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River: river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater,

flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some

cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of
its course without reaching another body of water. [1]

Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle.


Where do rivers begin?

Rivers begin at their source in higher ground such as mountains
or hills, where rain water or melting snow collects and forms tiny
streams. [2]

How are rivers formed?

When one stream meets another and they merge together, the
smaller stream is known as a tributary. It takes many tributary
streams to form a river. [2]

Where do rivers end?

The great majority of rivers eventually flow into a larger body of
water, like an ocean, sea, or large lake. The end of the river is
called the mouth. [2]

Water generally collects in a river from:


precipitation and surface runoff

groundwater recharge
And release of stored water in natural ice (e.g. from glaciers)

Meanders may form through erosion of the river banks and
deposition on the inside of bends. [1]

Formation of an ox-bow lake:-

Map of major rivers flow in the Turkey:

Map of major rivers flow in the Iraq:

River Cross-section with Velocity Points

How to calculate discharge of rivers:


Once you have calculated discharge (Q) for

one segment, then you sum all the segments
together to get total discharge.
Qtotal = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 + . + Qn

Example Field Data


Concentration and velocity curve against of

bed slope of river:

What are three forces that can carry


Wind, water, and gravity:

Wind- Picks up sediment and blows it to another place.

Water, Carries sediment with flowing water (I.e. runoff).
Gravity- Making sediments fall down (I.e. landslides).

Sediment and Suspended Sediment


Storms, of course, deliver large amounts of water to a river, but

did you know they also bring along lots of eroded soil and debris
from the surrounding landscape? Rocks as small as tiny clay
particles and as large as boulders moved by the water are called
sediment. Fast-moving water can pick up, suspend, and move
larger particles more easily than slow-moving waters.

If proper sediment-trapping systems were not used, then rainfall

runoff could wash large amounts of sediment into the tributary,
where it eventually will flow into the main stream.

Q/ what is solution for sediment and Suspended Sediment

at preventing it to reach to the stream?
Ans. / We should have Sediment-trapping systems and
preventing erosion.

1-Sediment-trapping systems

Sediment Basin


b.Sediment trap


Preventing erosion


Sediment can be classified based on its grain

size and/or its composition



Turbidity is the cloudiness of water and is the result of suspended

material in the

What factors influence the turbidity of water?


1. Turbidity is the result of suspended solids in the water that

range from clay, silt, and plankton, to industrial wastes and
sewage. The lower the turbidity, the clearer the water is.
2. High turbidity may be caused by soil erosion, waste discharge,
urban runoff, flooding, dredging operations, channelization, and
increased flow rates.

Effects of Turbidity


High levels of turbidity have a two-fold effect on water:a) It loses its ability to support a large variety and number of
aquatic organisms.
Where there is less light penetrating the water, there will be less
Photosynthesis occurring and this reduces the level of oxygen in
the water.
b) The water becomes warmer because any suspended material
absorbs heat
From the sun. This also decreases the amount of oxygen dissolved
in water.

Measuring Turbidity


Turbidity is normally measured by an instrument called a

Nephelometer. This
Instrument determines the scattering of light and is measured in
Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU). Normal levels of turbidity
can vary from less than 1 in clear pristine streams to very much
greater than 200 NTU in murky rivers after flood events.
Nephelometer: an instrument for measuring the size and concentration of
particles suspended in a liquid, especially by means of the light they scatter.

Test for measuring the turbidity of water:


Turbidity Tube Test



Hach 2100P Turbidity Meter Test

Simple evaluation of (NTU) of water:



if NTU < 1


if NTU is between (1-5)


if NTU > 5

When NTU is between (0.05 1) the water is Potable


Determining turbidity (rate of sedimentation) of

water is very important because of portable water
and design of dam.