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8.012 Physics I: Classical Mechanics


Fall 2008

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


Department of Physics

Physics 8.012

Fall 2008

Exam 1

NAME: _____________SOLUTIONS _ _ _ __________________

Instructions:
1. Do all FIVE (5) problems. You have 90 minutes.
2. SHOW ALL WORK. Be sure to circle your final answer.
3. Read the questions carefully.
4. All work must be done in this booklet in workspace provided. Extra
blank pages are provided at the end if needed.
5. NO books, notes, calculators or computers are permitted. A sheet of
useful equations is provided on the last page.

Your Scores
Problem Maximum Score Grader
1

10

30

20

20

20

Total

100

8.012 Fall 2008

Quiz 1

Problem 1: Quick Multiple Choice Questions [10 pts]


For each of the following questions circle the correct answer. You do not need to
show any work.
(a) Which of the following is not a valid force law?

where b has units of


Newtons

where G is the
gravitational
force constant

where b has units of


kg

where b has
units of
radians

Both of these solutions are right, the first because it doesnt satisfy Newtons 3rd
Law (switch 1 and 2 and you dont get equal and opposite), the second because of
units

(b) A tire rolls on a flat surface with constant


angular velocity and velocity as shown in the
diagram to the right. If V > R, in which direction
does friction from the road act on the tire?

Toward the left

Toward the right

Friction does not act


on the tire

The intention was to have friction spinning the wheel up, but because of the word
constant in the question, we deemed this question to ambiguous so it wasnt
counted in the final score

Page 2 of 15

8.012 Fall 2008

Quiz 1

(c) You pull a brick of mass M sitting on

a flat table using a thick rope of mass m.

Friction between the surface of the table

and the brick is sufficient so that the brick

remains at rest. Compared to the force with which you pull on one end of the rope,

the force that the other end of the rope exerts on the brick is:

Less

Greater

The same

Zero

There is no net force on the rope (or block), so there cannot be a difference in
tension along the rope. Hence the forces are the same at both ends.

(d) As a swinging pendulum passes through its lowest point, in which direction
does the total net force act?

Only in an
angular direction

Only in a radial
direction

In both angular There is zero net


and radial
force at the
directions
equilibrium point

Because the mass is moving in circular motion, there must be a radial force. At the
lowest point there are no net angular forces, however.

(e) A pendulum with mass M and length L is released as a small angle off of
vertical and oscillates with period P. If we double the mass and halve the length of
the pendulum then the new period is

Doubling the mass does not affect the period but decreasing the length decreases

the period, which is 2(l/g)^0.5

Page 3 of 15

8.012 Fall 2008

Quiz 1

Problem 2: The Accelerated Atwood Machine [30 pts]

Two blocks of masses M1 and M2 (M2 > M1) are stacked on top of each other and
start at rest on the surface of a frictionless table. The masses are connected via an
ideal pulley (massless string and nearly massless pulley wheel), and the coefficient
of static friction (assumed equal to the coefficient of kinetic friction) between the
block surfaces is S. The pulley is accelerated to the right by a force , resulting
in an acceleration of the pulley wheel of . Assume that gravity acts with
constant acceleration g downward.
(a) [5 pts] Draw force diagrams for each of the blocks and the pulley wheel, clearly
indicating all horizontal and vertical forces acting on them.
(b) [5 pts] If the blocks do not slip relative to each other, what are their
accelerations?
(c) [10 pts] Assume that the blocks do slip relative to each other. Determine each
blocks horizontal acceleration as a function of the parameters specified above
(i.e., M1, M2, S, g, a and F). Which block has a higher acceleration? Be sure to
work in an inertial reference frame!
(d) [10 pts] What is the minimum force F required to cause one block to slip
relative to the other? Assume that the mass of the pulley is negligible compared to
those of the blocks.

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8.012 Fall 2008

Quiz 1

(a) The force diagrams are as shown below note that the weight of the pulley is
specifically excluded here and the string tension assumed to be constant because
the string is massless (no points were taken off for not assuming these things).
Common errors were not matching up force pairs; i.e., Ff (crucial!) and N1

Note that the direction of the friction force takes some thought, but can be
determined if one considers the problem without friction. In that case the smaller
mass M1 would move to the right faster (same tension force but smaller mass);
hence, friction acts to stop that relative motion by acting toward the left on M1.
Newtons 3rd law then states that the same friction force acts toward the right on
M2.
(b) If the blocks do not slip, then their accelerations are exactly equal to that of the
pulley, a. This can be shown formally through the constraint equation:

and the condition

Because F is also specified, one can also determine solve for the equations of
motion assuming that the two accelerations are the same and equally determine:

Page 5 of 15

8.012 Fall 2008

Quiz 1

although care must be taken here since S.

(c) Based on the force diagram above, the equations of motion are:

Because the pulley is effectively massless, MPaP 0 and hence F = 2T. This alone
provides expressions for the two pulleys:

We can also solve for the rope tension using the constrain equation:

substituting back in one can derive

note that

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8.012 Fall 2008

Quiz 1

A third pair of valid expressions (in terms of F and a) are

again note that

(d) There are number of ways to consider this problem, but the most obvious is to
consider the point at which
(prior the slipping both masses are
accelerating with a). This yields any of the following conditions based on the
answers to part (c):

Page 7 of 15

8.012 Fall 2008

Quiz 1

Problem 3: Hanging Rope [20 pts]

Consider a rope of total mass M and length L suspended at rest from a fixed
mount. The rope has a linear mass density that varies with height as (z) =
0sin(z/L) where 0 is a constant. Constant gravitational acceleration g acts
downward.
(a) [5 pts] Determine the constant 0.
(b) [5 pts] What is the tension force at the free (bottom) end of the rope?
(c) [10 pts] Calculate the tension along the rope as a function of distance z below
the mount.

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8.012 Fall 2008

Quiz 1

(a) The constant can be found by noting that the integral of the linear density over
the length of the rope should equal the mass; i.e.,

(b) Because there is nothing hanging from the bottom end, the tension force is
simply 0.

(c) There are two ways of determining this. First, you can consider that the tension
at any height z is simply that required to hold up the mass below z; i.e.,

Alternately, one can set up a differential equation at any height z requiring that the
difference in tensions must support the differential mass at that point (note that z
increases downward); i.e.,

which reduces to the same result. Note that here we have used the result from (b)
that T(L) = 0.

Page 9 of 15

8.012 Fall 2008

Quiz 1

Problem 4: Dont Slip! [20 pts]

M
r

An 8.012 student of mass M stands on a rigid disk at a distance r from the center
axis. Assume that the coefficient of friction between the students shoes and the
disk surface is . At time t = 0, the disk begins to rotate with a constant angular
acceleration rate
. Assume that gravity acts with constant acceleration g
downward.
(a) [5 pts] What is the maximum value of angular acceleration rate (max) such that
the student does not immediately slip?
(b) [10 pts] Assuming that < max, what is the total friction force acting on the
student as a function of time (prior to slipping)? Write your answer as a vector in
polar coordinates.
(c) [5 pts] Assuming that < max, how long after the disk starts rotating will the
student slip?

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8.012 Fall 2008

Quiz 1

(a) Recall that the force acting on the student in polar coordinates is expressed as:

at t=0,

, so the force expression reduces to:

we want the case where the student doesnt slip, so

(b) Now we have to explicitly consider the angular rate as a function of time,
although note that the radius does not change so
while
. Then

(c) Again we want to satisfy the condition:

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8.012 Fall 2008

Quiz 1

Problem 5: Will the LHC Destroy the World? [20 pts]


There has been some speculation that the Large Hadron Collider (or LHC), a
particle accelerator experiment that will smash protons together at incredible
energies, might create a small black hole that could devour the Earth. Lets
imagine that the LHC does create such a black hole of mass M (assume initially
than M << MEartg). Once it has formed (initially at rest), the black hole will
immediately fall under the influence of gravity toward the center of the Earth.
Assume for this problem that the Earth has a constant volume mass density , and
that the black hole doesnt eat that much of the Earth as it passes through it.
(a) [5 pts] Using dimensional analysis, come up with an order-of-magnitude
expression for the oscillation period of the black hole as it passes through the Earth
based on the relevant parameters of this problem.
(b) [10 pts] Now show that the black hole undergoes simple harmonic motion
(similar to spring motion) by determining its acceleration as a function of time, and
derive an expression for the oscillation period. How does this compare with your
answer in part (a)?
(c) [5 pts] The Earth does not have a constant mass density but rather gets denser
closer to its center. Assuming that it is still spherically symmetric, would this fact
cause the oscillation period of the black hole to be shorter or longer? Justify your
answer.
(d) [10 pts BONUS] Assume that the particle collision that creates the black hole
converts the equivalent of an entire years worth of global energy production
(about 5x1020 Newton-meters) into a single black hole at rest. Also, the radius of a
black hole is the distance at which the gravitational escape velocity exceeds the
speed of light. Based on these assumptions, use dimensional analysis to estimate
the mass and radius of the black hole to within an order of magnitude. Based on
these values, should we worry about an LHC black hole? Some important
numbers for this question are the gravitational constant, G 7x10-11 m3 kg-1s-2; the
speed of light, c 3x108 m/s; and, for comparison, the radius of a proton, rproton
10-15 m, and the radius of the Earth, REarth 6x106 m.

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8.012 Fall 2008

Quiz 1

(a) The important parameters are the mass of the Earth (ME ~ [M]), the radius of
the Earth (RE ~ [L]), the density of the Earth ( ~ [M/L3]) and the gravitational
constant (G ~ [L3T-2M-1]). Note that the mass of the black hole shouldnt matter
based on our knowledge of the gravitational force law (i.e., we are looking for an
aceeleration, which is independent of black hole mass). We are seeking a period ~
[T], and the combinations that work are:

However, and Me/Re3 are degenerate with each other, hence either expression is
viable.
(b) We want to compute the force on the black hole as a function of radius from the
center of the Earth using two important gravitational results: (1) the gravitational
force outside a spherical symmetric mass is equivalent to the force from a point
mass and (2) inside a spherically symmetric shell an object feels no net
gravitational force. Hence the black hole is only pulled in by the fraction of the
Earths mass that is interior to its radial position:

where

which has the form of a simple harmonic oscillator with period

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8.012 Fall 2008

Quiz 1

(c) The period will generally be shorter since the force (and hence acceleration) on
the black hole will be greater at a given radius as there is more total mass within
that radius. In the extreme case of a infinitesimal shell of mass the period can
become very long as the BH will experience no acceleration past the thin shell (and
that acceleration will be the same as the case of a constant density ball).
(d) For the black hole mass we can use Einsteins equation to relate energy to mass
(an approximation to be sure), so m E/c^2 5x1020 N-m/(9x1016 m2/s2) 5000
kg, or about 5 tons.
For the radius, the relevant quantities are the black hole mass ([M]), G ([L3T-2M-1])
and c ([L2/T2]), which can be combined as

to give a quantity that has dimension length. With the values given, this gives a
radius of roughly 5x10-24 m about 9 orders of magnitude smaller than a proton!
So I wont worry

Page 14 of 15

8.012 Fall 2008

Quiz 1

USEFUL EQUATIONS
Trajectory for constant acceleration

Velocity in polar coordinates

Acceleration in polar coordinates

Taylor expansion of function f(x):

Newtons Gravitational Law

Page 15 of 15

MIT OpenCourseWare
http://ocw.mit.edu

8.012 Physics I: Classical Mechanics


Fall 2008

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


Department of Physics

Physics 8.012

Fall 2008

Exam 2

NAME: ______________ _SOLUTIONS


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __________________
MIT ID number: __________________________________________________
Instructions:
1. Do all FIVE (5) problems. You have 90 minutes.
2. SHOW ALL WORK. Be sure to circle your final answer.
3. Read the questions carefully.
4. All work must be done in this booklet in workspace provided. Extra
blank pages are provided at the end if needed.
5. NO books, notes, calculators or computers are permitted. A sheet of
useful equations is provided on the last page.

Your Scores
Problem Maximum Score Grader
1

10

20

20

25

25

Total

100

8.012 Fall 2008

Quiz 2

Problem 1: Quick Multiple Choice Questions [10 pts]


For each of the following questions circle the correct answer. You do not need to
show any work.

(a) Which of the following is the result of an elastic


collision between the two isolated objects at right?

v/3

2m

2m

2v/3

2m

2m

v/2

2m

This can be verified by examining conservation of momentum and energy (since it


is an elastic collision).

(b) Which experiences the largest impulse?

Fully elastic
Fully inelastic
Fully elastic
These all have
collision of 10 kg collision of 20 kg collision of 20 kg
the same
ball dropped
ball dropped
ball dropped
impulse
from 10 m
from 10 m
from 5m
The first two choices experience the same impulse, which equals (1 or 2)
The 3rd option experiences the largest impulse by a factor of

Page 2 of 14

8.012 Fall 2008

Quiz 2

(c) A cart traveling at speed v on a frictionless track starts to leak sand. What is
the carts speed at a later time?

Greater than v

Less than v

Equal to v

The sand experiences no force from the cart as it leaves, so it applies no force on

the cart and cannot change the carts momentum.

!
(d) Consider the composite disk at right, with a main

section of mass density and radius d, and a

subsection of mass density 2 and radius d/2. If O

marks the origin of our coordinate system, at the

center of the composite disk, where is the disks

center of mass located?

2!
O

at O

d/2 to right of O d/6 to right of O d/10 to right of O

This can be determined using the center of mass formula, adding together the

centers of mass of two solid disks with density (superposition).

(e) A block connected to a fixed wall by a spring


oscillates back and forth on a frictionless surface.
When it reaches its maximum extent, a piece of clay
is dropped onto it and instantaneously sticks. Which
of the following is conserved in this collision?

XMAX
Horizontal
momentum

Total
mechanical
energy

Total mechanical
energy and horizontal
momentum

None of these

When the clay sticks, in comes to rest so its mechanical energy is not conserved.

However, the collision does not affect its horizonal momentum, which is 0, nor

that of the block.

Page 3 of 14

8.012 Fall 2008

Quiz 2

Problem 2: Collision [20 pts]

U
!

m
m

2m

2m

v
Two balls, one of mass m and one of mass 2m, approach from orthogonal
directions with identical speeds v and collide. After the collision, the more
massive ball moves with the same speed v but downward (orthogonal to its original
direction) and the less massive ball moves with speed U at an angle with respect
to horizontal. Assume that no external forces act during the collision.
(a) [10 pts] Calculate the final speed U of the less massive ball and the angle .
(b) [10 pts] Determine how much kinetic energy is lost or gained by the two balls
during the collision. Is this collision elastic, inelastic or superelastic?

Page 4 of 14

8.012 Fall 2008

Quiz 2

[SOLUTION]

(a) Momentum in both horizontal (x) and vertical (y) directions must be conserved,
hence:

so:

so

(b) The change in kinetic energy is just the change in the kinetic energy of the
small mass (since the big mass has the same KE before and after the collision):

the collision is superelastic.

Page 5 of 14

8.012 Fall 2008

Quiz 2

Problem 3: Cube on a Sphere [20 pts]

A small block starts from rest and slides down from the top of a fixed sphere of
radius R, where R >> size of the block. The surface of the sphere is frictionless and
constant gravitational acceleration g acts downward.
(a) [10 pts] Determine the speed of the block as a function of angle from the top
while it remains in contact with the sphere.
(b) [10 pts] At what angle does the block lose contact with the sphere?

Page 6 of 14

8.012 Fall 2008

Quiz 2

[SOLUTION]

(a) Only conservative forces are present, so total mechanical energy is conserved.
Hence the KE of the block comes simply from extracting gravitational potential
energy:

(b) The block loses contact when the normal force


acting on it disappears. Using polar coordinates and
the force diagram at right, we can write down the radial
equation of motion:

Page 7 of 14

8.012 Fall 2008

Quiz 2

Problem 4: Tabletop Rocket [25 pts]

M0/2

M0/2

vex

A rocket of total mass M0, half of which is fuel, starts at rest on a long horizontal
table. The coefficient of friction between the rocket and table surfaces is . At
time t = 0, the rocket is ignited, ejecting fuel out at a constant rate = |dM/dt| with
velocity vex relative to the rocket. Constant gravitational acceleration g acts
downward.
(a) [10 pts] What condition must be met for the rocket to start moving at t = 0?
(b) [10 pts] Assuming that the rocket satisfies this requirement, what is the
maximum speed VMAX achieved by the rocket?
(c) [5 pts] How far does the rocket go after it runs out of fuel? You can express
your answer in terms of VMAX.
(d) [BONUS 5 pts] How far does the rocket travel in total? For this you will need
to make use of the following integral:

Page 8 of 14

8.012 Fall 2008

Quiz 2

[SOLUTION]
(a) The condition is that the rocket thrust (vex) must exceed the force due to
friction (M0g). Hence

(b) The maximum speed occurs when the rocket has used up all its fuel (note: since
the friction force is not velocity-dependent, there is no terminal velocity in this
case). Applying conservation of momentum including the impulse from friction
over a time dt (see figure):

where we use the fact that a positive dm mass ejected corresponds to dM lost
from the rockets total mass. The three terms can be separately integrated:

Page 9 of 14

8.012 Fall 2008

Quiz 2

tmax is the time it takes for the fuel to run out, which is (M0/2)/ . Hence,

(c) After the rocket runs out of fuel, the problem reduces to a simple mass
accelerated by a constant friction force:

We can also solve this using energy, since the work done on the rocket to reduce
its kinetic energy to 0 is simply the friction force acting over the distance the
rocket travels:

(d) For those who attempted it, we simply use the expression of velocity as a
function of time from our derivation of the rocket equation above, and integrate
this to get the distance traveled:

where we now explicitly put in the time dependence of the rocket mass. To
integrate the first term on the right, we make the substitution:

Page 10 of 14

8.012 Fall 2008

Quiz 2

Using our substitution for tmax for the limits of u and solving the left side and
second term on the right side:

The total distance traveled is then

Page 11 of 14

8.012 Fall 2008

Quiz 2

Problem 5: Planet Orbit [25 pts]

R
M

A small planet of mass m is in a circular orbit of radius r around a star of mass M


and radius R in otherwise empty space (assume M >> m so the star is stationary).
(a) [10 pts] Determine the potential energy U(r), the kinetic energy K(r) and the
total mechanical energy E(r) of the planet in terms of G, M and r assuming U0
as r.
(b) [5 pts] Determine the minimum amount of mechanical energy that must be
added to the planet to cause it to escape from the star (i.e., r). By what factor
must the speed of the planet be increased to cause it to escape?
(c) [5 pts] Now assume that the planet in subject to a viscous force of the form
where A is a constant and is the direction of motion. Compute the loss of
mechanical energy in one orbital period in terms of G, M, r and A. Assume that
this loss is small enough that neither the orbital radius nor speed of the planet
changes appreciably in one orbit.
(d) [5 pts] Building from (c), compute the change in radius of the planet in one
orbital period due to the viscous force and the corresponding radial velocity based
on the assumptions above, in terms of G, M, r and A. Does the planet fall into the
star or away from it?

