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City Commission
John Marks Mayor
Andrew D. Gillum
Allan Katz
Debbie Lightsey
Mark Mustian

City of Tallahassee
Anita Favors Thompson City Manager
Tom Coe Assistant City Manager for Development & Transportation Services
www.talgov.com

Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department


Wayne Tedder AICP Director
Fred Goodrow AICP Chief, Comprehensive Planning Division
Jean Gregory Comprehensive Planning Project Manager
Cherie Horne AICP Comprehensive Planning Special Projects Manager
Daniel Donovan AIA, AICP Senior Planner/Urban Designer
Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department
Frenchtown Renaissance Center
435 North Macomb Street
Tallahassee FL 32301
850.891.6400
850.891.6404 fax
Mailing address:
300 South Adams Street
Tallahassee FL 32301
www.talgov.com/planning/

Gaines Street Vitalization Committee


Lester Abberger
Mark Bertolami
Bob Bischoff
Peggy Brady
Corri Byrne
Evelyn Corbin
Sheila Costigan
Charles Cyrus
Sue Dick
Brian Fisher
Mary Fredrick
Ron Goldstein

Keith Grey
Elizabeth Gwynn
Kelsey Helton
Sam Houston
Craig Huffman
Jeff Hunter
Dan Kavanaugh
Bonnie Kidd
Bradford Lewis
Gary Lloyd
Joyce Magill
Felina Martin

Roxanne Manning AICP Director, Southside/Frenchtown CRA


Craig Diamond Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

Dedra Mitchell
Ed Murray
Robert Olmstead
Mike Pate
Devon Pyles
Jordan Rockwell
Paul Rutkovsky
Chris Sands
Paula Smith
Ron Spencer
Ruth Wharton

CONTENTS
1. Introduction

1.a. How To Use This Book....................................................................... 3

1.b. Background and Location.................................................................. 4

1.c. Design Review................................................................................... 7

2. Urban Design Principles........................................................................... 9


2.a. Evoke a Sense of Place................................................................... 10

2.b. Enrich the Public Realm.................................................................. 12

2.c. Put Pedestrians First....................................................................... 14

2.d. Build to Human Scale...................................................................... 16

2.e. Fit the Neighborhood....................................................................... 18

2.f. Frame the Street.............................................................................. 20

2.g. Add Rhythm and Pattern................................................................. 21

2.h. Entertain the Eye............................................................................. 22

3. Guidelines for All Districts...................................................................... 23


3.a Site Planning................................................................................... 25

3.a.1. Building Orientation............................................................. 26

3.a.2. Parking, Service, and Access.............................................. 28

3.a.3. Setbacks............................................................................. 31

3.a.4. Pedestrian Passageways.................................................... 34

3.b. Building Design................................................................................ 37

3.b.1. Mixed-use Buildings............................................................ 38

3.b.2. Scale and Massing.............................................................. 41

3.b.3. Roofs and Height................................................................ 44

3.b.4. Facades.............................................................................. 46

3.b.5. Transparency...................................................................... 50

3.b.6. Entrances............................................................................ 54

3.b.7. Corners............................................................................... 56

3.b.8. Design for the Weather....................................................... 58

3.b.9. Balconies and Terraces....................................................... 62

3.b.10. Structured Parking.............................................................. 65

3.b.11. Materials and Construction ................................................ 68

3.b.12. Detailing the Public Realm.................................................. 70

3.b.13. Signs................................................................................... 74

3.b.14. Adaptability and Re-use...................................................... 79

URBAN

DESIGN

GUIDELINES

CONTENTS
4. The District Center................................................................................... 82
5. All Saints ASN-A, Infill/Low Intensity District ....................................... 81
6. All Saints ASN-B
Infill/Moderate Intensity District.............................................................. 85
7. All Saints ASN-C and ASN-D
Corridor Mixed-Use Districts.................................................................. 89
8. UV University Urban Village District....................................................... 95

Resources............................................................................................... 100

Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

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Florida Photographic Collection

Gaines Street behind the Caldwell Building, 1949

1.

INTRODUCTION

1.a.

HOW TO USE THIS BOOK

1.b.

BACKGROUND

1.c.

LOCATION

1.d.

DESIGN REVIEW

A hundred years after we are gone


and forgotten, those who never
heard of us will be living with the
results of our actions.
Oliver Wendell Holmes

URBAN

DESIGN

GUIDELINES

3.a.

Applicability

ALL DISTRICTS

Section Title

3.a.1. Building Orientation

I
Intention

SITE PLANNING

n City Comforts: How to Build an Urban Village, David


Sucher identifies The 3 Rules of Urban Design to preserve
and create walkable commercial areas:

Build to the Sidewalk: Create a strong streetwall in which


each building meets or comes close to the sidewalk.
Make the Building Front Permeable: Connect the inside
of the building and the sidewalk outside with windows and
doors.
Prohibit Parking Lots in Front of the Building: Put on-site
parking above, below, behind or beside.

Urban Design
Principles
Addressed

Guidelines

The 3 Rules are basic to regulations and guidelines for


sites and buildings in the Gaines Street Design Review
Districts. Required setbacks effectively increase the width
of the public sidewalk by allowing the public right-ofway sidewalk to extend into the privately-owned setback,
up to the face of the building.

Enrich the Public Realm

Fit the Neighborhood

Put Pedestrians First

Frame the Street

Add Rhythm and Pattern

0 1 . 0 7 . 2 0 0

draf

PrinciPles

Sucher, David. City Comforts: How to Build an Urban Village, City


Comforts, Inc., 2003

Guideline
In addition to following the 3 Rules, locate buildings,

Selected Standards
from the Land
Development
Regulations

parking, vehicle circulation, building entrances,


balconies, windows, and lighting to maintain the
comfort and privacy of people on adjacent properties.

ldR StandaRdS
10-283.(c)(1)a. Development pattern. A predominant building type, size of
lots, siting of the building on the lot, lot coverage, and relationship of the
building to the street determine a development pattern. New development
must be harmonious with the predominant development pattern of the
district.

10-283.(c)(2)a. All buildings shall be located and designed to be

compatible with the predominant development pattern of the zoning


district.

10-283.(c)(2)b. Primary entrances shall face the street.


Berkeley CA

Commercial space and residents amenities


screen a parking lot under the dwelling units
in this mixed-use development.

Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

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REVIEW

DISTRICTS

Examples illustrate ways to


implement the urban design
principles, guidelines, and
development regulations.

Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

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1.

INTRODUCTION

1.a. How To Use This Book

r ban Design Guidelines for the Gaines Street


Design Review Districts supplements Division 4,
Design Review Districts, of the adopted Tallahassee
Land Development Regulations (LDRs), the Gaines
Street Revitalization Plan referenced in the Land
Development Regulations, and the Gaines Street
Report adopted in 2001.
Urban Design Guidelines is not a substitute for a
thorough reading and understanding of adopted
zoning district regulations. Addressing primarily the
visual, site planning, architectural, and experiential
aspects of the character desired for the Gaines Street
districts, the Urban Design Guidelines are not intended
to replace the Land Development Regulations in any
manner. In case of contradiction or ambiguity, Land
Development Regulations shall take precedence.
Shall, must, required, and similar words found
in the Urban Design Guidelines generally indicate
requirements found in the Land Development
Regulations. Also, the word standard indicates
a requirement found in the Land Development
Regulations.
Guidelines include words such as encouraged,
should, and preferred, that indicate actions or
features that promote the intention for the district,
but that are not necessarily required by or included
as standards in Land Development Regulations. A
guideline in the form of an imperative sentence (Use
fenestration to differentiate individual residential
units in a multi-family building, for example) suggests
a device or technique that supports an urban design
principle, and does not state a requirement, unless
that requirement is found in the Land Development
Regulations. In each section, guidelines are followed
by selected pertinent standards from the Land
Development Regulations.
Examples from various locations and periods of
construction illustrate different ways of addressing the
urban design principles, guidelines, and standards.
Designers are by no means limited to the methods,
techniques, and elements included in the Guidelines.
Guidelines are recommendations, not meant to limit
the creativity of private development or dictate
architectural styles or methods.
Keep in mind that any project should follow two
sections of the Urban Design Guidelines: Section 3
applies to all districts; Sections 5 through 8 contain
guidelines for particular districts.
Click the blue links for more information.

URBAN

DESIGN

GUIDELINES

1.

INTRODUCTION

1.b. Background and Location

l ong with applicable Land Development Regulations,


Urban Design Guidelines for the Gaines Street Design
Review Districts are intended to provide property
owners, developers, builders, architects, and reviewers
with criteria and guidance for implementing the
Gaines Street Vision.
The Gaines Street Report, prepared by Wallace
Roberts & Todd, LLC Planning and Design, was
adopted by the City Commission in 2001. The Report
envisions the Gaines Street districts as vibrant in-town
neighborhoods integrating a broad mix of residential
and commercial development, while recognizing the
areas historic character and sense of place.

Gaines Street, west from the All Saints


neighborhood, 2008.

The Gaines Street Report describes a Gaines Street


Vision characterized by:
Urban vitality with a diverse mix of uses;
A heterogeneous population;
Diversified neighborhoods with access to jobs, schools,

open space, and shopping;

A range of residential types, including affordable

workforce housing;

Walkable, transit-oriented development;


Retail uses serving residents and visitors;
Continued economic development;
Reduced traffic growth; and
An on-going public voice in development.

Following the Report, regulations have been adopted


and guidelines written for the Gaines Street districts,
implementing the vision, goals, and objectives of the
Report, by:
Directing

the form and character of future


development in a manner consistent with the Gaines
Street Report;

Conditions surrounding the roadway have


changed since 2001, when the adopted
Gaines Street Report included renderings
of Gaines Street as a four-lane boulevard
with a wide median. Gaines Street will be
a narrower street than the Report depicted
and will carry fewer cars, but the goal of a
vital, urban street character is unchanged.

Establishing clear criteria for development;


Educating property owners, developers, the public,

and reviewers about what is expected and desired in


Gaines Street area development; and

Illustrating useful examples and techniques applicable

to Gaines Street area development.

The Gaines Street Report can be found on the


Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department web
site.

Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

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The purpose of this map is to locate the UV


district in the context of the city and other
design review districts. Refer to official zoning
maps for specific parcel zoning.

NORTH

The Gaines Street Design Review Districts

1.

INTRODUCTION
Since the Report, Land Development
Regulations for five design review
districts have been adopted:
ASN-A, Infill/ Low Intensity
District generally comprises
the eastern half of the All Saints
neighborhood. Restoration and
adaptive reuse of existing structures
for residential and complementary
nonresidential uses are encouraged,
along with infill development
compatible with the areas historical
character and scale.
ASN-B, Infill/ Moderate Intensity
District comprises roughly the
western half of the All Saints
neighborhood. While adaptive reuse
of historic structures is encouraged,
ASN-B emphasizes development at
a greater density than ASN-A, for a
range of moderate intensity uses.
ASN-C, Corridor Mixed-use
District includes the south side of
Gaines Street in All Saints. ASN-C is
intended to be the most intensively
developed of the All Saints districts,
a high-intensity, pedestrian-oriented
urban corridor and a distinct edge for
the adjacent districts. Redevelopment
is promoted in a balanced mix of uses
at a greater intensity than in the other
All Saints districts.
ASN-D, Corridor Mixed-use
District includes the north side
of Gaines Street between Railroad
Avenue and South Boulevard Street,
across Gaines Street from the All
Saints neighborhood. ASN-D shares
purpose, intention, regulations, and
guidelines with ASN-C, but allows
taller buildings.
University Urban Village (UV)
District centers on a high intensity
urban activity corridor. The area
is envisioned as a primary local
destination for living, working,
shopping, and entertainment. The
district promotes pedestrian-oriented
redevelopment in a balanced mix of
residential and commercial uses at a
greater intensity than in the adjacent
districts, in attached buildings with a
dynamic, very urban character.
URBAN

DESIGN

GUIDELINES

1.

INTRODUCTION

The Gaines Street Urban


Revitalization District will reflect a
unique image and character, providing
an opportunity for true urban living
in Tallahassee. The District should be
identifiable to visitors and residents
by the pattern of restored historic
neighborhoods; by the higher density
village centers; by the compact scale
and design of housing and commercial
buildings; by the landscaping and
lively mix of activity along existing
and proposed major boulevards; by the
scale of local and connector streets;
and by the mature vegetation and
proximity to open space.
The Gaines Street Report (2001)
Wallace Roberts & Todd LLC
Click cover to view the Report.

The Gaines Street Districts, looking


east from over Doak Campbell
Stadium. From the Gaines Street
Revitalization Plan Final Report,
adopted in 2001.
Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

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1.

INTRODUCTION

1.c. Design Review

s part of the site plan approval permitting process,


development in the Gaines Street districts is subject
to review by the Citys Urban Design Commission
(UDC). The UDC reviews projects to ensure that they
contribute to the urban and architectural character
envisioned for their locations, as described in the
Gaines Street Report, adopted Land Development
Regulations, and these guidelines.

The Urban Design Commission was created in 2005:


To promote high quality design in new developments,

new buildings, and modifications to existing buildings


in the Design Review Districts; in the FSU Transition
Area; in Urban Planned Unit Developments (UPUDs)
in the Downtown Zoning Districts; and in other places
in the City as directed by the City Commission.

To ensure that development at any scale in those

areas conserves and enhances what is recognized as


special about the character of a location, and that infill
development is appropriate to its context.

To advocate the best urban design, with special

emphasis on street character, relationships between


buildings, and the pedestrians safety, comfort, and
sense of place.

To foster civic pride in the beauty and nobler assets

of the City, and in all other ways possible assure a


functionally efficient and visually attractive City in
the future.

The UDC is a City of Tallahassee Citizen Advisory


Board composed of seven members, generally from
the private sector. Information about the UDC, bylaws and current membership can be found on the
City Treasurer-Clerk web page.
The Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department
provides staff support to the UDC. Throughout the
design process, the Planning Departments urban
design professionals can assist developers with
designing project concepts that shape and support
quality in the Citys public realm.
UDC review may occur concurrently with Type B
or other site plan review processes. The Growth
Management Department will not approve site plans
without UDC approval.
More information about the UDC, meetings, and the
review process can be found in the Application for
Design Review and Approval, on the Tallahassee-Leon
County Planning Department web site.

URBAN

DESIGN

GUIDELINES

urban design

r ban design gives form to whole cities or to places


in cities, with particular attention to shaping
and using public spacethe public realm.
The public realm includes the totality of spaces
used freely on a day-to-day basis by the general
public, such as streets, plazas, parks and public
infrastructure. Some aspects of private property,
such as building setbacks and facades, contribute
to public space and are considered elements of
urban design. With teamwork and appropriate
criteria, public vision and private development
can come together to create memorable urban
places. The best urban designpublic and
privatewill reveal, enhance, or create a lasting
sense of place.
Urban design operates at the three-dimensional
intersection
of
city
planning,
landscape
architecture, and architecture, encompassing:

Urban structure How places are put together,

Accessibility Ease, safety, and choice when

Animation Designing places that stimulate

Complementary mixed uses Locating activities

Character and meaning Recognizing and

Order and incident Balancing consistency and

Change Making flexible places that respond to

and how their parts relate to each other;


moving to and through places;
public activity;

to allow constructive interaction between them;


valuing the differences between places;

variety in the urban environment in the interests


of appreciating both; and
future changes in use, technology, demography,
and lifestyle.

In contrast to suburban planningbased on


the separation and segregation of uses, on
buffers and deep setbacks, on the primacy of the
automobileurban design for the Gaines Street
Design Review Districts is all about mixed and
shared uses, permeability, and compact, walkable
dimensions.

Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

It is difficult to design a place that


will not attract people. What is
remarkable is how often this has been
accomplished.
William H. Whyte

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a sed in complementary urban design and


street character principles, L a n d D e v e l o p m e n t
R e g u l at i o n s and Urban Design Guidelines for the
Gaines Street Design Review Districts promote good
site planning and appropriate architecture, while
encouraging variety and allowing for flexibility
in building design. Developers, architects, City
staff, and the Urban Design Commission shall be
guided by these principles throughout the design
and review processes.

PRINCIP L E S

2.

URBAN DESIGN

2.a.

EVOKE a S ense of P lace

2.b.

Enrich the P ublic Realm

2.c.

P ut P edestrians F irst

2.d.

Build to Human S cale

2.e.

Fit the N eighborhood

2.f.

FRA ME THE STREET

2.g.

ADD RHYTH M AND PATTERN

2.h.

Entertain the E ye

URBAN

DESIGN

GUIDELINES

PRINCIPLES

2.

URBAN DESIGN

2.a. Evoke a Sense of Place


Principle


ew
development may promise it instantly, but real
sense of place lies in coincidences of geography,
architecture, and people over time. Sense of place
can have several meanings, including:
An attachment to a location, part of personal, family,
and community histories that develop gradually and
unconsciously in a place;
or
The non-material characteristics of a place; the soul
or spirit of a place; its genius loci, a word used to
describe places that are deeply memorable for their
architectural and experiential qualities.
In cities, a sense of place may derive in part from the
natural environment, but more often its made up of
streets and buildings, the way theyre built and look,
and the way theyve been used over time. Especially
in cities, place includes the people who occupy it.
Layers of building and inhabitation accrue over time
into memorable environments with meanings for both
residents and visitors.

From Cascade Park to the stadium, Gaines


St. will link a series of distinct pedestrianand resident-oriented places.

Recognizable places have an identifiable center and


edge; you know when youve arrived and you know
when youve left. For Kevin Lynch, in The Image of
the City, the strength of a sense of place is indicated
by how well users understand and agree on the
boundaries of its territory. The ability to identify a
place and ones place in it is a source of emotional
security, pleasure and understanding.
In Tallahassee, there are strong urban senses of place
Downtown, on Park Avenue, and in Midtowns new
and recycled buildings, among other locations. That
Tallahassee recognizes Gaines Streets long-standing
sense of place is evidenced in citizens unflagging
belief in its potential and promise.
Just as Adams Street can count several place senses
along its length, the Gaines Street area can be a series
of places from Cascades Park to the stadium. At the
same time, Gaines Street will be a collection of
placesAll Saints, Railroad Square, Stearns-Mosley,
and other neighborhoods off the main street.

SENSE OF PLACE
The National Trust for Historic
Preservation offers a straightforward
definition: Those things that add up to
a feeling that a community is a special
place, distinct from anywhere else.

Guidelines
While an 18-hour Downtown is a long-standing

goal in Tallahassee, only housing lends a a 24-hour


presence to a place, and establishes the depth of
interest, vitality, and identification that only people
living there can provide.

Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

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2.

PRINCIPLES

URBAN DESIGN

Respect

adjacent places with thresholds that


recognize transitions from one place to another.

Dont invent a sense of place at the expense of one

already there. Citizens have expressed concern


over losing Gaines Streets offbeat, unconventional
character and reputation, unique in the city and
fundamental to its sense of place now. In no way
should these guidelines be interpreted as gentrifying
any businesses essential to the character of the
neighborhood. Their architecture may not be what
the regulations and guidelines call for in new
construction, but new development should strive for
the kind of identification with the neighborhood that
these established places enjoy.

All Saints Cafe, Railroad Avenue, ASN-C

LDR Standards
10-283(b)(1) All development shall contribute to making the district a
distinct and memorable part of the city, unique In spaces, buildings,
and street character.

See the Tallahassee Land Development Regulations for complete


standards.

St. Francis St., ASN-A district

S. Adams St., downtown Tallahassee

The Downtown Chain of Parks

St. Michael St., ASN-B district

The Gaines Street area will be one of several


locales with strong senses of place in and
around downtown Tallahassee.

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URBAN

DESIGN

GUIDELINES

PRINCIPLES

2.

URBAN DESIGN

2.b. Enrich the Public Realm


Principle

 e public realm includes all publicly owned streets,


h
sidewalks, rights-of-ways, parks and other publicly
accessible open spaces and infrastructure. Visually, the
public realm encompasses all the eye can see from a
sidewalk, including setbacks, facades, and the spaces
between buildings.
A good public realm encourages and facilitates
walking. Planned and unplanned activities are key
to the life of the public realm. Planned activities
include the arts fairs, festivals and parades that the
community associates with a place. Just as crucial to
a rich public realm, especially for residents, are the
small spontaneous events that happen when we walk
people watching, window shopping, chance meetings,
and conversation.
In mixed-use blocks, no less important than retail are
locations where peopleespecially residentscan
hang out simply for the pleasures of good company
and lively talk, such as coffee shops and pubs. These
so-called third places enrich public life and allow
casual contact in ways that dont happen at home or
at work.

