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Organisation Behaviour

Contents
Table of figures................................................................................................................................2
Introduction.....................................................................................................................................3
TASK 1:............................................................................................................................................4
1.1 Compare and contrast different organizational structures and culture.............................4
1.2 Explain the impact of the existing organizational structure and the culture towards the
performance of a business of your choice..................................................................................10
1.3 Discuss the factors which influence individual behaviour at work....................................11
TASK 2:..........................................................................................................................................13
2.1 Different leadership styles can be seen in practice in varying organizational contexts.
Compare the strength of different leadership styles.................................................................13
2.2 Explain how organisational theory underpins the practice of management....................17
2.3Evaluate the different approaches to management used by the organizations.................19
TASK 3:..........................................................................................................................................21
3.1. Organizations are using different types of leadership styles in order to motivate the
employees......................................................................................................................................21
3.2 Compare the application of different motivational theories which can be applied by the
management, within an organization in different scenarios....................................................25
3.3 Evaluate the usefulness of explaining motivational theories in Task 3.2 for you as a
future manager..............................................................................................................................27
TASK 4:..........................................................................................................................................28
4.1 Explain the nature of groups which are the existing within the selected organization and
their behaviour in different circumstances................................................................................28
4.2 There are many factors affecting people working as teams within organizations. Discuss
the factors that would enhance or hinder the development of effective teams in the selected
organization..................................................................................................................................29
4.3. Evaluate the impact of technology on team functioning within the selected organization.
........................................................................................................................................................30
Conclusion.....................................................................................................................................31
Gantt chart for Assignment..............................................................................................................
References......................................................................................................................................33

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Table of figures
Figure 1 Organisation Behaviour ( http://www.vgtmanagement.com/org_behaviour.html).. .3
Figure 2. Functional structure overview.......................................................................................5
Figure 3. Divisional structure.........................................................................................................5
Figure 4. Matrix structure..............................................................................................................6
Figure 5. leadership styles(https://culcaliasj.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/leadershipstylespcf48x.png).....................................................................................................................................13
Figure 6 Process of
motivation(http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_iJol5tGyUGE/SxTA_w9hUZI/AAAAAAAAAyA/RPSz
67BkDTM/s1600/Slide1.JPG).......................................................................................................22
Figure 7 Maslows hierarchy(http://upload.wikimedia.org/)....................................................25
Figure 8 Gantt chart for Assignment...........................................................................................32

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Organisation Behaviour

Introduction

Figure 1 Organisation Behaviour ( http://www.vgtmanagement.com/org_behaviour.html)

Organisation Behaviour is concerned with the subject of what people do in an organisation and
how that behaviour affects the operation of the organisation.
What is Organizational Behaviour (OB)?
Organizational behaviour is concerned with human conduct at the work. In general, OB is
concerned with how aspects of the soul, the presence of others and organizational systems impact
on behaviour. Employers and employees have much to discover from an understanding of OB
since it leads to successes for both parties
Organizational behaviour is not an old topic, but many theories, principles, models, framework is
evolving to address the changing job environment. Some common and key issues related to
organisational behaviour are leadership, innovation, group or team work, individual study,
performance evaluation etc.
The main objective of the subject field of organisational behaviour is ensuring the efficiency and
effectiveness of the employees. On the other hand, organizational behaviour is also concerned
about the proper role of human resources and also concerned about the best production from the
employees. There is a very close relationship between the behaviour and the carrying out of the
employees of any particular organization
In this assignment paper, organizational behaviour related topics will be discussed along the base
of two assigned organizations named Sri Lankan Airways and Raigam (Pvt) Ltd.

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TASK 1:
1.1 Compare and contrast different organizational structures and culture.
Organization can be identified through their responsibilities, authorities and relationships in the
market. There are ways to organize companies to bring effectiveness to market. Most prominently
speaking is that organisational structure reflects the organisational culture.
According to Denison (1990), generally there is a close relationship between organizational
structure and culture. Sometimes organizational structure provides the norms, attitudes and
culture of organizing.
The structures of an organization play an important role in the development of the company.
These structures are based on cultural identity of the organization the way it structures behave.
(Botha, 2008), These structures are to maintain workflow and take profits. The way they play
they create a culture. The level of influence inside the system and the systematic approach to
coordinate the activities forms cutter.
Types of Organizational Structures
Organizations can be structured in different ways:
Function, for model, operations, merchandising, finance, fundraising, and so on
Region
Product, for example, books, support, consultancy, delivery
Work, teams, for example, client/customer groups.
Organizations are set up in specific ways to accomplish different goals, and the structure of an
organization can help or hinder its progress toward accomplishing these goals. Organizations
large and small can achieve higher gross receipts and other profit by properly matching their
needs with the social system they use to play.
There are different types of structures in companies depending on their composition.

Bureaucratic and Administrative structure


Functional Structure
Divisional structure
Matrix Structure

Functional structure
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Functional structure divides the activities of the organization into different functional area. In this
structure, there are many functions in different levels. They can have many managers, staff with
the same power. This structure is suitable for many companies, such as for a big company and a
big business. This structure is suitable for a company that has many branches. For example Public
bank, and its..