Page 12 of 14

8.012 Fall 2008

Quiz 2

[SOLUTIONS]

(a) The potential can be derived from the force law:

In this case we know that the constant C = 0 since U() = 0. Hence:

Note the m is a factor in this and other expressions (mistakenly neglected in the
question).
The kinetic energy is

but we can substitute this using the force law in polar coordinates:

the total mechanical energy E = K + U is then:

(b) The work required to effectively bring the planet to r = is simply that needed
to climb the potential well to U = 0. In other words:

Page 13 of 14

8.012 Fall 2008

Quiz 2

So the kinetic energy must double, which means the speed must increase by a
factor of
.

(c) The loss of mechanical energy simply comes from the work done by the
frictional force over one orbit (note: this is formally true since the potential energy
doesnt change work only acts to change kinetic energy). Hence:

where the substitution for mv2 from above is used

(d) We can also write the change in energy as:

to compute a velocity, we note that this change in r occurs over one orbit period for
which:

Thus:

Note that the radial velocity is negative, so the planet falls in to the star.

Page 14 of 14

MIT OpenCourseWare
http://ocw.mit.edu

8.012 Physics I: Classical Mechanics


Fall 2008

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


Department of Physics
Physics 8.012

Fall 2008

Exam 3

SOLUTIONS
NAME: _________________________________________________

Instructions:
1. Do all FIVE (5) problems. You have 90 minutes.
2. SHOW ALL WORK. Be sure to circle your final answer.
3. Read the questions carefully.
4. All work must be done in this booklet in workspace provided. Extra
blank pages are provided at the end if needed.
5. NO books, notes, calculators or computers are permitted. A sheet of
useful equations is provided on the last page.

Your Scores
Problem Maximum Score Grader
1

10

20

25

25

20

Total

100

8.012 Fall 2007

Quiz 3

Problem 1: Quick Multiple Choice Questions [10 pts]


For each of the following questions circle the correct answer. You do not need to
show any work.
(a) [2 pts] A bicycle rider pedals up a hill with constant velocity
v. In which direction does friction act on the wheels?

Uphill

Downhill

Friction does not act while the


bike moves at constant velocity

Friction provides the only support against falling downhill, so it must point up.
(b) [2 pts] A gyroscope is set to spin so that its
spin vector points back to the mount. The
gryoscope is initially set at an angle below
horizontal and released from rest. Gravity acts
downward. In which direction does the
precession angular velocity vector point once
the gyroscope starts to precess?

Up

Down

Into the page

Out of the page

The initial fall of the gyroscope causes the spin vector to point up. To conserve
angular momentum in the z direction, precession rotation must point downward
(c) [2 pts] A ball attached to rope is twirled around a stick as
shown in the diagram at right. Ignore gravity and friction. Which
of the following quantities is conserved in the motion of the ball?
Be sure to write down all of the choices below that apply.
Only energy is conserved here.

Energy

Momentum

Angular
Momentum

Page 2 of 14

None of these are


conserved

8.012 Fall 2007

Quiz 3

(d) [2 pts] A force F is applied to two


identical dumbbells, each comprised of
two masses separated by a thin rod. The
force is applied at the center of mass for
the left dumbbell and directly on one of
the masses for the right dumbbell. If the
forces are applied for the same duration of
time, which dumbbell acquires the
greatest center of mass velocity?

Left dumbbell

Right dumbbell

They both have the same


velocity

Both dumbbells receive the same impulse, hence their linear momenta are the
same, and as their masses are the same they have the same COM velocities.
(e) [2 pts] For the same dumbbells in part (d), which one acquires the greatest
kinetic energy from the applied force?

Left dumbbell

Right dumbbell

They both have the same


kinetic energy

Both dumbbells have the same linear velocity and hence linear kinetic energy, but
the right dumbbell will also have rotation kinetic energy associated with its motion.
In effect, the force for the right dumbbell acts over a longer distance than the left
one and does more work.

Page 3 of 14

8.012 Fall 2007

Quiz 3

Problem 2: Catch Pendulum [20 pts]

A pendulum consists of a ball of mass M attached to the end of a rigid bar of


length 2d which is pivoted at the center. At the other end of the bar is a container
(catch). A second ball of mass M/2 is thrown into the catch at a velocity v where
it sticks. For this problem, ignore the mass of the pendulum bar and catch, and
treat the balls as if they were point masses (i.e., neglect their individual moments
of inertia).
(a) [5 pts] What is the initial angular rotation rate of the pendulum after the
incoming ball is caught?
(b) [5 pts] How much total mechanical energy is lost when the incoming ball gets
stuck in the catch?
(c) [10 pts] What minimum velocity does the incoming ball need in order to invert
the pendulum (i.e., rotate it by 180)?

Page 4 of 14

8.012 Fall 2007

Quiz 3

SOLUTION TO PROBLEM 2
(a) The angular momentum of the system relative to the pivot point just prior to the
upper ball being caught is:

As there are no external torques acting on the system relative to the pivot point
during the time of the collision, the angular momentum can be determined as:

hence,

(b) The energy of the upper ball prior to sticking to the catch is:

After the collision, all of the energy can be expressed as pure rotation about the
stationary pivot point, hence:

so

(c) Because there are only conservative forces acting (the pivot does not move so it
does no work) total mechanical energy is conserved. Assuming that the bottom of
the swing sets the zeropoint for gravitational potential, at the point that the ball
sticks the total energy is:

Page 5 of 14

8.012 Fall 2007

Quiz 3

The point at which the pendulum just comes to rest inverted, the bottom mass is at
height 2d:
With E = 0 this gives:

Page 6 of 14

8.012 Fall 2007

Quiz 3

Problem 3: Swinging bar [25 pts]

A uniform bar of mass M and length d is pivoted at one end. The bar is released
from rest in a horizontal position and allowed to fall under constant gravitational
acceleration.
(a) [5 pts] How much work does the contact force apply to the system as a function
of angle?
(b) [5 pts] What is the angular speed of the bar as a function of angle?
(c) [5 pts] What is the angular acceleration of the bar as a function of angle?
(d) [10 pts] What are the vertical and horizontal forces the bar exerts on the pivot
as a function of time angle?

Page 7 of 14

8.012 Fall 2007

Quiz 3

SOLUTION TO PROBLEM 3
(a) The contact force is a fixed constraining force, and hence does no net work on
the system. The only work done is by gravitational force.
(b) Since gravity (a conservative force) is the only force that produces net work on
the system, total mechanical energy is conserved. Energy provides the easiest (but
not only) route to velocity. Considering this a problem of pure rotation about the
pivot point:

where

about the pivot point has been used.

(c) Angular acceleration is directly tied to torques, so we can solve for the net
torque on the system as a function of angle. Choosing again the pivot point as the
origin of our coordinate system:

Note that this could also be solved from the relation:

and plugging in the solution to (b).


(d) One can solve this by computing the polar coordinate forces (being careful to
get the changing orientation of the gravitation force):

Page 8 of 14

8.012 Fall 2007

Quiz 3

and then reorienting these forces back into a Cartesian system. An easier way is to
rewrite the Cartesian coordinates in terms of . For the horizontal force (positive x
pointing toward the right):

substituting in our expressions above:

this is the force the pivot exerts on the bar, the force the bar exerts on the pivot is:

For the vertical force (positive z pointing up):

rearranging, and again flipping sign for the force on the pivot:

Page 9 of 14

8.012 Fall 2007

Quiz 3

Problem 4: Atwood machine [25 pts]

An Atwood machine consists of a fixed pulley wheel of radius R, a rim of mass M


and 6 spokes each with length R and mass M. An effectively massless string
passes around the pulley wheel and connects two plates of mass M and 2M. The
lighter plate is initially on the ground when the system is released from rest.
Constant gravitational force acts downwards, and assume that the string never
slips.
(a) [5 pts] Calculate the moment of inertia of the pulley wheel.
(b) [10 pts] Calculate the speed of the more massive plate when it hits the ground
(there are multiple ways to solve this).
(c) [10 pts] Assume that when it strikes the ground, the heavier plate sticks.
Furthermore, the string remains stuck to the wheel, so it continues to pull the
lighter plate up. How high does the lighter plate go?

Page 10 of 14

8.012 Fall 2007

Quiz 3

SOLUTION TO PROBLEM 4
(a) The moment of inertia of the pulley wheel is simply the sum of the moments of
inertia of each spoke rotated about one end (MR2/3) and that of the rim (MR2).
Taken together:

(b) Again, this can be done using conservation of total mechanical energy, since
there are no nonconservative forces in (this part of) the problem. Setting the
ground to have zero potential energy, and assuming that the string must have a
fixed length so each mass has the same velocity:

The rotation rate of the wheel is connected with the velocities of the masses
through the no-slip requirement:
hence for E = 0:

(c) Once the heavy mass strikes (and losses its kinetic energy) the remaining parts
of the system will conserve energy, so we can use the same approach:

Page 11 of 14

8.012 Fall 2007

Quiz 3

Page 12 of 14

8.012 Fall 2007

Quiz 3

Problem 5: Rolling a coin [20 pts]

2b
R

A coin (uniform solid circular disk) with mass M and radius b is set to roll in a
circular path of radius R on a table surface (R > b). The coin is given a spin
angular velocity S, and as it rolls it is found to tilt at a small angle with respect
to vertical. Assume that the coin does not slip; constant gravity acts downward.
(a) [5 pts] Determine the precession angular velocity of the rolling motion, ,
both magnitude and direction.
(b) [5 pts] Determine the total angular velocity vector, , including both spin and
precession terms, in a polar coordinate system centered on the center of the coins
trajectory.
(c) [10 pts] Solve for the angle in terms of the quantities given in the diagram
above. Be sure to examine all equations of motion!
(d) [10 pts BONUS] Determine the total angular momentum vector, , in terms of
the quantities given in the diagram above, in a polar coordinate system centered on
the center of the coins trajectory. For simplicity, assume that is very small (i.e.,
only consider first order terms in ).

Page 13 of 14

8.012 Fall 2007

Quiz 3

SOLUTION TO PROBLEM 5
(a) This relation comes straight from the condition that the disk does not slip,
which requires that the arclength traversed by the coin along its trajectory is the
same arclength covered along the edge of the coin per unit time, otherwise one of
the surfaces would be slipping relative to the other. This implies that:

This vector points upward, which can be inferred from the fact that if the coin does
not precess, it would tip over, causing the spin angular momentum in the
downward direction to increase. The coin must compensate for this by precessing
in such a direction that its angular momentum vector points upwards (you can also
infer this from the direction of the rolling coin as well).
(b) The total angular velocity vector is the sum of the spin and precession vectors.
Choosing a polar coordinate system centered at the center of the orbit with the
radial vector outward and the z-axis pointing up, these can be written as:

hence

(c) Now we want to consider the torque acting on the coin. We will consider our
reference point to be the center of mass of the coin, since for this point torques are
not affected by non-inertial forces in the coins moving frame of reference. The
possible forces acting on the coin (see figure) are its weight (through the center of
mass, which produces no torque), a vertical normal force which is equal in
magnitude to weight (since the coin is not falling in the z direction), and a
tangential frictional force which provides the necessary radial force to keep the
coin moving in a circular trajectory, equal to

Page 14 of 14

8.012 Fall 2007

Quiz 3

to within our R >> b assumption. The total torque about the center of mass is
therefore:

This torque acts to change the direction of the total angular momentum vector, or
more precisely the radial component of the angular momentum vector that rotates
as the coin goes along its trajectory. The spin component of this is simply:

The precession component is somewhat more complicated (see below), but is


going to be smaller than the spin component in the radial direction by a factor of
b/R because of the smaller precession rate. Hence, we can use the gyroscopic
approximation and consider only the change in direction of the spin angular
momentum vector, namely the change in the radial component:

Page 15 of 14

8.012 Fall 2007

Quiz 3

(d) The total angular momentum of the coin about its COM is the sum of the spin
angular momentum and precession angular momentum vectors:
The first is straightforward:

The second is not because of the tilt of the coin, which leads to off-axis terms in
the moment of inertia tensor (products of inertia). We can get an approximate
handle on this by first breaking up the precession rotation vector into components
parallel and perpendicular to the disk plane through the center of mass, as shown in
the above diagram. Along these principal axes we compute the component angular
momenta:

Page 16 of 14

8.012 Fall 2007

Quiz 3

we now have to project these axes back along the polar coordinates:

which gives:

where the latter comes from our small angle approximation. Combining this with
the spin angular momentum (and keeping the same approximation):

Note that we retain the assumption made in (c), that the radial angular momentum
is primarily from the spin, and that because b << R this component dominates the
whole angular momentum vector, making the gyroscopic approximation a realistic
one.

Page 17 of 14

MIT OpenCourseWare
http://ocw.mit.edu

8.012 Physics I: Classical Mechanics


Fall 2008

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


Department of Physics
Physics 8.012

Fall 2008

Final Exam

SOLUTIONS
NAME: _________________________________________________

Instructions:
1. Do all SEVEN (7) problems. You have 2.5 hours.
2. Show all work. Be sure to CIRCLE YOUR FINAL ANSWER.
3. Read the questions carefully
4. All work and solutions must be done in the answer booklets provided
5. NO books, notes, calculators or computers are permitted. A sheet of
useful equations is provided on the last page.

Your Scores
Problem Maximum Score Grader
1

10

15

15

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Total

100

8.012 Fall 2008

Final Exam

[NO TEST MATERIAL ON THIS PAGE]

Page 2 of 25

8.012 Fall 2008

Final Exam

Problem 1: Multiple Choice & Short Answer Questions [10 pts]


For each of the following questions enter the correct multiple choice option or
write/draw out a short answer in your answer booklet. You do not need to show
any work beyond your answer.
(a) [2 pts] Two planets of mass
M and 2M are in circular orbits
around a star at radii R and 2R,
respectively (assume the stars
mass is >> M). Which planet has
the greater orbital velocity and
which planet has the greater
orbital angular momentum?

2M

R
2R

Orbital velocity depends on the strength of the gravitational force, scaling as v2


1/r; hence, the inner planet moves faster. The angular momentum scales as mvr
r1/2, so the outer planet (which also has twice the mass) has a greater angular
momentum.
(b) [2 pts] What is Chasles theorem?

(1)
Every force
has an equal
and opposite
pair

(2)

(3)

(4)

Gravitational Motion can be separated


orbits form in translation of center of
ellipses
mass and rotation about
center of mass

Inertial mass
equals
gravitational
mass

(1) is Newtons 3rd law, (2) is Keplers 1st law, (3) is Chasles theorem and (4) is
the equivalence principle.
(c) [2 pts] A stationary ice skater is spinning about her center of mass (along a
principal axis) on a frictionless surface. She pulls in her arms and spins up faster.
Which of the following is conserved in this motion (write down all that apply)?

Energy

Momentum

Page 3 of 25

Angular momentum

8.012 Fall 2008

Final Exam

Without an external force, the ice skaters momentum doesnt change; similarly, as
there are no external torques, angular momentum is conserved. However,
rotational energy scales as L2/2I, and the moment of inertia (I) is reduced for the
skater as she pulls in her arms, so her total mechanical energy must increase.
(d) [2 pts] What are the dimensions of the gravitational constant G?
[M]-1[L]3[T]-2
(e) [2 pts] A gyroscope whose spin angular
velocity vector points toward the left is
observed to precess such that its precession
angular velocity vector points at an angle as
shown. In which direction does the gravity
vector point?

The precession direction points in the opposite direction as the spin vector initially
moves toward as the gyroscope falls under gravity. In this case, the gravity vector
must therefore be parallel to the precession vector.
(f) [BONUS 2 pts] A diver is the middle of a dive as shown below. Based on clues
in the photo, indicate in your answer booklet the direction that his total spin vector
points, and determine whether the diver is doing a front flip or a back flip.
One clue is the hair, which lies in a
plane perpendicular to the spin vector
(twirl a handful of string to convince
yourself of this). The placement of the
arms breaks the degeneracy, indicating
an applied torque that causes a twist
rotation whose direction points along the
feet. So the total spin vector points in the
direction shown, and the flip component
indicates a front flip (head over feet).

Page 4 of 25

8.012 Fall 2008

Final Exam

Problem 2: Atwood Machine [15 pts]

M
d

2M

An Atwood machine consists of a fixed pulley wheel of radius R and uniform mass
M (a disk), around which an effectively massless string passes connecting two
blocks of mass M and 2M. The lighter block is initially positioned a distance d
above the ground. The heavier block sits on an inclined plane with opening angle
. There is a coefficient of friction between the surfaces of this block and the
inclined plane. Constant gravitational force acts downwards, and assume that the
string never slips.
(a) [5 pts] Determine two conditions on the angle which allow the lighter block
to move up or move down.
(b) [10 pts] Assuming that the lighter block moves down, determine its
acceleration.

Page 5 of 25

8.012 Fall 2008

Final Exam

SOLUTION TO PROBLEM 2

T1
R

Fs

T2

T2

Mg
N
Mg

2Mg

T1

(a) The above diagram shows the appropriate forces on the two blocks and the
pulley wheel. The two conditions for the blocks arise from whether the leftmost
block moves up or down, which changes the direction of the friction force acting
on the rightmost block. Consider first the leftmost block moving down; in that
case Mg > T1 and T1 > T2 (so the wheel can spin), and T2 must be greater than both
the friction force (N = 2Mgcos) and the component of gravitational force
parallel to the inclined plane surface (2Mgsin) on the rightmost block:

If the leftmost block moves up, then T1 > Mg, T2 > T1 and the gravitational force
on the rightmost block must overcome both tension and friction:

Page 6 of 25

8.012 Fall 2008

Final Exam

(b) Choosing our coordinate systems for each component as shown above so that
all objects move in a positive direction, we can write down the following equations
of motion:
leftmost block:

pulley wheel:

rightmost block:

The constraint equation tying all of these objects together (connected by an

massless and hence inextensible string) is:

Using this and the first two equations of motion we can relate to two tension
forces:

and using the first and third equations of motion we can solve for the individual
tensions:

Note that the first conditions from part (a) is necessary for acceleration to be
positive.