Pasadena

Vancouver

Guidelines
The community must be built at a pedestrian scale

distances short enough to walk, and buildings close to


the sidewalk.

There must be destinations that draw people to use

the sidewalk. Destinations must be reachable and


interconnected by means of a continuous network of
safe, convenient, comfortable, interesting sidewalks
and paths.

Offer people, especially residents, a variety of routes

to walk to the same placein a hurry, on a date, in the


rain, at night.

People on the sidewalk must feel safe from crime,

traffic, and weather conditions.

People need places to sit, sunny and shaded, built-in

and movable, and places to stand out of pedestrian


traffic and have a conversation, or use an ATM.

In addition to benches and planters, bikes and bike

racks, a lot more stuff takes up room on the sidewalks


of the public realm: plan for mailboxes, news boxes,
trash cans, traffic signal control boxes and masts, street
lights, fire hydrants, fire department connections,
ATMs, etc.

Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

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Third Places enrich public life and allow


casual contact in ways that dont happen at
home or at work.

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2.

PRINCIPLES

URBAN DESIGN

Lowly, unpurposeful and random as they


appear, sidewalk contacts are the small
change from which a citys wealth of
public life must grow.
Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great
American Cities

Storefronts and shop interiors contribute


greatly to the visual richness of the public
realm.

Watching other people, and being


watched, and chatting, is the core of the
urban stroll.
David Sucher, author,
City Comforts: How to Build an Urban Village

Revive the pleasant pastime of window


shopping.

Forget the damned motor car and build


the cities for lovers and friends.
Lewis Mumford

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URBAN

DESIGN

GUIDELINES

PRINCIPLES

2.

URBAN DESIGN

2.c. Put Pedestrians First


Principle

 the Gaines Street districts, pedestrian comfort and


n
safety have primacy over a drivers convenience. Cars are
accommodated, and parking is available, but in a walkable
environment, all drivers are pedestrians-to-be.
An active street life depends on density, and on the
number and frequency of connections between buildings
and the street. Greater density will bring an increase in
pedestrian activity, extending the life of sidewalks beyond
normal working hours, as the opportunities and reasons
for people to be there grow. Building uses, the number
and design of their entrances, and their relationship to
parking and transportation will impact the number of
pedestrians on the street as well.

Sydney, Australia

Walkability is the value of how well the built environment


accommodates people living, visiting, working, shopping,
and enjoying time spent in a place, without cars and
walking to their destinations. Walkability depends on:
The mix of land uses, places to live, things to do, things to

look at, and ways to get there;

Everyday services residents need, like grocery stores,

pharmacies, day care, and restaurants, and the residential


densities needed to support the services;

Sidewalk connectivity;

Adams Morgan, Washington DC

CONGESTION
from the

Great Streets Master Plan


Austin, Texas
Principle 1: Manage Congestion

Access to mass transit;


Shade and protection from weather; and
The visual interest that shops and restaurants offer

pedestrians.

Research indicates a correlation between the physical


activity a walkable city offers and a healthy local
population.
Walkable
neighborhoods
also
offer
opportunities for increased social interaction, and an
increase in the number of friends and associates where
people live.

Congestion is a fact of life in successful


urban places. By definition, a place
that supports a great concentration of
economic and social activities within a
pedestrian-scaled environment is going
to be congested.

Guidelines
There must be places to walk for the pleasure of

walking. There must be places to watch people and


places where one can be seen. There must be places to
stand without leaving the sidewalk, places to sit, places
for people to gather, and places to be alone.

Design for uses accessible to the general public, that are

open during established shopping hours, that generate


a walk-in pedestrian clientele, and contribute to a high
level of sidewalk activity.

All truly great thoughts are conceived


by walking.
Friedrich Nietzsche

Provide street level space to reinforce existing

concentrations of retail uses.

Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

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2.

PRINCIPLES

URBAN DESIGN

No more than 25% of any street frontage should be

occupied by uses that have no need for or discourage


walk-in traffic.

Provide buildings with multiple entries, and windows

that invite pedestrians to look into building interiors.

Incorporate transit stops and shelters into buildings.


Encourage street vendors and sidewalk cafsfood

attracts people.

A diversity of people, especially including


children, seniors and people with disabilities,
denotes the quality, completeness and
success of a walkable place.

WALKABLE URBANITY

One of Portland, Oregons walking maps

Walkable urbanity works under financial and market principles


that more is better; as more dense development takes place with
mixed-uses within walking distance and multiple transportation
options to get there, the place gets better. Hence the environmental,
fiscal (government tax base), community building AND project
financial elements all become better. It is an upward spiral.
Christopher B. Leinberger, The Option of Urbanism

15

URBAN

DESIGN

GUIDELINES

PRINCIPLES

2.

URBAN DESIGN

2.d. Build to Human Scale


Principle

 man scale is the proportional relationship of design


u
elements to human dimensions, presence, and
movement. Like a scale figure in a drawing, seeing
other people in context lets us quickly size up the scale
of a building or place, and gauge our comfort level.
Buildings and spaces scaled to human movement
have steps, doorways, windows, railings, and walking
distances that fit well to the average person, while
welcoming the differently-abled.
Seen at a distance across plenty of parking, buildings
built to the scale of the automobile are smooth and
two-dimensional, readable at a glance, with little
indication of interior space. Drivers are keeping up
with traffic, and seek a predictable big logo or familiar
building shape. Signs have big letters and few words.
In contrast, human-scaled places invite pedestrians to
walk at their own pace, to look at shop windows or
deep into a store, to stop for a conversation or to read
a menu. There are places to stand and people to watch,
and cars are parked at the curb. At the sidewalk level,
human-scaled buildings are complex with texture,
color, shadow, and surprise, while massing and
upper-floor fenestration indicate the dimensions and
presence of other people.

Dimension and glaze openings so that one


can see or imagine someone else looking
back.

Guidelines
Design buildings at a variety of scales, with street

level detail appropriate to a pedestrians walking


pace.

Clearly articulate different uses at lower building

levels to create a sense of human scale at the street


in mid-rise and taller buildings.

If it looks comfortable, people will sit


there. Let them.

Avoid monolithic, vertical extrusions of maximum

building footprints.

Use architectural elements and details that walkers

can enjoy in ways that drivers cant.

Invite pedestrians to slow down with big, clear,

well-merchandised storefront windows, lighted in


the evening.

Modern building materials do not preclude

designing to human scale.

Provide street furniture designed first for human

comfort, for walkers to rest, have a conversation, or


wait for the bus.

Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

16

What attracts people most, it would


appear, is other people.
William H. Whyte, author,
The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces
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2.

PRINCIPLES

URBAN DESIGN

no
Calhoun Street, Tallahassee

no
San Francisco

no

New Orleans

Langley VA

no

There can be a lot going on in a human scaled setting. Buildings


designed in section rather than plan may better address human
dimensions and movement.

Minnesota

yes

no

A window you cant see into or out of is not designed to human scale.

17

URBAN

DESIGN

GUIDELINES

PRINCIPLES

2.

URBAN DESIGN

2.e. Fit the Neighborhood


Principle

e ighborhoods have recognizable physical, functional,


or lifestyle characteristics that set them apart from
other places in the city. Strength can vary, but a
context of buildings, streetscape, landscape and use
surrounds and supports every site and building.
Designing a new building to become part of a
neighborhood begins with a designers thorough
appreciation of an existing context, and/or
a familiarity with a new context intended by
regulations and guidelines. Neighborhood context
is strong in the ASN-A and -B districts. In other
districts, despite the presence of potentially reusable
existing buildings, a new context will be established
as private development proceeds.
New development must be compatible with
the existing or intended context of a locations
predominant urban form, as found in patterns of lot
sizes, building orientation, lot coverage, building
mass, patterns of pedestrian movement, and the
relationship of buildings to the street.
Most redevelopment in the Gaines Street districts,
especially flexible, adaptable mixed-use buildings,
will be urban fabric buildings. While distinctive
buildings are encouraged in every neighborhood,
buildings and spaces must complement each
other within the established architectural context
of building mass and proportion, roof shapes,
fenestration, materials and color, etc., while
following the standards and guidelines adopted for
the district.

Newbury Street, Boston

Shared architectural characteristicsfor


the most partallow disparate facades to
coexist: vertical emphasis, building width,
fenestration, materials, color.

URBAN FABRIC
Fabric buildings, or background
buildings, are the more numerous
buildings of a city. Object or foreground
buildings are buildings of unusual
importance. Fabric buildings are
buildings used for ordinary residences
and commerce. In successful cities,
fabric buildings form a physically
cohesive texture that is indicative of an
underlying social fabric. Object buildings
are churches, mosques, government
buildings, prominent residences, civic
monuments, and similar structures.
They tend to stand slightly or even
dramatically apart from their context.

Matthew Frederick, 101 Things I


Learned in Architecture School

Street character is enriched by a collection of buildings


that evidence a development of architectural elements
and styles over time, within a recognized architectural
context of tectonics, materials, and proportion.
Guidelines
New development should enrich the qualities of

existing urban places.

New development should not make existing viable,

appropriate, characteristic buildings or uses look or


feel out of place.

Where context is non-existent or undesirable by

these guidelines, new development should set a


strong desirable precedent for others to follow.

Where taller, denser, new development

adjoins older development that is important to


neighborhood character, even though the older

Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

18

S. Monroe Street, Tallahassee

Much of Tallahassees downtown urban


fabric was lost to redevelopment in the 20th
century, but what remains continues the
historical role of fabric buildings, including
framing the street and adapting to purposes
not foreseen when the buildings were built.
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2.

URBAN DESIGN

buildings may eventually be redeveloped, new


development should respect the older character with
design that is compatible in the interim.
Historic replication is no guarantee of compatible

design. The Guidelines mandate no particular


architectural style. Well-made buildings clearly of
their time are strongly encouraged.

Brooklyn

Jemals Historic Row, Washington DC

Here new construction shares aspects of older urban fabric on the


street: a base-middle-top parti; proportions and pattern in fenestration;
materials and color; a vertical emphasis. Topmost floors are pulled back
to maintain a cornice line at the street.

Here upper building mass is pulled away


from the street and older buildings.
Materials, detailing, proportion, and color
bring new construction into compatibility with
older neighbors.

Always design a thing by considering it in its next largest


contexta chair in a room, a room in a house, a house in an
environment, an environment in a city plan.
Eliel Saarinen

DEVELOPMENT PATTERN
A predominant building type, size of
lots, siting of the building on the lot, lot
coverage, and the typical relationship of
the buildings to the street determine a
development pattern. New development
must be harmonious with the predominant
development pattern of the district.

19

URBAN

DESIGN

GUIDELINES

2.b.

PRINCIPLES

STREET CHARACTER

2.f. Frame the Street


Intention

 ildings frame views through cities. The strength of the


u
view frame depends on the degree of enclosure formed
by the distance between buildings across the street, their
height, setbacks from the street, and setbacks between
buildings. Buildings in Charleston and downtown
Tallahassee frame strong, open-ended vistas, typical of
American cities and intended for Gaines Street, while
front and side yards give the old streets of All Saints a
more porous enclosure.

King Street, Charleston

ASN-A
Worth Avenue, Palm Beach

Closely spaced buildings frame the


space of the street and the view,
for both pedestrians and drivers.
ASN-B

ASN-C + D
UV
The degree of a streets sense of enclosure,
and the shape of the frame of the view, are
determined by the ratio of building height and
distance between buildings across the street.

The typical commercial strip is poorly


framed. Space leaks between and over
buildings. Few landmarks indicate passage
from place to place.

St. Francis St., ASN-B

Florida Photographic Collection

All Saints Street, ASN-A

Buildings either side of All Saints Street frame


the view west.
Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

20

Big trees have always been characteristic


view-framing elements in Tallahassee. North
Monroe Street in 1949.
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2.b.

PRINCIPLES

STREET CHARACTER

2.g. Add Rhythm and Pattern


Intention

 ythm refers to a regular or harmonious repetition of


h
elements, from windows on a facade to buildings on
a street. Successive facades with similar proportions
and shared patterns of openingsnot necessarily
identicalset up a rhythm on the street.
At the scale of the city, a pattern is a set of relationships
between the spacing and orientation of buildings;
between buildings and the streets; between buildings
and open space; and between buildings and the way
people inhabit them. Proven urban patterns can be
continued, creatively and with flexibility. Over time,
urban patterns are apparent in visual order, beauty,
meaning, and a sense of place.
Rhythm and pattern are apparent in ASN-A, in both
the historical development pattern of houses and
yards, and also in different, newer development. The
old warehouses in the UV district and Railroad Square
exhibit a pattern in the way their doors typically are
built close to streets or rail sidings.

Bethesda MD

Amsterdam

Pattern and rhythm


should be apparent close
to a building, too.

San Francisco

Pattern and rhythm in fenestration is


especially evident and beautiful at night.

San Francisco

Openings, projections, and materials are


arranged in patterns; patterns repeat, with
variations, creating rhythm.

Beacon Hill, Boston

London

Rhythmic, varied facades repeat similar


patterns of shared elements.

Like music, rhythm and pattern engage


the eye in subtle, complicated, and
unpredictable ways.

21

URBAN

DESIGN

GUIDELINES

2.

PRINCIPLES

URBAN DESIGN

2.h. Entertain the Eye


Principle

l l buildings must have architectural features and


patterns that provide pedestrians with information
and visual interest, and that in combination with
other buildings contribute a distinctive look to the
neighborhood.
At a walking pace, there is a lot to look at:

Architecture
Art
Awnings and canopies
Balconies
Color
Food
Landscape
Lighting
Paving
Signs
Store windows
Upper level windows
Other people

Guidelines
Engage the other senses with sound and smells, sun

and shade, and the feel of the sidewalk underfoot.

Allow products or services to spill-out onto the

sidewalk in visually engaging ways.

Dont over-coordinate. Established commercial

districts let you know theyve evolved over time.

Too much good taste can be boring.


Diana Vreeland

Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

22

GAINES

STREET

D E S I G N

R E V I E W

D I S T R I C T S

GUIDELINES

LDR DEFINITION:
Street. The term street means a
vehicular way whether called among
other names street, highway, roadway,
thoroughfare, parkway, road, avenue,
boulevard, lane, or place.

3.

ALL DISTRICTS

3.a.

S ITE PLANNING

3.b.

BUILDING DESIGN

23

URBAN

BUT
A street is a place in the city, too, not
just cars passing through the residue
between buildings.

DESIGN

GUIDELINES

PARKING

arking is the tail that wags the building.


Vulgar as it may be to actually say it in public, and
except for the unusual circumstance in which there is
no required parking (definitely rare in North America)*
urban design starts with parking. You may not want to
believe it, but that is the cold hard reality.
I was chatting with an architect. We were discussing a
small condominium project. Very large buildings came
up. I happened to ask him if he had worked on one.
Yes when I was a young associate at a big firm.
Oh, they must be exceedingly difficult to design.
No not really.
Really?
No its true. For one thing most of the work is done by
the engineer and contractor who lay out the basic grid.
The architects fundamental job is getting the cars onto
and off the site. You can route people up ramps and
stairs and so forth. But cars are much more difficult.
There are consideration of grades and transitions and
turning radii. The real design turns on parking.
Amazing!
No, look at it with this project, here. Whats the very
first thing we did? Long before we even started to look at
the apartment layouts? We looked at how we would get
cars onto and off the site...and how we could arrange the
parking layout. Only then did we look at the building
itself. Parking is the tail that wags the building.

These regulations and guidelines are


intended to counter the mindset that put the
needs of the automobile first, leaving us
with a familiar legacy of hostile non-places
like this. Parking must not wag Gaines
Street.

David Sucher, author,


City Comforts: How to Build an Urban Village
*FYI: There is no required parking in Tallahassees Downtown
Zoning Districts: CCPD, DI, RO, and SCD. The Citys Parking
Schedule B applies in the Gaines Street Design Review
Districts. Schedule B requires fewer parking spaces than the
more frequently used Schedule A.

Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

24

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 sites with surface or structured parking, plan for


n
moving and storing cars, but also for:

Pedestrian circulation on the site and on the sidewalk,


and pedestrians primacy over cars;

Screening views to parking and service areas;


Displacing parking lots with buildings in the future.

ALL DISTRICTS

3.a.

3.a.1.

BUILDING ORIENTATION

3.a.2.

PARKING AND S ervice

3.a.3.

setbacks

3.a.4.

pedestrian passageways

SITE PLANNING

If you live in a city, you dont need to own a car.


William Clay Ford Jr.,
Chair, Ford Motor Company

25

URBAN

DESIGN

GUIDELINES

ALL DISTRICTS

3.a.

SITE PLANNING

3.a.1. Building Orientation

n City Comforts: How to Build an Urban Village, David


Sucher identifies The 3 Rules of Urban Design to preserve
and create walkable commercial areas:

Build to the Sidewalk: Create a strong streetwall in which


each building meets or comes close to the sidewalk.
Make the Building Front Permeable: Connect the inside
of the building and the sidewalk outside with windows and
doors.
Prohibit Parking Lots in Front of the Building: Put on-site
parking above, below, behind or beside.
The 3 Rules are basic to regulations and guidelines for
sites and buildings in the Gaines Street Design Review
Districts. Required setbacks effectively increase the width
of the public sidewalk by allowing it to extend into the
privately-owned setback, up to the face of the building.

Principles

Enrich the Public Realm

Put Pedestrians First

Fit the Neighborhood

Frame the Street

Add Rhythm and Pattern

Sucher, David. City Comforts: How to Build an Urban Village, City


Comforts, Inc., 2003

Guideline
In addition to following the 3 Rules, locate buildings,

parking, vehicle circulation, building entrances,


balconies, windows, and lighting to maintain the
comfort and privacy of people on adjacent properties.

LDR Standards
10-283.(c)(1)a. Development pattern. A predominant building type, size of
lots, siting of the building on the lot, lot coverage, and relationship of the
building to the street determine a development pattern. New development
must be harmonious with the predominant development pattern of the
district.

10-283.(c)(2)a. All buildings shall be located and designed to be

compatible with the predominant development pattern of the zoning


district.

10-283.(c)(2)b. Primary entrances shall face the street.


Berkeley CA

Commercial space and residents amenities


screen a parking lot under the dwelling units
in this mixed-use development.

Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

26

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3.a.

ALL DISTRICTS
10-284.(b)(1)a.
10-285.(b)(1)a.
10-286.(b)(1)a.
10-287.(b)(1)a.
10-288.(b)(1)a.

SITE PLANNING

Orientation. The primary facade of a building shall be


oriented towards the street and shall contain the main
building entrance. The main entrance shall be clearly
visible and accessible from the street. The building may
have other, secondary entrances, as long as pedestrian
access is provided from all entrances. Entrances from
parking facilities shall be considered secondary to a
buildings primary entrance from the street.
Accessory structures, (if any), including integrated or
freestanding garages, storage, service, and utilities shall
be located at rear of principal buildings, and shall not be
visible from the street.

See the Tallahassee Land Development Regulations for complete


standards.

Marriott Residence In,


600 W. Gaines Street,
UV district.

In the first concept,


typical of suburban
planning, parking is
located on Railroad
Avenue, in front of the
building (2). A singlestory tenant building
extends to the Gaines
Street corner (1). In
the built design, the
wing facing Railroad
Avenue is pulled to
the street (3), where
the driveway passes
under the building to
parking at the center
of the block. Both the
Railroad Avenue and
Gaines Street facades
are at the sidewalk.
The restaurant is at
the corner, where
the building mass is
notched in recognition
of the District Center
envisioned for the
intersection (4).

Courtesy Conn & Associates Architects

Proposed mixed-use development,


downtown Tallahassee, 2008. At-grade
customer parking serves the second-floor
store; below-grade parking serves offices on
floors above. Grade change allows tenant
space to be entered from Monroe St.

Courtesy Architects: Whitlock + Lewis, LLC

Proposed mixed-use development, West


Pensacola St., Tallahassee, 2008. Active
commercial uses and common space front
on Pensacola St.; structured parking is
behind, accessed from a side street.

