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http://ocw.mit.edu

Fall 2008

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

Department of Physics

Physics 8.012

Fall 2008

Exam 1

Instructions:

1. Do all FIVE (5) problems. You have 90 minutes.

2. SHOW ALL WORK. Be sure to circle your final answer.

3. Read the questions carefully.

4. All work must be done in this booklet in workspace provided. Extra

blank pages are provided at the end if needed.

5. NO books, notes, calculators or computers are permitted. A sheet of

useful equations is provided on the last page.

Your Scores

Problem Maximum Score Grader

1

10

30

20

20

20

Total

100

Quiz 1

For each of the following questions circle the correct answer. You do not need to

show any work.

(a) Which of the following is not a valid force law?

Newtons

where G is the

gravitational

force constant

kg

where b has

units of

radians

Both of these solutions are right, the first because it doesnt satisfy Newtons 3rd

Law (switch 1 and 2 and you dont get equal and opposite), the second because of

units

angular velocity and velocity as shown in the

diagram to the right. If V > R, in which direction

does friction from the road act on the tire?

on the tire

The intention was to have friction spinning the wheel up, but because of the word

constant in the question, we deemed this question to ambiguous so it wasnt

counted in the final score

Page 2 of 15

Quiz 1

remains at rest. Compared to the force with which you pull on one end of the rope,

the force that the other end of the rope exerts on the brick is:

Less

Greater

The same

Zero

There is no net force on the rope (or block), so there cannot be a difference in

tension along the rope. Hence the forces are the same at both ends.

(d) As a swinging pendulum passes through its lowest point, in which direction

does the total net force act?

Only in an

angular direction

Only in a radial

direction

and radial

force at the

directions

equilibrium point

Because the mass is moving in circular motion, there must be a radial force. At the

lowest point there are no net angular forces, however.

(e) A pendulum with mass M and length L is released as a small angle off of

vertical and oscillates with period P. If we double the mass and halve the length of

the pendulum then the new period is

Doubling the mass does not affect the period but decreasing the length decreases

Page 3 of 15

Quiz 1

Two blocks of masses M1 and M2 (M2 > M1) are stacked on top of each other and

start at rest on the surface of a frictionless table. The masses are connected via an

ideal pulley (massless string and nearly massless pulley wheel), and the coefficient

of static friction (assumed equal to the coefficient of kinetic friction) between the

block surfaces is S. The pulley is accelerated to the right by a force , resulting

in an acceleration of the pulley wheel of . Assume that gravity acts with

constant acceleration g downward.

(a) [5 pts] Draw force diagrams for each of the blocks and the pulley wheel, clearly

indicating all horizontal and vertical forces acting on them.

(b) [5 pts] If the blocks do not slip relative to each other, what are their

accelerations?

(c) [10 pts] Assume that the blocks do slip relative to each other. Determine each

blocks horizontal acceleration as a function of the parameters specified above

(i.e., M1, M2, S, g, a and F). Which block has a higher acceleration? Be sure to

work in an inertial reference frame!

(d) [10 pts] What is the minimum force F required to cause one block to slip

relative to the other? Assume that the mass of the pulley is negligible compared to

those of the blocks.

Page 4 of 15

Quiz 1

(a) The force diagrams are as shown below note that the weight of the pulley is

specifically excluded here and the string tension assumed to be constant because

the string is massless (no points were taken off for not assuming these things).

Common errors were not matching up force pairs; i.e., Ff (crucial!) and N1

Note that the direction of the friction force takes some thought, but can be

determined if one considers the problem without friction. In that case the smaller

mass M1 would move to the right faster (same tension force but smaller mass);

hence, friction acts to stop that relative motion by acting toward the left on M1.

Newtons 3rd law then states that the same friction force acts toward the right on

M2.