Page 7 of 25

8.012 Fall 2008

Final Exam

Problem 3: Rocket in an Interstellar Cloud [15 pts]

2R

N particles/m3

MR + M F

A cylindrical rocket of diameter 2R, mass MR and containing fuel of mass MF is


coasting through empty space at velocity v0. At some point the rocket enters a
uniform cloud of interstellar particles with number density N (e.g., particles/m3),
with each particle having mass m (<< MR) and initially at rest. To compensate for
the dissipative force of the particles colliding with the rocket, the rocket engines
emit fuel at a rate dm/dt = at a constant velocity u with respect to the rocket.
Ignore gravitational effects between the rocket and cloud particles.
(a) [5 pts] Assuming that the dissipative force from the cloud particles takes the
form F = Av2, where A is a constant, derive the equation of motion of the rocket
(F = ma) through the cloud as it is firing its engines.
(b) [5 pts] What must the rockets thrust be to maintain a constant velocity v0?
(c) [5 pts] If the rocket suddenly runs out of fuel, what is its velocity as a function
of time after this point?
(d) [BONUS 5 pts] Assuming that each cloud particle bounces off the rocket
elastically, and collisions happen very frequently (i.e., collisions are continuous),
prove that the dissipative force is proportional to v2, and determine the constant A.
Assume that the front nose-cone of the rocket has an opening angle of 90.

Page 8 of 25

8.012 Fall 2008

Final Exam

SOLUTION TO PROBLEM 3:
(a) Consider some time t when a parcel of mass dm is ejected from the rocket at
velocity u. Newtons second law can be written as (assuming the rightward
direction to be positive):

The momentum of the rocket + fuel system before and after ejection of fuel can be
written as:

Keeping only first order terms we derive

or

where has been substituted in place of dm/dt.


(b) To maintain constant speed, dv/dt = 0 hence the thrust is

(c) When the rocket runs out of fuel, it has a mass MR and there is no thrust term,
hence the equation in part (a) becomes:

This equation is separable and can be directly integrated:

Page 9 of 25

8.012 Fall 2008

Final Exam

(d) As illustrated in the figure to the right, each particle that


collides with the rocket is deflected through 90 (due to
geometry), which means that each particle imparts an
mv
impulse on the rocket of p = mv in the horizontal
direction opposite of motion (it also imparts an impulse of
mv in the vertical direction, but that is balanced by particles
striking the other side of the nosecone). The number of
particles that strikes the rocket per unit time is simple the
volume swept through by the rocket per unit time, Ax/t = R2v. The total
momentum transfer onto the rocket is:

Page 10 of 25

8.012 Fall 2008

Final Exam

Problem 4: Sticky Disks [15 pts]

0
2R

M
2M

2R

2M

A uniform disk of mass M and diameter 2R moves toward another uniform disk of
mass 2M and diameter 2R on the surface of a frictionless table. The first disk has
an initial velocity v0 and spin rate 0 as indicated, while the second disk is initially
stationary. When the first disk contacts the second (a glancing collision), they
instantly stick to each other and move as a single object.
(a) [5 pts] What are the velocity and spin angular velocity of the combined disks
after the collision? Indicate both magnitudes and directions.
(b) [5 pts] For what value of 0 would the combined disks not rotate?
(c) [5 pts] How much total mechanical energy is lost in this collision assuming that
the combined disk system is not rotating?

Page 11 of 25

8.012 Fall 2008

Final Exam

SOLUTION TO PROBLEM 4:
(a) There are no external forces on this system, so the initial and final momenta are
the same and equal to Mv0 toward the right. The total mass of the combined disk
system is 3M, so the final velocity is

The total angular momentum of the system is also conserved, but in this case we
must be more careful, as the question asks for the final spin angular velocity, so it
is important to calculate the initial and final angular momenta about the center of
mass of the combined disk system. This position lies at a distance:

below the contact point of the two disks. About this point, the initial angular
momentum of the system comes from both rotation of the moving disk and its
center of mass translation with respect to the center of mass of the combined disk
system:

The final moment of inertia of the two disks can be found by first adding the center
of mass moments of inertia of the two disks separately and thn applying the
parallel axis theorem (moving to the center of mass of the combined disk system):

Hence the final spin angular velocity is

(b) For the final spin angular velocity to be zero, the two terms above cancel, so

Page 12 of 25

8.012 Fall 2008

Final Exam

(c) To keep the math clean, it is assumed that the final system is not spinning, so
that 0 and v0 are related as in part (b). The initial energy is therefore:

The final energy is just the translation energy:

so the total energy loss is:

Page 13 of 25

8.012 Fall 2008

Final Exam

Problem 5: Cylindrical Top [15 pts]

L
M

r
COM

p
=0

A cylinder of mass M, length L and radius R is spinning about its long axis with
angular velocity
on a frictionless horizontal surface. The cylinder is
given a sharp, horizontal strike with impulse p at a distance r from its center of
mass (COM). Assume that constant gravitational acceleration acts downward.
NOTE: you do not need to use Eulers equations to solve this problem.
(a) [5 pts] What is the translational velocity of the cylinder after the impulse
(magnitude and direction)?
(b) [5 pts] The strike imparts an angular momentum impulse to the cylinder which
causes it to lift up at one end. At what angle will the cylinder be tilted after the
impulse and which end of the cylinder lifts up? Assume that the angular
momentum impulse is much smaller than the spin angular momentum.
(c) [5 pts] After the cylinder tilts up, it effectively becomes a top. Determine its
precessional rate and the direction of precession. Assume that nutational motion is
negligible (i.e., remains effectively constant) and that R << L (i.e., that the
cylinder can be approximated as a thin rod for this part).
(d) [5 pts BONUS] For a strong enough impulse, the cylinder will tilt high enough
to precess in the opposite direction. What is the minimum tilt angle for this to
happen and what is the minimum impulse required? (Note that you cannot assume
R << L here. This problem is similar to the tipping battery trick pointed out by
one of the 8.012 students.)

Page 14 of 25

8.012 Fall 2008

Final Exam

SOLUTION TO PROBLEM 5:
(a) The impulse provides the only external force to the system, so the total
momentum of the cylinder is simply the impulse, p in the y-direction. Hence, the
translational velocity of the cylinder is:

(b) The angular impulse imparted on


the cylinder about its center of mass is

This impulse adds vectorally to the


spin angular momentum of the cylinder, as shown in the figure to the right. If we
assume that LS >> L (our standard gyroscopic approximation), then the
magnitude of the total angular momentum is still equal to IS but points in a
direction offset by an angle upwards. Since this is still the cylinder spinning
about its axis, it must be that the right side of the cylinder tips up by an angle :

N = Mg
(c) With the cylinder tipped up, gravity and the
normal contact force on the ground now exert
a net torque on the cylinder, which will cause
the spin angular momentum vector to precess
with rate . Lets measure angular momenta

and torque about the center of mass of the


cylinder (alternately we could have measured
L/2cos - Rsin
Mg
about the pivot point, but since N=Mg, the

result is the same). The horizontal lever arm between the pivot point and the center

of mass is (L/2)cos - Rsin, but assuming L >> R we can drop the second term.

The torque is then:

Page 15 of 25

8.012 Fall 2008

Final Exam

using here our expression for the time derivative of a vector (LS) in a rotating
reference frame. The precession vector must point along the z-direction, a fact we
can ascertain by considering that gravity would initially pull the spin angular
momentum vector down, so to conserve total angular momentum the precession
angular momentum vector must point upward. The precession vector rotates only
the radial component of the spin angular momentum vector, hence:

Solving for the precession rate:

note that the I here is the moment inertia about the spinning axis, not about the
precession axis.
(d) To precess in the other direction, the center of mass
must be inside the pivot point of the disk, which happens
at a critical angle (see right):

from the solution to (a) this places a constraint on the

impulse required:

L/2

90-

Note that this is approximate, as we no longer satisfy the


gyroscopic approximation that LS >> L (indeed, they are of the same order of
magnitude in this case).

Page 16 of 25

8.012 Fall 2008

Final Exam

Problem 6: Bead on a Spinning Rod [15 pts]

M
r0
A bead of mass M is placed on a frictionless, rigid rod that is spun about at one end
at a rate . The bead is initially held at a distance r0 from the end of the wire. For
the questions below, treat the bead as a point mass. Ignore gravitational forces.
(a) [5 pts] What force is necessary to hold the bead in place at r0? Indicate both
magnitude and direction.
(b) [5 pts] After the bead is released, what is its position in the inertial frame (in
polar coordinates) as a function of time?
(c) [5 pts] Now calculate the fictitious forces on the bead in a reference frame that
is rotating with the wire. What real force must the rod exert on the bead in both the
rotating and inertial frames?

Page 17 of 25

8.012 Fall 2008

Final Exam

SOLUTION TO PROBLEM 6:
(a) The force applied to hold the bead in place is simply the centripetal force:

(b) In the inertial frame, we can write down the equations of motion in polar
coordinates assuming that there is no radial force acting (no friction or constraint
force):

Here, N is some normal force acting on the bead in the angular direction (important
for part c). The angular position is straightforward, since the rod is rotating at
constant angular rate, hence,
For the radial position, we must solve the radial equation of motion:
This can be done by trial, or you can simply remember that the general solution for
this equation is:
Using the initial conditions r(0) = r0 and dr/dt(0) = 0, we find:

So

(c) In the rotating reference frame, there is only radial motion, and there are two
fictitous forces acting: centrifugal and coriolis forces:

Page 18 of 25

8.012 Fall 2008

Final Exam

The angular equation of motion in the rotating frame is:


where N is again the angular normal force acting on the bead, and the net angular
acceleration component is 0 since is constant in the rotating frame. Hence

Page 19 of 25

8.012 Fall 2008

Final Exam

Problem 7: Central Potential [15 pts]


A particle of mass m moves within a region under the influence of a force of the
form

The particle is initially at a distance r0 from the origin of the force, and initially
moves with velocity v0 in a tangential direction.
(a) [5 pts] Derive and sketch the effective potential of this system as a function of
radius from the origin. Indicate all important inflection points. Can the particle
pass through the origin of this reference frame?
(b) [5 pts] Find the velocity v0 required for the particle to move in a purely circular
orbit at a radius r0 with this force law.
(c) [5 pts] Compute the frequency of small oscillations about this equilibrium
radius. How does the period of these oscillations compare to the orbital period?

Page 20 of 25

8.012 Fall 2008

Final Exam

SOLUTION TO PROBLEM 7:
(a) The effective potential arises from the radial equation of motion assuming that
the total angular momentum is a constant:

where the angular momentum is defined as


The potential arising from this total force law is

The figure above provides a rough sketch of this function (with A = 4 and l2 = 2m).

There is one minimum inflection (equilibrium) point where the net force vanishes:

Page 21 of 25

8.012 Fall 2008

Final Exam

This is a stable equilbrium point. The potential tends to infinity as r 0, so it is


not possible to pass through the origin with this potential.
(b) For a purely circular orbit, the object must reside at its minimum radius in the
potential, hence:

(c) The frequency of small oscillations in any potential can be derived from the
second derivative of the potential about its (stable) equilibrium point:

Substituting in our expression for v0 from part (b) reduces this to:

The period of this oscillation is:

Page 22 of 25

8.012 Fall 2008

Final Exam

The period of rotational motion is:

Hence, the ratio of these periods is

Page 23 of 25

8.012 Fall 2008

Final Exam

USEFUL EQUATIONS
Velocity in polar
coordinates
Acceleration in polar
coordinates
Center of mass (COM) of a
rigid body
Volume element in
cylindrical coordinates
Kinetic energy
Work

Potential Energy
(for conservative forces)

where

Angular momentum

Torque
Fixed axis rotation:

Page 24 of 25

8.012 Fall 2008

Final Exam

COM Moment of inertia


for a uniform bar
COM Moment of inertia
for a uniform hoop
COM Moment of inertia
for a uniform disk
COM Moment of inertia
for a uniform sphere
Scalar parallel axis theorem
Moments of inertia tensor
(permute xyz)

Eulers Equations
(permute 123)

Time derivative between


inertial and rotating frames
Fictitious force in an
accelerating frame
Fictitious force in a
rotating frame ( constant)
Taylor Expansion of f(x)

Page 25 of 25

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


Physics Department
Physics 8.07: Electromagnetism II
October 21, 2012
Prof. Alan Guth

QUIZ 1 SOLUTIONS

QUIZ DATE: OCTOBER 18, 2012


PROBLEM 1: SOME SHORT EXERCISES (30 points)
 (sA),
 where s is a scalar
(a) (10 points) Use index notation to derive a formula for
 is a vector eld A(
 r ).
eld s(r ) and A
SOLUTION:
 
 



sA
= ijk j sA

= ijk sj Ak + ijk Ak j s
 A
 +
sA
.
= s
(b) (10 points) Which of the following vector elds could describe an electric eld? Say
yes or no for each, and give a very brief reason.
 r ) = x ex y ey .
(i) E(
 r ) = y ex + x ey .
(ii) E(
 r ) = y ex x ey .
(iii) E(
SOLUTION: The curl of an electrostatic eld must be zero, but otherwise there is
no restriction. So the answer follows as


Ey
Ex


(i) E (r ) =

ez + . . . = 0. YES, it describes an electric eld.


x
y
 E
 (r ) = (1 1)ez = 0 . YES, it describes an electric eld.
(ii)
 E
 (r ) = (1 1)ez = 2
(iii)
ez . NO, it does not describe an electric eld.
(c) (10 points) Suppose that the entire x-z and y-z planes are conducting. Calculate the
force F on a particle of charge q located at x = x0 , y = y0 , z = 0.
SOLUTION: we need 3 image charges placed as:
q1 = q

at (x0 , y0 , 0)

q2 = q

at (x0 , y0 , 0)

q3 = + q

at (x0 , y0 , 0) .

8.07 QUIZ 1 SOLUTIONS, FALL 2012

p. 2

Note that q1 and the original charge give zero potential on the x = 0 plane, but allow
the potential to vary with x in the y = 0 plane. The second image charge, combined
with the original charge but ignoring the rst image charge, produces a potential
that is zero on the y = 0 plane, but the potential varies with y on the x = 0 plane.
The nal image charge xes these remaining problems. For any point on the y-z
plane (the x = 0 plane) the original charge and q1 pair to give zero potential, and
similarly q2 and q3 pair to give zero potential. For points on the x-z plane (where
y = 0), the original charge and q2 give canceling potentials, as do q1 and q3 .
Having found the image charges, we can write the force as
q + Fq
q + F
F = F
1
2
3
where Fqi is dened as the force of charge qi on charge q. The force exerted on the
charge q is found to be as:
F =

1 q 2
1 q 2
1
q2
x0 x
+ y0 y


+
x
y
.
2
2
2
2
40 4(x0 + y0 ) x20 + y02
40 4x0
40 4y0

Surprisingly, this question was the one that gave the class the most trouble, with a
class average of only 51%. The problem was even illustrated in Lecture Notes 5, on
the fourth page of those notes (labeled p. 61). The moral:
PLEASE REVIEW IMAGE CHARGES!
PROBLEM 2: ELECTRIC FIELDS IN A CYLINDRICAL GEOMETRY (20
points)
A very long cylindrical object consists of an inner cylinder of radius a, which has a
uniform charge density , and a concentric thin cylinder, of radius b, which has an equal
but opposite total charge, uniformly distributed on the surface.
(a) (7 points) Calculate the electric eld everywhere.
(b) (6 points) Calculate the electric potential everywhere, taking V = 0 on the outer
cylinder.
(c) (7 points) Calculate the electrostatic energy per unit length of the object.

8.07 QUIZ 1 SOLUTIONS, FALL 2012

p. 3

PROBLEM 2 SOLUTION:
(a) This problem has enough symmetry to allow a solution by Gausss law. In particular,
symmetry considerations imply that the electric eld will point radially outward, and
will have a magnitude that depends only on the distance from the axis. Following
Griths, we use s for the distance from the z-axis, and s for a unit vector pointing
radially outward from the axis, and of course we choose the z-axis to be the axis of
the cylindrical object. Then
 = E(s) s .
E
(2.1)
To evaluate E(s), we apply Gausss law to a Gaussian cylinder of length , concentric
with the z-axis. Then

 da = Qenc = 2s E(s) .
E
(2.2)
0
For s < a, the Gaussian cylinder is lled with charge density , so
Qenc = s2 

s
.
20

(2.3)

a2
.
20 s

(2.4)

E(s) =

For a < s < b the enclosed charge is


Qenc = a2 

E(s) =

Finally, for s > b the enclosed charge is zero, so E(s) = 0. Putting this together,

s s
if s < a

2
a
 =
E
s if a < s < b
20
s

0
if s > a .

(2.5)

(b) To nd the potential from the electric eld, we can use



V (r ) = V (r 0 )


r


r0

 r  ) d
E(

(2.6)

from the formula sheet. Since the line integrals that dene the electric potential are
path-independent, we can choose to integrate only over radial paths. For s > b we
clearly have V (s) = 0, since the absence of an electric eld in this region implies
that V = const, and V = 0 at s = b. Then, for a s b,
s
b 2
b
a2 b

a




ln . (2.7)
E d =
V (s) = V (s=b)
E d = 0 +
ds =
20
s
20 s s
b
s

8.07 QUIZ 1 SOLUTIONS, FALL 2012

p. 4

This is valid down to s = a, so V (a) =



V (s) = V (s=a)

a2
20 ln(b/a) ,

and then for s a,

a2

 d =
+
E
20 ln(b/a) 20

a
s

s ds


2
 2
a2
2a ln(b/a) + a2 s2 .
=
ln(b/a) +
(a s2 ) =
40
40
20

(2.8)

Putting these together

0
2 b
2a ln
V (s) =
40 2 s
2a ln(b/a) + a2 s2

if s > b
if a < s < b
if s < a .

(2.9)

(c) To nd the electrostatic energy, we can use either


 2
 3
E  d x

(2.10)

(r )V (r ) d3 x .