4
27

URBAN

DESIGN

GUIDELINES

ALL DISTRICTS

3.a.

SITE PLANNING

3.a.2. Parking, Service, and Access

e ll-designed, strategically located parking resources


are critical components of the citys transportation
system. As Gaines Street districts evolve into
a walkable, pedestrian-oriented place with a
significant resident population, parking should be
provided to:

Reduce vehicular trip demand to and within the


Gaines Street area, downtown, and the campuses;
Minimize detrimental effects, visual and functional,
of on-site parking areas on adjacent properties, and
the view from streets;
Encourage a vibrant, pedestrian-friendly street
environment.

Principles

Enrich the Public Realm

Put Pedestrians First


The suburban pattern of buildings sited away from
the street, with ample parking waiting in front, is
convenient for cars and drivers, but its deadly to
pedestrian activity. In developing urban areas like
the Gaines Street districts, creative if conventionally
inconvenient ways to store cars must be found
from the outset of development, such as parking
behind buildings, off-site parking, shared parking,
structured parking, and below-grade parking.

Active, pedestrian-oriented uses wrap street


level parking at the Gramercy on Garfield,
Cincinnati OH: retail space on a commercial
street, and townhouses on a quieter side
street.

Car ownership may decrease with time in the


Gaines street districts, due in no small part to
improved walkability. While parking should be
provided to present-day regulations, standards will
change over the lifetime of Gaines Streets coming
buildings. In hundreds of cities, including cities not
unlike Tallahassee, alternatives to private vehicle
ownership such as carsharing exist already.
Like blank walls, curb cuts deaden the street
environment, frustrating pedestrian interaction with
buildings and other people. Curb cuts put cars on
sidewalks, increase instances of pedestrian injuries,
eliminate on-street parking spaces, limit opportunities
for landscaping and street trees, and interrupt the
street wall, opening unwanted views to stored cars
and empty lots.
Guidelines
Parking lots are land banks for future development.

Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

28

The suburban pattern of parking lots


separating big bland buildings from the
streeta pattern common in cities, too
frustrates and endangers pedestrian activity.
GAINES

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D E S I G N

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D I S T R I C T S

ALL DISTRICTS

3.a.

SITE PLANNING

Site planning must not allow motor vehicles

to dominate pedestrian circulation, safety, and


comfort. Where parking and pedestrians conflict,
pedestrians must always be favored. On-site
circulation planning primarily should be geared
to pedestrian movements, and secondarily to the
convenience of vehicles, including service vehicles.

Parking areas should provide clearly marked

pedestrian routes through and around parking


areas. Carefully consider connectivity to adjacent
sites and sidewalks.

Shared parking and service facilities are strongly

encouraged.

Parking and vehicle maneuvering in setbacks will

Atlanta

Garages and surface parking at the interior


of a block in Glenwood Park.

not be approved in any district.

Allow on-street parking. Stop-and-go parking

is essential in real shopping districts. Parking


directly in front of a building or use may count
toward meeting parking requirements.

Incorporate space for carsharing services into

parking lots and structured parking.

See Chapter 4.b.10. Structured Parking for parking

garage guidelines.

The Cloisters, All Saints St., ASN-A, Tallahassee

Bicycle PARKING
Provide more than the minimum number of

required bike parking spaces.

Provide covered, secure bike storage.


Consider community bikes, bike sharing and other

cooperative bicycle programs.

Parking lots
Locate off-street parking behind buildings and to

the back of the property, or within the building.

Break large lots into smaller lots.


Design parking areas to allow natural surveillance,

St. Francis St., ASN-A, Tallahassee

Parking at The Cloisters is at the interior of the


block, screened by the buildings at the street.

by maintaining clear lines of sight for those who


park there, for pedestrians passing by, and for
occupants of nearby buildings.

Pervious and semi-pervious paving materials are

encouraged for all areas of parking lots.

Store employees should park in long-term surface

lots or garages in order to reserve on-street


parking for visitors.

Access
Share curb cuts and driveways with adjacent

development.

Avoid curb cuts on Gaines Street. Before making


29

On-street parking is a buffer between


pedestrians and moving traffic. Parking
directly in front of a building or use may
count toward meeting parking requirements.
URBAN

DESIGN

GUIDELINES

ALL DISTRICTS

3.a.

SITE PLANNING

3.a.2. Parking, Service, and Access


curb cuts on Gaines Street, provide access to
parking from side streets, away from intersections.
At curb cuts, consider the following design devices

for the safety and comfort of pedestrians: minimize


the width of the curb cut, driveway, and/or
garage opening; provide specialty paving where
the driveway crosses the sidewalk; enhance gates
or garage openings with lighting, art, or materials
having a distinctive pattern, color, or texture.

Service
Locate service areas, including trash and recycling

containers, behind buildings, and screen them.

Views
All parking should be screened from views from

adjacent development, if the parking area will have


a detrimental effect on either the design or leasing
of a planned or existing development.

Garage doors should not front or be visible from

Parking areas should provide clearly marked


pedestrian routes through and around
parking areas. Pervious and semi-pervious
paving materials are encouraged.

the street.

LDR Standards
10-283.(c)(3)a. Whenever feasible, driveway access shall be

shared with adjacent properties and shall be located internally or at


the rear of the site.

10-283.(c)(4)b. Minimum setbacks for front, side, and rear yards


shall apply to parking structures and to parking lots, including
associated pedestrian access ways, as they apply to buildings.

10-283(c)(6)

Landscape features. Driveway and walkway paving


shall be unit pavers such as brick, stone, asphalt, or concrete
pavers installed on a sand bed. Semi-pervious paving materials are
encouraged.

10-283(c)(5)a. Service areas, including dumpsters, shall be

screened from public view by structures, opaque fences, wall, or


hedges to a maximum height of seven feet. Equipment shall not be
visible from the street. The use of chain link, plastic or vinyl fencing
as screening materials is prohibited.

E. Call Street, Tallahassee

Although this mechanical equipment is very


well-screened, mechanical equipment is not
permitted along the street frontage in the
Gaines Street districts.

10-283(c)(5)b. Areas used for primary circulation and for frequent

idling of vehicle engines shall be designed and located to minimize


impacts on adjoining properties, and shall include provisions for
screening or buffering.

10-283(c)(5)c. Dumpsters and permanently placed refuse

receptacles shall be located a minimum of 20 feet from adjacent


residential uses.

10-283(c)(12)g. All outdoor mechanical equipment, including

heating, air conditioning, and ventilation systems, shall be placed


on the roof to the rear or side of a building, or be otherwise visually
screened from the street. In no case shall mechanical equipment
be allowed along the street frontage. Mechanical equipment on the
roof shall be screened from abutting streets with parapets or other
types of visual screening.
complete standards.

Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

Railroad Avenue, UV district.

Avoid locating equipment in setbacks or in


front of buildings.

See the Tallahassee Land Development Regulations for the

30

GAINES

STREET

D E S I G N

R E V I E W

D I S T R I C T S

ALL DISTRICTS

3.a.

SITE PLANNING

3.a.3. Setbacks

r ban character begins with the relationship of buildings


and streets. Buildings shape and animate the public
space of the sidewalk, promoting a walkable, truly
urban public realm.
The urban setbacks required in all Gaines Street
districts except ASN-A are among the most important
elements of these Guidelines. Required and optional
setbacks are opportunities to extend the relatively
narrow sidewalk width of the existing rights-of-way
onto private property. By offering space for caf
tables and chairs, room for outdoor sales, settings
for art, and space for bus stops and other pedestrian
amenities, building setbacks and the way theyre
used contribute to lively, vibrant streets throughout
the day.

Squirrel Hill, Pittsburgh

Principles

Enrich the Public Realm

Put Pedestrians First

Build to Human Scale

Fit the Neighborhood

Frame the Street

Add Rhythm and Pattern

Entertain the Eye

St. Louis

Conventional suburban development typically locates


parking lots between buildings and streets. On sites
planned solely around the automobile, driveways and
parked cars isolate building entrances from limited,
nearly irrelevant pedestrian activity out at the street.
In contrast, urban buildings front the sidewalk, with a
car-free space from the curb to the face of the building
devoted entirely to pedestrians use and enjoyment.
Limiting the depth of setbacks maintains the
proportions of the urban room of the street. At the
scale of the view down the streeta pedestrians view
or a driverssetbacks frame urban view corridors.
Parking or maneuvering in setbacks will not be
approved in any district.
Guidelines
Steps from the sidewalk to outdoor dining areas are

Pasadena

Setbacks are locations for sidewalk cafes


and outdoor sales areas. Opening the
facade wall to the street effectively extends
the sidewalk into the building.

discouraged. Space for outdoor dining should be at


the same elevation as the street level.

31

URBAN

DESIGN

GUIDELINES

ALL DISTRICTS

3.a.

SITE PLANNING

3.a.3. Setbacks
Outdoor dining seating should not be fixed in place.

Bring movable furniture inside when the restaurant


is not operating, or during inclement weather.
Outdoor furnishings dont have to be the same from
restaurant to restaurant; furnishings can reflect the
character of the restaurant while contributing to the
spirit of the street design.

Awnings and canopies are permitted in setbacks.


Arcades or colonnades may cover setbacks.
Locate the inside floor level as close as possible to

Why setbacks are required, #1.

the level of the sidewalk outside.

Setbacks can be used as sales places for flowers,

garden supplies, and agricultural produce.

Planters at arcade columns and vine planting areas

along facades are encouraged.

To frame the street with a comfortable height-to-

width ratio, upper floors of taller buildings should


meet the setback at least through the fourth floor.

LDR Standards
10-283.(c)(4)b.

Minimum setbacks for front, side, and rear yards shall


apply to parking structures and to parking lots, including associated
pedestrian access ways, as they apply to buildings with other uses.

10-286.(b)(1)c.
10-287.(b)(1)c.
10-288.(b)(1)c.

Why setbacks are required, #2.

In districts ASN-C, ASN-D, and UV, up to eighty-five


(85) percent of the front setback may be paved, in
order to permit extension of the sidewalk beneath
arcades and along the face of buildings with
multiple entrances.

See the Tallahassee Land Development Regulations for the complete


standards.

Why setbacks are required, #3.

E. College Ave., Tallahassee

Berlin

Even shallow setbacks are places for seating.

Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

32

Why setbacks are required, #4.

GAINES

STREET

D E S I G N

R E V I E W

D I S T R I C T S

ALL DISTRICTS

3.a.

S. Duval St. at Kleman Plaza

College Ave. at Monroe St.

15 is also the maximum permitted setback from


the property line in ASN-C and -D, and UV.

10 face-of-building
to columns, including
outside seating.

Why setbacks
are required #5:
No Gaines Street
sidewalk should have
less usable width
than the most-used
sidewalk in downtown
Tallahassee.

SITE PLANNING

Los Angeles

Awnings and canopies may extend into


setbacks to cover seating areas.

S. Adams St. at College Ave

S. Monroe St. at College Ave

8 face-of-building to
columns.

9 face-of-building
to columns. Note
planters on sidewalk;
add mailboxes,
trash cans, news
boxes, traffic signs,
deliveries, etc.

Scale comparisons of downtown


Tallahassee sidewalks

Bethesda MD

Consider locating seating at the curb, if


possible, as at Andrews Capital Grill and
Bar on Adams Street.

SETBACK
The setback is the distance from
the property line to the face of the
building. It is not the distance from
the curb to the face of the building.

33

URBAN

DESIGN

GUIDELINES

ALL DISTRICTS

3.a.

SITE PLANNING

3.a.4. Pedestrian Passageways

e destrian passageways, sometimes called vias, or


paseos, are convenient walking routes, separated
from vehicular traffic, between the street and the
interiors of blocks, from one side of the block through
to a sidewalk on the next street. Strategically located,
passageways can break down the bulk of a large
development, while offering pedestrians a network of
short cuts and alternate walking routes. Like streets,
pedestrian passageways are best lined with active uses
with eyes on the street, especially entrances, store
windows, and outdoor dining. Settings for landscaping,
fountains, and art, often pedestrian passageways serve
a dual purpose in the city, accommodating the everyday
flow of pedestrian traffic, while serving as destinations
themselves.

Boston

Principles

Enrich the Public Realm

Put Pedestrians First

Guidelines
Oakland CA

Passageways should be for the exclusive use of

Passageways can connect the street to


courtyards or parking at the interior of a
block. Upper floors can span the opening.

pedestrians.

Allow bicycles but discourage speeding.


Where emergency or service vehicles must share the

passage, prevent ordinary use by other vehicles with


removable or retractable bollards, or similar means.

Except in solely residential development, pedestrian

passageways should be open to the public during


daylight hours.

Pedestrian passageways should be well lighted,

overlooked by active uses and windows, and designed


to CPTED principles.

Pedestrian passageways may be roofed, provided the

minimum clear height of the passageway is twelve


feet.

Chattanooga

Upper floors can continue over the passageway.


Publicly accessible pedestrian passageways are also

Sidewalk dining can be extended around the


corner into a pedestrian passageway that
leads to parking at the center of the block.

encouraged through building interiors.

In any district, a pedestrian passageway also can be as

simple as a paved, lighted path to parking.

Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

34

GAINES

STREET

D E S I G N

R E V I E W

D I S T R I C T S

ALL DISTRICTS

3.a.

SITE PLANNING

LDR Standards
10-286.(b)(1)k.
10-287.(b)(1)k.
10-288.(b)(1)l.

Building design guidelines. Publicly accessible


pedestrian passageways from the street to and through
the interior of the block are encouraged to separate
pedestrians from traffic and provide pedestrian access
from parking lots at the rear of buildings to the street.
Passageways shall be a minimum of eight (8) feet wide
and a minimum of twelve (12) feet high. Upper floors
are encouraged to continue over the passageway.
Pedestrian passageways shall be designed to preclude
normal vehicular access and preferably be separate
from other emergency vehicle access ways to the
interior of the block.

See the Tallahassee Land Development Regulations for the complete


standards.

Santa Barbara

Line pedestrian passageways with active


uses with eyes on the street, especially
entrances, store windows, and outdoor
dining.

Pedestrian passageways, South Pasadena Town Square Master Plan,


South Pasadena, CA.
Kaplan McLaughlin Diaz, Architects

A pedestrian passageway can be a short cut


through a building.
Cambridge MA

35

URBAN

DESIGN

GUIDELINES

ALL DISTRICTS

3.a.

SITE PLANNING

CPTED
r ime Prevention Through Environmental Design
(CPTED) is a multi-disciplinary approach to
deterring criminal behavior through the design
of buildings and streets.
The City of Tallahassee CPTED program consists of
a review by the Tallahassee Police Department, as
part of the site plan permitting process, of proposed
construction and modifications to existing
buildings, to identify potential opportunities for
criminal behavior, and to recommend action that
will minimize the likelihood of crime. CPTED
strategies are intended to influence a potential
offenders decisions preceding a criminal act.
Research has shown that the decision to offend
is more influenced by environmental cues as to
the perceived risk of getting caught, than by the
perceived likelihood of reward, or ease of entry.
CPTED-based strategies are aimed at increasing
a perpetrators perceived risk of detection and
apprehension. Strategies include:

City of Vancouver

Natural Surveillance, directed at keeping

intruders easily observable, and promoted by


features that maximize visibility of people,
parking areas and building entrances: doors and
windows that look out on to streets and parking
areas; pedestrian-friendly sidewalks and streets;
front porches; and lighting.

Territorial Reinforcement creates or extends

a sphere of influence through physical design.


Legitimate users of a space develop a sense of
ownership and control, discouraging potential
offenders. Landscape plantings, pavement
designs, gateway treatments, and other devices
that define property lines and distinguish private
and public space promote a sense of territorial
enforcement.

Austin

Eyes on the Street

Natural Access Control seeks to decrease

criminal opportunity by denying access to


crime targets, and by instilling in an offender a
perception of risk. Streets, sidewalks, building
entrances and neighborhood gateways can be
designed to clearly indicate public routes and
discourage access to private areas.
Designers are urged to familiarize themselves with
CPTED, and to follow sound crime prevention
practice when applying standards and guidelines
found in this document. More information can be
found at the International CPTED Association.
http://www.cpted.net/

Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

36

GAINES

STREET

D E S I G N

R E V I E W

D I S T R I C T S

ALL DISTRICTS

3.b.

3.b.1.

MIXED-USE buildings

3.b.2.

SCALE AND MASSING

3.b.3.

ROOFS AND HEIGHT

3.b.4.

facades

3.b.5. transparency

3.b.6.

3.b.7. corners

3.b.8. DESIGN for the WEATHER

3.b.9.

3.b.10.

BUILDING DESIGN

ENTRANCES

BALCONIES and terraces


STRUCTURED PARKING


3.b.11.
CONSTRUCTION AND
MATERIALS

3.b.12.

DETAILING THE PUBLIC


REALM

3.b.13.

Signs

3.b.14.

Adaptability and re-use

37

URBAN

DESIGN

GUIDELINES

ALL DISTRICTS

3.b.

BUILDING DESIGN

3.b.1. Mixed-use Buildings

i xed-use buildings are encouraged in all Gaines Street


districts, at increasing intensity closer to Gaines
Street itself. Mixing uses in a single development
promotes activity throughout the day and into the
evening in that location, adding life, character, and
safety to the street. In vertical mixed-use buildings,
where different uses are located on different floors
of a single structure, shops are on-site amenities for
residents, as well as attractive to visitors. Windows
and balconies above the shops are eyes on the
street, reinforcing pedestrians sense of safety.
Street level uses on both sides of the street frame
the public realm of the street with activity.

Principles

Evoke a Sense of Place

Enrich the Public Realm

Put Pedestrians First

Build to Human Scale

Fit the Neighborhood

Entertain the Eye

Pentagon Row, Arlington VA

Commercial uses at the lower floors of a


mixed-use residential development. On the
facade, human scaled canopies, sign bands,
balconies, and windows indicate where
floors begin, differentiate living units, and
reinforce vertical proportions.

Guidelines
Balance a mix of residential, retail, office, and

hospitality uses, based on local market needs.


Intersperse less active services such as banks
among uses that are more active throughout the
day and into the evening.

Least
intensity:
Residential

Mix daytime and evening uses, to maintain life

on the street for as much of the day as possible,


appropriate to the district.

Moderate
intensity:
Offices

As the district permits, include goods and services

that meet the daily needs of residents: corner


stores, hair salons, coffee shops, laundry and dry
cleaning pick-up agencies, laundromats, shoe
repair, moderately priced restaurants, etc.

Highest
intensity:
Commercial/
Retail

Office space should be secondary to an active

ground floor retail and restaurant pattern.

Intensity should decrease as the floors go up.

For example, if a multistory mixed-use structure


includes retail, office, and residential uses, the
retail use should occupy the ground floor, the
office use the second floor, with residences on the
floors above.

Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

38

Vertical mixed-use projects: plan so that


the least intense use, in terms of foot traffic
and number of persons coming and going,
is located farthest from the ground floor.
Residences should never have any other
kind of use above them.
GAINES

STREET

D E S I G N

R E V I E W

D I S T R I C T S

3.b.

ALL DISTRICTS

BUILDING DESIGN

Design flexible, versatile buildings that will outlast

initial building uses. The ground floors of all


buildings facing Gaines Street should be designed
to accommodate retail/restaurant uses, with the
required street-level transparent area, regardless of
whether the buildings are actually used for retail/
restaurant uses in the first years of occupancy.

Warehouses, self-storage, and parking are not

considered mixed-use components.

LDR Standards

10-284.(b)(1)i.
10-285.(b)(1)j.
10-286.(b)(1)j.
10-287.(b)(1)j.

Mixed-use developments. A mix of uses within a


single project or structure is encouraged in districts
ASN-A and ASN-B, and preferred in districts ASNC, ASN-D, and UV.

10-288.(b)(1)k. In districts ASN-A and ASN-B, residential uses are


permitted on the ground floor as part of a live-work unit. Live-work
is defined as a use made up of commercial activities that may need
accommodations for customer traffic, commercial signage, or freight
delivery, while also meeting life-safety regulations for a place where
people live. Live-work is distinguished from purely residential use by
having work performed in the unit.