Figure 2. Functional structure overview

Divisional structure
Divisional structure is a conglomerate company, they have different industries to carry out various
products. They will only have one CEO for the whole organization. They are focused around or a
geographical region. Section manager in each nation is responsible for everyday operating
decision making, they demand to control product and service production. This kind of structure is
suitable for big organizations, for example Mas, Hemas Holdings is FMCG, Healthcare,
Transportation, Leisure and Power Generation and etc.

Figure 3. Divisional structure

Matrix structure

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Matrix structure is a complex construction, which requires multiple lines of authority, and it is
different with hierarchal line of control. In one organization they will accept many different
function managers. For an example, they will only have one purchasing manager and one product
manager, but only one buyer. Then the purchaser needs to get approval from two people. They
are the purchasing manager and merchandise manager. At least, one manager needs to control
two employees. This kind of structure is for big organizations, for example Micro Company Etc.

Figure 4. Matrix structure

Equally, there are many types of business formation in the universe, so different types of
organizational structure and refinement can be observed in the field of business. (Mintzberg,
1979).
Organizational Culture
Organizational culture is the set of values, rules, beliefs, attitudes and regulations. These factors
can help members of the organization to know how they will Work.

To whom we will report?

What we this?

Why this is important?

Culture is like a backbone for the organization because it is the internal environment. It plays a
key role in the success of the firm.

Types of Culture
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Power Culture
Power culture is centralized. This culture may find in the small kinds. The control of a business is
the basic element. The decision maker is alone. There is no constancy the organization may react
quickly to the danger. Sometimes more consultancies can lead to staff feeling undervalued and demotivated, which can also lead to high staff turnover.
Welfare/ Person's culture
Essentially, this kind of culture is a welfare non profitable, charities and for the social activities.
This kind of acculturation can be in the group or individual intent.
Task Culture
It is fundamentally a team work based approach to dispatch a particular task. This culture is more
common the business where the organization will establish a project team to complete the project
at the particular time. Employees feels motivated because they are in power to make decisions
within their team, they will also feel good and valued because they may have been selected within
that team and given the responsibility to bring to the task.
Role Culture
Role culture is most common today among organizations. In a role culture, organizations are split
into various functions and each individual within the function is assigned a particular role. The
role culture has the benefit of specialization. Employees focus on their particular role as assigned
to them by their job description and this should increase productivity for the company. This
culture is quite logical to organize a large organization.
Although there are close to common organizational culture and social organization, but it is
almost true that the social organisation and culture varies organization to organization. This is true
for Raigam (Pvt) Ltd and Sri Lankan Airways.
Firstly, Sri Lankan Airways is a service organization and Raigam (Pvt) Ltd is a multi product
based company.

Raigam Marketing Services (Pvt) Ltd


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This is the holding company of the group and the oldest member. Since 1996 the group has been
able to achieve phenomenal growth due to the far sighted fiscal policies and uncompromising
stance on the quality of its products. Raigam Marketing Services (Pvt) Ltd.
Started with USD 20,000/- and 10 workers. Today, Raigam is a company with more than 1400
actors and an annual turnover of more than USD 12 Million.
(http://www.raigam.lk/profile/profile.html)
Raigam (Pvt) Ltd is mainly a diversified company incorporated in Sri Lanka, engaged in the fast
moving consumer goods industry as a manufacturer and sole agent for certain international brands
in bakery products.
Sri Lankan Airways
SriLankan Airlines, the National Airline of Sri Lanka, is an award winning carrier with a firm
reputation as a global leader in service, comfort, safety, reliability, and punctuality.
Launched in 1979, SriLankan is currently expanding and further diversifying its wide range of
products and services in order to drive the countrys ongoing boom in tourism and economic
development.
The airlines hubs are located at Bandaranaike International Airport in Colombo and Mattala
Rajapaksa International Airport, Hambantota provides convenient connections to its global route
network of 65 destinations in 35 countries in Europe, the Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia,
the Far East, North America, Australia and Africa.
(http://www.srilankan.com/corporate/en_uk/SrilankanAirlines/our-airline)
In terms of Sri Lankan Airways is considered as the national airline of Sri Lanka with a firm
reputation as a global leader in service, comfort, safety, reliability, and punctuality.
According to these two selected companies some uniform structure is seen in terms of
departmentalization and some distinguishes are present in terms of centralization and
decentralization.
Some common and uncommon structure and culture are seen between Sri Lankan Airways and
Raigam (Pvt) Ltd. Both limited liability companies. Based on the reports published by those
companies it seems that there is some uniformity in hierarchy level, capital structure, etc.
On the other hand, there are some differences that are examined in both organizations when we
examine the overall scenario of the details of the responsibility of each employee.
Sri Lankan Airways Company is run by CEO and CTO with the different staff responsible for
production functions for each division. By using this structure the company also faced with some
advantages and disadvantages
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Advantages
Parts can be active in production, product and the development strategy of the company.
It is easy to manage and develop departmental.
Disadvantages
No exchange work experience among employees in the company because they work in each
separate department.
Managing director becomes blurred because the department can decide their own activities,
thereby affecting the performance of the company.
Raigam (Pvt) Ltd uses mostly matrix structure. The organizational chart of the company is
divided into sections under the management of a director to work as director, marketing director,
technical director, but all departments are working under the management of managers, who is
monitoring all the work of the company. By using this structure the company also faced with
some advantages and disadvantages
Advantage
Employees can be chosen to suit the requirements of a project and the team will be more dynamic
and able to approach certain problems in different ways. There will be a named project manager
who is responsible for completing tasks, so workers will know whom they are responsible to, and
the project manager will be aware of the specific deadlines and budget constraints of the project.
Disadvantage
Perhaps have a conflict over the allocation of resources between line managers and project
managers. If a team has too much independence, then the projects may be more difficult to
manage than if they were more closely monitored. There may be an increase in cost if more
managers are required to manage project teams. People may also need to learn new skills and
quickly address certain issues including managing others and themselves.
Sri Lankan Airways has a strong hierarchy. In that company job and responsibility of each
employee is very specific, but in Raigam (Pvt) Ltd there is a scenario that sometimes one can do
the work assigned to another. Sri Lankan Airways can be called a Cosmo police organization as it
has a high structure. On the other hand Raigam (Pvt) Ltd can be termed as a Clan organization as
it has low structure and high culture.