(2.11)

1
W = 0
2
or
1
W =
2

Using Eq. (2.10) with (2.5),


1
W = 0
2


0

20

2

s2 2s ds +

so
W
2
=

40

20

2

a4
2s ds
s2

a4
s3 ds +
ds
0
a s
 

b
2 1 4
4
=
a + a ln
a
40 4
=


 
2 a4
b
1 + 4 ln
.
a
160


,

(2.12)

(2.13)

8.07 QUIZ 1 SOLUTIONS, FALL 2012

p. 5

By using Eqs. (2.11) with (2.9), we rst note that V = 0 on the outer cylinder, so
we get a contribution only by integrating over the inner cylinder:
W
2
=

80
=

2
40

2
40



 
b
2
2
2
2a ln
+ a s 2s ds
a
0


 
 a
a
b
2
2
3
2a ln
+a
s ds
s ds
a
0
0
  2   4 

 
a
a
b
2
2

2a ln
+a
a
2
4

(2.14)


 
2 a4
b
1 + 4 ln
.
a
160

PROBLEM 3: MULTIPOLE EXPANSION FOR A CHARGED WIRE (20


points)
A short piece of wire is placed along the z-axis, centered at the origin. The wire
carries a total charge Q, and the linear charge density is an even function of z: (z) =
(z). The rms length of the charge distribution in the wire is l0 ; i.e.,
l02

1
=
Q


wire

z 2 (z) dz .

(a) (10 points) Find the dipole and quadrupole moments for this charge distribution.
Note that the dipole and quadrupole moments are dened on the formula sheets as

pi =

Qij =

d3 x (r ) xi ,
d3 x (r )(3xi xj ij |r |2 ) .

(b) (10 points) Give an expression for the potential V (r, ) for large r, including all terms
through the quadrupole contribution.

8.07 QUIZ 1 SOLUTIONS, FALL 2012

p. 6

PROBLEM 3 SOLUTION:
(a) (10 points) The dipole moment is dened as

pi = d3 x (r ) xi .
In this case the x and y components are zero, since x1 = x2 = 0 for the wire which
runs along z-axis. The z component of the dipole moment is pz , given by

(z) z dz ,
pz =
wire

where d3 x (r ) from the general formalism was replaced by (z) dz. This integration
also yields zero since (z) being an even function makes (z) z an odd function.
Therefore the integral gives zero. The dipole moment is found to be
p = 0 .
The quadrupole moments are dened as,

Qij = d3 x(r )(3xi xj ij |r|2 ) .
Since the wire runs along z-axis we again have x1 = 0 and x2 = 0, and we
also
have |r| = |z| on the wire. Using the rms length of the charge distribution,

z 2 (z)dz = Ql02 , we nd the quadrupole moment as
wire

Qxx = Qyy =

wire


Qzz =

wire

dz(z)(z 2 ) = Ql02 ,
dz(z)(3z 2 z 2 ) = 2Ql02 ,

Qxy = Qyx = Qxz = Qzx = Qyz = Qzy = 0 .


(b) (10 points) We use the formula for the multipole expansion of the potential on
formula sheet,

1  Q p r 1 ri rj
V (r) =
+ 2 +
Qij + . . . ,
r
2 r3
40 r
where Q, pi and Qij are given in part (a). The r direction is
+ ry y + rz z
r = sin cos ex + sin sin ey + cos ez = rx x

8.07 QUIZ 1 SOLUTIONS, FALL 2012

p. 7

Then performing the sum, we nd the potential V (r, ) as



1 ry r y
1 rz r z
1  Q 1 r x rx
V (r, ) =
+
Q
+
+
Q
Q
.
.
.
xx
yy
zz
40 r
2 r3
2 r3
2 r3
Up to the quadrupole term,

1  Q Ql02
+ 3 ( sin2 cos2 sin2 sin2 + 2 cos2 )
2r
40 r

1  Q Ql02
+ 3 ( sin2 + 2 cos2 )
=
2r
40 r

V (r, ) =


1  Q Ql02
+ 3 (3 cos2 1) .
2r
40 r

PROBLEM 4: A SPHERICAL SHELL OF CHARGE (30 points)


(a) (10 points) A spherical shell of radius R, with an unspecied surface charge density,
is centered at the origin of our coordinate system. The electric potential on the shell
is known to be
V (, ) = V0 sin cos ,
where V0 is a constant, and we use the usual polar coordinates, related to the Cartesian coordinates by
x = r sin cos ,
y = r sin sin ,
z = r cos .
Find V (r, , ) everywhere, both inside and outside the sphere. Assume that the
zero of V is xed by requiring V to approach zero at spatial innity. (Hint: this
problem can be solved using traceless symmetric tensors, or if you prefer you can
use standard spherical harmonics. A table of the low- Legendre polynomials and
spherical harmonics is included with the formula sheets.)
(b) (10 points) Suppose instead that the potential on the shell is given by
V (, ) = V0 sin2 sin2 .
Again, nd V (r, , ) everywhere, both inside and outside the sphere.
(c) (10 points) Suppose instead of specifying the potential, suppose the surface charge
density is known to be
(, ) = 0 sin2 sin2 .
Once again, nd V (r, , ) everywhere.

8.07 QUIZ 1 SOLUTIONS, FALL 2012

p. 8

PROBLEM 4 SOLUTION:
This problem can be solving using either traceless symmetric tensors or the more standard
spherical harmonics. I will show the solution both ways, starting with the simplier
derivation in terms of traceless symmetric tensors.
(a) (10 points) We exploit the fact that the most general solution to Laplaces equation
can be written as a sum of terms of the form


1
()

i1 . . . n
i ,
(4.1)
r or +1 Ci1 ...i n
r
()

where Ci1 ...i is a traceless symmetric tensor. In this case we only need an  = 1
term, since
x
i n
i .
(4.2)
Fa (, ) sin cos = = x
r
For  = 1 the radial function must be r or 1/r 2 . For r < R the 1/r2 option is
excluded, since it is innite at r = 0, so the solution is
V (r ) = V0

r
Fa (, )
R
r
i n
i
V0 x
R

or

r
V0 sin cos .
R

(4.3)

Note that the factor (1/R) was chosen to match the boundary condition at r = R.
For r > R the term proportional to r is excluded, because it does not approach zero
as r , so only the 1/r2 option remains, and the solution is

V (r ) = V0

R
r

2


=

V0

Fa (, )

R
r

2
i
x
i n

or

V0

R
r

(4.4)

2
sin cos .

(b) (10 points) This is in principle the same problem as in part (a), with a slightly more
complicated angular pattern. In this case
Fb (, ) sin2 sin2 =

y2
= (y n
)2 = yi yj n
in
j .
r2

(4.5)

8.07 QUIZ 1 SOLUTIONS, FALL 2012

p. 9

This is not quite the expansion in traceless symmetric tensors that we want, because
yi yj is not traceless, but instead has trace ij yi yj = y y = 1. However, we can easily
make it traceless by subtracting 31 ij , writing


1
1
in
Fb (, ) = yi yj ij n
j + .
(4.6)
3
3
To simplify the notation of what follows, I dene


1
1
(4.7)
F2 (, ) = yi yj ij n
in
j = sin2 sin2 ,
3
3
and
1
(4.8)
F0 (, ) = ,
3
so
Fb (, ) = F2 (, ) + F0 (, ) ,
(4.9)
where F2 and F0 refer to the  = 2 and  = 0 parts. To construct the potential, the
 = 2 term can be multiplied by r2 or 1/r 3 , where the second is excluded for r < R
and the rst is excluded for r > R. The  = 0 term can be multiplied by 1 or 1/r,
where the second is excluded for r < R and the rst is excluded for r > R. Thus,
for r < R we have
 

r 2
V (r ) = V0
F2 (, ) + F0 (, )
(4.10a)
R
 


r 2
1
1
V0
yi yj 3 ij n
in
j + 3
R


V0
For r > R we have



V (r ) = V0

R
r

3


=

V0


F2 (, ) +

R
r


V0


r 2  2
sin sin2 13 +
R

3

R
r

3

R
r

(4.10b)


.

(4.10c)

1
3

or

F0 (, )

yi yj 13 ij n
in
j +

(4.11a)


1
3

 2

sin sin2 13 +

1
3

R
r



R
r

or

(4.11b)


.

(4.11c)

8.07 QUIZ 1 SOLUTIONS, FALL 2012

p. 10

(c) In this case we are given (, ) instead of the potential at r = R, so we need to


make use of the fact that the surface charge density is related to the discontinuity
in the radial component of the electric eld. From Gausss law, we know that
Er (r=R+) Er (r=R) =

.
0

(4.12)

From the previous part, we know that we can write the potential as

V (r ) =

A
A

 r 2
R

 
 R 3
r

F2 (, ) + BF0 (, )
for r < R


F2 (, ) + B  Rr F0 (, ) for r > R ,

(4.13)

where A, B, A , and B  are as yet unknown constants. For the potential to be


continuous at r = R (potentials are always continuous if the electric elds are nite),
we require A = A and B  = B; the terms must match individually, since F0 and F2
are orthogonal to each other.
The surface charge density can be written as


(, ) = 0 Fb (, ) = 0 F2 (, ) + F0 (, ) ,

(4.14)

so we can write the discontinuity equation (4.12) as

V
V
(r=R+) +
(r=R) =
r
r
3A
B
2A
0
F2 (, ) =
(F2 (, ) + F0 (, )) .
F2 (, ) + F0 (, ) +
R
R
R
0

(4.15)

Again, since F0 and F2 are orthogonal, the coecients must match for each of them,
leading to
R0
R0
,
B=
A=
.
(4.16)
0
50
Inserting these coecients into Eq. (4.13), we nd

R0
V (r ) =
50

  2 
r
R

sin2 sin2

sin2 sin2

 R 3 

1
3


1
3

+
+

5
3

for r < R

for r > R .

 
5 R
r

**************************************************

(4.17)

8.07 QUIZ 1 SOLUTIONS, FALL 2012

p. 11

For those who enjoy looking


up functions in tables and manipulating complicated expressions involving factors or 4, the method of spherical harmonics is the ideal choice.
Most students in the class chose this option.
(a) This part is pretty straightforward, whether one uses traceless symmetric tensors or
spherical harmonics. Using the table in the formula sheets, and the relation

Y,m (, ) = (1)m Ym


(, )

(4.18)

from the formula sheet, one can see immediately that



 i

2
e + ei
Fa (, ) sin cos = sin
=
[Y11 Y1,1 ] .
2
3

(4.19)

The logic is the same as above, and the answer can be written as Eqs. (4.3) and
(4.4), or as

V (r ) = V0

 r   2
R

[Y11 (, ) Y1,1 (, )]

for r < R

(4.20)

for r > R .

(4.21)

and

V (r ) = V0

R
r

2 

2
[Y11 (, ) Y1,1 (, )]
3

(b) This time more work is required to express the angular function in terms of spherical
harmonics:
 i
2
e ei
2
2
2
Fb (, ) = sin sin = sin
2i


1
= sin2 2 e2i e2i
4

2
1
=
[Y22 + Y2,2 ] + sin2
2
15

(4.22)
2
1
=
[Y22 + Y2,2 ] + (1 cos2 )
2
15



2
1
1
1
2
[Y22 + Y2,2 ]
cos
=
+
15
3
2
3



2
1 4
4
[Y22 + Y2,2 ]
=
Y20 +
Y00 .
15
3
5
3

8.07 QUIZ 1 SOLUTIONS, FALL 2012

p. 12

As before one can separate the  = 0 and  = 2 components, writing Fb (, ) =


F2 (, ) + F0 (, ), where


2
1 4
F2 =
[Y22 + Y2,2 ]
Y20
(4.23)
3
5
15
and

4
Y00 .
(4.24)
F0 =
3
The calculation is then the same as before, so Eqs. (4.10a) and (4.11a) hold for these new
expressions for F2 and F0 . We then conclude that



 r 2  2 
 1  4
4
Y20 +

Y22 + Y2,2 +
Y00
R
3
3
5
15


V (r ) = V0

(4.25)

for r < R, and


   
  

3
 1  4
R
2 
4 R
Y20 +
Y00
V (r ) = V0
Y22 + Y2,2 +
3
r
3
5
r
15
(4.26)
for r > R. Of course the answers in Eqs. (4.10c) and (4.11c) are still correct, and can be
found by replacing the Ym s by their explicit forms.
(c) The calculation is the same as above, except that this time we use Eqs. (4.23) and
(4.24) for F2 and F0 . The result is




 r 2  2
R0
1 4
Y20
V (r ) =

[Y22 + Y2,2 ] +
R
3
5
15
50


5 4
+
Y00
3

(4.27)

for r < R, and


   


3
R
1 4
2
R0
V (r ) =

[Y22 + Y2,2 ] +
Y20
r
15
3
5
50

 
5 4 R
+
Y00
r
3

(4.28)

for r > R. Eq. (4.17) is still a valid answer, and is what one would nd by replacing
the Ym s by their explicit values.

MIT OpenCourseWare
http://ocw.mit.edu

8.07 Electromagnetism II
Fall 2012

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


Physics Department
Physics 8.07: Electromagnetism II
November 21, 2012
Prof. Alan Guth

QUIZ 2 SOLUTIONS
QUIZ DATE: NOVEMBER 15, 2012
PROBLEM 1: THE MAGNETIC FIELD OF A SPINNING, UNIFORMLY
CHARGED SPHERE (25 points)
This problem is based on Problem 1 of Problem Set 8.
A uniformly charged solid sphere of radius R carries a total charge Q, and is set
spinning with angular velocity about the z axis.
(a) (10 points) What is the magnetic dipole moment of the sphere?
 r ) at large
(b) (5 points) Using the dipole approximation, what is the vector potential A(
 is a vector, so it is not enough to merely specify its
distances? (Remember that A
magnitude.)
(c) (10 points) Find the exact vector potential INSIDE the sphere. You may, if you wish,
make use of the result of Example 5.11 from Griths book. There he considered a
spherical shell, of radius R, carrying a uniform surface charge , spinning at angular
velocity
 directed along the z axis. He found the vector potential
R
0
r sin , (if r R)

3

A(r, , ) =
4

0 R sin , (if r R) .
r2
3

(1.1)

PROBLEM 1 SOLUTION:
(a) A uniformly charged solid sphere of radius R carries a total charge Q, hence it has
charge density = Q/( 43 R3 ). To nd the magnetic moment of sphere we can divide
the sphere into innitesimal charges. Using spherical polar coordinates, we can take
dq = d = r 2 dr sin d d, with the contribution to the dipole moment given by
dm
 = 12 r J d . One method would be to write down the volume integral directly,
using J = v =  r. We can, however, integrate over before we start, so we are
breaking the sphere into rings, where a given ring is indicated by its coordinates r
and , and its size dr and d. The volume of each ring is d = 2r 2 dr sin d. The
current dI in the ring is given by dq/T , where T = 2/ is the period, so
dI =

dq
d
=
= r 2 dr sin d .
T
2

(1.2)

8.07 QUIZ 2 SOLUTIONS, FALL 2012

p. 2

The magnetic dipole moment of each ring is then given by




1
1
dm
 ring =
r J d = dI
r d = dI(r 2 sin2 ) z .
2
2 ring
ring

(1.3)

The total magnetic dipole moment is then



m
 = r 2 sin (r 2 sin2 ) dr d z


r dr

=
0

(1 cos2 ) sin d z

Q R5 4
=
3 5 3
R
3

= 4

1
QR2 z .
5

(1.4)

(b) The vector potential in dipole approximation is,


 r
0 |m
 | sin
 = 0 m
A
=
=
3
4 r
4
r2

0 QR2 sin
.
4 5
r2

(1.5)

(c) To calculate the exact vector potential inside the sphere, we split the sphere into
shells. Let r  be the integration variable and the radius of a shell, moreover let
dr  denote the thickness of the shell. Then we can use the results of Example 5.11
(pp. 236-37) in Griths, if we replace by its value for this case. The value of is
found equating charges
Q
(4r 2) = 4
(4r 2 )dr 
(1.6)
3
3 R
and therefore we must replace

dr
4
3
3 R

Making this replacement in Griths Eq. (5.67), quoted above as Eq. (1.1), we now
have

r  r if r < r 

0
dA (r, , ) = 4 3 dr 
sin r 4
(1.7)
2 if r > r  .
3
R
3
r
Note that the R of Griths has been replaced by r  , which is the radius of the
integration shell. Now we can calculate the vector potential inside the sphere at

8.07 QUIZ 2 SOLUTIONS, FALL 2012

p. 3

some radius r < R. The integration will require two pieces, a piece where 0 < r  < r
and the other where r < r  < R, thus using the two options in Eq. (1.7):
0 Q
sin
A (r, , ) =
4 R3


0

r 4
dr  2 +
r


dr  rr 

(1.8)

Doing the integrals one nds


 3r 3
rR2
0 Q
sin
+
.
A (r, , ) =
4 R3
10
2

(1.9)

PROBLEM 2: SPHERE WITH VARIABLE DIELECTRIC CONSTANT (35


points)
A dielectric sphere of radius R has variable permittivity, so the permittivity throughout
space is described by

0 (R/r)2 if r < R
(r) =
(2.1)
if r > R .
0 ,
There are no free charges anywhere in this problem. The sphere is embedded in a constant
 = E0 z, which means that V (r ) E0 r cos for r  R.
external electric eld E
(a) (9 points) Show that V (r ) obeys the dierential equation
2 V +

d ln  V
=0.
dr r

(2.2)

(b) (4 points) Explain why the solution can be written as


V (r, ) =

V (r){ zi1 . . . zi } ri1 . . . ri ,

(2.3a)

=0

or equivalently (your choice)


V (r, ) =

V (r)P (cos ) ,

(2.3b)

=0

where { . . . } denotes the traceless symmetric part of . . . , and P (cos ) is the Legendre polynomial. (Your answer here should depend only on general mathematical
principles, and should not rely on the explicit solution that you will nd in parts (c)
and (d).)