1. In district ASN-B, for non-live-work units, residential uses shall

never be located on a floor below a commercial use in a vertical


mixed-use project. The intensity of the uses should decrease as
the floors go up.

Fremont CA

Epicenter has a grocery store, coffee shop,


sushi bar, ice creamery, retail, live/work
units and 128 apartments. The corner is
draped with artist Mark Stevens 65 foot-tall
stainless steel Monsruang.
Photo 2003 Randall J. Corcoran

2. In districts ASN-C, ASN-D, and UV, commercial uses and/or

personal services are required on the ground floor of a vertical


mixed-use project. Residential uses are prohibited from being
located on a floor below a commercial use in a vertical mixeduse project with the exception of lobbies and common circulation
areas, which may be located on the ground floor. The intensity
of the uses should decrease as the floors go up.

See the Tallahassee Land Development Regulations for the


complete standards.

Portland

The Burnside Rocket mix includes a TV


studio, design co-op, and lounge. An edible
roof garden supplies fresh produce for the
top floor restaurant.

Subway and a coffee


shop are among the
mix of stores at The
Boardwalk Village
near FSU.
W. Pensacola St., Tallahassee

39

Bethesda MD

Mix daytime and evening uses, to maintain


life on the street for as much of the day as
possible, appropriate to the district.
URBAN

DESIGN

GUIDELINES

3.b.

ALL DISTRICTS

BUILDING DESIGN

3.b.1. Mixed Use Buildings

Birkdale Village, Huntersville NC

Denny Park, Seattle

Three stories of condos, restaurants, and


shops.

Affordable, green
mixed use.

Loft residences
in new mixed
use development
in a reviving
neighborhood.

Florida Photographic Archive

A jeweler, a barber shop, sheet music and


a lot of glass, circa 1950, on the ground
floor of the Fountain Building, S. Monroe St.
at Pensacola St., downtown Tallahassee.
Lobbyists, dentists, and other offices may
have been upstairs. Had they not been
demolished, the mixed-use Fountain
Building and Sears next-door might have
gone condo by now.

Agnes Lofts, Seattle

Museum Place, Portland

Lofts, townhouses, Safeway.


Kirkland WA

Living above the store.


Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

40

GAINES

STREET

D E S I G N

R E V I E W

D I S T R I C T S

3.b.

ALL DISTRICTS

BUILDING DESIGN

3.b.2. Scale and Massing

cale and massing are fundamental three-dimensional


factors that determine how well a building fits with a
neighborhood.
Scale is the relationship between an element and its
context. Human scale elements reflect human use and
occupation, seen in dimensions and proportions readily
comparable to the size, movement, and comfort of
a human body. In an urban context, building scale is
judged by height, bulk, wall openings, and intensities
of use, relative to nearby space, streets, buildings, and
people.

Cambridge MA

Recesses and projections, material


changes, color, and transparency modulate
a buildings bulk.

Massing is the manner in which large elements


of a buildings bulk are brought together and/or
differentiated. Massing can be varied (break it up)
and complicated, or simple. A building with a single
undifferentiated mass is said to be monolithic.
Articulated massing refers to the division of a building
into recognizable parts, or the expression of elements
of its structure, construction, or use. A building may
be made up of articulated masses that reflect interior
volumes or uses, or they may be purely expressive.
Articulated masses can be modulated and rhythmically
repeated across a street face.

Principles

Evoke a Sense of Place

Enrich the Public Realm

Put Pedestrians First

Fit the Neighborhood

Build to Human Scale

Frame the Street

yes

Denver

Lower floors hold the street at the setback;


upper floors step back, reducing bulkiness
and making room for amenities; the corner is
given special treatment.

no

yes

Buildings massed and fenestrated to mark populated


human habitation insideespecially at nighthelp us
orient ourselves to our surroundings at a comfortable
human scale. Just knowing others may see us adds a
sense of security to the sidewalk.
Guidelines
Use building masses to define the street edge, enhance

urban character, and promote a walkable, pedestrian


scale.

Use building mass to temper the scale of development,

cast shadows, and stimulate visual interest.

41

Lynwood WA

Affordable housing with roof decks,


balconies, bay windows, varied materials,
and street-level commercial uses. Roof
lines, bay windows, and color break up the
buildings mass and differentiate living units.
URBAN

DESIGN

GUIDELINES

ALL DISTRICTS

3.b.

BUILDING DESIGN

3.b.2. Scale and Massing


Avoid monolithic, domineering building masses.

Articulate and vary masses into distinct elements


that relate to structure, entrances, and the layout and
volume of interior space and use.

no

On elevations, emphasize vertical proportions with

structural bays, grouped openings, bay windows,


balconies, awnings and canopies, shadows, and color.
Repeat the modules as a theme across the streetfront,
with subtle and appropriate variations.

Reinforce desirable patterns of massing and facade

San Diego

yes

composition found in surrounding buildings,


complementing existing massing and design in the
scale and proportions of new construction. Look for
precedent in structural bays and modularity; in roof
shapes; in fenestration patterns; and in finish materials
and detailing.

To frame the street at a proper height-to-width ratio,

upper floors of buildings on Gaines Street should


meet the setback at least through the fourth floor.
Upper floors can be stepped back to ease the bulk of
the building at the street line, to create terraces, or to
shape a view corridor.

Charleston

yes

Where new development abuts older development

important to neighborhood character, new construction


should respect the established character and use
building forms that are both sensitive to long term
objectives for the district, and compatible with existing
buildings in the interim, even if the older buildings
may eventually undergo redevelopment.

New buildings should not leave older buildingsor

recent buildingslooking out of place. Without some


architectural gesture, primarily in massing, but also
in proportions, materials, and details, a large building
can overshadow a smaller neighbor, and throw the
ensemble of the street off balance.

Portland

Avoid monolithic, domineering building


masses and blank end walls. Give windows
to residential end units; put windows in stairs
and corridors.

Mass buildings to minimize negative environmental

effects of wind, sun, and shadow on sidewalks and


adjacent properties.

LINER BUILDING

BIG BUILDINGs
Highly desirable neighborhood uses such as grocery

stores, drug stores, theaters, health clubs, cinemas, and


parking garages, whose large footprints and inwardlooking programs typically do not call for many
entrances or windows, should face the street with liner
buildings that front expanses of blank wall with active
uses, lighted windows and entrances.

A building or portion of a building


constructed in front of a parking
garage, theater, supermarket etc.,
to conceal large expanses of blank
wall area and to face the street
space with a facade that has ample
doors and windows opening onto
the sidewalk.

A depth of 10 feet along the street front of a building

can be enough space for newsstands, ticket booths,


flower shops, coffee stands and other sidewalk uses.

Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

42

GAINES

STREET

D E S I G N

R E V I E W

D I S T R I C T S

ALL DISTRICTS

3.b.

BUILDING DESIGN

LDR Standards
10-283.(c)(8)a.1. Provide substantial massing variations by articulating
exterior walls using materials, architectural elements, arrangement
of openings, design of horizontal and vertical planes, and changes in
height.

10-283.(c)(8)a.3. Long, monotonous roof planes and uninterrupted


expanses of blank wall are not allowed along street frontages.

10-283.(c)(8)a.8. Where solid walls are required by building code, the wall
shall be articulated and divided into distinct modules.

10-283.(c)(12)g. Place outdoor mechanical equipment, including heating,

air conditioning, and ventilation systems, on the roof, to the rear, or to


the side of building, and screen from the view from the street. In no case
shall mechanical equipment be allowed along the street frontage.

10-285.(b)(1)c.5. Except in ASN-A and UV districts, building masses


10-286.(b)(1)d.6. shall be broken up and modulated above the second
10-287.(b)(1)d.6. floor, to reflect the scale of adjacent structures.
10-283.(c)(4)d.3. Commercial buildings and buildings with ground floor

commercial uses shall have minimum twelve (12) feet high ceilings at the
ground floor.

Atlanta

In Atlantic Station, liner buildings in front of


the big grocery store face the street with the
windows and entrances of neighborhood
commercial services local residents need.

San Francisco

Edmonton AB, Canada

Mixed use with a big drug store, a desirable


use, but one that resists transparency, resulting
in blank walls at the sidewalk. Patterned walls
do nothing for a sense of safety.

A depth of only 10 feet along the street


front of a building can be enough space for
newsstands, ticket booths, flower shops,
coffee stands and other sidewalk uses.

43

URBAN

DESIGN

GUIDELINES

ALL DISTRICTS

3.b.

BUILDING DESIGN

3.b.3. Roofs and Height

 ilding height, required setback distances, and


u
minimum height standards shape the streets sense of
enclosure, frame views up and down the corridor, and
contribute to a unified visual environment.
Even buildings of moderate heights combine to make a
skyline. Streets in every district should have a distinct,
harmonious skyline and sense of enclosure, at a scale
appropriate to the intended character of the district.

Principles

Build to Human Scale

Fit the Neighborhood

Put Pedestrians First

Frame the Street

Entertain the Eye

Kirkland WA

Break street walls into modulated facades


and individually expressed roofs, to give the
block human scale and a pleasing skyline.

Varied roof lines reduce the apparent bulk of large


buildings. Depending on the size of the building, roof
design should include a variety of forms. Roof shapes
and height must be in scale with the buildings mass,
and complement the character of surrounding buildings
and neighborhoods.
More than any other architectural element, roofs directly
express the relationship between a building and the
forces of nature and time. Roofs are opportunities for
active public and private space, and/or for green roof
stormwater management systems. On all buildings,
including parking structures, roof gardens and terraces
are encouraged for both active public and private use,
and for the views they offer to the public realm of the
street, and to the city skyline.

New York

Consider roofs as locations for private and


semi-private outdoor space, such as pools,
terraces, and gardens.

no

Care should be taken to design the districts roofs to


be appreciated not only from the street and from taller
buildings, including buildings downtown, but also
from the air, many visitors first impression of the city.
Gaines Street lies under the airports flight path, and
the area roofscape will be a fifth facade for the city.

All roof-mounted mechanical equipment


must be screened from view.
Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

44

GAINES

STREET

D E S I G N

R E V I E W

D I S T R I C T S

ALL DISTRICTS

3.b.

BUILDING DESIGN

Guidelines
Roofs should demonstrate a common-sense

recognition of the climate, utilizing appropriate pitch,


drainage, and materials.

Study local lines of sight, and locate rooftop

mechanical equipment to minimize views of the


equipment from the street and from other buildings,
existing and future. Integrate screening devices into
the roof design. Remove unused equipment from
roofs.

When a flat roof is screened with a parapet or

mansard roof on any facade, the parapet or mansard


roof should extend around the remaining facades that
are visible from the street.

Vancouver

Consider rooftop stormwater management systems.

Green roofs can incorporate gardens and terraces.

When solar panels, wind turbines, and other

alternative energy devices are designed as integral


parts of the architecture buildings and roofs, such
elements need not be hidden from view.

LDR Standards
10-283.(c)(4)d.3. Commercial buildings and buildings with ground floor
commercial uses shall have minimum twelve (12) feet high ceilings at
the ground floor.

10-283.(c)(8)a.3. Long, monotonous roof planes and uninterrupted

expanses of blank wall are not allowed along street frontages.


Articulated roof forms and wall openings shall be used to add visual
interest and contribute to a human scale.

Parking levels shall be included when measuring building height.


See the Tallahassee Land Development Regulations for the complete
standards.

Cambridge MA

Two green roofs over parking.

New York

ASLA Headquarters, Washington DC

The view of a roof from above is often


overlooked.

A green roof that screens mechanical


equipment.

45

URBAN

DESIGN

GUIDELINES

ALL DISTRICTS

3.b.

BUILDING DESIGN

3.b.4. Facades

 ibrant public realm depends on the relationships


v
of buildings and sidewalks. Facades should reflect
historical urban patterns, or establish desirable new
ones; reinforce human scale; blend new development
with existing urban fabric; and entertain the
pedestrians eye.
On a buildings lower stories, facade elements such as
entrances, windows, awnings, canopies, lighting, and
signs, bring human scale to building masses, protect
pedestrians from the weather, and convey a sense
of safety at night. Facades with few openings sever
pedestrians connections with buildings, deaden
streets, invite crime and graffiti.
Facades are appreciated one way by people near them
at street level, another way among other facades
that make up the street face, and again from up in
other buildings, where the view gathers facades,
roofs, building masses, and the street into a threedimensional composition. Different vantage points
offer different appreciations of a design.
On two sides of the street, series of facades shape
urban rooms and frame views through the city.

Principles

Enrich the Public Realm

Build to Human Scale

Fit the Neighborhood

Frame the Street

Add Rhythm and Pattern

Entertain the Eye

Knoxville TN

Compose a facade with a distinct base,


middle, and top. Use traditional devices
(opposite page and below) including
string courses and cornices, or subtle
contemporary design (above).

Guidelines
Arrange facade modules in series to reduce the

massive appearance of big buildings.

Use facade modules to avoid long, uninterrupted

horizontal stretches of building walls. Articulate


structural bays and other vertically emphasized
elements to break-up building walls.

Along with fenestration, materials, and color,

consider the following in composing a coherent


facade: balconies, awnings and canopies; railings,
grilles, and downspouts; glass and glazing; trim
and molding; signs and lighting. Shadows should
enhance the design as they change through the day.

Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

46

London

GAINES

STREET

D E S I G N

R E V I E W

D I S T R I C T S

ALL DISTRICTS

3.b.

BUILDING DESIGN

Compose facades with a recognizable base, middle,

and top. Use traditional devices such as rustication,


string courses and cornices, or subtle ways in
contemporary design, with recessed or projecting
wall planes, arrangements of different openings,
changes in material, and color.

Consider the proportions and regulating lines of

adjacent facades when designing new ones.

Facades that for unavoidable programmatic reasons

allow few entries or windows need special design


attention. Consider:

Public artmosaic, mural, relief, decorative

masonry, light sculpture, or other installations;

Projections, reveals, and other shadow-casting

devices; changes of materials; texture, color,


lighting other techniques of breaking up a wall
surface;

Seating ledges or perches, especially at sunny

or shaded facades, and near bus stops.

Fake or applied windows should not be used.


Do not use false mansard roof-like elements.

Dublin

Do not locate exhaust vents or utility meters on

Traditional architectural devices delineate


base, middle, and top. Composition and
detailing of the upper stories emphasize
vertical proportions.

street faces.

Nothing on a facade should be an afterthought.

Brooklyn

LDR Standards
10-283.(c)(1)b.1. Consistency in the following quality lends character
and a sense of place to a street: The contribution of building and
landscape design to the ensemble of buildings on the street.

10-283.(c)(8).

Building design standards. Building design shall


defer to the ensemble of buildings on the street rather than call undue
attention to itself. New buildings shall contribute to the life of the
street, and share (features of architectural articulation) with existing
buildings that exemplify the zoning districts character.

Varied wall planes, fenestration, and a


careful palette of materials and colors are
used to reduce a big long building into a
series of vertically proportioned facades.
Multiple entrances onto the street promote a
sense of safety on the sidewalk.

See the Tallahassee Land Development Regulations for the complete


standards.

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3.b.4. Facades

Savannah

Traditional storefront
elementsdisplay
windows, transoms,
entrances, and
awningsreinforce
human scale, provide
visual interest at the
sidewalk, and give the
facade composition a
base.

Facade openings in traditional buildings


often are proportioned to or near the
Golden Section ratio of 1:1.618.

Addison Circle TX

Facade bays and fenestration proportioned to


the Golden Section are brought together in a
coherent, vertically-emphasized, richly textured
composition. Light-colored belt courses indicate
floor lines. The top floor steps back to make the
building appear less massive from the street.

San Francisco

Wahnish Cigar Factory, S. Macomb St., All Saints ASN-B district.

Seattle

Amtrak Station, Railroad Avenue, UV district

The vertical emphasis of the windows and detailing creates a rhythmic


series of facades on an otherwise plain wall. Individual residences are
clearly differentiated.
Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

48

Windows proportioned around the Golden


Section.
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Santana Row, San Jose CA

Different storefront designs, along with color and recesses, lend variety
and rhythm to a series of facades with identical upper story fenestration.

BUILDING DESIGN

Dublin

A simple and consistent palette of color and


materials, along with similarly proportioned
facades, pulls together very different
fenestration.

no

Boston

S. Adams St., Tallahassee

Fenestration clearly articulates the top floor of


this building, and turns the corner with different
shapes, trim, and details.

Do not use fake windows.

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BUILDING DESIGN

3.b.5. Transparency

r ansparency is essential. Especially at the first floor,


transparency fosters a two-way visual interchange
between people on a street and people inside buildings.
Windowless buildings look vacant and even menacing;
eyes on the street increase the perception of safety
by populating the sidewalk on both sides of the glass,
making it likely that offenders and offenses will be
seen. Transparency into the interiors of commercial
uses provides visual interest, lets a pedestrian know
a caf is open, and enriches the life and safety of the
street with two-way people watching.

Principles

Enrich the Public Realm

Put Pedestrians First

Build to Human Scale

Add Rhythm and Pattern

Entertain the Eye

Put people on display.

Windows provide daylight to building interiors and


may reduce artificial lighting requirements. Daylight
can be directed and modulated through the day by suncontrol devices on the face of the building. Blocking
light with dark glass at street level should be avoided,
as that treatment will be opaque for much of the day.
Carefully designed fenestration at all floors reinforces
human scale, maintains traditional urban patterns, and
provides visual interest for the pedestrian.

Let people look deep into shop interiors.

Guidelines
Transparency can be had by literally removing a wall,

opening an interior to the sidewalk with flexible wall


systems, retractable or folding doors.

Let shop and restaurant lighting spill onto the

sidewalk, increasing the lighting level on the sidewalk


and a sense of safety.

Use fenestration to differentiate individual residential

units in a multi-family building.

Except for transom windows, openings for windows

and doors should be taller than wide. Consider using


the proportions of the Golden Section.

All openings should be dimensioned, spaced, and

FENESTRATION
The arrangement of windows and
other openings on a facade.

configured to complement openings on adjoining


buildings, provided the adjoining buildings meet
district standards and guidelines.

Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

Interior lighting increases the lighting level


on the sidewalk, and sense of safety.

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Place, proportion, and dimension windows from the

inside out, in response to views.

Openings do not need to replicate adjacent openings

to be compatible; subtle differences and variations on


architectural themes enliven the rhythm and pattern
of the street.

Recess window frames from the face of the building

wall to lend thickness and depth to the facade.

All glazing should be of a type that permits a

view of human activities and spaces within. Light


transmission at the ground story at least 90%, and at
least 75% for the upper stories.

Instead of dark glass in windows on the sidewalk, use

natural, traditional shading devicesfixed canopies,


fixed or retractable awnings, shutters, brises-soleils,
or trees. Consider sun angles through the day.

Operable windows are desirable throughout the

Design Review Districts, for reasons of public health,


energy conservation, and aesthetics.

Window screens should be black or gray. Screen

frames should match window frame material or be


dark anodized.

Shutters can take many forms, but all shutters must be

operable, and capable of covering the entire opening.

LDR Standards

Newbury Street, Boston

Consistent transparency on all floors of


a facade lightens a buildings bulk and
increases visual connections between
interiors and the sidewalk. Especially when
projected from the face of the building,
windows on all levels can be composed into
facades with a vertical emphasis and rhythm.

10-283.(c)(8)a.7. A consistent rhythm of facade openings shall be

maintained above street level on all buildings facing a street. Openings


need not be identical from building to building; small variations from
facade to facade will provide visual interest.

10-283.(c)(9).

In all zoning subdistricts except ASN-A, retail and


office building walls along sidewalks shall have non-reflective,
transparent or glazed areas covering at least 75 percent of the first
floor facade surface area at pedestrian eye level. Avoid tinted glass on
all north-facing facades.

See the Tallahassee Land Development Regulations for the complete


standards.

Bethesda MD

Openings need not be identical from building


to building; small variations from facade to
facade will provide visual interest.

no

Bay windows are an effective way of marking


human scale on a facade, and indicating an
inhabited interior.

Park Avenue, Tallahassee

Addison TX

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3.b.5. Transparency
Transom window

Florida Photographic Collection

Portland

Sliding shutters are works of art.


Governors Club, 202 S. Adams Street, Tallahassee

Transom windows are typical features of


traditional American storefront architecture,
bringing light deep into shops and opening
for ventilation. These openings were once
storefronts on the first floor of the Tallahassee
Masonic Temple (1926).