(b) If the blocks do not slip, then their accelerations are exactly equal to that of the

pulley, a. This can be shown formally through the constraint equation:

Because F is also specified, one can also determine solve for the equations of

motion assuming that the two accelerations are the same and equally determine:

Page 5 of 15

Quiz 1

(c) Based on the force diagram above, the equations of motion are:

Because the pulley is effectively massless, MPaP 0 and hence F = 2T. This alone

provides expressions for the two pulleys:

We can also solve for the rope tension using the constrain equation:

note that

Page 6 of 15

Quiz 1

(d) There are number of ways to consider this problem, but the most obvious is to

consider the point at which

(prior the slipping both masses are

accelerating with a). This yields any of the following conditions based on the

answers to part (c):

Page 7 of 15

Quiz 1

Consider a rope of total mass M and length L suspended at rest from a fixed

mount. The rope has a linear mass density that varies with height as (z) =

0sin(z/L) where 0 is a constant. Constant gravitational acceleration g acts

downward.

(a) [5 pts] Determine the constant 0.

(b) [5 pts] What is the tension force at the free (bottom) end of the rope?

(c) [10 pts] Calculate the tension along the rope as a function of distance z below

the mount.

Page 8 of 15

Quiz 1

(a) The constant can be found by noting that the integral of the linear density over

the length of the rope should equal the mass; i.e.,

(b) Because there is nothing hanging from the bottom end, the tension force is

simply 0.

(c) There are two ways of determining this. First, you can consider that the tension

at any height z is simply that required to hold up the mass below z; i.e.,

Alternately, one can set up a differential equation at any height z requiring that the

difference in tensions must support the differential mass at that point (note that z

increases downward); i.e.,

which reduces to the same result. Note that here we have used the result from (b)

that T(L) = 0.

Page 9 of 15

Quiz 1

M

r

An 8.012 student of mass M stands on a rigid disk at a distance r from the center

axis. Assume that the coefficient of friction between the students shoes and the

disk surface is . At time t = 0, the disk begins to rotate with a constant angular

acceleration rate

. Assume that gravity acts with constant acceleration g

downward.

(a) [5 pts] What is the maximum value of angular acceleration rate (max) such that

the student does not immediately slip?

(b) [10 pts] Assuming that < max, what is the total friction force acting on the

student as a function of time (prior to slipping)? Write your answer as a vector in

polar coordinates.

(c) [5 pts] Assuming that < max, how long after the disk starts rotating will the

student slip?

Page 10 of 15

Quiz 1

(a) Recall that the force acting on the student in polar coordinates is expressed as:

at t=0,

(b) Now we have to explicitly consider the angular rate as a function of time,

although note that the radius does not change so

while

. Then

Page 11 of 15

Quiz 1

There has been some speculation that the Large Hadron Collider (or LHC), a

particle accelerator experiment that will smash protons together at incredible

energies, might create a small black hole that could devour the Earth. Lets

imagine that the LHC does create such a black hole of mass M (assume initially

than M << MEartg). Once it has formed (initially at rest), the black hole will

immediately fall under the influence of gravity toward the center of the Earth.

Assume for this problem that the Earth has a constant volume mass density , and

that the black hole doesnt eat that much of the Earth as it passes through it.

(a) [5 pts] Using dimensional analysis, come up with an order-of-magnitude

expression for the oscillation period of the black hole as it passes through the Earth

based on the relevant parameters of this problem.

(b) [10 pts] Now show that the black hole undergoes simple harmonic motion

(similar to spring motion) by determining its acceleration as a function of time, and

derive an expression for the oscillation period. How does this compare with your

answer in part (a)?

(c) [5 pts] The Earth does not have a constant mass density but rather gets denser

closer to its center. Assuming that it is still spherically symmetric, would this fact

cause the oscillation period of the black hole to be shorter or longer? Justify your

answer.

(d) [10 pts BONUS] Assume that the particle collision that creates the black hole

converts the equivalent of an entire years worth of global energy production

(about 5x1020 Newton-meters) into a single black hole at rest. Also, the radius of a

black hole is the distance at which the gravitational escape velocity exceeds the

speed of light. Based on these assumptions, use dimensional analysis to estimate

the mass and radius of the black hole to within an order of magnitude. Based on

these values, should we worry about an LHC black hole? Some important

numbers for this question are the gravitational constant, G 7x10-11 m3 kg-1s-2; the

speed of light, c 3x108 m/s; and, for comparison, the radius of a proton, rproton

10-15 m, and the radius of the Earth, REarth 6x106 m.