8.07 QUIZ 2 SOLUTIONS, FALL 2012

p. 4

(c) (9 points) Derive the ordinary dierential equation obeyed by V (r) (separately for
r < R and r > R) and give its two independent solutions in each region. Hint: they
are powers of r. You may want to know that


d
dP (cos )
sin
= ( + 1) sin P (cos ) .
(2.4)
d
d
The relevant formulas for the traceless symmetric tensor formalism are in the formula
sheets.
(d) (9 points) Using appropriate boundary conditions on V (r, ) at r = 0, r = R, and
r , determine V (r, ) for r < R and r > R.
(e) (4 points) What is the net dipole moment of the polarized sphere?
PROBLEM 2 SOLUTION:
(a) Since we dont have free charges anywhere,
 D
 =
 (E),


 (
 ) + 
 E
 =0.
=E

(2.5)

  = d er . Then putting this


The permittivity only depends on r, so we can write
dr


result into Eq. (2.5) with E = V , we nd
 V ) er d + 2 V
0 = (
dr
V d 1
=
+ 2 V
r dr 
=

0=

V d ln 
+ 2 V .
r dr

(2.6)

(b) With an external eld along the z-axis, the problem has azimuthal symmetry, implying V / = 0, so V = V (r, ). The Legendre polynomials P (cos ) are a complete
set of functions of the polar angle for 0 , implying that at each value of
r, V (r, ) can be expanded in a Legendre series. In general, the coecients may be
functions of r, so we can write
V (r, ) =


=0

V (r)P (cos ) .

(2.7)

8.07 QUIZ 2 SOLUTIONS, FALL 2012

p. 5

The same argument holds for an expansion in { zi1 . . . zi } ri1 . . . ri , since these are
in fact the same functions, up to a multiplicative constant. Note that if  depended
on as well as r, then the completeness argument would still be valid, and it would
still be possible to write V (r, ) as in Eqs. (2.3). In that case, however, the equations
for the functions V (r) would become coupled to each other, making them much more
dicult to solve.
d ln 
2
(c) For r < R we have
= . Using the hint, Eq. (2.4) in the problem statement,
dr
r
we write







1
V d ln 
dV
2
( + 1)
2 V
V +
=
P (cos ) 2
r
+

V = 0 .

r dr
r2
r
dr
r
r r
=0
(2.8)
For this equation to hold for all r < R and for all , the term inside the square
brackets should be zero. (To show this, one would multiply by P (cos ) sin and
then integrate from = 0 to = 2. By the orthonormality of the Legendre
polynomials, only the  =  term would survive, so it would have to vanish for every
 .) Thus,
2

1
r 2 r

2 V

dV
+
dr



2
( + 1)
( + 1)
d2 V

V
=

V = 0 .

2
2
r
r
dr
r2

(2.9)

The general solution to Eq. (2.9) is


V (r) = A r +1 +

B
.
r

(2.10)

(This can be veried by inspection, but it can also be found by assuming a trial
function in the form of a power, V r p . Inserting the trial function into the
dierential equation, one nds p(p 1) = ( + 1) . One might see by inspection that
this is solved by p =  + 1 or p = , or one can solve it as a quadratic equation,
nding
1 (2 + 1)
p=
=  + 1 or  .)
2
For r > R,

1  2 V  ( + 1)
r

V = 0.
r
r2
r 2 r

(2.11)

The general solution to Eq. (2.11) is,


V (r ) = C r  +

D
.
r +1

(2.12)

8.07 QUIZ 2 SOLUTIONS, FALL 2012

p. 6

(d) The coecients B are zero, B = 0, to avoid a singularity at r = 0. The potential


goes as V (r) = E0 r cos for r  R; this gives C = 0 except for C1 = E0 . The
potential V (r, ) is continuous at r = R, implying that

D

A R+1 = +1
for  = 1
R
(2.13)

A R2 = E R + D1
for  = 1 .
1
0
R2
In addition, the normal component of the displacement vector is continuous on the
boundary of the sphere. Since  is continuous at r = R, this means that Er =
V /r is continuous, which one could also have deduced from Eq. (2.2), since any
discontinuity in V /r would produce a -function in 2 V /r 2 . Setting V /r at
r = R equal to its value at r = R+ , we nd

( + 1)A R = ( + 1) D

for  = 1
R+2
(2.14)
D1

for  = 1 .
2A1 R = 2 3 E0
R
Solving Eq. (2.13) and Eq. (2.14) as two equations (for each ) for the two unknowns
A and D , we see that A = D = 0 for  = 1, and that
3E0
,
4R
Then we nd the potential as
A1 =

C1 = E0 ,

and D1 =

2
3E0 r cos

4R

V (r, ) =
R3

E0 cos
r
4r2

E0 R 3
.
4

(2.15)

for r < R
(2.16)
for r < R .

(e) Eq. (2.16) tells us that for r > R, the potential is equal to that of the applied external
eld, Vext = E0 r cos , plus a term that we attribute to the sphere:
E0 R 3
cos .
4r 2
This has exactly the form of an electric dipole,
Vsphere (r, ) =

Vdip =

1 p r
,
40 r 2

(2.17)

(2.18)

if we identify
p = 0 R3 E0 z .

(2.19)

8.07 QUIZ 2 SOLUTIONS, FALL 2012

p. 7

PROBLEM 3: PAIR OF MAGNETIC DIPOLES (20 points)


Suppose there are two magnetic dipoles. One has dipole moment m
 1 = m0 z and
1
is located at r 1 = + 2 a z; the other has dipole moment m
 2 = m0 z, and is located at
r 2 = 12 a z.
(a) (10 points) For a point on the z axis at large z, nd the leading (in powers of 1/z)
 0, z) and the magnetic eld B(0,
 0, z).
behavior for the vector potential A(0,
(b) (3 points) In the language of monopole ( = 0), dipole ( = 1), quadrupole ( = 2),
octupole ( = 3), etc., what type of eld is produced at large distances by this
current conguration? In future parts, the answer to this question will be called a
whatapole.
(c) (3 points) We can construct an ideal whatapole a whatapole of zero size by
taking the limit as a 0, keeping m0 an xed, for some power n. What is the correct
value of n?
(d) (4 points) Given the formula for the current density of a dipole,
 r 3 (r r d ) ,
Jdip (r ) = m


(3.1)

where r d is the position of the dipole, nd an expression for the current density
of the whatapole constructed in part (c). Like the above equation, it should be
expressed in terms of -functions and/or derivatives of -functions, and maybe even
higher derivatives of -functions.
PROBLEM 3 SOLUTION:
(a) For the vector potential, we have from the formula sheet that
 r
 r ) = 0 m
A(
,
4 r 2

(3.2)

which vanishes on axis, since m


 = m0 z, and r = z on axis. Thus,
 0, z) = 0 .
A(0,

(3.3)

 = 0, however, since B depends on derivatives of A


 with
This does not mean that B
respect to x and y. From the formula sheet we have
 r)
rm

 dip (r ) = 0 3(m
,
B
4
r3

(3.4)

where we have dropped the -function because we are interested only in r =


 0.
Evaluating this expression on the positive z axis, where r = z, we nd
 dip (0, 0, z) = 0 2m0 z = 0 m0 z .
B
2 r 3
4 r 3

(3.5)

8.07 QUIZ 2 SOLUTIONS, FALL 2012

p. 8

For 2 dipoles, we have


 2 dip (0, 0, z) = 0 m0
B
2
0 m0
=
2z 3
0 m0

2z 3
0 m0
2z 3
0 m0

2z 3







1
z 12 a
1
1

3 
3
z + 12 a


1a 3
2z

1
1+

z



1a 3
2z


1
1

 z

1 32 az
1 + 32 az



3a
3a
1+
1
z
2z
2z
 a
3
z
z

30 m0 a
z .
4z 4

(3.6)


(b) Since it falls o as 1/z 4 , it is undoubtedly a quadrupole ( = 2) . For either the E
 elds, the monopole falls o as 1/r 2 , the dipole as 1/r 3 , and the quadrupole as
or B
1/r 4 .
(c) We wish to take the limit as a 0 in such a way that the eld at large z approaches
a constant, without blowing up or going to zero. From Eq. (3.6), we see that this
goal will be accomplished by keeping m0 a xed, which means n = 1 .
(d) For the two-dipole system we add together the two contributions to the current
density, using the appropriate values of r d and m
:
J2

r)
dip (





 r 3 r a z + m0 z
 r 3 r a z .
= m0 z
2
2

Rewriting,


J2

r)
dip (

 r
= m0 az

3 (r + a2 z) 3 (r a2 z)
a

(3.7)


.

(3.8)

Now we can dene Q m0 a, and if we take the limit a 0 with Q xed, the above
expression becomes
J2

r)
dip (

 r 3 (r ) .
= Qz
z

(3.9)

8.07 QUIZ 2 SOLUTIONS, FALL 2012

p. 9

Since partial derivatives commute, this could alternatively be written as

J2

r)
dip (

= Qz

 3
r (r ) .
z

(3.10)

PROBLEM 4: UNIFORMLY MAGNETIZED INFINITE CYLINDER (10


points)
Consider a uniformly magnetized innite circular cylinder, of radius R, with its axis
 = M0 z.
coinciding with the z axis. The magnetization inside the cylinder is M
 r ) everywhere in space.
(a) (5 points) Find H(
 r ) everywhere in space.
(b) (5 points) Find B(
PROBLEM 4 SOLUTION:
 r ) eld is
 = M0 z. The curl of the H(
(a) The magnetization inside the cylinder is M
 H(
 r ) = Jfree = 0 ,

(4.1)

and the divergence is



 H
 (r) =


 r)
B(
 (r)
M
0


=

1    
BM =0 .
0

(4.2)

Note that for a nite length cylinder, the divergence would be nonzero because of the
 at the boundaries. Since H(
 r ) is divergenceless and curl-free,
abrupt change in M
we can say
 r) = 0
H(

everywhere in space.

(4.3)

 r ) = 0 everywhere in space, we can nd magnetic eld as


(b) Having H(

 (r ) = B(r ) M
 (r ) = 0
H
0

 r ) =
B(

0 M0 z for r < R ,
0
for r > R .

(4.4)

 M
 = 0 and
In this question we could alternatively nd the bound currents as Jb =



Kb = M n
= M0 . Then, using Amp`eres law as we did for a solenoid, we could nd
 obtaining the same answers as above.
the magnetic eld and then also H,

8.07 QUIZ 2 SOLUTIONS, FALL 2012

p. 10

PROBLEM 5: ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC UNIFORMLY POLARIZED


SPHERES (10 points)
Compare the electric eld of a uniformly polarized sphere with the magnetic eld of
a uniformly magnetized sphere; in each case the dipole moment per unit volume points
along z. Multiple choice: which of the following is true?
 and B
 eld lines point in the same direction both inside and outside the
(a) The E
spheres.
 and B
 eld lines point in the same direction inside the spheres but in opposite
(b) The E
directions outside.
 and B
 eld lines point in opposite directions inside the spheres but in the
(c) The E
same direction outside.
 and B
 eld lines point in opposite directions both inside and outside the
(d) The E
spheres.
PROBLEM 5 SOLUTION:

 eld of a uniformly
E
polarized sphere

 eld of a uniformly
B
magnetized sphere

 and B
 eld lines point in opposite directions inside the spheres but
The answer is (c), E
in the same direction outside, as shown in the diagrams, which were scanned from the
 E
 =
rst edition of Jackson. Note that the diagram on the left shows clearly that
 0

at the boundary of the sphere, so it could not possibly
be a picture of B. It is at least

 E
 = 0, or equivalently E
 d = 0 for any closed loop, as it
visually consistent with
must be to describe an electrostatic eld. The diagram on the right, on the other hand,
 B
 =
 d =
shows clearly that
 0, or equivalently B
 0, so it could not possibly be a
 B
 = 0, as
picture of an electrostatic eld. It is at least qualitatively consistent with
it must be.

8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR QUIZ 2, V. 2, FALL 2012

p. 11

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


Physics Department
Physics 8.07: Electromagnetism II
November 13, 2012
Prof. Alan Guth

FORMULA SHEET FOR QUIZ 2, V. 2


Exam Date: November 15, 2012

Some sections below are marked with asterisks, as this section is. The asterisks
indicate that you wont need this material for the quiz, and need not understand it. It is
included, however, for completeness, and because some people might want to make use
of it to solve problems by methods other than the intended ones.
Index Notation:
B
 = Ai Bi ,
A

B
 i = ijk Aj Bk ,
A
ijk pqk = ip jq iq jp
det A = i1 i2 in A1,i1 A2,i2 An,in

Rotation of a Vector:
Ai = Rij Aj ,

Orthogonality: Rij Rik = jk


j=1

Rotation about z-axis by : Rz ()ij

i=1 cos

= i=2

sin
i=3
0

(RT T = I)

j=2

j=3

sin
cos
0

0
0
1

Rotation about axis n


by :
R(
n, )ij = ij cos + n
in
j (1 cos ) ijk n
k sin .
Vector Calculus:

 )i = i ,
i
Gradient:
(
xi


Divergence:
A i A i
Curl:

 A)
 i = ijk j Ak
(

Laplacian:

 (
 ) =
=
2

2
xi xi

Fundamental Theorems of Vector Calculus:




Gradient:

 (a)
 d = (b)

 da
A

 A
d x=

Divergence:
V


Curl:
S

where S is the boundary of V





 d
( A) da =
A
P

where P is the boundary of S

8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR QUIZ 2, V. 2, FALL 2012

p. 12

Delta Functions:




(r ) 3 (r r  ) d3 x = (r  )
(x)(x x ) dx = (x ) ,


d
d 

(x) (x x ) dx =
dx
dx x=x
(x xi )
, g(xi ) = 0
(g(x)) =
|g  (xi )|
i



1

r


r

= 4 3 (r r  )

= 2

3
|r r  |
|r r |


x 
ri rj
4
1
ij 3
rj
j
=
+
ij 3 (r)
i
i 3 = i j
2
3
r
3
r
r
r

r d
8   3
 3(d r)

=
(d ) (r )

r3
3

r d
4
 3(d r)
 3 (r )

= d
3
3
r
Electrostatics:
 , where
F = qE

1
(r r  )
1 (r r  ) qi

E(r ) =
=
  ) d3 x
3 (r

40 i |r r  |3
40
|r r |
0 =permittivity of free space = 8.854 1012 C2 /(Nm2 )
1
= 8.988 109 Nm2 /C2
40

 r
1
(r  ) 3 




E(r ) d =
d x
V (r ) = V (r 0 )
40
|r r  |

r0
 E
 = ,
 E

 = 0,
 = V

E
0

(Poissons Eq.) ,
= 0 = 2 V = 0 (Laplaces Eq.)
2 V =
0
Laplacian Mean Value Theorem (no generally accepted name): If 2 V = 0, then
the average value of V on a spherical surface equals its value at the center.
Energy:


1 1 qi qj
(r )(r  )
1 1
W =
=
d3 x d3 x
2 40
rij
2 40
|r r  |
1
W =
2

ij

i=j


1
d x(r )V (r ) = 0
2
3

 2 3
E
 d x

8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR QUIZ 2, V. 2, FALL 2012

p. 13

Conductors:
 = n
Just outside, E

0
Pressure on surface:

1

2 |E|outside

Two-conductor system with charges Q and Q: Q = CV , W = 12 CV 2


N isolated conductors:
Vi =

Pij Qj ,

Pij = elastance matrix, or reciprocal capacitance matrix

Cij Vj ,

Cij = capacitance matrix

Qi =

a
a2
Image charge in sphere of radius a: Image of Q at R is q = Q, r =
R
R
Separation of Variables for Laplaces Equation in Cartesian Coordinates:

V =

cos x
sin x

cos y
sin y

cosh z
sinh z


where 2 = 2 + 2

Separation of Variables for Laplaces Equation in Spherical Coordinates:


Traceless Symmetric Tensor expansion:


1
1
2
r
+ 2 2 = 0 ,
(r, , ) = 2
r
r
r r
where the angular part is given by


1

1 2
2
sin
+

sin

sin2 2
2

()

()

2 Ci1 i2 ...i n
i1 n
i2 . . . n
i = ( + 1)Ci1 i2 ...i n
i1 n
i2 . . . n
i ,
()

where Ci1 i2 ...i is a symmetric traceless tensor and


n
= sin cos e1 + sin sin e2 + cos e3 .
General solution to Laplaces equation:


()


C
()
i2 ...i
ri1 ri2 . . . ri ,
V (r ) =
Ci1 i2 ...i r  + i1+1
r
=0

where r = rr

8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR QUIZ 2, V. 2, FALL 2012

p. 14

Azimuthal Symmetry:



B

A r + +1 { zi1 . . . zi } ri1 . . . ri
V (r ) =
r
=0
where { . . . } denotes the traceless symmetric part of . . . .
Special cases:
{1} = 1
{ zi } = zi
{ zi zj } = zi zj 13 ij


zi jk + zj ik + zk ij

{ zi zj zk zm } = zi zj zk zm 71 zi zj km + zi zk mj + zi zm jk + zj zk im



1
ij km + ik jm + im jk
+ zj zm ik + zk zm ij + 35
{ zi zj zk } = zi zj zk

1
5

Legendre Polynomial / Spherical Harmonic expansion:


General solution to Laplaces equation:





Bm

V (r ) =
Am r + +1 Ym (, )
r
=0 m=

Orthonormality:
0

sin d Y m (, ) Ym (, ) =   m m

Azimuthal Symmetry:



B

A r + +1 P (cos )
V (r ) =
r
=0

Electric Multipole Expansion:


First several terms:

1  Q p r 1 ri rj
Q
+

, where
V (r ) =
+ 2 +
ij
2 r3
40 r
r



3
3
Q = d x (r ) , pi = d x (r ) xi Qij = d3 x (r )(3xi xj ij |r |2 ) ,
 dip (r ) = 1

E
40
 E
 dip (r ) = 0 ,

p r
r2

1 3(p r)
r p
1

pi 3 (r )
3
40
r
30

 E
 dip (r ) = 1 dip (r ) = 1 p
 3 (r )

0
0

8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR QUIZ 2, V. 2, FALL 2012

p. 15

Traceless Symmetric Tensor version:


V (r ) =

1 1
()
Ci1 ...i ri1 . . . ri ,

+1
r
40
=0

where
()
Ci1 ...i

(2 1)!!
=
!


(r ) { xi1 . . . xi } d3 x

(r rr xi ei )

(2 1)!! r 
1
=
{ ri1 . . . ri } ri1 . . . ri ,
!
r +1
|r r  |

for r  < r

=0

(2 1)!! (2 1)(2 3)(2 5) . . . 1 =

(2)!
, with (1)!! 1 .
2 !

Reminder: { . . . } denotes the traceless symmetric part of . . . .


