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1. Explain following terms gain, directivity, effective aperture

2. Explain following termsantenna beam width (HPBW, FNBW), antenna
effective height, antenna efficiency.
3. An antenna a radiation resistance has of 63and a loss resistance of 6If
the power gain is 30, calculate the directivity and efficiency of the
4. Evaluate HPBW, directivity, effective area of isotropic radiator and
elementary dipole and half wave dipole.
5. Calculate the approximate directivity from the half-power beam widths of a
unidirectional antenna the normalized power pattern is given by: (a) Pn =
cos , (b) Pn = cos2, (c) Pn= cos3, and (d) Pn = cosn. In all cases these
patterns are unidirectional (+z direction) with P n having a value only for
zenith angles 0 < <90 and Pn = 0 for 90 << 180.
6. A communication link has to be established between two stations using
half wavelength antenna for maximum directive gain. Transmitter power is
1KW, distance between transmitter and the receiver is 100 Km, what is the
maximum power received by the receive if the frequency of the operation
is 100MHz.
7. Define and explain retarded potentials.
8. Derive an expression for a radiated electric field for half wave dipole and
sketch field strength pattern.
9. An electric field strength 10v/m is to be measured at an observation
point = /2,
500Km from a half wave dipole antenna operating in air at 50MHz.
(i) What is the effective length of dipole?
(ii)Calculate the current that must be fed to the antenna.
(iii) Find the average power radiated by the antenna.
10.What are Lorentz guage conditions? Derive the wave equations for scalar
and vector potentials using maxwells approach.
11.Derive radiation resistance of elementary dipole, short dipole, half wave
dipole,quarter wave monopole.
12.Compare small loop with short dipole
13.Derive radiation resistance ,directivity of small loop antenna
14.Design Yagi Uda antenna of six elements to provide a gain of 12dB if the
operating frequency is 200MHz.
15.Explain various forms of antenna arrays-broad side, end fire, collinear
16.Explain array of n elements with equal spacing and currents equal in
magnitude and phase (broad side array) and its beam width, directivity.
17.Explain pattern multiplication method.
18.Explain binomial array and tchebyscheff polynomial
19.Explain folded dipole antenna and its radiation pattern and advantages
and applications of folded dipole
20.Draw the general structure and radiation pattern of travelling wave
antenna and give expression for its electric field strength.

21.Explain the construction, operation and design consideration for a helical

22.Design a helical antenna with a directivity of 15 dB that is operating in the
axial mode and whose polarization is nearly circular. The spacing between
the turns is l/10. Determine the following, (i) Number of turns (ii) Axial
ratio (iii) Progressive phase shifts (in degrees) between turns to achieve
axial mode radiation.
23.Design a five turn helical antenna which at 300 MHz operates in the axial
mode and possesses circular polarization in the major lobe. Determine the
following, (i) Near optimum circumference (in l and in meters) (ii) Spacing
(in l and in meters) for near optimum pitch angle design (iii) Input
impedance (iv) Axial ratio.
24.Explain salient features and advantage limitations of microstrip antennas
25.Discus characteristics of microstrip antennasradiation pattern,
directivity, gain, band width, efficiency, polarisation etc.
26.Explain rectangular microstrip antennas
27.Explain the geometrical configuration of different reflector systems in
28.Write a short note on the features of Lens antenna and Explain Nonmetallic dielectric Lens antennas in detail
29.Explain different types of Horn antenna in detail.
30.Design a pyramidal horn antenna with optimum gain at a frequency of
10GHz. The overall length of the antenna from the imaginary vertex of the
horn to the centre of the aperture is 10 and is nearly the same in both
planes. Determine the(i) aperture dimension of the horn (in cm).(ii) gain of
the antenna(in dB).(iii) aperture efficiency of the antenna (in %) assume
the reflection, conduction and dielectric losses of the antenna are
negligible.(iv) Power delivered to the matched load when the incident
power density is10w/m
31.Briefly explain different techniques used for measuring the gain and
compare absolute and 3-antenna method.
32.A reflector antenna with a total subtended angle of 1200 is illuminated at
10GHz with as specially designed feed so that its aperture efficiency is
nearly unity. The focal distance of the reflector is 5m. Assuming the
radiation pattern is nearly symmetric. Determine the (i) Half power beam
width (in degrees) (ii) side lobe level (in dB)(iii) Directivity (in dB)(iv) loss
in directivity (in dB), if the surface has RMS random roughness of 0.64 mm
33.What is optimum horn? Sketch and explain its characteristics.
34.Explain the concept of Zoning and specify the tolerances of zoned and unzoned non-metallic dielectric lens antennas.
35.Explain different modes of propagation ground wave, sky wave, space
wave, tropospheric scatter propagation, duct propagation.
36.Explain structure of ionosphere and characteristics of different ionosphere
37.Explaincritical frequency, max usable frequency, actual height, virtual
38.Derive friss transmission formula
39.Derive filed equations of surface wave

40.A radio link has to be established between two earth stations placed at a
distance of 25000 km between them. If the height of the ionosphere is
200km and its critical frequency is 5MHz,Calculate the MUF for the given
path .Also calculate the electron density in the ionosphere layer