1.2 Explain the impact of the existing organizational structure and the culture
towards the performance of a business of your choice.
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The performance of business can be affected by the relationship of structure and culture if the
structures are not leading to a healthy sympathetic culture of work, then the company cannot meet
its targets and cannot survive in the market. Company structure should be a new excellent culture
and the cultural outlook should be in a way to strengthen the structure and support the outcome of
the activities in positive and profit oriented way.
According to Louis (1985), it is proved that organizes the relationship between structure and
culture of an organization determines the positive or negative influence on the organizations
performance. An organizational culture, it means that how an organization views the internal and
external affairs and how it operates and how it performs its activities.
When employees work in teams they will have the opportunity to exchange knowledge, create
unity among the employees of the company, they will feel more enthusiasm for their work, they
will complete good work assigned to help increase the productivity of the company.
Employees in the company must have vast knowledge and solid, skilled, flexible manufacturing,
which are essential and also requires of the company to recruit staff.
Every company selects structure and culture of their own, the company focuses overcome limit
and achieve the objectives set out the purpose of corporate development.
According to the selected companies the relationship between the Raigam (Pvt) Ltd culture and
structure impacts highly on its performances. For maximum time this relationship breeds the
efficiency and effectiveness of the employees of that organization (Wilkins, and Ouchi, 1983).
Merely a slight idea about Raigam (Pvt) Ltd is that, according to the structure of this organization
there is a little bit agency problem raised.
Some common factors influencing the behaviours of employees are salary, job security, work
environment, compensation, recognition, promotion, package, organizations policies, principalagent relationship etc. (Roberts and Hunt, 1991).
Based on the report was published by Raigam (Pvt) Ltd from the initial stages that has a strong
employee and owner relationship that is resulting in more efficiency and effectiveness among the
employees and ensuring the bright performances by years. Among the culture of ASDA PLC one
of the notable cultures is referring the employees as colleagues.
On the other hand Sri Lankan Airlines vision, mission, goal, objectives are aligned with the
benefits of employees. And it is result the huge growth and opportunity in the markets. The salary
package, job security, strong leadership quality, bonus and incentives are, some are working as
key factors influencing the behaviour of the employees working in this company.

1.3 Discuss the factors which influence individual behaviour at work.


Individual behaviour
Individual behaviour means some concrete action by a person.
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The behaviour of an individual is influenced by various factors, some of the factors lie within
himself like his instincts, personality traits, internal feelings etc.. While some lie outside him
comprising the external environment of which he is a part.
Factors Influencing Individual Behaviour

Personality

Ability

Perception

Motivation

Socio-cultural factors

Organizational factors

Foundation of Individual Behaviour

Personal factors

Psychological factors

Organizational systems and resources

Environmental factors

According to John Ivancevich and Michael Mattson, the major constituents that determine
individual differences in behavioural patterns are demographic factors, abilities and skills,
perception, attitudes and personality. Let us talk over them and they are as follows,
1. Demographic
Demographic factors include socioeconomic background, education, nationality, race, age and
sex, etc. Organisations generally prefer employees that belong to the good socioeconomic
background and are well educated as they believe such employees perform better.
2. Abilities and Skills
The physical capability of an individual to do something can be termed as ability. Skill can be
defined as the ability to act in a way that allows a person to perform well.
3. Perception
The cognitive process meant for interpreting the environmental stimuli in a meaningful way is
referred to as perceptual. Every individual on the basis of his or her preference can organise and
interpret environmental stimuli.
4. Attitude