Como, Italy

Fenestration and
glazing frame the view
out to the street, too.

Shutters take
many forms, but all
must be operable
and cover the
window opening
completely when
closed.

Sweden

After people, store windows entertain the eye


more than any other element on an urban street.

Consider interior patterns


of windows and light.

Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

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New Orleans

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Portland

Vienna

Operable facade glazing becomes a canopy, opening interiors to the sidewalk.

Do not use fake


windows. This
treatment would not
count toward required
transparency.

Newbury St., Boston

112 W. Tennessee St., Tallahassee

Paradigm Restaurant and Lounge, College Avenue, Tallahassee

Glass panels can slide or stack to the side to


open interiors to the sidewalk.

Kleman Plaza, Tallahassee

Dark brown glass, already shaded by a deep arcade with an eastern


exposure, obscures a view into the cafe interior throughout the day,
isolating the outside tables. With no patrons in sight, only a sign indicates
the cafe is open. Given the sun orientation and the arcade, clearer glass
might have been used, allowing a view of the interior.
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3.b.6. Entrances

 ilding entrances, their number and orientation, are


u
critical to the vitality, urban character, and safety of a
street. Frequent entrances are encouraged to create finegrained, animated streets. The more entrances there
are, the more active and interesting a street becomes.

Principles

Enrich the Public Realm

Put Pedestrians First

Build to Human Scale

Add Rhythm and Pattern

Entertain the Eye


Entrances take pedestrians from the public environment
of the sidewalk to the semi-public, semi-private, and
private spaces in buildings. Entrances are marked
by elements such as porches, forecourts, arcades,
and canopies, and by changes in scale, ceiling height,
materials, and lighting.
Large mixed use buildings often have semi-public,
ground level spaces that tenants and visitors pass
through on their way to upper floors. When oriented to
the sidewalk, the lobbies, atriums, and other semi-public
interior volumes on the ground floor of large mixeduse buildings enrich a pedestrians visual experience,
offering views in and out of signature spaces.

St. Louis

An entrance should be more than just a door.


Pulled up to include second floor windows,
this entrance composition addresses the
scale of the street as well. The canopy offers
weather protection, color, and an interesting
shadow.

Guidelines
A building should have one or more clearly

recognizable, inviting, accessible entrances facing the


street.

Single buildings can offer multiple entrances.


At corner properties, locate the main entrance of

buildings on the more heavily traveled street or


toward the intersection, or in the corner of the
building.

San Francisco

Entrance design elements should offer protection from

Recessed entrances are encouraged.

the sun and adverse weather.

Enhance entrances with art placed in setbacks, or with

architectural elements like friezes, door surrounds,


unique doors and door hardware.

Avoid creating isolated or hidden places at entries.

Maintain lines of sight into and out of entrances.

Door swings should not encroach into the public


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right-of-way. Recessed entries are encouraged.


Doorways should not be recessed more than five
feet from the front facade unless a courtyard, cafe,
window display, or similar space is provided.
Locate service and employee entrances at the rear of

the buildings.

In ASN-A and ASN-B, individual entrances to ground-

floor residential units are encouraged. By adding


activity and eyes on the street, multiple residential
entrances create increased and well-distributed
pedestrian activity, and promote security on the
street, especially in residential areas with little or no
retail. Multiple entrances also create a more humanscaled, regular rhythm of openings along the street.

The Cloisters, All Saints St., ASN-A, Tallahassee

LDR Standards
10-284.(b)(1)a.
10-285.(b)(1)a.
10-286.(b)(1)a.
10-287.(b)(1)a.
10-288.(b)(1)a.

Primary facades shall face the street and contain the main
building entrance. The main entrance shall be clearly
visible and accessible from the street. The building may
have other, secondary entrances, as long as pedestrian
access is provided from all entrances. Entrances from
parking facilities are considered secondary to a buildings
primary entrance from the street.

See the Tallahassee Land Development Regulations for the complete


standards.

Brooklyn

Corners address two


street exposures,
making them natural
places for entrances.

Multiple entrances along a street increase


pedestrian activity and a sense of people
watching the street.

People slow
down and stop at
entrances, making
them ideal places
for art, detail, and
special treatment.

W. College Ave., Tallahassee

Door swings should not encroach into the


public right-of-way. Recessed entries are
encouraged.

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3.b.7. Corners

 rner buildings have a double opportunity and


o
obligation to add an active urban character to the
neighborhood. Corners are landmarks, and offer
opportunities for distinctive design that celebrates a
gateway street, or that marks a change in neighborhoods
or a change in scale. Strong architecture at the corner
anchors the block, provides a frame for the facades
along the block between the corners, and makes visual
connections across streets and intersections.

Atlanta

Principles

Evoke a Sense of Place

Enrich the Public Realm

Entertain the Eye

Frame the Street

Guidelines
Active uses and the presence of people are the most

appropriate celebration of a corner.

New York

Corner architecture shouldnt compete to out-

celebrate the other corner. Most buildings, including


corner buildings, will be urban fabric buildings.
Generally, similarities in scale, subtle differences in
material and detail, and relationships in style are
preferable to sudden changes in form, as buildings
vie for attention.

Corners are places for special architecture.

Corner treatments need not be the same on all

sides of an intersection. Differences in composition,


materials, and style will add to the visual interest
of the street, and can indicate the passage of time
between buildings construction.

Two faces of a corner building can be different,

Bryn Mawr PA

responding to changes in scale, for example, where


streets intersect, or to different sun exposures, or to a
different architectural context around the corner.

With special architectural treatment, a notch at a

corner for an active, pedestrian-oriented purpose, as


intended at the Urban District Center, may be may be
an appropriate corner treatment.

At a corner, lower floors might be recessed for an

entrance or seating space, while upper floors project,


holding the building corner.

Corners are natural gathering spaces. Provide

sidewalk bulb-outs and pedestrian amenities such


as seating, dining, sidewalk vendors, and places to

Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

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Addison TX

Upper story fenestration and detail are


distinctive at the corners, while sidewalk-level
treatment is continuous around the corner.
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stand out of pedestrian traffic.


Mechanical equipment and back-of-house functions

such as stairs and emergency exits should not be


located at or near corners.

LDR Standards
10-286.(b)(1)a. On corner lots, new buildings shall be oriented toward
10-287.(b)(1)a. the street(s) and shall consider and complement the
10-288.(b)(1)a. pattern of existing adjoining development, with the

primary facade(s) of the building facing the front lot


line or the street side lot line. Buildings located at
the street corners on Gaines Street and on Railroad
Avenue shall be designed with both street frontages as
primary facades. Corner locations shall be considered
opportunities for distinctive architecture.

Seattle

See the Tallahassee Land Development Regulations for the complete


standards.

Aloft Hotel, Tallahassee

London

Boulder CO

Subtle corner celebrations, using color,


changes in material and fenestration, and
special detailing.

Albany NY

Corners are natural gathering spaces. Provide


ample opportunities for people-watching with
setbacks and seating.

A corner chamfered for an entrance. Upper


floors turn the corner at ninety degrees,
holding the street face and sheltering the
door.

Orlando

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BUILDING DESIGN

3.b.8. Design for the Weather

e destrians comfort is crucial to walkable streets.


Pedestrians will choose the driest, coolest, most
comfortable route to their destination, avoiding less
comfortable blocks and gaps in overhead sun and
weather protection.
Building design should respond to Tallahassees heat,
humidity, rain and strong sunshine, and recognize
that winter days can be cold. Many visual elements
of traditional building in the South originated as
devices to mitigate climate conditions: balconies; tall,
double-hung windows, french doors, and shutters,
for ventilation and light; arcades, colonnades, deep
porches, awnings, and canopies for shade; light colors
to reflect heat. These elements should still be used in
response to climate and light, not just as decoration.

Floridan Hotel, N. Monroe St., Tallahassee, in 1927. Demolished.

Frequent features of Old Florida hotels,


arcades were shaded transitions between
lobbies and streets.

Principles

Evoke a Sense of Place

Enrich the Public Realm

Put Pedestrians First

Build to Human Scale

Entertain the Eye


Recognition of Tallahassees climate should be evident
in the citys architecture. Sun and weather protection
devices appropriate to Tallahassee include:

West Palm Beach

Arcades are series of piers topped by arches, supporting


a permanent roof or inset into a building facade. A
colonnade is similar to an arcade, but is supported by
columns with straight lintels.
Awnings and canopies are located over doors, windows,
or sidewalks. An awning is attached to the facade of
a building, and provides sun and weather protection,
identity, and decoration. Awnings are
typically
stretched over a lightweight metal structure, and may
be fixed or retractable. More substantial but with the
same purpose as an awning, a canopy of metal and/or
glass usually is fixed in place. Functionally, awnings
and canopies are nearly interchangeable. For purposes
of these guidelines, awning shall refer to fixed or
retractable fabric construction, and canopy to all other
fixed construction.

Boca Raton

Arcades in new Florida mixed-use


development.

Balconies shade windows and sidewalks, and protect


pedestrians from rain. See page 62.
Brise-soleil (French, sun breaker) refers to a variety of
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Paris
New York

Use awnings and


canopies to shade
clear glass at store
windows.

The underside of an awning may be lighted to


reflect light onto the area beneath it.

no
Euclid St., St. Louis

no

Internally-illuminated awning-like signs are


not permitted.

New York

New York

Awnings and canopies may extend into


setbacks, and over the public right-of-way.

Dimension and
locate awnings to
correspond with the
openings they are
shading.

Crocker Park OH

N. Monroe St., Tallahassee

West Palm Beach

Awnings add color and promote the image of


an active market.

Awnings at The
Tennyson, downtown
Tallahassee.

A composition of balconies, awnings, tall


windows, shutters and an arcade, held
together by a single intense color.

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3.b.8. Design for the Weather


permanent sun-shading devices, typically a horizontal
projection extending from the facade of a building,
at any level. Often louvers are incorporated into the
device to prevent the high-angle summer sun falling
on the facade, while allowing the low-angle winter sun
to provide some passive solar heating. Brises-soleils
can be motorized to respond to sun angles through the
day. In addition to their light-modulating and energysaving advantages, brises-soleils bring color, shadow,
detail, and complexity to building facades.
At the sidewalk, overhead weather protection defines
places in the pedestrian realm and reduces the scale
of big buildings. Awnings add color and promote
the image of an active market. Bus stops benefit from
coverings overhead on adjacent facades.
Guidelines
Continuous weather protection does not have to
be seamless across a given facade, nor do awnings or
canopies have to connect to those on adjacent facades.
Provide reasonably continuous cover, give people
room to stand out of the rain or sun, and let them not
get too wet walking down the street.

Baltimore

Avoid using pedestrian bridges and overhead

A canopy suspended
under transom
windows.

Tallahassee

Canopies, balconies, and street trees on


Jefferson St., one of downtowns most
pleasant and walkable streets.

Climate has little to do with [how


much people walk]. Toronto residents,
New Orleanians and Manhattanites,
with extremes of weather, walk more
than Atlantans. The variable is the
quality of the urbanism. Not the
weather. People in Stockholm walk
more than people in the suburbs
of Seville. People in Stockholms
center walk more than they do in
Stockholms 1950s new towns. The
variable is always the quality of the
urbanismnot the weather.
Andres Duany
Brooklyn NY

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skyways that remove pedestrians from the sidewalk


and life from the street.
Awnings and canopies should fit the opening, and not
look like an afterthought. They should complement
the scale of the building without overwhelming or
dominating a facade, or throwing it off balance.
The size, type and placement of awnings and
canopies should not interfere with signs or distinctive
architectural features.
Consider the scale of the space under the overhead
protection: it should not be so high and shallow as to
be an ineffective rain shelter.
Awning color should be coordinated with the overall
color scheme of the building.
Light-colored undersides of opaque material can be
up-lighted. Internally illuminated sign-type awnings
are not permitted.
Lettering can be added to an awnings valance area.
Design all overhead features to drain rainwater away
from street-level faades, sidewalks, and pedestrians.

Omaha NB

California

Brisbane, Australia

France

Brisbane, Australia

Examples of brises-soleil.

LDR Standards

10-285.(b)(1)d.4.
10-286.(b)(1)d.5.
10-287.(b)(1)d.5.
10-288.(b)(1)d.5.

All building design shall incorporate weather protection


such as arcades, awnings, or canopies at the ground
level. Such elements are optional for single-use
residential uses, and for all buildings in the ASN-A
district.

10-288.(b)(1)f. Building design shall use energy conservation measures

including but not limited to self-shading, natural lighting, natural


ventilation, outdoor circulation, and reduced dependence on artificial
lighting and air conditioning.

See the Tallahassee Land Development Regulations for the complete


standards.
La Jolla

A traditional pergola is a kind of brise-soleil.

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3.b.9. Balconies and Terraces

 t just an architectural feature, a good balcony is


o
an outdoor room, a semi-private extension of interior
space into the public space of the street. Balconies
strengthen human scale by lining streets with living
spaces, putting people on view and their eyes on
the street. Box seats on the public realm, balconies
designed from the inside out are attractive, highly
usable places. Like the balconies and galleries of New
Orleans Vieux Carr, added in the nineteenth century
as refuges from hot interiors, a livable balcony
living room, dining room, sleeping porchcan come
to be identified not only with the visual character of
the Gaines Street Design Review Districts, but also
with a way of living in that part of the city.
While balconies and bay windows add to the
quality of residential units, they also are elements
of architectural articulation for facades. Used in
modular series, balconies add vertical elements to
big buildings, breaking up long street frontages with
rhythmic patterns of complexity, shadow, and color.
Alternatives to balconies or in addition to them,
terraces on roofs and on projecting building masses
are encouraged.
Balconies and roof terraces lift gardens in
the air, lending color, texture, movement and
fragrance to the streetscape. New Orleanss
balconied buildings tend to be otherwise
unadorned.

Principles

Evoke a Sense of Place

Enrich the Public Realm

Build to Human Scale

Add Rhythm and Pattern

Entertain the Eye

Guidelines
In denser development, balconies and terraces,

along with courtyards and rooftops, offer alternative


locations for private and semi-private open space.

Balconies and terraces are not limited to residential

uses. Restaurants can have dining spaces on


balconies and terraces. Balconies on office buildings
are popular in downtown Tallahassee.

Group balconies to reinforce the vertical proportions

New Orleans

Like a porch, a useful balcony is a semiprivate outdoor room, a link between the
interior of a building and the public realm of
the street.

of facade modules and add rhythm to the block


frontage. Consider balconies for the shadows they
throw on facades through the day.

Well-designed balconies and bay windows can


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let the facade wall remain relatively simple and


minimally detailed.
Balconies may encroach above the setback space.
Balconies may project over the public right-of-way.
Balconies may be sheltered overhead by other

balconies, fixed canopies, or awnings.

Recessed balconies are permitted.


False balconies will not be approved.

LDR Standards
10-283.(c)(8)a.5.

Balconies must be usable and accessible through


operable, full height doors. Balconies must be a minimum of five feet
deep.

See the Tallahassee Land Development Regulations for the complete


standards.

Saint Michael Street, All Saints, ASN-B district

A balcony and a terrace, both deep and


livable, on recent construction in the All
Saints neighborhood.

Paris

Non-traditional
materials suit a postindustrial aesthetic.

Balconies that are too shallow can wind up


as storage.

no
Portland

The roof terrace restaurant of the Burnside


Rocket overlooks downtown.
Balconies must be
usable and accessible
by a full-height door.
63

French balconies, with full-height doors


that open to a railing on the face of the
building, are permitted.
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3.b.9. Balconies and Terraces

Albuquerque CA

Recessed balconies are


permitted.
Oakland CA

San Francisco

Santa Monica CA

Ljubljana, Slovenia

Terraces can be located in step-backs as


floors are pulled back from the street face.

Orenco Station OR

St. Michael St., All Saints ASN-A

Balconies may encroach into the setback space.

Addison TX

On a single building, balconies, bay windows,


and other fenestration can be used to compose
a series of facade modules that are different but
of a consistent character.
In this example the facade continues across a
recessed terrace. Like a window, the opening
frames a view, and is part of the fenestration
scheme on the facade. See page 47
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Brooklyn NY

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3.b.10. Structured Parking

 e presence of a parking garage reassures us that an


h
empty space awaits us, but too often its at the expense
of active, pedestrian-oriented sidewalks and multiple
uses on a block. Reduced to the most minimal standalone structures, economy and expedience have brought
downtown streets lined with open-sided stacks of
vehicles, instead of what might have been populated
floors of human-scaled, visually engaging architecture.
Well-designed parking structures, however, not only
can provide convenient storage for automobiles, they
also can contribute pedestrian activity, along with
architecture compatible with the character intended for
streets and districts.
Structured parking can be a simple above-grade,
ramp access, open-air, stand-alone structure designed
specifically to accommodate vehicle parking. Or
structured parking can be part of a more complicated
but better urban building housing other uses. In either
case, drivers can park themselves, give their keys
to a valet, or store their cars using various forms of
automated stacking and delivery.

Sioux City IA

Boulder CO

Principles

Enrich the Public Realm

Put Pedestrians First

Build to Human Scale

Fit the Neighborhood

Parking garages serve important roles as transfer


points for drivers as they become pedestrians entering
buildings, stepping onto the sidewalk, or continuing
their trips via transit. The movement of pedestrians
through garages has rarely been given the attention

Charlottesville VA

Active uses at the sidewalk, celebrated


corners, vertically modulated facades, and
better-than-utilitarian lighting. Guidelines
apply to garages as they do to any other
building type.

Blank walls deaden streets and endanger


pedestrians at night. The setback at right is useless.
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3.b.10. Structured Parking


given to cars, but garages also should be designed to
provide pedestrians with a pleasant, safe environment
to take them from their cars to other destinations within
the building, or to the street.
Shared parking arrangements are encouraged. Required
parking may be provided off-site. Public parking in
privately developed parking is also encouraged.
Cycling is encouraged as an alternative to driving.
Available secure storage for a bicycle can be a key
factor influencing the decision to switch to the bike.
Structured parking should be no less convenient and
attractive to use for bikes than it is for cars.

Portland

Mixed use with parking above, from the 1920s.

Parking structures are permitted in all Gaines Street


Design Review Districts except the ASN-A district.
Guidelines
Access to parking garages from Gaines Street is

discouraged.

To maintain vibrant streetscapes, structured parking

should be shielded from streets with liner buildings


housing active uses. Limit driveways to side streets or
alleys.

no

The parking portion of a structure should be

architecturally compatible with the rest of the


building. Use the same design principles and
architectural details that are required for and/or
found on buildings for other uses.

Block pedestrians views of raw concrete ceilings and

light fixtures.

Vehicular entries to parking structure should not

dominate the street frontage of a building. Consider


one or more of the following design strategies:
Subordinate the garage entrance to the pedestrian

entrance in terms of size, prominence on the


streetscape, location, and design emphasis.
Recess the garage entry portion of the facade or
extend portions of the structure over the garage
entry to help conceal it.

W. Park Avenue. Tallahassee

Ground floor parking should be screened


by active uses at the sidewalk. Structured
parking requirements and guidelines also
apply to first-floor parking under a building.
Upper floor transparency requirements apply
to all building types.

Soften the appearance of garage entries on street

with landscaping or art.

Use all or a portion of the top level as a green roof, or

as an outdoor deck, patio or garden.

Bike Parking
Where structured parking is provided for cars, locate

required bicycle parking inside the structure. Storage


rooms, bike lockers, secure rack systems, or other
storage means should be as close as possible to the

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Brisbane, Australia

Liner shops around a parking garage.


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entrances of the destinations being served.


Locate bike parking in a location readily observable

by passers-by.

LDR Standards
10-284.(b)(2)b.1. Prohibits parking garages in district ASN-A.
10-283.(c)(4)b. Minimum setbacks for front, side, and rear yards shall
apply to parking structures and to parking lots, including associated
pedestrian access ways, as they apply to buildings with other uses.

10-285.(b)(1)e.
10-286.(b)(1)e.
10-287.(b)(1)e.

Winter Park

and

10-288.(b)(1)e. stipulate design features for parking structures:


1.

Locate parking structures behind the principal


building and access them from the rear of the lot

2.

