simple   Present tens simple interrogative Present tens
GRAMMAR Present tens simple LESSON 7 Present tens simple   Present tens simple interrogative Present tens
GRAMMAR Present tens simple LESSON 7 Present tens simple   Present tens simple interrogative Present tens
GRAMMAR Present tens simple LESSON 7 Present tens simple   Present tens simple interrogative Present tens
GRAMMAR Present tens simple LESSON 7 Present tens simple   Present tens simple interrogative Present tens
GRAMMAR Present tens simple LESSON 7 Present tens simple   Present tens simple interrogative Present tens

LESSON 7

Present tens simple

 

Present tens simple interrogative

Present tens simple negative

 

I,

We,You, They + V1

Do + I, we, you, they + V1? Does + he, she, it + V1 ?

I,

We,You, They + don’t + V1

He, she, it + V1 -s

 

He, she, it + doesn’t + V1

 
 

- es

   

He

goes

to

the

bank

Does

he

go

to

the

bank

He

doesn’t

go

to

the

bank

everyday

 

everyday?

 

everyday.

 

We

receive

invoices

Do we receive invoices every daily?

We

don’t

receive

invoices

daily.

daily.

 

Past tens simple

Past tens simple

 

Past tens simple interrogative

 

Past tens simple negative

S

+ V-ed

 

Did + S + V1 ?

 

S

+ didn’t + V1.

 

V2

   

We played tennis a week ago.

Did

you

play

tennis

a

week

I didn’t play tennis last week.

ago? Did you go to USA last year for a meeting?

didn’t go to USA last year for a meeting.

I

We

went

to

USA

last

year for a meeting.

 

We use past tense simple to express an action in the past: yesterday, a week ago, last night, last week, last month, summer, year, on Monday- in 2008.

last week, last month, summer, year, on Monday- in 2008. Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 52

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

52

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

Present perfect simple Present perfect simple   Present perfect simple interrogative Present perfect simple

Present perfect simple

Present perfect simple Present perfect simple   Present perfect simple interrogative Present perfect simple
Present perfect simple Present perfect simple   Present perfect simple interrogative Present perfect simple
Present perfect simple Present perfect simple   Present perfect simple interrogative Present perfect simple
Present perfect simple Present perfect simple   Present perfect simple interrogative Present perfect simple
Present perfect simple Present perfect simple   Present perfect simple interrogative Present perfect simple
Present perfect simple Present perfect simple   Present perfect simple interrogative Present perfect simple

Present perfect simple

 

Present perfect simple interrogative

Present perfect simple negative

I, we, you, they +have +

Have + S + V3 ?

S + haven’t + V3 S + hasn’t + V3.

V3

He, she, it + has +V3

 

Has+ S + V3 ?

 

Just

Yet Already (surprise)

Yet

Already

 

The Boards of Directors

Have they decided to fire the accountant already?

They haven’t decided yet to fire her.

have

already

decided

to

fire the accountant.

   

- We use present perfect to express a finish action when you think of the EFFECT of the action in the present (and you don’t say exactly when the action was finished)

- It is often used with these words to express a finished action connected with the present : already, just, yet.

Present Continuous & Past Continuous

Present continuous

Past continuous

To be(present) + V1 + -ing

To be(past) + V1 + -ing

I am writing an inquiry now.

I was writing a report when my friend came in.

now . I was writing a report when my friend came in. Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

53

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

- Express an action which is happening at the moment of speaking. - It is
- Express an action which is happening at the moment of speaking. - It is
- Express an action which is happening at the moment of speaking. - It is
- Express an action which is happening at the moment of speaking. - It is
- Express an action which is happening at the moment of speaking. - It is
- Express an action which is happening at the moment of speaking. - It is
- Express an action which is happening at the moment of speaking. - It is

- Express an action which is happening at the moment of speaking. - It is used with NOW

- Express an action which was going on at a definite moment in the past. - It is used with: AT THIS TIME, YASTARDAY.