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According to psychologists, attitude can be delineated as a disposition to respond favourably or
unfavourably to certain objects, persons or situations. Factors such as family, society, culture,
peers and organisational factors influence the formation of attitude.
5. Personality
Personality can be defined as the study of the characteristics and distinctive traits of an individual,
the interrelations between them and the way in which a person responds and adjusts to other
people and situations. The various factors that influence the personality of an individual are
heredity, family, society, culture and situation. It implies to the fact that people differ in their
manner while responding to the organisational environment.
As an employee in the company many factors will work while they are at work. These elements
are included company structures, power structure, culture, values, purposes, objectives, benefits
and punishment system.
The employees try to find funding from existing company system. If there is not a well
established structure, employees can not feel good and supportive attitude from top management
towards their work so they loos the work interest over time.
Similarly, if there is no well defined and developmental culture in the company, employees try to
escape the work and lazy attitude develops over time.
According to Cardy (2003) if there is no well defined hierarchy in the company there can be time
and resource loss due to delays confusions and overlapping of work. If a company holds good
corporate values employees also feel secure and proud about the company and they try to fulfil
company goals and aims.
The benefits are a key to individual employees. As every human has basic life necessities and
major motive behind any job or work is to fulfil those needs. If the company is not providing
enough financial and other support benefits to employees they will try to slip from the company
as soon as they will find better opportunities so it is necessary to keep employees loyal to a
company through providing them better financial and other benefits like health benefits and
pensions.
According to Forster (2005) Last but not least thing is punishment and reward system. In the
absence of such punishment and reward system company management cannot get maximum
effort from staff.

TASK 2:
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2.1 Different leadership styles can be seen in practice in varying organizational


contexts. Compare the strength of different leadership styles.
Most common Leadership Types are:

Autocratic leadership.
Bureaucratic leadership.
Charismatic leadership.
Democratic leadership or participative leadership.
Laissez-faire leadership.

Figure 5. leadership
styles(https://culcaliasj.files.wordpress.com/201

4/09/leadershipstyles-pcf48x.png)

There are many leadership theories which define different leadership styles in commercial
enterprise. Mostly the leadership style in companies is established along the glide path of top
management or owners of the company. Here is analysis about some of leadership courses and
strategies along with their effectiveness for organizations.
1. Autocratic leadership
This form of leadership is an example of extreme transactional leadership in which leader of a
company or top managers use a powerful tool to deal the work and workers. Staff members have
small opportunity to make suggestions and determine according to their desire. According to
Forster (2005), this type of leadership cannot work with large systems, but it is just for small
organization, especially where there is untrained labour or staff and unskilled occupations. But in
a large organization, it can lead to lazy attitudes, higher level of absenteeism and turnover.
2. Bureaucratic leadership
Bureaucratic leadership is the fashion in which patterns are stuck to strictly and work is answered
along the fundaments of the volume. It is a very popular leadership style, even with modification
and modern approach in all companies this type of leadership is found at any tier. This is good for
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work where there is serious work involving human life risk and handling of machinery, but in the
service sector, it can lead to disaster where staff will try to implement and follow book and
situation will required the diversity of action and response.
3. Charismatic leadership
It is a pattern of leadership which emerges with strength of personality and it creates a higher
degree of acceptance among staff. It carries enthusiasm, charm and quality and creates an
energetic aura. The drawback of this leadership style is, leader can turn authoritative and can
make blenders for business without anyone there to challenge him or her. Similarly the
dependence on the leader can crate collapse after they pass on.
4. Democratic leadership
It is also called participative leadership in which there is room for every worker and manager to
give their feedback and make a contribution in the work develops. It bears out with decisions
which have full financial support and involvement from staff. According to Laven (2004)
sometimes it can lead to lack of responsibility and a competition based on contribution instead of
quality.
5. Relations-oriented leadership
This is also called as people oriented leadership in business which tries to accommodate the
vision of other people rather than top management. This type of leadership is aiming at the results
for the general welfare and benefits for the maximum people. It tries to accommodate the interests
of as many as it can. But it has drawbacks of expansion of work to unnecessary boundaries and
unnecessary participation and involvement level.
Bellows are three types of organization.
Samsung, Raigam Marketing Services (Pvt) Ltd and Sri Lankan Airways

Samsung Company.
Samsung is a leader in digital, semiconductors, memory, system integration solutions and it is a
versatile group. Samsung Electronics established in 1969 is the largest electronics companies in
the world. Samsung Electronics Co. Has developing to a new era in product evolution, corporate
culture and contributions to society on a global scale.
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(http://www.samsung.com/in/aboutsamsung/).
Samsung has applied mostly like Bureaucratic Leadership Style. In this style, the manager confers
with subordinates and takes their views and feelings into account, but retains the right to make the
final decision. In fact, Samsung wants to share knowledge and experience to subordinates. The
company wants to create opportunities for staff decision making. From that, the company will
collect information to make the final decision. This style brings a positive factor to make
employees more motivate.
Bureaucratic leadership isn't ideal in all berths and there can be some disadvantages to this
organization.
Resentment from the workforce under the manager over their management style, particularly if it
is seen to be more autocratic than democratic.
If work habits have formed that are unproductive, they can be difficult to stop and substitute with
new procedures and this can alienate and motivate a workforce.
If morale in a workplace is low and workers only do the minimum of what is required of them,
but no more.
If the workforce is not allowed to feel part of the decision making process and their feedback is
not considered by upper management, this can cause resentment and undermine productivity.