Griths version:


1 1

V (r ) =
r  (r  )P (cos  ) d3 x
+1
40
r
=0

where = angle between r and r  .

r
1
<
=
P (cos  ) ,
+1 
|r r  |
r>
=0

1
P (x) = 
2 !

d
dx

=
 P (x)
2
1 2x +
=0


(x2 1) ,

(Rodrigues formula)


P (1) = 1

P (x) = (1) P (x)

dx P (x)P (x) =

2
 
2 + 1

Spherical Harmonic version:


1 4 qm
V (r ) =
Ym (, )
2 + 1 r +1
40
=0 m=

where qm =


Ym
r (r  ) d3 x




4 r   
1
=
Y ( , )Ym (, ) ,
2 + 1 r +1 m
|r r  |
=0 m=

for r  < r

8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR QUIZ 2, V. 2, FALL 2012

p. 16

Electric Fields in Matter:


Electric Dipoles:

p = d3 x (r ) r
 r 3 (r r d ) , where r d = position of dipole
dip (r ) = p
 = (p
 )E
 =
 (p E)

F
(force on a dipole)

 = p E
(torque on a dipole)

U = p E
Electrically Polarizable Materials:
 (r ) = polarization = electric dipole moment per unit volume
P
 n
bound = P ,
bound = P

 0 E
 +P
 ,
D

 D
 = free ,

 E
 = 0 (for statics)

Boundary conditions:

Eab
ove Ebelow =

0



E
above Ebelow = 0

Dab
ove Dbelow = free





D
above Dbelow = Pabove Pbelow

Linear Dielectrics:
 = 0 e E,

P

e = electric susceptibility
 = E

 0 (1 + e ) = permittivity,
D

r =
= 1 + e = relative permittivity, or dielectric constant
0

N /0
, where N = number density of atoms
1 N
30

or (nonpolar) molecules, = atomic/molecular polarizability (P = E)

1
 E
 d3 x
(linear materials only)
Energy: W =
D
2
 W (Even if one or more potential dierences are
Force on a dielectric: F =
held xed, the force can be found by computing the gradient with the total
charge on each conductor xed.)
Clausius-Mossotti equation: e =

Magnetostatics:
Magnetic Force:
 = q (E
 + v B)
 = dp ,
F
dt

where p = m0v ,

1
= 
1

v2
c2

8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR QUIZ 2, V. 2, FALL 2012


 =
F

p. 17


 =
I d B

 d3 x
J B

Current Density:


J da

Current through a surface S: IS =


S

Charge conservation:

 J
=
t

Moving density of charge: J = v


Biot-Savart Law:
  
 
0
0
K(r ) (r r  ) 
d (r r  )

I
=
da
B(r ) =
4
|r r  |3
4
|r r  |3
  
0
J(r ) (r r  ) 3
=
d x
4
|r r  |3
where 0 = permeability of free space 4 107 N/A2
Examples:
 = 0 I
Innitely long straight wire: B
2r
Inntely long tightly wound solenoid:
unit length
 0, z) =
Loop of current on axis: B(0,

 = 0 nI0 z , where n = turns per


B

0 IR2
z
2(z 2 + R2 )3/2

 r ) = 1 0 K
 n
Innite current sheet: B(
, n
= unit normal toward r
2
Vector Potential:
 (r )coul = 0
A
4

J(r  ) 3 
d x ,
|r r  |

 =
 A
,
B

 A
 coul = 0

 B
 = 0 (Subject to modication if magnetic monopoles are discovered)

  (r ) = A(
 r ) + (
 r ) for any (r ). B
 =
 A
 is
Gauge Transformations: A
unchanged.
Amp`eres Law:


 d = 0 Ienc
B

 B
 = 0 J , or equivalently

8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR QUIZ 2, V. 2, FALL 2012

p. 18

Magnetic Multipole Expansion:


Traceless Symmetric Tensor version:

{ ri1 . . . ri }
0 ()
Aj (r ) =
Mj;i1 i2 ...i
r +1
4
=0

(2 1)!!
()
where Mj;i1 i2 ...i =
d3 xJj (r ){ xi1 . . . xi }
!

Current conservation restriction:
d3 x Sym(xi1 . . . xi1 Ji ) = 0
i1 ...i

where Sym means to symmetrize i.e. average over all


i1 ...i

orderings in the indices i1 . . . i


Special cases: 
 = 1:

d3 x Ji = 0
d3 x (Ji xj + Jj xi ) = 0

 = 2:

 r
 (r ) = 0 m
Leading term (dipole): A
,
4 r 2
where
1
(1)
mi = ijk Mj;k
2


1
1
m
 = I
r d =
d3 x r J = Ia ,
2
2 P

where a =
da for any surface S spanning P
S

 r
0 3(m
 r)
rm

20
 dip (r ) = 0
 m
m
 3 (r )
B
=
+
2
3
4
r
3
4
r
 B
 dip (r ) = 0 ,
 B
 dip (r ) = 0 Jdip (r ) = 0 m
 3 (r )


Griths version:

0 I 1

(r  ) P (cos  )d
A(r ) =
r +1
4
=0

Magnetic Fields in Matter:


Magnetic Dipoles:


1
1

r d =
m
 = I
d3 x r J = Ia
2 P
2

8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR QUIZ 2, V. 2, FALL 2012

p. 19

 r 3 (r r d ), where r d = position of dipole



Jdip (r ) = m
 =
 (m

F
 B)
(force on a dipole)

=m
 B

U = m
 B

(torque on a dipole)

Magnetically Polarizable Materials:


 (r ) = magnetization = magnetic dipole moment per unit volume
M
 M
 ,
 bound = M
 n
K

Jbound =
 B
 =0
 1B
 M
 ,
 H
 = Jfree ,

0
Boundary conditions:

Hab
Bab
ove Bbelow = 0
ove Hbelow = (Mabove Mbelow )






)
H

B
above Bbelow = 0 (K n
above Hbelow = Kfree n
Linear Magnetic Materials:
 = m H,

m = magnetic susceptibility
M
 = H

B
= 0 (1 + m ) = permeability,
Magnetic Monopoles:
 (r ) = 0 qm r ;

B
Force on a static monopole: F = qm B
4 r 2
 = 0 qe qm r , where r points
Angular momentum of monopole/charge system: L
4
from qe to qm
0 qe qm
1
Dirac quantization condition:
= h integer
4
2
Connection Between Traceless Symmetric Tensors and Legendre Polynomials
or Spherical Harmonics:
(2)!
{ zi1 . . . zi } n
i1 . . . n
i
P (cos ) = 
2 (!)2
For m 0,
(,m)

i1 . . . n
i ,
Ym (, ) = Ci1 ...i n
(,m)

+
im+1 . . . zi } ,
where Ci1 i2 ...i = dm { u
+
i1 . . . u
im z

2m (2 + 1)
(1)m (2)!
,
with dm =
4 ( + m)! ( m)!
2  !
1
ex + iey )
and u
+ = (
2

Form m < 0, Y,m (, ) = (1)m Ym


(, )

8.07 FORMULA SHEET FOR QUIZ 2, V. 2, FALL 2012

p. 20

More Information about Spherical Harmonics:



2 + 1 ( m)! m
P (cos )eim
Ym (, ) =
4 ( + m)! 
where Pm (cos ) is the associated Legendre function, which can be dened by
Pm (x)

+m
(1)m
2 m/2 d
=
(1 x )
(x2 1)

+m
2 !
dx

Legendre Polynomials:

SPHERICAL HARMONICS Ylm( , )


l=0

Y00 =

4
3
sin ei
8

Y11 = l=1

3
cos
4

Y10 =

Y22 =

l=2

1
4

15
sin2 e2i
2
15
sin cosei
8

Y21 = -

Y20 =

5
( 32 cos2
4

1
)
2

35
sin3 e3i
4

Y33 = -

1
4

Y32 =

1
4

105
sin2 cos e2i
2

Y31 = -

1
4

21
sin (5cos2 -1)ei
4

l=3

Y30 =

7
( 5 cos3
4 2

3
2

cos )

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

MIT OpenCourseWare
http://ocw.mit.edu

8.07 Electromagnetism II
Fall 2012

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

Problem 1
A sprinter running a 100 meter race starts at rest, accelerates at constant acceleration with

magnitude A for 2 seconds, and then runs at constant speed until the end.

a) Find the position (relative to the start position) and speed of the runner at the end of the 2

seconds in terms of A.
b) Assume that the runner takes a total of 10 seconds to run the 100 meters. Find the value of
the acceleration A. You can leave your answer in terms of a fraction but clearly indicate the
units.
Problem 2

36.9

8m

A rock is thrown upward from a bridge at an initial height of 8


meters above the water at an initial speed of v0 and an angle of
36.9 o from the vertical as shown. Use g=10 m/s2 to solve this
problem. See note on formula sheet about the values of
trigonometric functions for this angle.
a) Write a set of equations for the horizontal and vertical
positions and velocities of the rock as a function of time.
Clearly indicate on your drawing your choice of axes and
what point you are using as your origin.
b) The rock reaches its highest point in 2 seconds. How high is
the rock above the water at that instant? (Hint: First you
need to find v0).

Problem 3
A rock is thrown downward from a bridge at an initial speed of 10
m/s and an angle of 36.9o from the vertical as shown. At the
o
same instant a boat is passing under the bridge traveling 6 m/s in
36.9
10 m/s
the direction shown. See note on formula sheet about the values

of trigonometric functions for this angle.

a) Find the vertical and horizontal components of the initial

6 m/s
velocity of the rock as seen by a person on the bridge. Clearly
indicate on your drawing your choice of axes.
b) Find the vertical and horizontal components of the initial
velocity of the rock as seen by the person on the boat. Clearly indicate on your drawing your
choice of axes.
c) Draw a clear vector diagram showing how to relate the velocity the rock appears to be moving
as seen from the bridge, the velocity the rock appears to be moving as seen by the person in
the boat, and the velocity of the boat with respect to the bridge.
Problem 4
The position of a particle of mass M is given by the following equations:
X = A + Bt  Ct 2
Y = D + Et  F cos(Gt ) Z = H + F sin(Gt )
where A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and H are all constants.

a) Find the three components of the acceleration as a function of time.

b) Are the direction and magnitude of the acceleration independent of time?


answer.

Explain your

Problem 5

An object is acted on by three forces. All three forces have exactly


the same magnitude. Two of the forces are perpendicular and
the third acts at an angle as shown above. No other forces act
on this object. Which of the following is true? For full credit,
explain your answer.
1) It is possible for this particle to remain at rest.
2) It is not possible for this particle to remain at rest.
3) You cannot answer this question without knowing the value of
the angle .
4) You cannot answer this question without knowing both the
value of the angle  and the magnitude of the forces F.

Problem 6
A person pulls on a block by applying a force F and the block

remains at rest. The arrows in the diagram correctly show the

directions, but not necessarily the magnitudes, of the various

forces on the block. Which of the following relations among the

force magnitudes F, W, N, f must be true? f is friction and W is the

weight (the force of gravity).

 F = f and N = W
 F = f and N > W
 F > f and N < W
 F > f and N = W
 None of the above choices is correct.
Problem 7
The position of a particle is given by the following equations:
x = at + bt 3 where a = 2.0 m s and b = 0.5 m

F
W

s3

 rad
s
2
a) Write equations for the components of the velocity, vx and vy, as functions of time.

b) Write equations for the components of the acceleration, ax and ay, as functions of time.

c) Make an XY plot showing (as dots numbered 0 and 1) the position of the particle at t=0 and 1

seconds. On this same plot, draw two arrows at each dot showing the approximate direction
of the velocity and acceleration at that time. If either velocity or acceleration has zero
magnitude, indicate that clearly. Label your two arrows so we know which is which. Don't
worry about the length of these arrows, just their approximate directions
y = A sin(Bt ) where A = 2.0m and B =

Problem 8
While driving along the highway at 40 m/s, you spot a police car 50 m ahead, traveling at a
constant speed of 30 m/s which is the speed limit. You apply the brakes and begin decelerating
at 1.0 m/s2. Assume that the police officer will give you a speeding ticket only if you pass her car.
Will you get a ticket? Justify your answer numerically. [Hint: You can solve this problem by
trying to solve a quadratic equation; look closely at the numbers! Instead, you might want to
think about when the cars have equal velocities.]

Problem 9
A rocket, initially at rest on the ground, accelerates straight upward with constant net
acceleration, B, from time t=0 until t=T1, at which time the fuel is exhausted. Neglect air
resistance and assume that the rocket stays close enough to the ground that the acceleration due
to gravity (after the rocket engine stops) is given by g.
a) Find the maximum height, H, that the rocket reaches above the ground.
b) If the rocket's net acceleration, B, is equal to 1.0g, find an expression for the total time, Tmax,
that the rocket is in the air (i.e. from liftoff until it hits the ground) in terms of T1. You do not
need to solve your expression numerically but simplify it as much as possible.
Problem 10
You are standing on the Mass Avenue Bridge watching the
boats on the Charles. You see a motorboat pass directly below
you, traveling perpendicular to the bridge at a speed of 6 m/s. A
person on the boat throws a baseball at an initial speed of v0
and at an angle of 36.9o from the vertical (Note: both v0 and the
angle are with respect to the boat). Find the value of v0
necessary for the ball to travel straight up towards you. Show
clearly on the drawing the direction the ball is thrown relative
to the boat.

6 m/s

Problem 11
A circus acrobat is launched by a catapult at a speed of 15 m s at an angle of  = 40 above the
horizontal as shown. At a distance of 20 m away, her partner is standing on a platform at a
height of h meters. At the instant that the acrobat is launched, her partner throws a basketball
towards her horizontally at a speed of 5 m s . Ignore air resistance in solving this problem.
a) Write equations for the horizontal and vertical
positions as functions of time for both the
acrobat and the basketball. Be consistent in
your choice of origin.
b) When will the performer and basketball be at
the same horizontal position?
c) Find the value of h for which the acrobat will
catch the ball. Assume that she and the ball
must be at the same height for her to catch it.
d) Find the magnitude of the velocity of the ball
relative to the acrobat at the instant that she
catches it.
Problem 12
Young & Freedman 5.11 and 5.12 on page 194.

20 m
5 m/s

15 m/s

Massachusetts Institute of Technology


Department of Physics
Physics 8.01L
SAMPLE EXAM 1

SOLUTIONS

September 26, 2005

Problem 1
a)
x=

1 2
1
At = A(2)2 = 2A
2
2
Vx = At = 2A

b)
8 seconds to run 100 2Am at speed 2A.
8(2A) = 100 2A 18A = 100 A =

100
18

x = 2A + 2At
x = 100, at t = 8
100 = 2A + 2A(8)
A=

100
18

Problem 2
a)

x = v0 sin(36.9)t = 0.6v0 t
vx = v0 sin(36.9 ) = 0.6v0
1 2
1
gt = 8 + 0.8v0 t gt2
2
2
vy = v0 cos(36.9 ) gt = 0.8v0 gt

y = 8 + v0 cos(36.9 )t =

b)
At top, vy = 0
y = 8 + 0.8(

0 = 0.8v0 10 (2)

v0 =

20
0.8 .

20
1
)(2) (10)(2)2 = 8 + 40 20
0.8
2
y = 28m.
1

Problem 3
a)

vx = 10sin(36.9) = 6

m/s

vy = 10cos(36.9 ) = 8 m/s

b)
vx = 6 6 = 0m/s
vy = 8 0 = 8m/s
c)

Problem 4
a)
vx = B 2Ct
vy = E + F Gsin(Gt)

ax = 2C

ay = F G2 cos(Gt)
az = F G2 sin(Gt)

vz = F Gcos(Gt)
b)
|a| =

4C 2 + F 2 G4

Magnitude constant, direction changes.

Problem 5

Fx = F cos() F

Cant be zero unless = 0.

Fy = F sin() F

Cant be zero unless = 90 .

Cant both be zero. Answer is (2).

Problem 6
a)

F =f

and N = W

F =f

and N > W

F >f
F >f

and N < W
and N = W

None of the above choices is correct.

f = F cos() < F
N + F sin() = W

N <W

Problem 7
a)
3
vx = a + 3bt2 = 2 + t2
2

vy = ABcos(Bt) = cos( t)
2
b)
ax = 6bt = 3t
ay = AB 2 sin(Bt) =

sin( t)
2
2

c)
0
1

x
0
2 21

y
0
2

vx
2
3 21

vy

ax
0
3

ay
0
2
2

Problem 8
1
x1 = 40t (1)t2 v1 = 40 t
2
x2 = 50 + 30t v2 = 30

v1 = v2

@ t = 10

Method 1:
x1 = 400 50 = 350
x2 = 50 + 300 = 350
Dont pass No ticket!
x1 = x2
Method 2:

t=
Only happens once

1
40t t2 = 50 + 30t
2

1 2
t 10t + 30 = 0
2

10 100 4( 21 )(50)
1

You dont pass.

Problem 9
a) Boost phase: y = 12 BT12

vy = BT1 .

Gravity phase: y = 21 BT12 + BT1 t 21 gt2


vy = 0 @ 0 = (BT1 )2 2g(y 21 BT12 ) or t =
H=

B 2 T12
2g

BT1
g .

+ 21 BT12

b) Tmax = T1 + t
where 0 = 21 BT12 + BT1 t 12 gt2
If B = g t2 2T1 t T12 = 0

2T1 + 4T12 +4T12


t=
2
t = T1 +

2T1

Tmax = 2T1 +

2T1 = T1 (2 + 2).

= 10

Problem 10

Want: vboat,x + vball,x = 0


vball,x must be < 0
6 v0 sin(36.9 ) = 0
6 v0 (0.6) = 0
v0 = 10m/s.

Problem 11

a)
Acrobat
x = 0 + 15cos()t + 0
x = 11.5t
y = 0 + 15sin()t 21 gt2
y = 9.6t 4.9t2
b) x1 = x2
c)

Basketball
x = 20 5t
y = h 21 gt2 = h 4.9t2

at 11.5t = 20 5t t = 1.21s.

Acrobat: y = 4.44m.

Basketball: y = h 4.9t2 = h 7.20 = 4.44m.


h = 11.6m.
d)
Acrobat
vx = 11.5m/s
vy = 2.26m/s

Basketball
vx = 5m/s
vy = 11.9m/s

Relative
vx = 5(11.5) = 16.5m/s
vy = 11.9 (2.26) = 9.6m/s
Mag = 19.1m/s

Problem 12
Young & Freedman 5.11 on page 194.
a)

T sin(45) = 60N

T = 85N

b) T cos(45) = F2 F2 = 60N
c) Looking at the diagonal string F1 = F2 , so F1 = 60N .

Young & Freedman 5.12 on page 194.