Page 12 of 15

Quiz 1

(a) The important parameters are the mass of the Earth (ME ~ [M]), the radius of

the Earth (RE ~ [L]), the density of the Earth ( ~ [M/L3]) and the gravitational

constant (G ~ [L3T-2M-1]). Note that the mass of the black hole shouldnt matter

based on our knowledge of the gravitational force law (i.e., we are looking for an

aceeleration, which is independent of black hole mass). We are seeking a period ~

[T], and the combinations that work are:

However, and Me/Re3 are degenerate with each other, hence either expression is

viable.

(b) We want to compute the force on the black hole as a function of radius from the

center of the Earth using two important gravitational results: (1) the gravitational

force outside a spherical symmetric mass is equivalent to the force from a point

mass and (2) inside a spherically symmetric shell an object feels no net

gravitational force. Hence the black hole is only pulled in by the fraction of the

Earths mass that is interior to its radial position:

where

Page 13 of 15

Quiz 1

(c) The period will generally be shorter since the force (and hence acceleration) on

the black hole will be greater at a given radius as there is more total mass within

that radius. In the extreme case of a infinitesimal shell of mass the period can

become very long as the BH will experience no acceleration past the thin shell (and

that acceleration will be the same as the case of a constant density ball).

(d) For the black hole mass we can use Einsteins equation to relate energy to mass

(an approximation to be sure), so m E/c^2 5x1020 N-m/(9x1016 m2/s2) 5000

kg, or about 5 tons.

For the radius, the relevant quantities are the black hole mass ([M]), G ([L3T-2M-1])

and c ([L2/T2]), which can be combined as

to give a quantity that has dimension length. With the values given, this gives a

radius of roughly 5x10-24 m about 9 orders of magnitude smaller than a proton!

So I wont worry

Page 14 of 15

Quiz 1

USEFUL EQUATIONS

Trajectory for constant acceleration

Page 15 of 15

MIT OpenCourseWare

http://ocw.mit.edu

Fall 2008

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

Department of Physics

Physics 8.012

Fall 2008

Exam 2

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __________________

MIT ID number: __________________________________________________

Instructions:

1. Do all FIVE (5) problems. You have 90 minutes.

2. SHOW ALL WORK. Be sure to circle your final answer.

3. Read the questions carefully.

4. All work must be done in this booklet in workspace provided. Extra

blank pages are provided at the end if needed.

5. NO books, notes, calculators or computers are permitted. A sheet of

useful equations is provided on the last page.

Your Scores

Problem Maximum Score Grader

1

10

20

20

25

25

Total

100

Quiz 2

For each of the following questions circle the correct answer. You do not need to

show any work.

collision between the two isolated objects at right?

v/3

2m

2m

2v/3

2m

2m

v/2

2m

is an elastic collision).

Fully elastic

Fully inelastic

Fully elastic

These all have

collision of 10 kg collision of 20 kg collision of 20 kg

the same

ball dropped

ball dropped

ball dropped

impulse

from 10 m

from 10 m

from 5m

The first two choices experience the same impulse, which equals (1 or 2)

The 3rd option experiences the largest impulse by a factor of

Page 2 of 14

Quiz 2

(c) A cart traveling at speed v on a frictionless track starts to leak sand. What is

the carts speed at a later time?

Greater than v

Less than v

Equal to v

The sand experiences no force from the cart as it leaves, so it applies no force on

!

(d) Consider the composite disk at right, with a main

2!

O

at O

This can be determined using the center of mass formula, adding together the

oscillates back and forth on a frictionless surface.

When it reaches its maximum extent, a piece of clay

is dropped onto it and instantaneously sticks. Which

of the following is conserved in this collision?

XMAX

Horizontal

momentum

Total

mechanical

energy

Total mechanical

energy and horizontal

momentum

None of these

When the clay sticks, in comes to rest so its mechanical energy is not conserved.