Raigam Marketing Services (Pvt) Ltd


Raigam Marketing Services (Pvt) Ltd mostly like an autocratic leadership style the manager is
like a dictator and his chief characteristic is to give orders and petitions. Rewards are often
financial and the penalties are often warnings, reduction or firing without strong verbal
communication. In this manner we see in industrial establishments where the safety of the entire
facility is at risk from unnecessary misunderstandings.
Has brought certain advantages for the management of personnel, management has all power and
can easily set up a decision without attention to the opinions of employees,
Management make decisions quickly and easily controlled, employees receive their tasks quickly
and focus on his work should achieve high efficiency, increase productivity of the company.
An autocratic leadership also brings disadvantages for the company, it created a large gap between
employees and management, staff only does their duty without any comment on them. Employees
do not have the opportunity to work groups and exchange of experience, so get people to become
passive and lack of innovation, influence the development of the company.
Sri Lankan Airways
Sri Lankan Airways leadership mostly Style like a Democratic Leadership Style.
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In this style Encourages staff to be more self-motivating, self-dependent, and to be able to make
their own decisions so that they could participate by building strong decisions for their team. The
democratic leadership style is more educational than controlling and in this way, the leader allows
employees to create and accomplish their own designs based on the information in their hand.
Conclusion
In this Task I have analysed three companies. And then I can see the differences in organizational
structure and their culture. Each company has its own direction, however exercises are planned to
boost benefits for the organization. With the direction of companies they also have many
advantages, besides that they also face difficulties affect certain business activities, so every
company should have appropriate measures to limit the difficulties and make the company grow
increasingly.

2.2 Explain how organisational theory underpins the practice of management.


Organisational theory and management theory are used in several aspects of a working business.
Different organizational theories are given below. Lots of people try hard to stick to the theory
because it helps them to become successful and better at their jobs.
Management is a very important role in all organisations. It is attaining things complete through
and with other person attains needed goals by efficiently utilizing available resources.
There are five major strands of management theory.
Scientific management
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Classical administration (Bureaucracy)

Human relations approach

Systems approach

Contingency approach

According to the "Effects of Classical Management Theories on the Current Management Practice
in Nigeria" European Journal of Business and Management 5.19 (2013)
Scientific management
This management theory was given by Frederick w. Taylor. The scientific method works as an
objective and focuses on fresh ways of performing jobs. Management science attempts to apply
this same approach in dealing with problems that arise within business operations. Its use as a
problem solving approach finds applications in areas such as decision-making, design processes
and strategic planning and problem could get rid of by developing a science of management.
Classical administration (Bureaucracy)
Classical management theory was introduced by Max Weber. The term is used to explain the
scientific management and general administrative theorists. Associations utilize this
administration to cover events in government, including jars, top quality, charges diminish and to
oversee representative connections. This methodology utilized by numerous little business holders
to prepare and enhance their association and to achieve something.
One of the benefits of this overture is an understandable organisational hierarchy with divide
management stages, where each management group takes on its individual purpose and
responsibilities.
The top management is generally the directors or the chief administrators. The Middle
management, direct is the supervisors. At the bottom stage are the supervisors who handle each
day's performance. The other half of classical theory is bureaucracy and is generally found in big
organisations. The importance of bureaucracy means that it is often seen separately from classical
management, which the information is taken from practical experience.
Human relations approach
The human relation approach was introduced by Elton Mayo This approach takes nearly the
contradictory turn on management. They make sure that the location they work in is fully
dependable and safe, and to make certain that the employees are did not have their physical or
mental wellness support as a result of their operating surroundings. Organisations are using this
access to make better the self-confidence of their employees and this would let in a vast point of
funding and recognition for the work that they are performing.
The systems approach
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In 1960, is an approach to management appeared which tried to unify the prior schools of opinion.
This approach is commonly recognised as Systems Approach. It is a set of linked parts
performing together to achieve some aim and goal which are in the environment. The systems
approach is an idea which proves a society as a unified useful system that admits of some
business segments. It is an approach which lets the management to see the company as a joint
part. Such a system may allow the management to successfully resolve the long-term objectives
of the organization.
Contingency approach
The contingency theory approach was introduced by Handy (1987) The contingency approach
distinguish that organisational systems are referred to their surroundings and that different
environments require different organisational relationships for effective operation of the system.
These above theories make the manager skilful while making decisions. Different organizational
theories suggest the way to interact to make success. It helps to understand the way the business
should structure to make a profit. Even though, in the time of recession organizational theories
help to master the state of affairs.
In the same mode, management theory may also underpin the personal values of some people. For
example, they may disagree with a particular regulation or regulation that has been brought out by
the troupe. However, in order to pack out their job as a manager effectively and professionally,
they need to run away from their principles and do the task.
It is hard to try to execute both management and organizational theories as a psychological
contract between the employer and employee still needs to be kept up. This will need to consider
how fairly the company is treating the employee and how fairly the employee is treating the
company.