Locate retail or service uses on the ground floor of a


parking structure that is the principal use on a site.

3.

Design standards for parking structures apply to parking


located on the ground floor of a building as well.

4.

Maximum building height restrictions apply to


parking structures.

5.

Facades of parking structures shall comply with


design standards for massing, articulation, and
materials established for other building types.

6.

Design openings in parking structures to be


compatible with neighboring buildings. Screen
openings in parking structures so that no cars,
headlights, or light fixtures are visible from the
surrounding streets and uses.

7.

Locate pedestrian entrances to parking structures


adjacent to vehicle entrances.

8.

Ceiling heights for retail commercial uses on


the ground floors of parking structures shall be
minimum 12 feet.

Carefully detailed
screening for
garage parking.

Parking levels are included when measuring building height.


See the Tallahassee Land Development Regulations for the complete
standards.

Block pedestrians
views of raw concrete
ceilings and light
fixtures.

Dallas

Pasadena

An urban market on the


ground floor of a parking
garage.

A 1920s parking garage has been converted


into housing. Structured parking should be
designed to be adaptable to other uses in
the future.

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3.b.11. Materials and Construction

 e quality of a buildings design and the choice and


h
durability of its materials contribute significantly to
a sense of place, and enrich the public realm. New
buildings of high design quality and construction
indicate that people are putting down roots in the
community.
New construction can reflect contemporary design
standards while using elements, devices, and patterns
drawn from the older urban fabric around it. Good
contemporary architecture is welcome in every
district.
Well-built buildings last, and embody the history of the
city as they age. Like the old buildings in downtown
Tallahassee, Gaines Streets buildings should be
designed for a life span of seventy-five years or more.
Every new building should be a long-term component
of the urban fabric.
Quality building stock is a good use of natural resources.
Designing and building for many years of use means
less energy spent making new building materials, and
less demolition waste.

Principles

Evoke a Sense of Place

Enrich the Public Realm

Build to Human Scale

Fit the Neighborhood

Add Rhythm and Pattern

Entertain the Eye

Denver, both examples

Masonry belt courses and material changes


delineate floors.

Recycled concrete

Recycled glass

Guidelines

Recycled concrete

Building materials
Use high quality, low maintenance building materials.
Exterior materials should reflect a sense of

Brick in simple patterns

permanence, continuity, and urban character.

New building materials should complement the

Pervious concrete

materials and techniques of the Gaines Street


architectural contexts.

Recycled asphalt

Construction should express the specific qualities of

materials. Heavier, more permanent materials such


as masonry should support lighter materials such as
wood. Brick, block, and stone should be detailed in
appropriate load-bearing configurations.

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Consider pervious
and semi-pervious
paving materials,
and unit pavers
made of recycled
materials.

Pervious pavers

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Simple configurations and solid craftsmanship are

favored over complexity and ostentation in building


form, and complicated articulation of details.

Avoid nostalgic reproductions at the expense of

devaluing the genuinely old.

Materials of the highest quality must be used at the street

level of all buildings. Avoid EIFS on lower stories.

In the tradition of vernacular building, the use of

quality local materials is strongly encouraged.

Paving materials
Paving materials that contribute texture, pattern, and

color are encouraged for both sidewalks and streets.


Changes in street pavement are encouraged to mark
pedestrian crossings and arrival into activity center or
other distinct areas.

Uncomplicated paving designs are better suited to

diverse building styles and design elements of city


streets. Coordinate paver colors and patterns with
a buildings materials and architecture, and with
adjacent streetscape pavements.

Consider
materials in their
natural states as
components of the
color palette.

Pervious, semi-pervious, and recycled paving

materials are encouraged everywhere.

LDR Standards
10-283.(c)(6).

Requires brick, stone, asphalt, concrete, or other unit pavers


at driveways and walkways. Semi-pervious paving materials are encouraged.

10-283.(c)(8)a.2. Articulation, including but not limited to window casings,

eaves, cornices, railings, foundation walls, shutters, downspouts, fascias,


gables, and gutters, shall complement the architecture of adjacent
buildings while providing variety among building masses and facades of
buildings on a street. Eaves, porch and arcade columns, roofs, railings,
chimneys, etc. shall be detailed so as to emphasize these architectural
features, consistent with the buildings architecture.

Pan-tile

10-283.(c)(8)a.4. Requires that buildings greater than two stories high


clearly mark the boundary between each floor of the structure with a
belt course, change of material, band of signage, or other architectural
detailing. Maintain a consistent cornice line, plus or minus five feet, on
attached buildings in the same block.

10-283.(c)(8)a.5. Doorways, windows, storefronts, and other openings


in the facades of buildings shall be placed and proportioned to reflect
pedestrian scale and movement, and to encourage visual interest at the
street level. The use of functional and decorative elements, including
weather protection features (e.g., colonnades, arcades, canopies, etc.),
signage, and architectural detailing, shall be used to create human
scale on a buildings principal facade. Elements shall be integral to the
architecture of the building, designed so as to not appear to be tacked
on to the building facade.

Natural and artificial slate

Use natural and


natural-looking
roof materials
that add texture,
pattern and color.

10-283.(c)(10)a. and 10-283.(c)(10)c.

High quality asphalt shingles

Standing-seam metal

Require or encourage natural and


natural-looking materials that add texture, pattern and color, including
wood, brick, stone, standing-seam metal, textured shingles, pan-tile, and
slate. Use materials consistently on all sides of a structure.

See individual district sections for particular standards and guidelines for
materials, color, and detail.

See the Tallahassee Land Development Regulations for the complete


standards.

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3.b.12. Detailing the Public Realm

etailsart, architectural details, street furniture,


landscape, lighting, and signslodge a sense of place
in our memories.

Principles

Evoke a Sense of Place

Enrich the Public Realm

Put Pedestrians First

Build to Human Scale

Entertain the Eye

Portland

Free of the ground plane, public art can be


incorporated into buildings, providing detail and
visual interest above eye level, and offering
surprising vistas down streets.

Guidelines
Architectural Details
Architectural details add texture, text, color, shape,
and shadow, highlight focal points, soften and
modulate building masses. Pay special attention to:
Masonry chimneys, texture and glazing, tile

inlays, pavers, patterns, color.

Railings, grilles, and other metal trim.

Oakland CA

Moldings, cornices, eaves and overhangs.


Sills and lintels.
Shutters.
Door hardware and furnishings.

Art
Art in the public environment establishes a strong
sense of place, and provides continuity between the
past, present and future.
Draw on Tallahassees geography, landmarks,

history, industry, local craft, and other cultural


attributes.

Developers and architects are encouraged to include

artists on the design team from the beginning.

Civic art can be artisan-crafted architectural details

as well as freestanding works for public spaces.


Artists are encouraged to work on basic architectural
elements of buildingsdetails, doorways, friezes,
paving and other works of art integral to buildings,
and not limit art to individual freestanding objects.

Orange County CA

Incorporate public art into a buildings


architectural details.

Use art to mark transitions between places.

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Landscaping
Especially using native species, landscaping is an
important means of locking in a sense of place.
Continue desirable landscape patterns found in the

district.

Use trellises to train vegetation on facade walls.


Emphasize entries with special planting in

conjunction with decorative paving and/or lighting.

Use landscaping to increase privacy and security,

and to screen blank walls. Maintain trees and shrubs


so that normal lines of sight are preserved and
nighttime security lighting remains effective.

Incorporate upper story planter boxes, roof planters,

or brackets for hanging plants.

Seattle

Consider the view of landscape design from the upper

Dance steps in the sidewalk.

floors of nearby buildings, as well as from the sidewalk.

Street Furniture and Equipment


Well designed and located, much of what sometimes
clutters a sidewalk can have a positive presence.
Provide movable as well as fixed seating.
Let people sit on ledges, broad stairs, planters and

other architectural elements at the base of buildings,


especially near public open spaces, bus stops, and
other places where people gather or wait.

Brass studs in the


crosswalk.

Liverpool, England

Locate special street furniture that is also public

artbenches, bus stops, canopies, or kiosks. Bike


racks are great opportunities for playful, useful
public sculpture.

Gaines Street will still carry cars. From the outset,

pay special attention to locating, designing, or


working around necessary infrastructure like traffic
light control boxes, traffic light standards, traffic
signs, as well as fire hose connections, wheelchair
ramps, ATMs, etc.

Oysters in the
terrazzo.

Color

New Orleans

Color is integral to architecture and a major


contributor toor detractor fromthe ensemble
of buildings on the street. Subtle use of color is
encouraged on all buildings in the Gaines Street
Districts.
Colors should be coordinated, compatible with each

other and with the color of adjacent buildings.

Avoid extremely dark colors for the body of a building.


Use bright, vibrant colors as building accents or as

accent colors on signs.

Lighting can be
incorporated into
paving.
Teruel, Spain

Consider materials, especially concrete, masonry, and

metal, for the color inherent in their natural states,

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and for the part color plays in the buildings materials
palette.
Lighting
Provide appropriate levels of lighting on the

building facade, on the underside of overhead


weather protection, on and around street furniture,
in merchandising display windows, and on signage.

Use lighting to pick out a buildings distinctive

The Exchange Building (1927), S. Monroe St., Tallahassee

featuresentrances, signs, canopies, and


architectural details.

Look up.

Let window displays light the sidewalk.


Minimize glare within the right-of-way. Do not

allow any lighting to shine into upper story


windows.

LDR Standards
10-283.(c)(10)b. and 10-283.(c)(10)d. Require that a coordinated palette
of colors shall be created for each project or development. Vary color to
break up the mass of a building. Use neutral or natural tintsbrowns,
warm grays, tans, ochres, etc.as principal building colors; limit color
variations to walls, roofs, trim, and accent colors. Limit bright accent
colors to awnings and signs.

See the Tallahassee Land Development Regulations for the complete

Andrews Capital Grill & Bar, S. Adams St., Tallahassee

Consider every building component, equipment


element, material, finish, and sign for its part in
the material and color palette.

Window boxes can


hold vegetation at zero
setbacks.

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Reserve planting areas in setbacks to train


vines to grow on facades.
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Courtesy West Architecture + Design, LLC

At 650 W. Gaines Street, in the UV district, masonry and other finishes


in their natural state recall the areas industrial history, without direct
reproduction or nostalgia.

London

Two bike racks by artist David Byrne, New York

Bike racks can be


among the most
sculptural of street
furniture elements.
Consider lighting as
part of the material
and color palette.
Pick out details;
avoid floodlighting.

Boston

The details arent


the details. They
make the design.

Teruel, Spain

Charles Eames

Portland

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3.b.13. Signs

 ery business needs a good sign. Signs on walkable


v
streets welcome pedestrians, and introduce the goods,
food, and company inside. The most engaging visual
elements in the public realm, signs above all entertain
the eye.
The environment of signs on a walkable street is very
different from that meant to be seen from a moving car.
Behind the wheel, keeping up with traffic, we look not
for a sign at a front door, but for a sign at a curb cut
at a parking lot. Pedestrians on a walkable street, after
parking their cars, or having walked there in the first
place, with time to appreciate nuance and detail, look
for signs over entrances, perpendicular to the building
or on the faces of buildings across the street.

Principles

Enrich the Public Realm

Put Pedestrians First

Build to Human Scale

Entertain the Eye


Signs on walkable streets are much smaller than their
big, simple-minded counterparts on a commercial
strip. With more time to look at a sign, there can be
more to read, along with intricate design, color, and
wit otherwise lost on drivers short attention spans.
A good sign fits the building without obstructing
architectural elements. Design, size, style, scale,
proportion, material, color, and lettering should relate
to the architectural qualities and color of the buildings
theyre attached to, and to the context of other signs in
the district. Signs should be located so they are sensitive
to the visibility of signs for other businesses.

Signs may project into the setback and over


the right-of-way.

All sign design, including new signs for existing


buildings or new tenants, is subject to review and
approval by the Urban Design Commission.
Guidelines
Sign design must balance the need to market

individual businesses with the districts desired


urban character. They should attract attention while
minimizing visual clutter. Signs should complement
other elements attached to buildings, such as awnings,
canopies, shutters, or artwork.

Neon signs are permitted in all districts


except ASN-A.

Signs can be incorporated into facades, awnings,

canopies, or art.

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Color on signs should complement the materials and

color scheme of the building. It is easier to read signs


with a strong color contrast between the lettering
and the background. Typically, lighter letters on dark
backgrounds are more legible than dark letters on a
light background.

Consider signs and messages not tied to commerce:

construction dates, cornerstones, dedication plaques,


art. These should be used sparingly and with
sensitivity, in a few special places.

Wall signs
Wall signs should be carefully integrated into a

facade design. Wall signs can take the form of


mounted board signs, or individually mounted letters,
illuminated externally or from behind by micro-tube
neon.

Sign bands
Locate signs within the sign band where a sign band

is part of the building. Locate signs between the first


floor window, or transom head and the second floor
windowsill when no sign band exists.

When multiple storefronts share the same building,

Locate wallmounted and


projecting signs
in designated or
implied sign bands.

sign bands can be integrated with architecture to


provide a common area for businesses to identify
themselves. A sign band can be delineated with a
change in building color, material, a reveal or relief.
The band can be further articulated to respond to the
width of the individual storefronts.

Vary colors in continuous sign bands within a

coordinated palette.

Projecting signs
Projecting or blade signs typically are smaller than

wall signs and are oriented toward the pedestrian on


the same sidewalk they project over. Projecting signs
can be used in conjunction with wall signs.

Mount projecting signs between the head of the first

floor window and the second floor windowsills.

Locate projecting signs so that they do not extend

more than 6 from the building facade, and so that


they clear the sidewalk by at least eight feet.

Window signs
Closest of all signs to the pedestrian, window signs

are an effective way to provide detailed information


while complementing a window display.

Apply lettering by hand painting directly on glass,

etching in glass or applying die-cut letters.

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BUILDING DESIGN

Avoid obstructing views to storefront display areas.

Material
Many materials are appropriate to pedestrianscaled signs, and their inventive use is not only
strongly encouraged, but essential to a rich visual
environment.
In general, avoid sign material and construction
typical of auto-oriented placesinternally illuminated
plastic boxes, light boxes with changeable letters,
cheap, flimsy materials, and standardized, uninspired
design.
Lighting
Attach incandescent spots or floodlights to facades,
and space the fixtures at regular intervals to light the
full area of wall signs.
Light projecting signs with attached fixtures instead
of internal illumination.
Coordinate fixtures and lamp types for multiple
storefronts on a single building.
Prevent glare by shielding all light sources. Avoid
bare bulbs unless of very low wattage. Use microtubes or neon to back light solid letters or signs.
LDR Standards
7-63.(a)(1) and 7-63.(b)(1). Permit wall-mounted, projecting, and

monument signs, marquee signs attached to the underside of an


awning or canopy.

7-63.(a)(6) and 7-63.(b)(6). Prohibit pole-mounted signs; signs on

residential structures; banners, pennants, or streamers except


flags of political entities; portable, folding or similar movable signs,
except for sandwich boards on sidewalks; searchlights, laser lights,
and any sign with revolving or rotating beams of light; roof-mounted
signs; bus stop bench signs; internally illuminated signs or awnings;
flashing, animation, running light signs, or signs with moving parts;
signs provided by advertisers promoting brands or products except as
otherwise allowed;

Light signs using external sources or


backlighting.

7-63.(a)(7). Prohibits marquee and neon signs in the ASN-A district.

Neon signs are


permitted in all
districts except
ASN-A.

7-68.(a)(2) and 7-68.(b)(2). Preserve existing signs that are unusual,


significant, or meaningful to the district, or integral to the design of
historic buildings.

See LDR Sec. 7-68. Signage in the All Saints and University Village

Design Review Districts for complete adopted sign regulations,


including regulations for existing signs, signs on historic structures, and
signs installed on new infill buildings.

See the Tallahassee Land Development Regulations for the complete


standards for the above items.

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no
Roof-mounted signs,
above and left, are
not permitted.

no

Banners are not


permitted.

no
no

Consider the color scheme of a sign as part


of the buildings color and materials palette.

no

Internally illuminated awning-like signs are not


permitted.

no

Portsmouth NH

Internally illuminated
plastic box-type signs
are not permitted.

Some
prohibited
signs

no
no

Consider the design of a sign for the


contribution it makes to the environment of
signs around it.

Except for menu


boards on the
sidewalk, illuminated
and non-illuminated
portable signs are not
permitted.

Signage can be incorporated into canopies


and other weather protection elements over
the sidewalk.
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3.b.13. Signs

Signs painted
on windows are
permitted.

In the public realm,


signs are small
works of art and
wit, keeping the
eye busy and
entertained.

A sign can be an integral part of the design of


a facade.

All Saints Cafe, Railroad Ave., Tallahassee

Menu boards on
the sidewalk are
permitted, provided
there is adequate
passage around them
for pedestrians.

W. College Ave., Tallahassee

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3.b.14. Adaptability and Re-use

 apting existing buildings for new uses makes good


d
environmental sense. Material from demolished
buildings makes up as much as 35 percent of the total
waste in our landfills. Reusing existing buildings
reduces demolition and construction waste, conserves
embodied energy, and avoids new impacts on natural
environments and existing resources.
Older buildings provide a sense of continuity, framing
a citys memories, and evoking personal recollections
of good meals and first apartments. Keeping and
caring for buildings nurture a sense of place.

Rhodes furniture/midtown manor

Florida Photographic Collection

Principles

Evoke a Sense of Place

Build to Human Scale

Fit the Neighborhood

Entertain the Eye

Thomasville Road, Midtown Tallahassee

Flexible buildings can be modified to new uses and


personalized into new homes and workplaces. Loft
conversions into artists studios began with flexible
old urban industrial buildings, but living in them
grew so popular that brand new loft buildings for
residential, office, and commercial uses have been
built in Houston, Atlanta, and other American cities
not known usually for urban living. Because they
can be re-used, buildings designed for flexibility are
likely to last longer, as are sustainable neighborhoods
of adaptable buildings.

Built as Rhodes Furniture store over 50


years ago, the building now known as the
Manor at Midtown was readily adapted
to multiple-tenant use. The setback from
Thomasville Road is landscaped and has
movable outdoor seating. The contemporary
remodeling is sensitive to the buildings midcentury Modern style.

Guidelines
Consider keeping older buildings that may not be

historically designated, but that are significant to the


neighborhood architectural context, and integrating
them into new development.

Existing buildings can offer clues for designing new

ones. New development should consider the context of


massing and architectural style of nearby structures,
including those built recently.

Existing buildings should be adapted with design that

preserves or reconstructs significant features of the


building, while adding contemporary elements clearly
of their time and sensitive to the original architecture.
Avoid creating a false historical appearance with
building materials and elements from an earlier time
than the original architecture of a building.
79

Pittsburgh Glass Center

A new addition clearly differentiated from the


older structure.
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3.b.14. Adaptability and Reuse


Inappropriate building materials or inferior materials

that have been added over time to existing buildings


should be removed.

Buildings should have a built-in flexibility to their

design, recognizing that buildings in cities frequently


undergo alterations to conform to uses not considered
in the original design.

In new construction, use structural systems that

balance durability and flexibility. Consider the


impact of floor-to-floor heights, structural grids
and bays, and load-bearing walls on possible future
use configurations. Consider exterior cladding and
arrangements of wall openings for their adaptability
to the daylighting and ventilation requirements of
other use configurations.

Use recyclable materials wherever possible.


In contrast to suburban buildings built to last as few as

15 years, Gaines Street buildings should be designed


for a lifespan 50 to 100 years.

Make buildings coming generations will want to

preserve.

115 E. Park Ave., Tallahassee, 2008

For nearly 70 years, the shell of this highly


adaptable urban fabric building has been a
bank, a police station, a nightclub, a coffee
house, and a restaurant.

1955
Florida Photographic Collection
Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Young Centre for the Performing Arts. Three


warehouses were recycled into theaters with
new public spaces between them.
Kuwabara Payne McKenna Blumberg Architects

Warehouses in the
UV district may offer
opportunities for
rehab and adaptation
to new uses.

Gaines Street

Gaines Street

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3.b.

ALL DISTRICTS

BUILDING DESIGN

Brooklyn

Metalworkers of Local
Union 580 renovated
a warehouse as
a showcase for
architectural and
ornamental work.