However, the collision does not affect its horizonal momentum, which is 0, nor

Page 3 of 14

Quiz 2

U

!

m

m

2m

2m

v

Two balls, one of mass m and one of mass 2m, approach from orthogonal

directions with identical speeds v and collide. After the collision, the more

massive ball moves with the same speed v but downward (orthogonal to its original

direction) and the less massive ball moves with speed U at an angle with respect

to horizontal. Assume that no external forces act during the collision.

(a) [10 pts] Calculate the final speed U of the less massive ball and the angle .

(b) [10 pts] Determine how much kinetic energy is lost or gained by the two balls

during the collision. Is this collision elastic, inelastic or superelastic?

Page 4 of 14

Quiz 2

[SOLUTION]

(a) Momentum in both horizontal (x) and vertical (y) directions must be conserved,

hence:

so:

so

(b) The change in kinetic energy is just the change in the kinetic energy of the

small mass (since the big mass has the same KE before and after the collision):

Page 5 of 14

Quiz 2

A small block starts from rest and slides down from the top of a fixed sphere of

radius R, where R >> size of the block. The surface of the sphere is frictionless and

constant gravitational acceleration g acts downward.

(a) [10 pts] Determine the speed of the block as a function of angle from the top

while it remains in contact with the sphere.

(b) [10 pts] At what angle does the block lose contact with the sphere?

Page 6 of 14

Quiz 2

[SOLUTION]

(a) Only conservative forces are present, so total mechanical energy is conserved.

Hence the KE of the block comes simply from extracting gravitational potential

energy:

acting on it disappears. Using polar coordinates and

the force diagram at right, we can write down the radial

equation of motion:

Page 7 of 14

Quiz 2

M0/2

M0/2

vex

A rocket of total mass M0, half of which is fuel, starts at rest on a long horizontal

table. The coefficient of friction between the rocket and table surfaces is . At

time t = 0, the rocket is ignited, ejecting fuel out at a constant rate = |dM/dt| with

velocity vex relative to the rocket. Constant gravitational acceleration g acts

downward.

(a) [10 pts] What condition must be met for the rocket to start moving at t = 0?

(b) [10 pts] Assuming that the rocket satisfies this requirement, what is the

maximum speed VMAX achieved by the rocket?

(c) [5 pts] How far does the rocket go after it runs out of fuel? You can express

your answer in terms of VMAX.

(d) [BONUS 5 pts] How far does the rocket travel in total? For this you will need

to make use of the following integral:

Page 8 of 14

Quiz 2

[SOLUTION]

(a) The condition is that the rocket thrust (vex) must exceed the force due to

friction (M0g). Hence

(b) The maximum speed occurs when the rocket has used up all its fuel (note: since

the friction force is not velocity-dependent, there is no terminal velocity in this

case). Applying conservation of momentum including the impulse from friction

over a time dt (see figure):

where we use the fact that a positive dm mass ejected corresponds to dM lost

from the rockets total mass. The three terms can be separately integrated:

Page 9 of 14

Quiz 2

tmax is the time it takes for the fuel to run out, which is (M0/2)/ . Hence,

(c) After the rocket runs out of fuel, the problem reduces to a simple mass

accelerated by a constant friction force:

We can also solve this using energy, since the work done on the rocket to reduce

its kinetic energy to 0 is simply the friction force acting over the distance the

rocket travels:

(d) For those who attempted it, we simply use the expression of velocity as a

function of time from our derivation of the rocket equation above, and integrate

this to get the distance traveled:

where we now explicitly put in the time dependence of the rocket mass. To

integrate the first term on the right, we make the substitution:

Page 10 of 14

Quiz 2

Using our substitution for tmax for the limits of u and solving the left side and

second term on the right side:

Page 11 of 14

Quiz 2

R

M

and radius R in otherwise empty space (assume M >> m so the star is stationary).

(a) [10 pts] Determine the potential energy U(r), the kinetic energy K(r) and the

total mechanical energy E(r) of the planet in terms of G, M and r assuming U0

as r.

(b) [5 pts] Determine the minimum amount of mechanical energy that must be

added to the planet to cause it to escape from the star (i.e., r). By what factor

must the speed of the planet be increased to cause it to escape?