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2.3Evaluate the different approaches to management used by the


organizations.
As mentioned in the earlier sections, management was influenced by various Management
theories. Management theories are really essential because it is contributing to cause all
employees more creative in the organizations.
The points are to expand proficiency and to accomplish a particular aims. Thither are many
benefits of management theories and one of the benefits is that it helps directors and employees to
identify how to handle and deal with things that may subsist in the system. With management
theories organisations can balance every day's task. On the other hand, management theory is not
just about to train managers how to motivate employees to be more creative, it also shows
managers how to be a good leader. For example Samsung, Raigam Marketing Services (Pvt) Ltd
and Sri Lankan Airways use management theories to get their employees to be more creative.
Samsung Company and Raigam Marketing Services (Pvt) Ltd used scientific management. In
each work they assume its own demand and name each part on the basis of work explanation.
Samsung selected the greatest path to achieve the task and they split work equally among the
management and the top management give confidence their employees and facilitate them to
improve the governance.
In other hand Sri Lankan Airways use scientific manages to bring up to date their employee's
knowledge to maintain the profitable ability and make them revolve in working areas.
The Samsung Company offers training to employees that will afford them the chance to hold on
another point, besides it gives managers and employees the experience to their work and the
opportunity to develop their life histories.
Sri Lankan Airways use classical approach to tell their employees how to perform their business
in a way that gets the job performed. They use this approach to deal with the problems that arise
in their company and to find a good way for their organisation implementing and management.
Also it recommends the growth of measured methods for performing the jobs and the individuals
are trained to work faster and better.
Samsung Company also used classical management because this theory sees Samsung Company
structure and places importance on the development of their work and the principals of their
management and employee behaviour. Besides, they use to infer how the methods of making the
organisation use and therefore how to amend them.
The human relation approach takes almost the opposite role on Samsung Company management
because this method considers more on the employees themselves and their needs and wants. It is
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theorized that if the Samsung Company management is to find the most excellent and most
comfortable way for the employees to work, this will help them with a great level of working
behaviour, ethic and efficiency.
Sri Lankan Airways used system approach and the systems create the system to be identified by
the employees in order for them to carry their work and to improve themselves. Bellows are the
aims of systematic approach.
Help from inside the organisation,
Increase employee's attitude for the future,
Make managers accountable for growth attempt,
Make employees eventually in charge for their improvement.
Contingency theory is very important in the Samsung Company because it contributes them to
achieve, organisational objective in different type of circumstances. It can also simply help close
relationships between their employees and leaders grow more. The theory leads the leaders to
identify the particular work they are responsible for.

TASK 3:
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3.1. Organizations are using different types of leadership styles in order to


motivate the employees.
Motivational theories in organizations
Almost every conscious human behaviour is motivated. The movements and demands which are
internal leads to tensions, which in turn leads to action.
What was the motivation?
There is a general tendency to believe that motivation is a personal attribute. Some people have it
and others do not. In fact, and depicts some of the laziest people show no signs of outside stimuli.
Yet, unlike people in basic motivational drives. It also depends on areas of interest. The concept
of motive is circumstantial and how differences between individuals at different times. If you
understand what motivates people, you have to control the most potent way to deal with it.
Definitions of motivation
Research encyclopedia, suggests that the motivation is expressed in the Latin word "Motivus"
meaning "to travel". Engaged in research on the motivation General question "What makes
human action, " writes Franken (1994). When looking more academic settings are correct,
however, offers a broad spectrum.
Some traces are proposed here, Some transactions lead to action by the interaction of biological,
learned cognitive processes (Franken 1994:19)
Process of motivation
Motivational process steps are steps which are taken to be prompted. A routine which then later
produces an amazing effect. It's awesome when you are properly motivated, what can invigorate
and encourage and show you the right of direction at a later stop. Like any other process, and little
effort on your part, it requires foresight and preparation. However, over time your return on
investment is important in the process of motivation. And it's also important when you need an
extra incentive to encourage the applicant.

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Figure 6 Process of
motivation(http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_iJol5tGyUGE/SxTA_w9hUZI/AAAAAAAAAyA/RPSz67BkDTM/s1600/
Slide1.JPG)

The steps include


1. To find out what motivates you want or require. This is a very specific area of your life.
Motivational process is not the best motivation in general, but wonders when to get motivated for
a peculiar business or gain a specific goal will be.
2. Taking steps to achieve your defined goals, little by little. These small things, you should
record every morning as your destinations. This is an important part of motivation, for conducting
a jump-size pieces because it is cheap and convenient. The use of the hands, face in small
manageable sections, does not appear so overwhelming and, hence, easier to become motivated
and stay motivated.
3. Get rid of your distraction so that you are motivated. This is the key to motivating process.
How motivation does a lot better If you cannot stay motivated, hence this is the piece of the
process where you bump off your power to destroy things to stay focused and remain motivated.