Redevelopment, historic preservation, and adaptive re-use


continue to be important elements in mixed-use development.
Historic buildings generally offer a certain identity and
character that may serve to create a valued link with the
past, adding richness, continuity, and image to a mixed use
development.
Urban Land Institute

The texture of the old poured-in-place


concrete construction of Gaines Streets
warehouses is unique in the city, and a
significant contributor to the streets sense
of place.
Proposed All Saints Square redevelopment, St. Michael St., ASN-B district. Conn & Associates, Inc., Architects

Restored and adapted


for commercial and
residential use,
the old Coca-Cola
Bottling Plant (1948),
will be the centerpiece
of a new mixed-use
development including
affordable housing.
The lobby and plaza of the Department of
Education building present opportunities
for adaptation to people-oriented uses and
treatment, especially given the buildings
location across Gaines Street from the
proposed Performing Arts Center.
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URBAN DISTRICT CENTER

4. The Urban District Center

 e Gaines Street Report envisioned an Urban District


h
Center located at the intersection of Gaines Street and
Railroad Avenue, planned and managed as a publicprivate partnership, to include residential, retail and
office uses and a parking facility. The Urban District
Center will be the main activity hub of the Gaines
Street area.
Buildings located in the District Center should be
designed to respect hard-edged urban form and provide
a distinctive gateway icon to the Gaines Street area,
downtown Tallahassee, and the universities.

An early concept for the Urban District


Center, showing the four corners notched to
form a city square. The Marriott Residence
Inn site is at lower left.

ASN-D

UV

GAINES
UV

RAILROAD

Bethesda MD

A corner of a city square similar to that


envisioned for the Urban District Center.

ASN-C

The Gaines Street Report envisioned an Urban District Center at the


intersection of Gaines Street and Railroad Avenue. Plans for a traffic
roundabout have been replaced by a signalized intersection, and Gaines
Street will carry less traffic than was anticipated at the time of the Report.

The notched corner of the Marriott


Residence Inn (opposite, upper left)
recognizes the city square envisioned at the
Urban District Center.

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5.

ASN-A

5. ASN-A

All Saints Neighborhood Infill Low Intensity District


 e ASN-A, Infill/Low Intensity District generally
h
comprises the eastern half of the All Saints neighborhood.
Historically this area was characterized by a pattern of
wood-frame vernacular residential structures, on small
lots in a grid of narrow, tree-shaded streets. Some
structures remain that exemplify and preserve the
historical residential character and scale of the area.

St. Francis Street

Newer structures include two-story office buildings on


Martin Luther King, Jr., Blvd. and on All Saints Park.
Recent townhouse-like live-work units as high as three
and one-half stories have been developed at a higher
density than the historical pattern, with traditional
windows, porches and balconies. Parking is at the
center of the block, as the regulations require.
The intent of the ASN-A, Infill/Low Intensity District
is to encourage restoration and adaptive re-use of
existing structures for residential and complementary
nonresidential uses, while providing incentives for

822 S. Martin Luther King, Jr., Boulevard

ASN-A
The All Saints
Neighborhood
(ASN) districts
The purpose of this
map is to locate the
ASN-A district in the
context of the city and
other design review
districts. Refer to
official zoning maps for
specific parcel zoning.

NORTH

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ASN-A

revitalization through infill development compatible


with the areas historical character and scale.
Guidelines
Many land development regulations address buildings

at the scale of the historical development pattern


of the ASN-A district. Most of the regulations can
be applied to more intensive development like the
units built in the center of the district, to bring
newer development into compatibility with both
the historical context and the context of the newer
development.

LDR Standards
10-284(b)(1)a. On corner lots, new buildings shall be oriented toward the

street(s) and shall follow the setbacks and building lines of existing adjoining
development, with the primary facade(s) of the building facing the front lot
line and/or the street side lot line.

New buildings shall turn their most narrow building frontage to the principal
street. All buildings shall have porches facing the principal street.

10-284(b)(1)b. Loading and service area screening. Loading and

service areas, including dumpsters, shall be screened from public view


by structures, opaque fences, walls, or hedges. Screening materials
in the ASN-A infill/low intensity district shall be wood or hedges.
Alternately space exterior and interior boards for air circulation and to
block the view. Exterior boards shall be topped with a picket shape.
Enclosures shall be a maximum seven (7) feet high, and equipment
shall not be visible from the street. Enclosures shall be painted white or
a light neutral color. Prohibited screening materials include chain link,
plastic or vinyl fencing.

Newer development on All Saints St.

10-284(b)(1)c. Landscape features. Fences at the property line are

encouraged. Fences, and hedges (if provided) shall have a maximum height
of six (6) feet. The opaque portion of a wall or fence shall have a maximum
height of four (4) feet.

Fences shall have piers or newel posts at corners and ends. On long
stretches of fence, visual monotony shall be minimized through openings,
changes or plane or height, or the introduction of landscape or architectural
accents, provided such design variations are consistent with the architecture
of the principal structure on the site.

Prohibited fencing materials include chain link, plastic, or vinyl fencing.

Existing rubble retaining walls at the front property line shall be preserved,
restored, or replaced with new construction of the same design, materials,
and craft techniques as the original walls.

Driveway and walkway paving shall be unit pavers such as brick, stone,
asphalt, or concrete pavers installed on a sand bed. Semi-pervious paving
materials are encouraged.

10-284.(b)(1)d. Design features for new buildings:


1.

In all private buildings the progression of public to


private space shall be layered through yards and
porches.

2.

In any building maintain within twenty (20) feet


of the back of the sidewalk a rhythm of buildings
(or building facades) and spaces (or building
indentations) compatible with the scale of the
historical building pattern of the adjacent buildings.

Existing rubble retaining walls at the front


property line shall be preserved, restored, or
replaced with new construction of the same
design, materials, and craft techniques as
the original walls.

10-284.(b)(1)f. Design and materials strongly encouraged. The following


design features and materials are strongly encouraged:

1.

Functional balconies;

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2.

Drop-board wood siding;

3.

Raised floor instead of slab construction;

4.

Metal roofs;

5.

Working chimneys;

6.

Operable shutters;

7.

Picket fences;

8.

Sun and weather protection at openings, such as


awnings, louvers, etc. , in lieu of tinted glass;

9.

Double-hung windows with vertical projections.

ASN-A

10-284.(b)(1)g. Design and materials strongly discouraged. The following


design features and materials are strongly discouraged:

1.

Fixed windows;

2.

Inoperable shutters (operable shutters are capable


of closing over a window opening.);

3.

Brick or concrete cladding, except at foundations.

Picket fences are encouraged.

10-284.(b)(1)h. Prohibited design and materials. The following design


features and materials are prohibited:

1.

Flat roofs;

2.

Exterior insulation and finish systems (EIFS);

3.

Synthetic stucco finishes;

4.

Tinted glass.

10-284.(b)(1)j. Building design guidelines/vernacular architecture.

New buildings should share qualities of scale, mass, and architectural


character with the vernacular buildings of ASN-A. Two overlapping
periods of vernacular buildings can be identified in ASN-A: pre-1920
and post 1920. The pre-1920 vernacular has characteristics of the north
Florida Cracker house, while after 1920 the vernacular is of a modest
Craftsman or bungalow style. With significant differences in roof pitch,
the two vernaculars share characteristics that can be found in buildings in
ASN-A and in other old Tallahassee neighborhoods, as well as in historical
examples:

1.

Rectangular, sometimes L-shaped plan;

2.

Single, simple mass, sometimes with additions;

3.

One or two stories in height, sometimes with dormer


windows lighting the topmost or attic floor;

4.

Additions, often kitchens, in an ell at the back, in a


connected building, or in an outbuilding;

5.

Wood frame construction on brick or concrete piers


or foundation walls;

6.

Wood drop board siding;

7.

Architectural articulation limited to opening trim


accented by color;

8.

Pitched roofs, hipped or gabled, frequently of


corrugated or standing seam metal;

9.

Single leaf entrance doors;

10.

Double hung windows;

11.

Porches of the same construction and


materials of the house.

Drop-board wood siding and


simple trim at 417 St. Francis St.

See the Tallahassee Land Development Regulations for the complete


standards for the above items.

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5.

5.

ASN-A

ASN-A

San Jose CA

Avoid blank walls at the end units of attached


buildings. Treat the wall as another front of the
building, using fenestration, porches, balconies, and
other human scale elements

Denver

Longmont CO

Compatible contemporary design that follows the land


development regulations and urban design guidelines
is encouraged in all Gaines Street districts.

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6.

ASN-B

6. ASN-B

Infill/Moderate Intensity District


e
h
ASN-B,
Infill/Moderate
Intensity
District
coverss roughly the western half of the All Saints
neighborhood. The areas historical industrial land use
and predominant development pattern are represented
in such landmarks as the Wahnish Cigar Factory
and the Coca-Cola Bottling Plant, as well as in small
warehouses on Macomb Street. While adaptive reuse
of existing structures is encouraged, the ASN-B, Infill/
Moderate Intensity District principally emphasizes
infill development and redevelopment at a greater
density than ASN-A, and allows a broad range of
moderate intensity uses. The intention is to create
a district with an urban character and a lively street
environment, to serve as a transition between the ASNA district and development on Gaines Street and on
Railroad Avenue, in the ASN-C district.

The Wahnish Cigar Company (built 1907)

Macomb Street south to the Wahnish Cigar


Factory, as envisioned in the Gaines Street
Report.

ASN-B
The All Saints
Neighborhood
(ASN) districts
The purpose of this
map is to locate the
ASN-B district in the
context of the city and
other design review
districts. Refer to official zoning maps for
specific parcel zoning.

NORTH

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6.

ASN-B

ASN-B

Guidelines
Preserving a historic structure may be grounds for requesting
a deviation from land development regulations, provided
other required criteria are met.
In the ASN-B district, greater allowable height, less required

setback , and greater allowable lot coverage allow more


intense, more urban development than in the ASN-A district,
with its historical pattern of houses, lawns, and porches.

While avoiding nostalgic reproduction, the districts

industrial past can be recalled in simple building masses and


in the colors and textures of materials.

LDR Standards

At the foot of Macomb St., the Wahnish


Cigar Factory is a landmark in the ASNB district. Presently the deep setback is
wasted on parking.

10-285.(b)(1)a. On corner lots, new buildings shall be oriented toward the

street(s) and shall consider and complement the pattern of existing adjoining
development, with the primary facade(s) of the building facing the front lot line
or the street side lot line.

10-285.(b)(1)c. Landscape features. Walls and fences at the property


line are encouraged. Walls, fences, and hedges (if provided) shall have a
maximum height of six (6) feet. The opaque portion of a wall or fence shall
have a maximum height of four (4) feet.

Walls and fences shall have piers or newel posts at corners and ends. On
long stretches or fence or wall, visual monotony shall be minimized through
openings, changes of plane or height, or the introduction of landscape or
architectural accents, provided such design variations are consistent with the
architecture of the principal structure on the site.
Prohibited fencing materials include chain link, plastic, or vinyl fencing.
Existing rubble retaining walls at the front property line shall be preserved,
restored, or replaced with new construction of the same design, materials,
and draft techniques as the original walls.

10-285.(b)(1)d. Design features for new buildings.


10-285(b)(1)d.2. New buildings wider than the general width of adjacent or

buildings across the street shall be broken into facade modules comparable
to the widths of existing facades.

10-285.(b)(1)d.3. Commercial buildings and buildings with ground floor

commercial uses shall have minimum twelve (12) feet high ceilings at the
ground floor.

10-285.(b)(1)d.5. Above the second floor, building masses shall be broken


up and modulated, in keeping with a buildings style, to reflect the scale of
adjacent structures and avoid overwhelming them.

10-285.(b)(1)d.6. Within a zone twenty (20) feet from the back of the

sidewalk, the height of a new building shall be no greater than twice the
height of adjacent buildings or buildings across the street.

10-285.(b)(1)g. Design and materials strongly encouraged.


1.

Masonry segmented arched openings, as seen on


the Wahnish Cigar Factory;

2.

Ground floor uses, other than parking, that can be


opened to the street;

3.

Balconies, galleries, verandahs, and roof decks;

4.

Arcades set into buildings;

5.

Opaque or transparent overhead doors facing the


street, for uses other than parking;

Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

88

Boulder CO

A moderate intensity mixed-use building


appropriate to the intended character for the
ASN-B district.

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6.

Double hung windows with vertical proportions;

7.

Operable shutters capable of closing over window opening;

8.

Metal roofs.

ASN-B

San Diego (building section at left)

10-285.(b)(1)h. Design and materials strongly discouraged.


1.

Fixed windows.

10-285.(b)(1)i. Prohibited design and materials.


1.

Exterior insulation and finish systems (EIFS) at the


first floor level;

2.

Tinted glass at the first floor level;

3.

Inoperable shutters.

10-285.(b)(1)k. Building design guidelines/vernacular architecture.

Existing vernacular buildings in ASN-B are typical of industrial and


warehouse buildings of the first half of the 20th century, exemplified in the
Wahnish Cigar Factory (1907) and the Coca-Cola Bottling Plant (1940):

1.

One to two stories in height, with stories higher than


those in ASN-A;

2.

Rectangular plan;

3.

Large, single simple mass;

4.

Wood frame, hollow tile frame, or masonry construction;

5.

Masonry cladding;

6.

Limited articulation;

7.

Flat or pitched roofs, frequently of corrugated or


standing seam metal;

8.

Double leafed or overhead doors at large openings;

9.

Double hung windows.

Phoenix

La Jolla

See the Tallahassee Land Development Regulations for the complete


standards for the above items.

Boston

In the ASN-B district, building height is


permitted up to four stories or 50 feet.
Above are four examples of mixed-use
development appropriate to the ASN-B
district, in massing, transparency, and other
elements that promote the intention for the
district.

Oakland CA

The ASN-B district is a transition between the low-intensity


scale of ASN-A and taller, more intense development in
the ASN-C and -D districts. Development in two districts
might be massed as in this example.
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7.

ASN-C
ASN-D

7. ASN-C and ASN-D

Corridor Mixed-use Districts

 e ASN-C and ASN-D Corridor Mixed-use Districts


h
are centered on the blocks of Gaines Street along the
north edge of the All Saints neighborhood. These
are intended to be the most densely and intensively
developed of the All Saints districts. The districts are
established for the purpose of creating a high-intensity
urban activity corridor, promoting redevelopment
in a balanced mix of uses at a greater intensity than
in the adjacent districts, while providing a distinct,
compatible edge for those neighborhoods. Regulations
and guidelines are designed to encourage pedestrianoriented development on these blocks, complementary
to and continuing the walkable urban character of
the UV district to the west. In the ASN-C, -D, and
UV districts, Gaines Street is envisioned as a primary
local destination for living, working, shopping, and
entertainment.
The ASN-C Corridor Mixed-use District includes the
south side of West Gaines Street between Railroad

Gaines Street in the ASN-C and -D districts,


from the Gaines Street Report.

Today Gaines Street in the ASN-C and -D


districts is lined with single-story shopfront
buildings and automotive businesses.

ASN-C
ASN-D
The All Saints
Neighborhood
(ASN) districts
The purpose of this
map is to locate the
ASN-C and ASN-D
districts in the context
of the city and other
design review districts.
Refer to official zoning maps for specific
parcel zoning.

NORTH

Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

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ASN-C
ASN-D

Avenue and S. Martin Luther King, Jr. Boulevard, and


the east side of Railroad Avenue between the CSX tracks
and West Gaines Street.
ASN-D, Corridor Mixed-use District includes the north
side of W. Gaines Street between Railroad Avenue and S.
Boulevard Street, and the east side of Railroad Avenue
between W. Gaines Street and W. Madison Street.
ASN-C and ASN-D share regulations and guidelines,
and primarily differ in allowable height: five stories/75
in ASN-C, and seven stories/100 in ASN-D. Because
Gaines Street passes through all three districts, ASN-C
and -D districts share guidelines with the UV University
Urban Village District.
Guidelines
Commercial uses and/or personal services are required

on the ground floor of a vertical mixed-use project.

In a vertical mixed-use project, residential uses are

prohibited from being located on a floor below a


commercial use, with the exception of lobbies and
ground floor common circulation areas.

LDR Standards
10-283(c)(6) Preservation of historic landscape features. Landscape

features identified as character defining features of the All Saints


districts, including existing historic structures, rubble retaining walls,
patriarch trees, and historic parks, shall be preserved.

10-286 and 10-287.(b)(1)a. On corner lots, new buildings shall be oriented

Addison TX

Use facade modules with an emphasis on


vertical proportions to break up continuous
building frontages.

toward the street(s) and shall consider and complement the pattern
of existing adjoining development, with the primary facade(s) of the
building facing the front lot line or the street side lot line.

10-286 and 10-287(b)(1)d. Design features for new buildings.


1.

Facade modules with an emphasis on vertical


proportions shall be employed to break up
continuous building frontages. Facade modules
shall be no less than twenty (20) feet and no more
than thirty-five (35) feet in width.

2.

Articulation of building facades should establish


a rhythm of vertical modules unified by a
complementary rhythm of upper floor windows.
Upper floor windows of adjacent buildings need not
be identical in design or spacing.

3.

With the exception of single-use residential uses, all


building design shall incorporate weather protection
such as arcades, awnings, or canopies at the
ground level. Such elements shall be optional for
single-use residential uses. Where an arcade is
structurally integrated into the facade, the upper
floors of the building may be either flush with the
setback or be stepped back to a maximum setback
of ten (10) feet from the face of the arcade.

4.

Above the second floor, building masses shall


be broken up and modulated, in keeping with a
buildings style, to reflect the scale of adjacent
structures and avoid overwhelming them.

Pasadena CA

Above the second floor, building masses


should be broken up and modulated, to
reflect the scale of adjacent structures and
avoid overwhelming them.

10-286 and 10-287(b)(1)e.9. Design features for parking structures. Ground


floor ceiling height for retail commercial uses in parking structures with

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7.

ASN-C
ASN-D

ASN-C and ASN-D


Gaines Street or Railroad Avenue frontage shall be twelve (12) feet.

10-286 and10-287(b)(1)g. Design and materials strongly encouraged.


1.

Masonry exterior finishes.

2.

Masonry segmental arched openings, as seen


on the Macomb Street side of the Wahnish Cigar
Factory Ground floors that can be opened to the
street.

3.

Balconies, galleries, verandahs, and roof decks.

4.

Arcades.

5.

Clocks.

6.

Double hung or casement windows with vertical


proportions.;

7.

Transom windows at store fronts;

8.

Outdoor dining;

9.

Buildings built to the front property line or with


minimal setbacks;

10.

Compatible contemporary design.

10-286 and 10-287(b)(1)h. Design and materials strongly discouraged.


1.

Fixed windows, except at storefronts.

Architectural detail, masonry finishes and


segmental arches are strongly encouraged.

10-286 and 10-287(b)(1)i. Prohibited design and materials.


1.

Exterior insulation and finish systems (EIFS) at the


first floor level.

Adams-Morgan, Washington DC

Landscaped pedestrian passageways,


transom windows, outdoor dining, and
ground floors that open to the street are
strongly encouraged.
Santa Barbara CA

10-286 and 10-287(b)(1)k. Building design guidelines. Publicly

accessible pedestrian passageways from the street to and through the


interior of the block are encouraged to separate pedestrians from traffic
and provide pedestrian access from parking lots at the rear of buildings
to the street. Passageways shall be a minimum of eight (8) feet wide
and a minimum of twelve (12) feet high. Upper floors are encouraged
to continue over the passageway. Pedestrian passageways shall be
designed to preclude normal vehicular access and preferably be separate
from other emergency vehicle access ways to the interior of the block.

See the Tallahassee Land Development Regulations for the complete


standards for the above items.
Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

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UNIVERSITY URBAN V I L L A G E

8.

UV

8. UV University Urban Village

 e UV University Urban Village District centers


h
on W. Gaines Street between Railroad Avenue and
Lake Bradford Road. This district is established
for the purpose of creating a high intensity urban
activity corridor. The area is envisioned as a primary
local destination for living, working, shopping, and
entertainment. Interesting shop fronts, outdoor dining,
and opportunities for people watching are vital to the
intended street character. The primary intent of this
district is to promote redevelopment in a balanced mix
of residential and commercial uses at a greater intensity
than in the adjacent districts and in attached buildings,
with a new, dynamic, and very urban character. The
regulations are designed to encourage a pedestrian
orientation.