(c) [5 pts] Now assume that the planet in subject to a viscous force of the form

where A is a constant and is the direction of motion. Compute the loss of

mechanical energy in one orbital period in terms of G, M, r and A. Assume that

this loss is small enough that neither the orbital radius nor speed of the planet

changes appreciably in one orbit.

(d) [5 pts] Building from (c), compute the change in radius of the planet in one

orbital period due to the viscous force and the corresponding radial velocity based

on the assumptions above, in terms of G, M, r and A. Does the planet fall into the

star or away from it?

Page 12 of 14

Quiz 2

[SOLUTIONS]

Note the m is a factor in this and other expressions (mistakenly neglected in the

question).

The kinetic energy is

but we can substitute this using the force law in polar coordinates:

(b) The work required to effectively bring the planet to r = is simply that needed

to climb the potential well to U = 0. In other words:

Page 13 of 14

Quiz 2

So the kinetic energy must double, which means the speed must increase by a

factor of

.

(c) The loss of mechanical energy simply comes from the work done by the

frictional force over one orbit (note: this is formally true since the potential energy

doesnt change work only acts to change kinetic energy). Hence:

to compute a velocity, we note that this change in r occurs over one orbit period for

which:

Thus:

Note that the radial velocity is negative, so the planet falls in to the star.

Page 14 of 14

MIT OpenCourseWare

http://ocw.mit.edu

Fall 2008

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

Department of Physics

Physics 8.012

Fall 2008

Exam 3

SOLUTIONS

NAME: _________________________________________________

Instructions:

1. Do all FIVE (5) problems. You have 90 minutes.

2. SHOW ALL WORK. Be sure to circle your final answer.

3. Read the questions carefully.

4. All work must be done in this booklet in workspace provided. Extra

blank pages are provided at the end if needed.

5. NO books, notes, calculators or computers are permitted. A sheet of

useful equations is provided on the last page.

Your Scores

Problem Maximum Score Grader

1

10

20

25

25

20

Total

100

Quiz 3

For each of the following questions circle the correct answer. You do not need to

show any work.

(a) [2 pts] A bicycle rider pedals up a hill with constant velocity

v. In which direction does friction act on the wheels?

Uphill

Downhill

bike moves at constant velocity

Friction provides the only support against falling downhill, so it must point up.

(b) [2 pts] A gyroscope is set to spin so that its

spin vector points back to the mount. The

gryoscope is initially set at an angle below

horizontal and released from rest. Gravity acts

downward. In which direction does the

precession angular velocity vector point once

the gyroscope starts to precess?

Up

Down

The initial fall of the gyroscope causes the spin vector to point up. To conserve

angular momentum in the z direction, precession rotation must point downward

(c) [2 pts] A ball attached to rope is twirled around a stick as

shown in the diagram at right. Ignore gravity and friction. Which

of the following quantities is conserved in the motion of the ball?

Be sure to write down all of the choices below that apply.

Only energy is conserved here.

Energy

Momentum

Angular

Momentum

Page 2 of 14

conserved

Quiz 3

identical dumbbells, each comprised of

two masses separated by a thin rod. The

force is applied at the center of mass for

the left dumbbell and directly on one of

the masses for the right dumbbell. If the

forces are applied for the same duration of

time, which dumbbell acquires the

greatest center of mass velocity?

Left dumbbell

Right dumbbell

velocity

Both dumbbells receive the same impulse, hence their linear momenta are the

same, and as their masses are the same they have the same COM velocities.

(e) [2 pts] For the same dumbbells in part (d), which one acquires the greatest

kinetic energy from the applied force?

Left dumbbell

Right dumbbell

kinetic energy

Both dumbbells have the same linear velocity and hence linear kinetic energy, but

the right dumbbell will also have rotation kinetic energy associated with its motion.

In effect, the force for the right dumbbell acts over a longer distance than the left

one and does more work.

Page 3 of 14

Quiz 3

length 2d which is pivoted at the center. At the other end of the bar is a container

(catch). A second ball of mass M/2 is thrown into the catch at a velocity v where

it sticks. For this problem, ignore the mass of the pendulum bar and catch, and

treat the balls as if they were point masses (i.e., neglect their individual moments

of inertia).