Types of Motivation
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There are diverse types of motivation that human influence. These different types of motivation
different short-and long-term effects in humans.
Besides, we all react differently to different types of motivation.
That is why it is really useful to recognize about the different varieties of motivation and learning
to fully utilize them. This allows us to choose the best form of motivation to use in a specific
situation or for a person that should be treated.
a) Intrinsic motivation
It is the motivation that comes from within. It originates from the educational level and the
personal feelings, which is achieved by doing this particular thing. For object lesson, for music
lovers, their motivation to hold out an official document and go to classes, and so forth is the
intrinsic motivation.
b) Extrinsic motivation
It is the motivation that comes from doing things or elements outside the person. An example
would be motivated to work in an office because you are looking for a promotion is one of the
types of external motivation. Public recognition, money, fame, competition, or material
achievements are examples of extrinsic motivation.
Motivation can be divided further into seven categories
1) Achievement motivation
This crusade is to follow and achieve goals. The human with the motivation to execute goals and
to promote learning success. Here, performance is important for its own sake, simply not for
rewards associated with it. This is standardized to the approach Kaidan Japanese government.
2) Affiliation Motivation
This dish goes to the masses on a social basis. Persons with being motivated to manage the work
better if they are praised for their confident attitude and cooperation.
3) Competence Motivation
This sequence, to do something, so that the individual is high quality. Power motivated people
who seek employment skills, they are proud in using their problem solving skills and strive to be
creative when faced with obstacles. They learn from their experiences and explorations.
4) Power motivations
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It takes people and alter the position of victims. Power motivated people to produce an impact on
their governing bodies to create and is willing to consider risks to serve it.
5) Attitude, Motivation
The ratio of motivation, how people think and experience. It is their confidence and religious
belief in himself, his attitude to life. In this they think about the future and they react to the past.
6) Incentive motivation
When a person or group of broadcasting award activities. It is "you do it, and you get that"
relations. This variety of honours and prizes, what makes people play a little harder.
7) Fear Grounds
Fear of forced human motivation to exercise discretion. He should immediately acquire the task
and do it quickly. They are really useful short term tasks.
In light of my perception, it can be said that Raigam (Pvt) could be taken up with a few
progressions like order organizational structure, novel technologies, employee selection
or enlistment criteria for adapting to the new business world, operations mode for a few fonts and
so along. For those kinds of changes Raigam (Pvt) may confront the common sense effect on
administration style on the inhalation of its staff in the times of changes. As changes require new
authority style so there can have more or less force over its staff.
Typically, there can have a plausibility, like conformity issue for actors with new pioneer and
initiative style. For the progressions and distinctive initiative style representatives' general
execution may succumb to misjudge and adjustment issue. Furthermore, this can come about the
slow development of an association.

3.2 Compare the application of different motivational theories which can be


applied by the management, within an organization in different scenarios.
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Every Manager in any organization needs to ask to motivate their employees to stay competitive.
Since employees may find different ingredients to be motivating, it is essential that managers
require the time to learn what drives each individual. In the bulk of cases, positive factors that
appeal to an individual's internal need tend to be more efficient than using negative reinforcement,
criticism and feedback only when performance falls short of prospects.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs

Figure 7 Maslows hierarchy(http://upload.wikimedia.org/)


According to Klein (1989), motivation is very essential for guaranteeing the expected
performances from the employees of any organization. Motivation helps employees perform their
assigned tasks properly. Different theories of the motivations were developed for organizations till
21st century. Some of them are given as below.
1. Incentive Theory of Motivation
This theory states that staff and employee can be motivated to perform well through external
rewards. For example, if there are some financial gains for staff for doing a certain level of work
or keeping time management effectively, they will try their best to achieve the landmark to gain
that financial benefit.
2. Drive Theory of Motivation
This theory says that people are finding motivation from certain natural processes that are selected
by management to make the maximum effect in public presentation. For example, someone can
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be motivated for drinking water to reduce internal thirst. This theory attempts to base performance
control on biological and physical demands of human.
3. Arousal Theory of Motivation
This theory states that human are motivated to act to satisfy or decrease their stimulation or
arousal level. For example, one person can like to go to movie while others can like to read books
to satisfy certain arousal level.
4. Humanistic Theory of Motivation
Humanistic theory of motivation is a set of motivational theories which are based on the fact that
human have immense cognitive reason to act in a certain way and do certain things. Abraham
Maslow's put this in his hierarchy of needs that is based on different motivations behind human
actions and those motivations are biological, social and spiritual. Like hunger and self
actualization.

3.3 Evaluate the usefulness of explaining motivational theories in Task 3.2 for
you as a future manager.
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Motivation makes human resources available for action as every action required physical,
financial and private participation. Through the use of motivation, managers can turn resources
into action thus they can utilize those resources for development and growth.
Motivation improves the level of efficiency in the company as staff's puts full efforts neglecting
their qualifications and learning they are involved to gain the benefits of motivational factors.
Thus the motivation in organization improves performance levels for managers. It helps in
increase in productivity, improves the efficiency of staff and reduces the cost of operations.
It leads organizations and managers to achieve the set organizational goals by the utilization of
available resources effectively and in a better way. Increases cooperation at work, creates a better
work environment and works as stimulate for higher performance level.
Motivation builds very friendly relationship among managers and staff also the staff receives
benefits for their performance. It increases the staff satisfaction level at work and develops trust
and confidence in the workplace due to monetary and non-monetary incentives.
Similarly, motivation becomes very important for business because it motivated staff, empowers
manager and teams, creates a teamwork environment, creates a sense of belonging and
responsibility among staff, finally it helps to decrease operational cost.
According to Deci (1975), now motivation theories are being updated according to the demand of
time and new challenges for business environment and it is being undeniable factor that managers
should follow the theories of motivation for managing the firm properly.