Fy = T cos() w = 0

T = w/cos()

Fx = N T sin() = 0

N = T sin() = wtan()
You can nd from sin() =
= 4.2

T = 2.7N

R
l+R ,

where l is the length of the string:

N = 0.2N

Massachusetts Institute of Technology


Department of Physics
Physics 8.01L
SAMPLE EXAM 2

SOLUTIONS

November 1, 2005

Problem 1
i) a) Object A Same force, smaller mass, so A has a bigger acceleration and moves the same distance in a

shorter time.

ii) c) Both are the same. Same force, same distance, so the same change in kinetic energy.

iii) a) Object A. Smaller mass so smaller normal force, therefore smaller friction. Net force is larger on A,

so it gains more kinetic energy.

iv) a) Object A. B moves up and stops completely. At its maximum height, A still has horizontal motion.

v) b) Objects B They start with the same kinetic energy (KE). B converts all of its KE to gravitation

potential energy (PE), while A always has some non-zero KE.

Problem 2
A) iv) Same force by Newtons 3rd law.

B) iv) None of the above. NA MA g F = MA a, NA = MA g + F MA a

C) iii) Less than mA g but not zero. T MA g = MA a, T = MA (g a)

D) iv) Normal force does work and creates PE. N points up, motion is up + Work KE is constant, but

PE rises.

Problem 3
a)

a = vR , v = 2R

2
2
b) a = vR = 4 2R Spring
is stretched a distance R so:
4 2
T = kR = ma = m 2 R , R drops out.

= 2 m
k

Problem 4
a)

b)

Fx = Bsin() f = 0, f = Bsin()
Fy = Bcos() + N = 0, N = Bcos()

c) B will not move if f < N, Bsin() < Bcos()


B drops out. Block will move if sin() > cos(), or tan() >

Problem 5
a) y = H + vt 21 gt2 , y = H at vt 12 gt2 = 0, t = 2v
g .
b) N = B by Newtons 3rd law.
c) N = 0 No contact.
d) EI = 0, EF = mg H + 21 mv 2 , W = BH = EF EI B = mg +

mv 2
2H

Problem 6
a) Fx = F cos() =

2mg
tan() ,

ax =

2g
tan()

2g
x = 100t + 12 ax t2 = 100(12) + 12 tan()
(12)2 = 1200 +

Fy = F sin() mg = 2mg mg = mg, ay = +g


y = 0 (12) + 12 g (12)2 = 720.

1440
tan()

b) This problem uses a calculator, your exam will not require a calculator.
2g
vx = 100 + tan()
(12) = 239 m/s.
vy =
g (12) = 120 m/s
v=

vx2 + vy2 = 267m/s, at 26.7 above horizontal.

Problem 7
a)

b)

Fy = 0 mg + N sin() = 0, N =

mg
sin()

2
c)
Fx = N cos() = m vR , R = Htan()

mg
mv 2
cos() = Htan()
, v 2 = Hg.
Use answer to (b): sin()

Problem 8
a)

b)
Fx = N sin() = ma,
Fy = N cos() mg = 0.
N sin()
mg
c) N = cos() , a = m = gtan().
2

Problem 9
a) The suit case is sliding so it has kinetic friction. Belt is horizontal and no vertical forces other than
gravity so f = k mg.
b) a =

F
m

= k g, v = at = k gt = u t =

u
k g .

c) No PE so W = KE = 12 mu2 0 Wf rict = 21 mu2 .


d) At this point, the suit case moves at constant velocity, so f = 0.

Problem 10
a)

b)

Fx = T + T sin() = m vL
Fy = T cos() mg = 0.

Problem 11. Young & Freedman 7.58 (pg. 278).


a) Call h = 0 the bottom end of the rod when it is vertical. Call the length of the rod L:
KEI = 0, KEF = 12 mrat v 2 + 12 mmouse v 2 .
The rod pivots around the center so both animals move at the same speed.
P EI = g(mrat + mmouse ) L2 , P EF = g(mrat mmouse )L.
mmouse )Lg
, v = 1.8m/s.
W = 0, since no forces other than gravity: v 2 = (mmrat
rat +mmouse

Problem 12. Young & Freedman 7.61 (pg. 279).


a) Dropping a distance h, no friction: 12 mv 2 = mgh, v 2 = 2gh.
Dropping a distance d with friction, but gaining the same KE: KEI = 0, KEF = mgh, P EI = mgd.
P EF = 0, W = f d, W = E, f d = mgh mgd
. If h = d, f = 0, as expected.
f = mg dh
d
If h = 0, no velocity! f = mg.
b) 440 Newtons.
c) KEI = 0, KEF = 12 mv 2 , P EI = mgd, P EF = mgy, W = f (d y)
Using the value of f found in a): f (d y) = mg (dh)(dy)
= 12 mv 2 + mgy mgd
d

(dy)h
=
2g
,
v
=
2g (dy)h
m drops out v 2 = 2g(d y) 2g (dh)(dy)
d
d
d

Problem 13. Young & Freedman 7.65 (pg. 279).


a) W = E, KEI = 21 (m)(4.8)2 , KEF = 0, W = f d
f = N and N = mg , so: 21 m(4.8)2 = mgd, = 0.39
b) W = E, P EI = mg(1.6), P EF = 0, KEI = 0, KEF = 12 m(4.8)2
W = E = 21 m(4.8)2 mg(1.6) = 0.83 J
3

8.01L

Fall 2005
Exam 3 Sample Problems
Note that some of these problems were from an exam allowing calculators. Your exam will
not allow calculators.
Problem 1
a) Two large spherical stars with masses of M and 2M
m
M
2M
are positioned a distance D apart (measured from
the center of one star to the center of the other
star) as shown. A small spherical asteroid with
D
mass m is located with its center exactly halfway
between the two large stars. Find the magnitude and direction of the total
gravitational force acting on the asteroid.
m
b) A small probe of mass m is released from rest at a distance of
2R above the surface of a spherical planet of mass M and radius
R. Find the speed that the probe will have when it hits the
surface of the planet. Assume that the planet does not have an
atmosphere and no forces other than gravity act on the probe.
c) Assume that the probe is released at the same distance from
the planet but now with a velocity of vo = GM 4R . The probe
has a rocket which fires to put it into a circular orbit at that
height. Find the speed the probe would have once it is in the
circular orbit and, using that, find the work done by the
rocket. Assume that, at all times, the probe is at the same
distance from the planet and that there are no forces acting
on the probe other than the planets gravity and the rocket.

2R

vo

2R

Extra Credit Question This question may require a lot of thought for the points
available. Try it only if you have finished with all other problems
d) Redo part (b) but assuming that the planet is a hollow shell and that the probe falls
through a hole in the shell. Find the speed of the probe when it gets to the center of
the hollow shell. Explain your answer.
Problem 2
a) An object of mass, M=2 kg, is attached to a spring of
spring
k
spring constant k=50 N/m which is compressed a
uncompressed
distance d=20 cm and then released at rest. Find the
M
speed of the object when it has gone past the point
d
where the spring is uncompressed and now the
spring is stretched a distance of 10 cm. Assume that
the mass is moving on a horizontal, frictionless
surface.
b) Write an equation for the position of the mass as a function of time with t=0 being the
instant that the mass was first released from rest. Use this equation to find out how
long it takes the mass to get from the initial point with the spring compressed by 20 cm
to the point where the spring is stretched by 10 cm. (Hint: Think carefully about the
units of when doing the trig functions on your calculator.)
c) Write an equation for the velocity as a function of time, using the same definition of
t=0 as in part (b). Use this equation to find the velocity (magnitude and direction)
when the time is t = 3T 4 where T is the period of motion of the mass on the spring.

Problem 3
Two hockey pucks collide on a
horizontal, frictionless surface. The
velocities of both pucks before the
collision are shown in the drawing.
After they collide, puck A is moving
as shown. Assume that the mass of
puck A is twice as large as the mass
of puck B: MA = 2*MB.

BEFORE
A

40

AFTER

25 m/s
30 m/s
25

15 m/s

B v=?

a) Find the magnitude and direction of the velocity of puck B after the collision. Clearly
indicate on your drawing the angle you are using to specify the direction of puck B.
b) Is kinetic energy conserved in this collision? Justify your answer. If not, clearly indicate
whether KE is gained or lost.
Problem 4
a) A baseball-player-turned-astronaut stands on Mimas, a small moon of Saturn, and
throws a baseball with initial speed 37m/s. The mass of the baseball is 0.15kg ; the mass
19
of Mimas is 3.8x10 kg and its radius is 200km. If the astronaut throws the ball
horizontally, will it go into a circular orbit around Mimas? Explain your answer.
b) For the same situation given in part b), if the astronaut throws the ball vertically, how
high above the surface of Mimas will it rise before stopping?
Problem 5 Short Answer Questions:
You must show your work or write an explanation of your answer to get credit
for these problems.
i) A ball hits a wall and bounces off as shown. Assume that the collision is elastic. Which
vector best represents the direction of the change in momentum of the ball?
a) Circle your choice and explain it b) Not enough information to answer.

ii) A small car is moving along a straight level highway at a speed of 3v. The car hits from
behind a large truck moving in the same direction at speed v. After the collision, the car
is stuck onto the truck. During the collision, which vehicle experiences the greater
average force? Explain your answer.
a) The car

b) The truck

c) The forces are equal

d) Impossible to determine without information about the masses

iii) Two balls of masses 2 kg and 3 kg slide along a frictionless horizontal surface with
speeds of 4 m/s and 2 m/s, respectively. After an inelastic collision, the balls stick
together and move at a speed of 2 m/s. What direction did the two balls move before the
collision?
a) In the same direction

b) In opposite directions

c) At an angle not equal to 0 or 180

d) The situation described is impossible

e) Not enough information given to select an answer


Problem 6
Two steel spheres are shot at each other and then collide headon as shown. Sphere A has a mass of 10 kg and a velocity just
A
B
before the collision of 3 m/s to the right. Sphere B has mass of 4
kg and velocity just before the collision of 4 m/s to the left.
Immediately after the collision the velocity of sphere B is observed to be 6 m/s to the right.
a) What is the magnitude and direction of the velocity of sphere A immediately after the
collision? Clearly indicate your coordinate system and what direction is positive.
b) Is this collision elastic or inelastic? Explain your answer.
c) Assume that the collision lasts 10 !3 seconds. Calculate the magnitude and direction of
the average force that sphere A exerts on sphere B during the collision. Clearly indicate
your coordinate system and what direction is positive.
Problem 7
Maximum
A spring-loaded toy gun is used to shoot a ball of mass M
Height
straight up in the air. The ball is not attached to the
spring. The ball is pushed down onto the spring so that
the spring is compressed a distance S below its
3S
unstretched point. After release, the ball reaches a
maximum height 3S, measured from the unstretched
position of the spring (see diagram).
Spring
unstretched

a) Find the spring constant of the spring.


S

b) Find the equilibrium point of the ball when it is sitting


Spring compressed
Mass released from rest
on the spring with no forces other than gravity and the
spring acting on it. Clearly indicate the point you are
Mass = M
using as the origin of your coordinate system and what
direction is positive.
c) Now, the ball is glued onto the spring so that it
oscillates up and down rather than flying off the
spring. The spring is again compressed the same distance S below its unstretched
point. Write an equation for the position of the ball as a function of time after it is
released. Clearly indicate the point you are using as the origin of your coordinate
system and what direction is positive.
Problem 8
A projectile is launched straight up. It explodes into two pieces at the top point of its
trajectory. One piece has twice the mass of the other one. The more massive piece has
kinetic energy equal to K right after the explosion. Show that the total energy released in
the explosion (i.e. the total kinetic energy of the two pieces right after the explosion) is
exactly equal to 3.0K. Justify your answer with a calculation.

Problem 9
A metal block of mass M is free to
slide on a frictionless, horizontal
surface. A metal ball of mass
M/4 is fired at the block with
velocity V, and bounces straight
backward off the block with onethird its original speed.
The
block is initially at rest.

BEFORE

AFTER

v=?

V
M

M/4

=0

V/3
M/4

=0

a) What is the speed of the block after the impact?


b) Is this collision elastic?
c) If the impact lasts t sec, what average force (magnitude and direction) acts on the
block?
d) How does the average force (magnitude and direction) that acts on the ball compare to
what you found in part (c) for the force on the block. Explain your answer.
Problem 10
positive X, V
BEFORE
A metal block of mass M
AFTER
is attached to a spring of
spring
negligible
mass
and
uncompressed
v=?
V
spring constant k as
k
k
M/4
shown, and is free to slide
M
M/4
M
on
a
frictionless,
horizontal surface. A clay
=0
=0
ball of mass M/4 is fired
at the block with velocity V, and sticks to it as shown. The block is initially at rest and the
spring is initially uncompressed.
a) What is the speed of the block+ball immediately after the impact?
b Write an equation for the position of the block as a function of time after the collision,
assuming that at t = 0 , the instant of the impact, it is at x = 0 which is the unstretched
point of the spring. Determine values for the amplitude, angular frequency, and phase
in terms of the given quantities. Assume that X and V are positive to the left as shown.
Problem 11
A small object of mass m is launched from the surface of the Earth
v0
with a speed of v0 in a direction perpendicular to the Earths surface.
m
a) What is the total mechanical energy of the object at its starting point
in terms of m, v0 , the radius of the Earth Re , the mass of the Earth
M e , and the gravitational constant G ?
b) Find an expression for the speed v of the object at a height h = Re
(i.e., a distance 2Re from Earth's center).
c) What is the minimum value of v0 that will allow the object to reach the height h ?
d) Now consider a different situation where the object is placed in a circular orbit at a
height h = Re (i.e., a distance 2Re from Earth's center). Find the velocity the object
needs to be in a circular orbit at that height.
Problem 12
Short Answer Questions
A) Two blocks move on a horizontal, frictionless surface and
Springs uncompressed
are attached to springs as shown. The left block has mass m
and spring constant k. The right block has mass 2m and
k
2k
spring constant 2k. The masses just touch each other at X=0
m 2m
at which point both springs are at equilibrium (i.e.
uncompressed). The left mass is pulled to the left a distance

X=0

2d and the right mass is pulled to the right a distance d.


Both masses are released from rest at the same time.
Explain why both masses get back to X=0 at the same
time.

Springs compressed by d and 2d


k
m

2k
2d d

2m

X=0
B) The diagram shows a binary star system
with one star of mass M and the other of mass
d
5M with the centers of the two stars separated
by a distance D as shown. Assume that a third
5M
small object of mass m is located a distance d
M
m
from the center of the left star. The centers of
all three objects are on the same line.
i) Is there a value of d for which the total
D
gravitational force on the small mass is zero?
If so, write the equation you would solve to find this value of d. Note that you do NOT
need to find the value of d. If there is no such value, explain why not.
ii) Using the standard equation for potential energy due to gravity far from the surface, is
there a value of d for which the total gravitational potential energy of the small mass is
zero? If so, write the equation you would solve to find this value of d. Note that you do
NOT need to find the value of d. If there is no such value, explain why not.
Problem 13
Rocket A propels an object of mass m from the surface of the Earth to an altitude 3RE (RE
is the radius of the Earth) above the surface of the Earth at which point the object stops
momentarily before falling back. Rocket B propels an object of the same mass into a
circular orbit at an altitude of RE above the surface. Which rocket does more work?
Assume that the initial velocity due to the rotation of the Earth can be ignored. Justify
your answer.
Problem 14
An object of mass m is attached to a spring of spring
Spring uncompressed
constant k and moves on a frictionless horizontal surface.
k
The mass is at X=0 (where the spring is unstretched) and it
V0
has an initial velocity of V0 in the positive X direction as
m
shown. The subsequent position and velocity of the object
as a function of time are given by:
X(t) = Asin(Ct) and V(t) = Bcos(Ct)
X=0
a) Find the values of A, B, and C in terms of k, m, and V0.
b) Since X=0 at t=0, the average velocity between t=0 and a later time can be written
simply as
Vavg(t)=X(t)/t
Find the average velocity between t=0 and t=T/2, where T is the period of oscillation of
the mass on the spring. Hint: If you think carefully, you can get the answer with almost
no calculations.
c) Find the average velocity between t=0 and t=T/3, where T is the period of oscillation of
the mass on the spring. Express your answer in terms of V0 only. Your answer can
contain trigonometric functions (like sin, cos, tan, etc.) and numerical constants but no
variables other than V0.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology


Department of Physics
Physics 8.01L
SAMPLE EXAM 3

SOLUTIONS

December 4, 2005

Problem 1
G(2M)m
GMm
4GMm
a)Flef t = (D/2)
2 =
D2 , Fright = (D/2)2 =
FT OT = Fright Flef t = 8GMm
4GMm

D2
D2
FT OT = 4GMm
D2 , to the right.

b) Mechanical energy is conserved.


P EI + KEI = P EF + KEF GMm
+0=
3R
GM
GM
2GM
4GM
1 2
2
v
=
+
=

v
=
2
R
3R
3R
3R
v = 4GM
3R

8GMm
D2

GMm
R

+ 12 mv 2

2
GM

v
=
c) For a circular orbit at distance 3R: m 3vR = GMm
(3R)2
3R
Wrocket = E, P E = 0, because always at the same distance.

1
GM
GMm 1
1
Wrocket = KEF KEI = 12 mvF2 21 mvI2 = 12 m GM
3R 2 m 4R =
R
6 8)
GMm
Wrocket = + 24R
d) Force = 0 inside shell P E = constant
KE = constant.

Answer is the same as for part (b), v =

4GM
3R .

Problem 2
a) Mechanical energy is conserved.
d 2
2
1
1
1
2
2
, mv 2 = k(d2 d2 ) = 34 kd2
2 kd + 0 =2 mv + 2 k 2

3k
v=
4m d, v = 0.87m/s

k
= 5 rad
b)X = Acos(t), A = 0.2 m, = m
sec
, 0.1 = 0.2cos(5t), cos(5t) = 0.5
5t =

2
3 ,

t=

15

= 0.42s.

6
3
3
c) v = Asin(t), T = 2
4 T = 4 = 2
3
t = 2 , sin(t) = 1, v = A(1) = A.
v = 1.0 m/s, to the right.
In the rst 41 T , the block moves from xmax to x = 0. In the second 14 T , it moves from x = 0 to xmax .
In the third 41 T , it moves from xmax to x = 0 .
So at 43 T , the block is at x = 0, and its moving back towards initial position.