(a) [5 pts] What is the initial angular rotation rate of the pendulum after the

incoming ball is caught?

(b) [5 pts] How much total mechanical energy is lost when the incoming ball gets

stuck in the catch?

(c) [10 pts] What minimum velocity does the incoming ball need in order to invert

the pendulum (i.e., rotate it by 180)?

Page 4 of 14

Quiz 3

SOLUTION TO PROBLEM 2

(a) The angular momentum of the system relative to the pivot point just prior to the

upper ball being caught is:

As there are no external torques acting on the system relative to the pivot point

during the time of the collision, the angular momentum can be determined as:

hence,

(b) The energy of the upper ball prior to sticking to the catch is:

After the collision, all of the energy can be expressed as pure rotation about the

stationary pivot point, hence:

so

(c) Because there are only conservative forces acting (the pivot does not move so it

does no work) total mechanical energy is conserved. Assuming that the bottom of

the swing sets the zeropoint for gravitational potential, at the point that the ball

sticks the total energy is:

Page 5 of 14

Quiz 3

The point at which the pendulum just comes to rest inverted, the bottom mass is at

height 2d:

With E = 0 this gives:

Page 6 of 14

Quiz 3

A uniform bar of mass M and length d is pivoted at one end. The bar is released

from rest in a horizontal position and allowed to fall under constant gravitational

acceleration.

(a) [5 pts] How much work does the contact force apply to the system as a function

of angle?

(b) [5 pts] What is the angular speed of the bar as a function of angle?

(c) [5 pts] What is the angular acceleration of the bar as a function of angle?

(d) [10 pts] What are the vertical and horizontal forces the bar exerts on the pivot

as a function of time angle?

Page 7 of 14

Quiz 3

SOLUTION TO PROBLEM 3

(a) The contact force is a fixed constraining force, and hence does no net work on

the system. The only work done is by gravitational force.

(b) Since gravity (a conservative force) is the only force that produces net work on

the system, total mechanical energy is conserved. Energy provides the easiest (but

not only) route to velocity. Considering this a problem of pure rotation about the

pivot point:

where

(c) Angular acceleration is directly tied to torques, so we can solve for the net

torque on the system as a function of angle. Choosing again the pivot point as the

origin of our coordinate system:

(d) One can solve this by computing the polar coordinate forces (being careful to

get the changing orientation of the gravitation force):

Page 8 of 14

Quiz 3

and then reorienting these forces back into a Cartesian system. An easier way is to

rewrite the Cartesian coordinates in terms of . For the horizontal force (positive x

pointing toward the right):

this is the force the pivot exerts on the bar, the force the bar exerts on the pivot is:

rearranging, and again flipping sign for the force on the pivot:

Page 9 of 14

Quiz 3

and 6 spokes each with length R and mass M. An effectively massless string

passes around the pulley wheel and connects two plates of mass M and 2M. The

lighter plate is initially on the ground when the system is released from rest.

Constant gravitational force acts downwards, and assume that the string never

slips.

(a) [5 pts] Calculate the moment of inertia of the pulley wheel.

(b) [10 pts] Calculate the speed of the more massive plate when it hits the ground

(there are multiple ways to solve this).

(c) [10 pts] Assume that when it strikes the ground, the heavier plate sticks.

Furthermore, the string remains stuck to the wheel, so it continues to pull the

lighter plate up. How high does the lighter plate go?

Page 10 of 14

Quiz 3

SOLUTION TO PROBLEM 4

(a) The moment of inertia of the pulley wheel is simply the sum of the moments of

inertia of each spoke rotated about one end (MR2/3) and that of the rim (MR2).