Gaines Street looking west, UV district.

The residential density shall not be less than 16


dwelling units per acre and shall not exceed 100
dwelling units per gross acre. The minimum building
height is two stories. The maximum height varies
depending on geographic location in the district.
Bethesda MD

Gaines Street in the UV district will be an 18hour neighborhood of residences, shopping,


dining, and entertainment.

UV

University Urban Village district


The purpose of this map is to locate the UV district in the context of the city
and other design review districts. Refer to official zoning maps for specific
parcel zoning.

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GUIDELINES

UNIVERSITY URBAN V I L L A G E

8.

8.

UV

UV University Urban Village

Guidelines
Commercial uses and/or personal services are required

on the ground floor of a vertical mixed-use project.

In a vertical mixed-use project, residential uses are

prohibited from being located on a floor below a


commercial use, with the exception of lobbies and
ground floor common circulation areas.

LDR Standards
10-288.(b)(1)a. On corner lots, new buildings shall be oriented toward

the street(s) and shall consider and complement the pattern of existing
adjoining development, with the primary facade(s) of the building facing
the front lot line or the street side lot line. Corner locations shall be
considered opportunities for distinctive architecture.

Madison St, UV district

Madison Streets industrial buildings


generally are newer and of less substantial
construction than those on Gaines Street.

10-288.(b)(1)d. Design features for new buildings.


1.

All glazing shall be of a type that permits view


of human activities and spaces within. Facade
modules with an emphasis on vertical proportions
shall be employed to break up continuous building
frontages.

2.

Facade modules shall be no less than 20 feet and


no more than 35 feet in width.

3.

Articulation of building facades should establish


a rhythm of vertical modules unified by a
complementary rhythm of upper floor windows.
Upper floor windows of adjacent buildings need not
be identical in design or spacing.

4.

Commercial buildings and buildings with ground


floor commercial uses shall have minimum 12 feet
high ceiling on the ground floor.

5.

Colonnades and arcades.

a. Where a colonnade or arcade is structurally

integrated into the facade, the upper floors of the


building may be either flush with the setback or be
stepped back to a maximum setback of 12 feet from
the face of the colonnade or arcade.

b. Colonnades and arcades shall be 12-foot minimum

Articulation of building facades should


establish a rhythm of vertical modules
unified by a complementary rhythm of upper
floor windows. Upper floor windows of
adjacent buildings need not be identical in
design or spacing.

depth. Depth shall not exceed height of openings


to the street. Design standards for transparency
established for other storefronts shall apply to
interior walls of colonnades and arcades.

c. The spacing of columns or piers of a colonnade

or arcade, measured from the center line of the


columns or piers, shall not be greater than the
height of the colonnade or arcade. The height of the
colonnade or arcade shall be the vertical distance
measured from the finished floor to the ceiling of
the colonnade or arcade.

10-288.(b)(1)f. Energy conservation. Building design shall use energy

conservation measures including but not limited to self-shading, natural


lighting, natural ventilation, outdoor circulation, and reduced dependence
on artificial lighting and air conditioning.

10-288.(b)(1)h. Design and materials strongly encouraged.


1.

Masonry exterior finishes.

2.

Ground floor uses open to the street.

Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

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San Jose CA

Publicly accessible pedestrian passageways


from the street to and through the interior
of the block are encouraged to separate
pedestrians from traffic and provide
pedestrian access from parking lots at the
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UNIVERSITY URBAN V I L L A G E

8.

3.

Balconies, galleries, verandahs, and roof decks.

4.

Arcades continuous between buildings and along


block faces.

5.

Clocks.

6.

Double hung or casement windows with vertical


proportions.

7.

Transom windows at store fronts.

8.

Outdoor dining.

9.

Compatible contemporary design.

10.

UV

Porches, balconies, breezeways, pergolas, deep


eaves, and other elements promoting shading.

10-288.(b)(1)i. Design and materials strongly discouraged.


1.

Fixed windows, except at storefronts.

10-288.(b)(1)j. Prohibited design and materials.


1.

Exterior insulation and finish systems (EIFS) at the


first floor level.

2.

Mirror-type glazing.

10-288.(b)(1)l. Design guidelines. Publicly accessible pedestrian

passageways from the street to and through the interior of the block
are encouraged to separate pedestrians from traffic and provide
pedestrian access from parking lots at the rear of buildings to the
street. Passageways shall be a minimum of eight feet wide and a
minimum of 12 feet high. Upper floors are encouraged to continue
over the passageway. Pedestrian passageways shall be designed to
preclude normal vehicular access and preferably be separate from other
emergency vehicle access ways to the interior of the block.

Mixed-use development, Oak Park IL. Public


parking over ground floor commercial space.
A health club is located on the roof of the
garage.

10-288(b)(1)e. Design features for parking structures.


1.

Accessory parking structures shall be located to the


rear of the building and accessed from the rear of
the lot, where possible.

2.

The ground floor of a parking structure that is the


principal use on a site shall be occupied by retail or
service uses.

3.

Design standards for parking structures shall also


apply to parking located on the ground floor of a
building.

4.

Maximum building height for the district is


applicable to the parking structure.

5.

All exterior facades of parking structures shall


comply with design standards for massing,
and density, facade articulation, and materials
established for other building types.

6.

The size and proportions of openings in parking


structures shall be compatible with neighboring
buildings. Openings in parking structures shall
be screened so that no cars, headlights, or light
fixtures are visible from the surrounding streets and
uses. Glazing, perforated metal panels, applied
surface elements, landscaping or combinations of
these materials and materials from the first floor
and adjacent buildings may be used on the facade
to screen openings.

7.

Pedestrian entrances to parking structures shall be


adjacent to vehicle entrances.

8.

Driveway and pedestrian entries of parking


structures shall be integrated with the ground level
facade.
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Side street access to parking garage, Oak


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UNIVERSITY URBAN V I L L A G E

8.

8.

UV

UV University Urban Village


9.

Ground floor ceiling height for retail commercial


uses in parking structures shall be minimum 12 feet.

10-288(b)(1)f. Energy conservation. Building design shall use energy

conservation measures including but not limited to self-shading, natural


lighting, natural ventilation, outdoor circulation, and reduced dependence on
artificial lighting and air conditioning.

10-288(b)(1)g. Functional balconies. Balconies must be usable and


accessible through operable, full height doors.

10-288(b)(1)h. Design and materials strongly encouraged.


1.

Masonry exterior finishes.

2.

Ground floor uses open to the street.

3.

Balconies, galleries, verandahs, and roof decks.

4.

Arcades continuous between buildings and along


block faces.

5.

Clocks.

6.

Double hung or casement windows with vertical


proportions.

7.

Transom windows at store fronts.

8.

Outdoor dining.

9.

Compatible contemporary design.

10.

Transom windows at store fronts are


strongly encouraged. Recessed entries are
permitted.

Porches, balconies, breezeways, pergolas, deep


eaves, and other elements promoting shading.

10-288(b)(1)i. Design and materials strongly discouraged.


1.

Fixed windows, except at storefronts.

Cobb County GA

10-288(b)(1)j. Prohibited design and materials.


1.

Exterior insulation and finish systems (EIFS) at the


first floor level.

2.

Mirror-type glazing.

10-288(b)(1)k. Mixed-use development. A mix of uses within a single project


or structure is preferred in this district. The following design features are
required for vertical mixed-use projects, in which different uses are located
on different floors of a single structure:

1.

2.

Commercial uses and/or personal services are


required on the ground floor of a vertical mixeduse project. Residential uses are prohibited from
being located on a floor below a commercial use
in a vertical mixed-use project with the exception
of lobbies and common circulation areas, which
may be located on the ground floor. The intensity
of the uses should decrease as the floors go up.
For example, if a three-story mixed use structure
includes retail, office, and residential uses, the retail
use should occupy the ground floor, the office use
the second floor, and the residential use the top
floor.

Albuquerque NM

Residential uses that are part of a vertical mixeduse project shall be permitted as-of-right, provided
the project otherwise meets the conditions of
subsection 1., above.

10-288(b)(2)a. Site and building access. Driveway access to a site

shall be shared with adjacent properties. Driveway access shall be


located to the rear or side corner of the site except where a parcel has
no other access option. Driveways to serve parking configurations are
encouraged to be located internal to the site. Service areas associated

Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

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Bellevue WA

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UNIVERSITY URBAN V I L L A G E

8.

UV

with multiple family dwellings shall be accessed from the rear of the
site, wherever feasible.

10-288(b)(2)b. Specific limitations:


1.

Drive-in or drive through facilities. No drive-in or


drive-through facilities are permitted in this district.

10-288(b)(2)c.

Parking. All uses in the UV University Urban Village


design review district are required to comply with the on-site parking
ratios listed in schedule B. of section 10-358. On-site parking shall not
exceed 100 percent of the ratios listed in schedule B in section 10-358.

10-288(b)(3) Height. Height is permissible up to 100 feet for properties


located east of Gay Street and up to 75 feet for properties located west
of Gay Street. The height for a portion of the properties in this district
is indicated on the zoning atlas downtown area height overlay map
DT-2. The height for all properties in the district is in the dimensional
requirements chart following the list of permitted uses. Buildings are
limited to a maximum of seven stories.

See the Tallahassee Land Development Regulations for the complete


standards for the above items.

97

URBAN

DESIGN

GUIDELINES

RESOURCES
City of Tallahassee
http://www.talgov.com/index.cfm
(850) 891-0000
City Hall
300 South Adams Street
Tallahassee FL 32301

Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department


http://www.talgov.com/planning/
(850) 891-6400

fax (850) 891-6404

City Hall

Comprehensive Planning Division


Gaines Street Revitalization Plan Final Report
Land Development Regulations (Municode)
Publications and Maps
Urban Design Commission
Zoning and Rezoning
Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department
Frenchtown Renaissance Center
435 North Macomb Street
Tallahassee FL 32301
Mailing address:
300 South Adams Street
Tallahassee FL 32301

Growth Management Department


http://www.talgov.com/growth/
(850)891-7001
Growth Management
Frenchtown Renaissance Center
435 North Macomb Street
Tallahassee, FL 32301

Economic & Community Development Department


http://www.talgov.com/economic/
(850) 891-6500
Economic & Community Development Department
435 North Macomb Street
Tallahassee, FL 32301

Community Redevelopment Agency


http://www.talgov.com/economic/cra.cfm
(850)891-8685
Community Redevelopment
300 South Adams Street
Tallahassee FL 32301
Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

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D I S T R I C T S

RESOURCES
Tallahassee-Leon County GIS
www.tlcgis.com
(850) 606-5504

fax (850) 606-5501

TLCGIS is the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) program for the City of
Tallahassee, the Leon County Board of County Commissioners, and the Leon County
Property Appraisers Office, and the source for information about the GIS program,
available map data and map products, and Internet Mapping applications.
Tallahassee-Leon County GIS
Leon County Courthouse, P3 Level
301 South Monroe Street
Tallahassee FL 32301

READINGS
Alexander, Christopher, et al, A Pattern Language, Oxford
University Press, 1977.
American Planning Association, Frederick R. Steiner, Kent
Butler, Planning and Urban Design Standards (Ramsey/Sleeper
Architectural Graphic Standards Series), Wiley, 2006.
Bacon, Edmund N., Design of Cities, Penguin, 1976.
Barnett, Jonathan, Redesigning Cities, American Planning
Association, 2003.Benedikt, Michael, For an Architecture of
Reality, Lumen Books, 1992.
Bohl, Charles C., Place Making: Developing Town Centers, Main Streets
and Urban Villages, Urban Land Institute, 2002.
Buchwald, Emilie, ed. Toward the Livable City, Milkweed Editions, 2003.
Campoli, Julie and Alex MacLean, Visualizing Density: A Catalog
Illustrating the Density of Residential Neighborhoods, Lincoln
Institute of Land Policy, 2002.
Crowe, Timothy, Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design,
Second Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2006.
De Botton, Alain. The Architecture of Happiness, Pantheon, 2006.
Duany, Andres, Elizabeth Plater-Zybeck and Robert Alminana,
eds., The New Civic Art: Elements of Town Planning, Rizzoli, 2003.
Florida, Richard. The Rise of the Creative Class: And How Its
Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life, Basic
Books, 2003.
Frederick, Matthew. 101 Things I Learned in Architecture School, MIT
Press, 2007.
Gindroz, Ray, Karen Levine, and Urban Design Associates. The
Urban Design Handbook: Techniques and Working Methods,
Norton, 2003.
Hale, Jonathan. The Old Way of Seeing: How Architecture Lost Its
Magic - And How to Get It Back, Houghton Mifflin, 1995.
Haughey, Richard. Getting Density Right: Tools for Creating Vibrant
Compact Development, Urban Land Institute, 2008.
Hegemann, Werner, and Elbert Peets, American Vitruvius (reprint),
Princeton Architectural Press, 1996.
99

URBAN

DESIGN

GUIDELINES

RESOURCES
Heschong, Lisa, Thermal Delight in Architecture, MIT Press, 1979.
Jacobs, Allan B. Great Streets, MIT Press, 1995.
Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Modern
Library, 1993.
Leinberger, Christopher B. The Option of Urbanism: Investing in a
New American Dream, Island Press, 2007.
. Turning Around Downtown: Twelve Steps to Revitalization, The
Brookings Institution Metropolitan Policy Program, 2005.

http://www.brookings.edu/metro/pubs/20050307_12steps.pdf
Litman, Todd Alexander. Economic Value of Walkability, Victoria
(BC) Transport Policy Institute, Canada, 2007.

www.vtpi.org/walkability.pdf

Lynch, Kevin. The Image of the City, MIT Press, 1960.


Marshall, Alex. How Cities Work, Texas, 2000.
Oldenburg, Ray. The Great Good Place: Cafes, Coffee Shops, Bookstores,
Bars, Hair Salons, and Other Hangouts at the Heart of a Community,
Da Capo Press, 1999.
Paumier, Cyril B. Creating A Vibrant City Center: Urban Design and
Regeneration Principles, Urban Land Institute, 2004.
Steuteville, Robert, and Philip Langdon, et al. New Urbanism:
Comprehensive Report & Best Practices Guide, Third Edition, New
Urban News, 2003.
Russell, James S., editor. The Mayors Institute: Excellence in City
Design, Princeton Architectural Press, 2002.
Rybczynski, Witold. City Life, Scribner, 1996.
Steuteville, Robert, Philip Langdon and contributors, New Urbanism:
Comprehensive Report & Best Practices Guide, New Urban News,
2003.
Sucher, David. City Comforts: How to Build an Urban Village, City
Comforts, Inc., 2003.
Whyte, William H. City: Rediscovering the Center, Anchor Books,
1988.
. The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces, Project for Public Spaces
Inc., 2001.
Useful web site s
click on the blue links

Tallahassee sites
Blueprint 2000 is an intergovernmental agency whose mission is to
preserve, protect, and enhance the communitys quality of life
through holistic and coordinated planning projects, including
the Cascades Greenway and Cascades Park.
http://www.blueprint2000.org/index.html

COCA, Council on Culture & Arts for Tallahassee/Leon County,


works on behalf of the community to support a vibrant
quality of life in Leon County.
http://www.cocanet.org/
Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

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RESOURCES
Get Gaines Going supports ongoing efforts to revitalize and
develop the Gaines Street corridor. The team recognizes the
need to create an enhanced quality of place, and believes
Gaines Street development will add authenticity and vibrancy
to our region.

http://kccitallahassee.wordpress.com/initiatives/get-gaines-going/

Municode.com for Tallahassee Land Development Regulations


http://www.municode.com/resources/gateway.
asp?pid=19980&sid=9

Railroad Square Art Park, located in the Gaines Street Study Area,
is the center of Tallahassees Arts District and the location of
more than 50 studios, galleries and small shops.
http://www.railroadsquare.com/

The Tallahassee/Leon County Multimodal Transportation


District Plan promotes the use of multiple modes of
transportation, to lead to a reduction in automobile use and
vehicle miles traveled, recognizing that mixed uses and welldesigned buildings and public places are just as important as
providing transit, bike paths, and sidewalks.

http://www.talgov.com/planning/trans/trans.cfm

Tallahassee Trust for Historic Preservation is dedicated to


advancing historic preservation in this community and the
surrounding areas.
http://www.taltrust.org/

Other useful sites


CarSharing.net is a non-profit educational and promotional site,
supporting the Car Sharing Industry in North America.
http://www.carsharing.net/

City Comforts, author David Suchers blog. Brilliance invents.


Genius copies.
http://citycomfortsblog.typepad.com/

Complete Streets are designed and operated to enable safe access


for all users. Pedestrians, bicyclists, motorists and bus riders
of all ages and abilities are able to safely move along and
across a complete street.

http://www.completestreets.org/
Congress for the New Urbanism provides a variety of information
on innovative urban design.
http://www.cnu.org/

CreativeClass.com, founded on the theories of author Richard


Florida, is a source for contemporary thought on cities, work,
life, and play.
http://creativeclass.com/

dwell.com covers modern residential architecture and design.


http://www.dwell.com/

Florida State Archives, Florida Photographic Collection


includes over 150,000 digitized photographs from the
history of Floridas and its cities.
http://www.floridamemory.com/PhotographicCollection/

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GUIDELINES

RESOURCES
Great Streets provides information on urban design issues and
promotes respect for local communities and traditions in
how streets are planned, built and maintained.
http://www.greatstreets.org/

greenroofs.com is the international green roof industrys resource


and online information portal.
http://www.greenroofs.com/

iBike.org provides information on community bike, earn-abike, free bike, bike library, bike sharing and other forms of
cooperative bicycle programs.
http://www.ibike.org/encouragement/freebike/index.htm

International CPTED Association (ICA) seeks to create safer


environments and improve the quality of life through the use
of CPTED (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design)
principles and strategies.
http://www.cpted.net/

The Mayors Institute on City Design The Mayors Institute


on City Design (MICD) is a partnership program of the
National Endowment for the Arts, the American Architectural
Foundation, and the United States Conference of Mayors.
Since 1986, the Mayors Institute has helped transform
communities through design by preparing mayors to be the
chief urban designers of their cities.

http://www.micd.org/
National Park Service, Secretary of the Interiors Standards for
Rehabilitation, Illustrated Guidelines, provides information
useful for rehabilitating and caring for existing buildings,
regardless of historical significance.
http://www.nps.gov/hps/tps/tax/rhb/index.htm

New Colonist, a web magazine about urban living, provides


information on New Urbanist and Smart Growth issues.
http://www.newcolonist.com/vox/vox.html

Next American City is dedicated to promoting socially and


environmentally sustainable economic growth in Americas
cities and examining how and why our built environment,
economy, society and culture are changing.
http://americancity.org/

Partnership for a Walkable America (PWA) is a national coalition


working to improve the conditions for walking in America and
to increase the number of Americans who walk regularly.
http://www.walkableamerica.org/

Places, Forum of Design for the Public Realm is a peer reviewed


journal that incorporates writings from a variety of fields in
design, the arts and social sciences.
http://www.places-journal.org/

Project for Public Spaces (PPS) works to create and sustain


public places that build communities. It provides a variety of
resources for developing more livable communities.
http://www.pps.org/

The Smart Growth Network includes planners, officials, lenders,


Tallahassee-Leon County Planning Department

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developers, architects, environmentalists and activists.


http://www.smartgrowth.org

Urban Land Institute (ULI) is a professional organization for


developers that provides practical information on innovative
development practices, including infill and sustainable
community planning.
http://www.uli.org/

U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) is a community of leaders


working to make green buildings available to everyone.
http://www.usgbc.org/

The Victoria Transport Policy Institute is an independent


research organization dedicated to developing innovative and
practical solutions to transportation problems.
http://www.vtpi.org/

Walkable Communities was organized in the state of Florida for


the express purpose of helping communities become more
walkable and pedestrian friendly.
http://www.walkable.org/

The Walkable Urbanism Series is a compilation of Brookings


Institution Metropolitan Policy Program speeches
and reports on the development approach that creates
pedestrian-oriented, mixed-use and mixed-income places.
http://www.brookings.edu/sitecore/content/Taxonomy/Topics/w/
walkable-urbanism.aspx