Problem 3
a) Conserve momentum:

MA (25)(cos(40 )) + MB (30)(cos(25 )) = MA (15) + MB (vx )

2MB (25)(cos(40 )) + MB (30)(cos(25 )) = 2MB (15) + MB (vx ) vx = 35.5m/s

py 2MB (25)(sin(40 )) + MB (30)(sin(25)) = 2MB (0) + MB (vy )


vy = 19.5m/s. vB = 40.5m/s @28.8 below x axis.
1

2
2
+ 21 MB vBI
= 12 (2MB )(25)2 + 21 MB (30)2 = 1075MB
b) KEI = 12 MA vAI
1
1
2
2
KEF = 2 MA vAF + 2 MB vBF = 12 (2MB )(15)2 + 21 MB (40.5)2 = 1045MB
KE is lost

Problem 4
a) For a circular orbit

GMm
r2

mv 2
r

v=

GM
r

r = 2 105 m v = 113m/s 37m/s is too slow


b) KEI = 12 mvI2 P EI =
GM
r2

GM
r1

+ 12 vI2 ,

GMm
, KEF = 0
r1
vI2
1
1
1
r2 = r1 2GM , r2 =

height = 1.1 104 m

P EF =
4.73

GMm
r2
106 , r2

= 2.11 105 m

Problem 5
i)

ii) c) The forces are equal. Newtons 3rd Law: Action/Reaction.


iii) c) At an angle not equal to 0 or 180 .

P1 = 8, P2 = 6, Pf = (2 + 3)(2) = 10,
P1 + P2 = Pf .

3-4-5 right triangle.

Problem 6
a) pT OT = 14, pInitial = (10)(3) (4)(4) = 30 16 = 14, pF inal = (10)vA + 24
14 = 24 + 10vA , vA = 1 m/s = 1 m/s to the left
b) KEI = 12 (10)(9) + 12 (4)(16) = 45 + 32 = 77
KEF = 12 (10)(1) + 12 (4)(36) = 5 + 72 = 77
KEI = KEF , collision is elastic.
c) F = p
t , p = pf pi = (4)(6) (4)(4) = 24 + 16 = 40
40
F = 3 = 40, 000 N = 40, 000 N to the right
10
2

Problem 7
a) KEI = 0, P EI = 12 kS 2 , W ork = 0
KEF = 0, P EF = M g(4S) , 21 kS 2 = M g(4S)
8M g
, k=
k = 2Mg(4S)
S2
S
b)Use unstretched point as origin, and up = +.
= Mg
kyeq M g = 0, yeq = Mg
8M g ,
k
S

yeq

S
=
8

c) y = Acos(t + ), vy =0 at t
= 0, so = 0.
k
vy = Asin(t + ). = M = 8g
S
A=S

S
8

7S
8

Problem 8
1
2
2 (2M )v2 = K,
1
1
2
2
2 (2M )v2 = 2 M (4v2 )

KET OT = 21 M v12 +
KET OT = 3K

K
M
1
2
2 (2M )v2

v2 =

M v1 = 2M v2 , v1 = 2v2 ,

K
= 3M v22 = 3M ( M
)

Problem 9
M
V
a) V ( M
4 ) = M v ( 4 )( 3 )
V
4
Mv = (M
v=
4 ) 3 V,
3
1
1 M
V 2
1
V 2
2
2
b) KEI = 12 ( M
4 )(V ) = 8 M V , KEF = 2 ( 4 )( 3 ) + 2 M ( 3 ) =
2
5
Not elastic
KEF = MV
8 ( 9 ) 6= KEI ,

c) F =

p
t

M V3 0
t

MV 2 1
9 (8

+ 12 ) =

MV
, to the left.
3t

d) Same magnitude, opposite direction. Newtons 3rd law. Action/Reaction.

Problem 10
5
a)( M
4 V ) = ( 4 M )v,

b) Amplitude:

1
2
2 kA

v=
=

V
5

1 5
V 2
2 ( 4 M )( 5 ) ,

Angular frequency: =

k
5M
4

V
A=
5

5M
4k

4k
5M

X = Asin(t)

Mv 2 5
9 (8)

Problem 11

a) E =

GmME
1
mv02
2
RE
GmME
2RE

b) 12 mv 2

= 12 mv02

mv 2
2RE

GmME
(2RE )2 ,

. v 2 = v02

GME
RE

GME
RE

GME
v=
2RE

c) v = 0 , if v0,min =
d)

GME m
RE

Problem 12
A)lef t =

k
m,

right =

2k
2m

k
m

Same same period same time to x = 0.


B) i) Let right be positive direction: FT OT = 0 =

G(5M )m G(M )(m)

(D d)2
d2

Two forces can cancel. Could also write (D d)2 = 5d2


(Not required: d = 0.31D)
B) ii)P ET OT =

G(5M)m
(Dd)

GMm
d

, D > d so both terms are negative, so it can NEVER be zero .

Problem 13
Rocket A: EI =

GMm
RE ,

Rocket B: EI =

GMm
RE

GMm
2RE ,

EF =

P EF =

EF =

GMm
4RE

GMm
(2RE )2

1 GMm
4 RE

, WA = E =

mv 2
2RE ,

GMm
2RE

v2 =

GM
2RE ,

GMm
4RE

KEF =

( GMm
RE ) =
1 GMm
2 2RE

= GMm
4RE . WB = E =

3GM m
= WA
4RE

1 GMm
4 RE

3GM m
Same as A .
4RE

Problem 14
a) C = =

k
m

B = V0 .

1
2
2 kA

1
2
2 mV0

A=

m
V0
k

b) At T /2, block returns to x = 0, so VAV G = 0 at t = T /2


c) VAV G =

m
k

V0 sin(
T /3

T
m 3

. But T =

(Not required: VAV G = 0.4V0 )

= 2

m
k

, so: VAV G =

3V0
2
sin( )
2
3

FINAL EXAM SAMPLE PROBLEMS


The Final Exam will be given on Monday, January 30 from 9 am - Noon
There will be no makeup exam.
You will be provided with a copy of the formula sheet during the exam. You may wish to
memorize other formulas but a good understanding of the concepts and applicability of these
formulas should allow you to do all of the problems on the exam.
The problems on the following pages are mostly problems from exams in previous 8.01L classes.
Note that all topics for which you are responsible are NOT included in this sample. We have
only included sample problems for the material since the last exam. You should also review the
previous three exams (and the sample problems for them) as well as the material included on all
of the homework assignments. The final exam will contain about 7-9 problems similar in
difficulty to these, with roughly half the exam covering material since the last exam.
Some of these problems were from exams where calculators were allowed. You will not be
allowed to use a calculator in this exam.
Problem 1
a) A closed weather balloon with an initial volume V rises up in the atmosphere to a point where
the outside air pressure is 1/10 of the pressure at the surface and the temperature of the air
has dropped by a factor of 3. Assume that the balloon is filled with an ideal gas and that the
material of the balloon exerts no pressure and does not insulate so that the temperature and
pressure are the same inside and outside the balloon. Does the volume of the gas increase,
decrease, or stay the same as the balloon rises? Justify your answer.
b) A solid object of a material with a density of 4000 kg/m3 has a volume of 0.002 m3 and thus a
mass of 8 kg. How much force do you need to exert to support this object

i) In air.

ii) When it is completely submerged in water.

The density of water is 1000 kg/m3. Use g=10 m/s2 in this problem.
c) Assume that water is flowing through a rubber tube. Due to a weakness in the material, a
section of the tube expands so it has a larger radius than the other parts. Describe what
would happen to the water flow velocity and the water pressure in the enlarged section of the
tube.
r
Problem 2
air
a) Your physics professor is standing inside a cylinder of radius r
which is floating in equilibrium in water of density . The
cylinder is filled with air of negligible mass. The physicist and
water
cylinder have a combined total weight of W. Find the depth d
d
to which the bottom of the cylinder sinks into the water.
b) Now assume that the cylinder starts at a higher position and
falls down into the water. Find the acceleration when the bottom of the cylinder is at a depth
of d/2. Assume that you can ignore the viscous force of the water (the liquid equivalent of air
resistance).
Problem 3
a) Archeologists have recently uncovered evidence that people living in South America many
centuries ago were able to climb to the summit of a mountain at a height of 6500 m above sea
level. The air pressure at sea level is 1.013 ! 10 5 N 2 . Assuming that the atmosphere has an
m

average density of 0.95

kg

m3

, find the air pressure at the top of this mountain.

b) Assume that a pressurized helium bottle contains gas at a pressure of 1.50 ! 10 7 N/m2 and is
inside a building at a temperature of 20oC. If you take the bottle outside to a New Years
Day parade where the temperature is 20oC, what will the pressure inside the bottle be once
it has fully cooled?

Problem 4
A standard track used in almost all running events consists of two
straight parts and two semicircles, each of the four sections having
roughly equal length of 100 m.
i) On the following drawing of a runner rounding a curve, draw labeled
arrows to show all the forces acting on the runner. Your drawing should
indicate clearly where the forces act and their directions. The arrow on
the drawing points towards the center of the circle. Assume that the
runner is moving with constant speed.
ii) Using your picture from part ii) and concepts of equilibrium, explain why it is impossible to
run quickly around a curve standing straight up as shown (i.e. without leaning over).
iii) Draw a force diagram of a leaning runner and explain how leaning over makes rounding the
curve possible i.e. what changes in the equilibrium equations. Show clearly the direction of
the lean assuming that the center of the circle is to the left as in part ii) above.
Problem 5
The physics of pushups: The drawing
shows a simplified model of the force
L
needed to do a pushup. Assume that a
4L
persons body is a bar of mass M with a
moment of inertia about the pivot (the
3
c.m.
toes) of IT. Assume that the center of
h
mass is a distance L from the pivot and
F
!
that the force shown (due to the arms) is
purely vertical and applied at a distance
of 4L/3 from the pivot.
a) Draw a free-body diagram showing all
the forces acting on the bar.
b) Find the value of the applied force F needed for the object to be in equilibrium and show that
it is independent of the angle and thus independent of the height h.
c) What is the value of the force (magnitude and direction) exerted on the person by the ground?
This means the force applied at the toes, not the force applied on the arms.
Problem 6
Max force = Mg
A plank of mass M and Max force = 3Mg
length L is held up a cable at
each end. The left cable has
D
a maximum tension of 3Mg
(any more force and the cable
mass=?
will break) while the right
cable can exert a maximum
force of only Mg. A load of
Plank has mass=M
bricks is placed on the plank
with its center of mass
located a distance D from the
L
left edge (see drawing)
a) Considering only forces, how massive can the load of bricks be before the cables will fail?
b) Assume that the bricks have the maximum mass as calculated on part (a). Where must the
bricks be placed (i.e. what is D) so that neither cable exceeds its maximum tension?

Problem 7
A plank of mass M and length L leans against a wall at one end and
rests on a circular support at the other end. Assume that there is
L
friction between the plank and the wall also between the ladder and
the cylinder. Assume the plank is uniform so its center of mass is at
the center. Note that the plank must hit the cylinder tangentially so
!
the normal force from the cylinder is perpendicular to the plank and
the friction force due to the cylinder is along the plank. Assume that
the plank does not move.
a) Draw a clear diagram showing all the forces acting on the plank.
b) Choose and X and Y axis and write a set of force equations for
those two directions.
c) Write a torque equation using the left end of the plank as the axis.
d) Repeat part (c) but using the right edge of the plank as the axis.
Problem 8
A uniform bar of mass M and length L is attached to a wall by a
frictionless hinge (i.e. there are no torques exerted by the hinge).
The bar is released from rest in a horizontal position as shown.

L
The bar has moments of inertia about its center and about its end

M
2
2
of I cm = ML 12 and I end = ML 3 , respectively.
a) What is the angular acceleration of the bar at the instant that it
is released?
b) At the instant after the bar is released, find the magnitude and
direction of the force exerted on the bar by the hinge.
c) Use Work/Energy concepts to find the angular velocity of the bar when it has swung down to
a vertical position and is just about the hit the wall.
Problem 9
A small child runs and jumps onto a merry-go-round which has
a moment of inertia I0 about its axis of rotation. The child has
TOP
mass m and is initially moving with velocity v; she grabs onto a
VIEW
bar attached to the plate which is a distance R from the center
of the merry-go-round. The merry go round was initially not
R
rotating. Assume that the child is running tangential to the
merry-go-round before jumping on as shown.
m
v
a) What is the magnitude of the final angular velocity of the
merry-go-round, final? Give your answer in terms of m, v,
R and I0.
b) What fraction of the initial kinetic energy of the running child remains in the final system
(i.e. what is KEF/KEI)? Give your answer in terms of I0, m, v, and R.
Problem 10
A gyroscope supported at one end is rotating as shown (the edge
UP
towards you is moving up, the top edge is moving away from you,
the edge away from you is moving down, and the bottom edge is
x
moving towards you). Assume that the support pivot can exert
forces on the gyroscope but cannot exert any torques. For the
multiple choice questions, you do not need to explain your answer.
i) In what direction does the angular velocity point?
Left
Right
Up
Down

Into the page


Out of the page
Other

ii) Consider torques around the pivot where the gyroscope is supported. Is there a torque
around that point and if so, what force causes the torque?
iii) Consider torques around the pivot where the gyroscope is supported. If there is a torque,
how would you describe the direction of that torque (there are 2 correct answers)?
Left
Right
Up
Down
Into the page
Out of the page
Other
Clockwise
Counter-clockwise
iv) In what direction do you predict the unsupported end of the gyroscope will move?
Left
Right
Up
Down
Into the page
Out of the page
Other
Problem 11
The physics of baseball.
TOP VIEW
AFTER

BEFORE
Pivot
No torque

!
0.8 m

50 m/s

0.35 !

40 m/s

A baseball of mass 0.15 kg is initially traveling horizontally at 50 m/s. It is struck by a bat,


after which the baseball is still traveling horizontally but in exactly the opposite direction from
its initial motion at a speed of 40 m/s. Consider the collision of the bat and the ball. Assume
that before the collision, the bat is moving in a horizontal circle at an angular velocity of
rad/s. Assume that the player holding the bat exerts no torque. The bat has a moment of
inertia of 0.30 kg m2 about the pivot and the ball hits at a point that is 80 cm away from the
pivot. After the collision, the bat is still swinging in the same direction around the same pivot
but with a reduced angular velocity of 0.35. Find the numerical value of .

Massachusetts Institute of Technology


Department of Physics
Physics 8.01L
SAMPLE FINAL EXAM

SOLUTIONS

Problem 1
a) V =

N kT
P

, VN EW =

N k T3
P
10

10 N kT
3 P

V goes up

b) (i) F = mg = 8(10) = 80N


(ii)FBuoy = (1000)(.002)(10) = 20N,
F = 80 20 = 60N
c) Velocity goes down, pressure goes up.

Problem 2
a) Equilibrium, so FBuoyant w = 0 FB = w.
FB = Vf f g = (r2 d)g = w, d = rw2 g
2

b) FT OT = M a = FB w, FB = r2 ( d2 )g = d( r2g )
2

From (a), d = rw2 g FB = rw2 g ( r2g ) = w2


Half as deep half as large buoyancy force.
w
FT OT = M a = w2 w = w
2 , a = 2m , but w = M g.
g
a = 2 , accelerating downward at g2 .

Problem 3
a) P + gy = constant, P1 + g(0) = P2 + g(6500)
P2 = P1 g(y2 ) = 1.013 105 (0.95)(9.8)(6500),
P2 = 4.08 104 N/m2 = 0.40 atm

b) N = const, V = const, P V = N kT

P1
T1

P2
T2 ,

T1 = 293, P1 = 1.5 107 , T2 = 253, P2 =

P1 T2
= 1.30 107 N/m2
T1

Problem 4
ii) f exerts torque around center of mass, so you fall over.

January 25, 2006

iii) Now N exerts torque which can balance torque due to friction.

Problem 5
a)

b) Take torques around toes: M gL cos() F ( 43L ) cos() = 0, F =


c)T + F = M g, T =

3
Mg
4

1
Mg .
4

Problem 6
a) 3M g + M g = 4M g.

b) Take torques about left end: 4M gD LM g = 0, D = L4 .

Check torque around weight: 0 = D(3M g) M g(L D), D(4M g) = M gL, D =

Problem 7
a)

b)

c)
d)

Fx = N2 + N1 sin() f1 cos() = 0
Fy = f2 M g + N1 cos() + f1 sin() = 0

= M g( L2 cos()) N1 L = 0.
= N2 L sin() + f2 L cos() M g L2 cos() = 0.

Problem 8
a) = I, take torques about hinge.
2

(M g)( L2 )(sin(90 )) = ( ML
3 )() =

gL
2
L2
3

3g
2L ,

3g
2L

L
4.

b)

F = M acm , acm = ( L2 ), downward.


All forces and acceleration are vertical FH = 0 .
3g
)( L2 ) = 3Mg
FV M g = M a = M ( L2 ) = M ( 2L
4
Mg
Mg
3Mg
FV = M g 4 FV =
, FT OT =
, up .
4
4

c) Used xed pivot:

KEI = 0, P EI = M gL, KEF = 12 Iend 2 , P EF = M g( L2 ), Work = 0.

3g
3g
MgL
2
L
ML2 2
1 ML2
2
or =
= 2 , =
.
2 ( 3 ) + M g 2 = M gL,
6
L
L
Used center of mass:
2
+ 21 ICM 2 , vCM = ( L2 )
KEI = 0, KEF = 21 M vCM
1
L 2 2
1 ML2
1
3
1
KEF = 2 M ( 2 ) + 2 ( 12 ) 2 = M L2 2 ( 81 + 24
) = M L2 2 ( 24
+ 24
)
2 2 1
= M L ( 6 ) Same answer.

Problem 9
a) L is conserved: mvR = (I0 + mR2 )f
mvR
f =
I0 + mR2
2 2

1 m v R
2
b) KEI = 12 mv 2 , KEF = 21 (I0 + mR2 )( I0mvR
+mR2 ) = 2 ( I0 +mR2 )

mR2
KEF
=
KEI
I0 + mR2

Problem 10
a) Left
b) Yes, gravity.
c) Out of the page; Counter-clockwise.
d) Yes, pivot force.
e) Out of the page; Counter-clockwise.
f ) Out of the page.

Problem 11
Take clockwise to be positive. Angular momentum is conserved: II mvI d = If + mvf d

0.30() 0.15(50)(0.8) = 0.3(0.35) + 0.15(40)(0.8)

0.20 = 6 + 4.8
= 54rad/s . Period = 0.12 sec.