Taken together:

(b) Again, this can be done using conservation of total mechanical energy, since

there are no nonconservative forces in (this part of) the problem. Setting the

ground to have zero potential energy, and assuming that the string must have a

fixed length so each mass has the same velocity:

The rotation rate of the wheel is connected with the velocities of the masses

through the no-slip requirement:

hence for E = 0:

(c) Once the heavy mass strikes (and losses its kinetic energy) the remaining parts

of the system will conserve energy, so we can use the same approach:

Page 11 of 14

Quiz 3

Page 12 of 14

Quiz 3

2b

R

A coin (uniform solid circular disk) with mass M and radius b is set to roll in a

circular path of radius R on a table surface (R > b). The coin is given a spin

angular velocity S, and as it rolls it is found to tilt at a small angle with respect

to vertical. Assume that the coin does not slip; constant gravity acts downward.

(a) [5 pts] Determine the precession angular velocity of the rolling motion, ,

both magnitude and direction.

(b) [5 pts] Determine the total angular velocity vector, , including both spin and

precession terms, in a polar coordinate system centered on the center of the coins

trajectory.

(c) [10 pts] Solve for the angle in terms of the quantities given in the diagram

above. Be sure to examine all equations of motion!

(d) [10 pts BONUS] Determine the total angular momentum vector, , in terms of

the quantities given in the diagram above, in a polar coordinate system centered on

the center of the coins trajectory. For simplicity, assume that is very small (i.e.,

only consider first order terms in ).

Page 13 of 14

Quiz 3

SOLUTION TO PROBLEM 5

(a) This relation comes straight from the condition that the disk does not slip,

which requires that the arclength traversed by the coin along its trajectory is the

same arclength covered along the edge of the coin per unit time, otherwise one of

the surfaces would be slipping relative to the other. This implies that:

This vector points upward, which can be inferred from the fact that if the coin does

not precess, it would tip over, causing the spin angular momentum in the

downward direction to increase. The coin must compensate for this by precessing

in such a direction that its angular momentum vector points upwards (you can also

infer this from the direction of the rolling coin as well).

(b) The total angular velocity vector is the sum of the spin and precession vectors.

Choosing a polar coordinate system centered at the center of the orbit with the

radial vector outward and the z-axis pointing up, these can be written as:

hence

(c) Now we want to consider the torque acting on the coin. We will consider our

reference point to be the center of mass of the coin, since for this point torques are

not affected by non-inertial forces in the coins moving frame of reference. The

possible forces acting on the coin (see figure) are its weight (through the center of

mass, which produces no torque), a vertical normal force which is equal in

magnitude to weight (since the coin is not falling in the z direction), and a

tangential frictional force which provides the necessary radial force to keep the

coin moving in a circular trajectory, equal to

Page 14 of 14

Quiz 3

to within our R >> b assumption. The total torque about the center of mass is

therefore:

This torque acts to change the direction of the total angular momentum vector, or

more precisely the radial component of the angular momentum vector that rotates

as the coin goes along its trajectory. The spin component of this is simply:

going to be smaller than the spin component in the radial direction by a factor of

b/R because of the smaller precession rate. Hence, we can use the gyroscopic

approximation and consider only the change in direction of the spin angular

momentum vector, namely the change in the radial component:

Page 15 of 14

Quiz 3

(d) The total angular momentum of the coin about its COM is the sum of the spin

angular momentum and precession angular momentum vectors:

The first is straightforward:

The second is not because of the tilt of the coin, which leads to off-axis terms in

the moment of inertia tensor (products of inertia). We can get an approximate

handle on this by first breaking up the precession rotation vector into components

parallel and perpendicular to the disk plane through the center of mass, as shown in

the above diagram. Along these principal axes we compute the component angular

momenta:

Page 16 of 14

Quiz 3

we now have to project these axes back along the polar coordinates:

which gives:

where the latter comes from our small angle approximation. Combining this with

the spin angular momentum (and keeping the same approximation):

Note that we retain the assumption made in (c), that the radial angular momentum

is primarily from the spin, and that because b << R this component dominates the

whole angular momentum vector, making the gyroscopic approximation a realistic

one.

Page 17 of 14

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For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

Department of Physics

Physics 8.012

Fall 2008

Final Exam

SOLUTIONS

NAME: _________________________________________________

Instructions:

1. Do all SEVEN (7) problems. You have 2.5 hours.

2. Show all work. Be sure to CIRCLE YOUR FINAL ANSWER.

3. Read the questions carefully

4. All work and solutions must be done in the answer booklets provided

5. NO books, notes, calculators or computers are permitted. A sheet of

useful equations is provided on the last page.