Present Perfect Simple & Present Perfect Continuous

Present Perfect Simple

 

Present Perfect Continuous

 

I, we, you, they + have + V3 He, she + has + V3

 

I, we, you, they + have been + V1 + -ing He, she + has been + V1+ -ing

 

Teamwork

has

become

one

of

the

most

The

manager

has

been

working

at

a

new

important motivational ways.

 

project.

 

- It is used for more permanent situations -It is used to say that an action has just been finished or to talk about its effect.

-It is used for more temporary activities and situations. -The idea of continuity of the action is important.

-The idea of continuity of the action is important. Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 54 Uniunea

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

54

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

Future simple Future simple I, we + shall + V1 He, she, it, you, they

Future simple

Future simple Future simple I, we + shall + V1 He, she, it, you, they +
Future simple Future simple I, we + shall + V1 He, she, it, you, they +
Future simple Future simple I, we + shall + V1 He, she, it, you, they +
Future simple Future simple I, we + shall + V1 He, she, it, you, they +
Future simple Future simple I, we + shall + V1 He, she, it, you, they +
Future simple Future simple I, we + shall + V1 He, she, it, you, they +

Future simple

I, we + shall + V1 He, she, it, you, they + will + V1

The manager will buy laptops for all employs.

It is used with words like : tomorrow, next day, next week, next year.

Grammar review

ASPECT

 

TENSE

 

Present

Past

Present

Future

perfect

SIMPLE

I write reports every day.

I wrote reports yesterday

I have written

I will write later.

I have just written

   

I haven’t written yet.

just written     I haven’t written yet . Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 55 Uniunea

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

55

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

CONTINOUS I am writing I was writing I have been writing reports now. reports at
CONTINOUS I am writing I was writing I have been writing reports now. reports at
CONTINOUS I am writing I was writing I have been writing reports now. reports at
CONTINOUS I am writing I was writing I have been writing reports now. reports at
CONTINOUS I am writing I was writing I have been writing reports now. reports at
CONTINOUS I am writing I was writing I have been writing reports now. reports at
CONTINOUS I am writing I was writing I have been writing reports now. reports at

CONTINOUS

I

am

writing

I

was

writing

I

have

been

writing

reports now.

reports

at

this

reports

FOR

half

an

time yesterday.

hour.

 

I

have

been

writing

reports

SINCE

8

o’clock.

 

Reported speech

 

Direct speech

Indirect speech

Present

Past He said that he wrote reports daily. He said that they were going to a meeting then. He said that he had missed his bus.

I

write reports daily We are going to a meeting now.

I

have missed my bus.

Past (simple, continues) We met yesterday to the bank.

Past perfect They said that they had met the day before to the bank. He said that they had been working on the computer.

He was working on the computer.

on the computer. He was working on the computer. Proiect UNIUNEA EUROPEANA finanŃat de 56 Uniunea

Proiect

UNIUNEA EUROPEANA

finanŃat

de

56

Uniunea Europeană reprezintă o entitate politică, socială şi economică compusă din 27 Ńări. Statele Membre au decis împreună, pe parcursul unui proces de extindere ce a durat 50 de ani, să construiască o zonă de stabilitate, democraŃie şi dezvoltare durabilă, menŃinând diversitatea culturală, toleranŃa şi libertăŃile individuale. Uniunea Europeană îşi propune să împărtăşească realizările şi valorile sale cu Ńările şi popoarele de dincolo de graniŃele ei.

Future I will visited you tomorrow/next day . Future in the past She said that
Future I will visited you tomorrow/next day . Future in the past She said that
Future I will visited you tomorrow/next day . Future in the past She said that
Future I will visited you tomorrow/next day . Future in the past She said that
Future I will visited you tomorrow/next day . Future in the past She said that
Future I will visited you tomorrow/next day . Future in the past She said that
Future I will visited you tomorrow/next day . Future in the past She said that

Future I will visited you tomorrow/next day.

Future in the past She said that she would visit me the following day/the next day.

Imperative Open this book. Don’t stay here

Infinitive He told me to open that book. He told me not to stay there.

If clauses rules