TASK 4:

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4.1 Explain the nature of groups which are the existing within the selected
organization and their behaviour in different circumstances.
Groups are important and major feature of a business establishment. Organizations are divided
into sub-units that consist of departments of groups. These groups shape the behaviour of
organizations and are responsible for activities for the organization.
According to Forster (2005), it is really important for handlers to acquire understanding around
the nature of groups inside organizations. The composition of groups promotes teamwork,
coordination, cooperation, experience sharing, guidance available for new staff and collective
outcome of business activity.
Different types of group are seen in different organizations. And each of it consists different
features in, different groups in a different organization. Raigam (Pvt) Ltd is not different from
them. Several features were considered in that establishment. Four types of teams are seen in that.
Those are manufacturing team, parallel team, project team and management team.
Today we will examine the features of these squads. The features or characteristics of work teams
are large size in number. Each team is guided by a team leader, collective effort, sharing
opportunities for each team member etc.
The features or characteristics of management teams are specific hierarchy, accountability,
innovation based management system, sufficient authority to the management team, responsible
conformation etc.
And finally the project team keeps some characteristics or features are division of work, job
specialization, target based team work, having sufficient number of team leaders in project teams,
information access right is given to project leader, etc. For an overall discussion regarding the
features of team work in Raigam (Pvt) Ltd, we can say that there are some common features of
each type of team in that organization.

4.2 Discuss the factors that would enhance or hinder the development of
effective teams in the selected organization.

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There are many factors which affect the development of teams in business organizations. These
factors are internal and external it nature. These factors include, high standard of performance,
creating quality work, experience sharing, collective efforts, minimizing cost, minimizing work
effort and to promote collective benefits as a team
According to Kinlaw (1991) for each and every organization, there have some components that
either encourage or inhibit the evolution of effective teamwork. In Raigam (Pvt) Ltd, I have
observed the attitude of the top level management towards the team members. Some of them are
collaborating to team and team member, cooperation with team, problem solving policy for team
work, free and fair controlling system, incentive or punishment policy for success or failure of
team members, purposes of team building.
It shows that the collaboration and cooperation with team members reveals a long lasting and
effective team work of this organization. On the other hand, strong and tight controlling attitude
toward team members results less effective team work for that system. It was a very surprising
matter that appreciation system is very much essential for a better team performance and tight
punishment can cause distaste for team work for this organisation.

4.3. Evaluate the impact of technology on team functioning within the selected
organization.
In the present competitive business world, technology and technological knowledge are two major
concerns for production and service based organizations in this competitive world. Thither is a
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substantial impact of technology on team functioning in production or service based organisation.
The level of technology determines the ultimate success or failure by a certain level of efficiency
of effectiveness and vice-versa.
In 21st century media and communication are very significant instruments for business
performance and commercial enterprise growth. There is a continuous increase in technological
advancement in creating and working of teams within the business.
Here are some technological tools and their impacts on the performance of the team in a business
environment.
According to my knowledge, technology impacts on team functioning. Team functioning is
heavily influenced by technology like information technology and others type of technology.
When a team is developed it is essential that each squad member has sufficient technological
knowledge or else this will produce some temporary problem for the team and other team
members of that organisation.
Thus, like other organization Sri Lankan Airlines are also very much concern about the impact of
technology on team functioning. Thither are many teams based activities in that organisation and
technological knowledge of employees are very much indispensable for sustainable growth of this
system.
For example, there is a portion of employee who has not the proper knowledge of operating many
update versions of new technological devices. Many employees do not have the capability to
communicate with the aid of internet, fax, postal service, Skype and so along. There may be
another component of employees who have not enough taste and preference in information
technology and technical gimmicks. These cases always create some extra problem for the
organization. This may require some extra time to come up with or resolving this type of
challenges. But the positive impact of technology on team performance is beyond description.
The team is being highly benefited by using technology and technological devices in that
organization.

Conclusion
In this Assignment I can resolve in such way that Organizational Behaviour is the underlying
position of any organization about how an organization act, bear and perform for its stakeholders
and company.
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It is beyond description that Organizational behaviour is the predetermining issue of success or
failure of any business system. Sometimes organizational structure provides the norms, attitudes
and culture of organizing. And it is likewise true that organizational structure, many times, is
highly regarded by the organizational structure.
When I comparison of the effectiveness between Sri Lankan Airways and Raigam (Pvt) Ltd, I can
recognize that the effectiveness of leadership is much more important for Raigam (Pvt) Ltd
compared to that of Sri Lankan Airways. When I compare the applications of different
motivational theories, I can say that if this business organization follows Maslows hierarchy of
needs theory, it will be better to get the best output from its employees, because this theory works
very well for the large and gigantic organization as there have the scope to fulfil the needs of
employees. On the other hand, if the expectancy theory of motivation is followed by this
organization, it will be so tough to get the expected output from employees individually.
Based on my observation, it can be said that Raigam (Pvt) Ltd could be engaged in some changes
like organizational structure, new technologies, employee selection, and recruitment criteria for
adapting to the new business world. Thither is a substantial impact of technology on team
functioning in production or service based organisation.

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Figure 8 Gantt chart for Assignment

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Gantt chart for Assignment

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