Your Scores

Problem Maximum Score Grader

1

10

15

15

15

15

15

15

Total

100

Final Exam

Page 2 of 25

Final Exam

For each of the following questions enter the correct multiple choice option or

write/draw out a short answer in your answer booklet. You do not need to show

any work beyond your answer.

(a) [2 pts] Two planets of mass

M and 2M are in circular orbits

around a star at radii R and 2R,

respectively (assume the stars

mass is >> M). Which planet has

the greater orbital velocity and

which planet has the greater

orbital angular momentum?

2M

R

2R

1/r; hence, the inner planet moves faster. The angular momentum scales as mvr

r1/2, so the outer planet (which also has twice the mass) has a greater angular

momentum.

(b) [2 pts] What is Chasles theorem?

(1)

Every force

has an equal

and opposite

pair

(2)

(3)

(4)

orbits form in translation of center of

ellipses

mass and rotation about

center of mass

Inertial mass

equals

gravitational

mass

(1) is Newtons 3rd law, (2) is Keplers 1st law, (3) is Chasles theorem and (4) is

the equivalence principle.

(c) [2 pts] A stationary ice skater is spinning about her center of mass (along a

principal axis) on a frictionless surface. She pulls in her arms and spins up faster.

Which of the following is conserved in this motion (write down all that apply)?

Energy

Momentum

Page 3 of 25

Angular momentum

Final Exam

Without an external force, the ice skaters momentum doesnt change; similarly, as

there are no external torques, angular momentum is conserved. However,

rotational energy scales as L2/2I, and the moment of inertia (I) is reduced for the

skater as she pulls in her arms, so her total mechanical energy must increase.

(d) [2 pts] What are the dimensions of the gravitational constant G?

[M]-1[L]3[T]-2

(e) [2 pts] A gyroscope whose spin angular

velocity vector points toward the left is

observed to precess such that its precession

angular velocity vector points at an angle as

shown. In which direction does the gravity

vector point?

The precession direction points in the opposite direction as the spin vector initially

moves toward as the gyroscope falls under gravity. In this case, the gravity vector

must therefore be parallel to the precession vector.

(f) [BONUS 2 pts] A diver is the middle of a dive as shown below. Based on clues

in the photo, indicate in your answer booklet the direction that his total spin vector

points, and determine whether the diver is doing a front flip or a back flip.

One clue is the hair, which lies in a

plane perpendicular to the spin vector

(twirl a handful of string to convince

yourself of this). The placement of the

arms breaks the degeneracy, indicating

an applied torque that causes a twist

rotation whose direction points along the

feet. So the total spin vector points in the

direction shown, and the flip component

indicates a front flip (head over feet).

Page 4 of 25

Final Exam

M

d

2M

An Atwood machine consists of a fixed pulley wheel of radius R and uniform mass

M (a disk), around which an effectively massless string passes connecting two

blocks of mass M and 2M. The lighter block is initially positioned a distance d

above the ground. The heavier block sits on an inclined plane with opening angle

. There is a coefficient of friction between the surfaces of this block and the

inclined plane. Constant gravitational force acts downwards, and assume that the

string never slips.

(a) [5 pts] Determine two conditions on the angle which allow the lighter block

to move up or move down.

(b) [10 pts] Assuming that the lighter block moves down, determine its

acceleration.

Page 5 of 25

Final Exam

SOLUTION TO PROBLEM 2

T1

R

Fs

T2

T2

Mg

N

Mg

2Mg

T1

(a) The above diagram shows the appropriate forces on the two blocks and the

pulley wheel. The two conditions for the blocks arise from whether the leftmost

block moves up or down, which changes the direction of the friction force acting

on the rightmost block. Consider first the leftmost block moving down; in that

case Mg > T1 and T1 > T2 (so the wheel can spin), and T2 must be greater than both

the friction force (N = 2Mgcos) and the component of gravitational force

parallel to the inclined plane surface (2Mgsin) on the rightmost block:

If the leftmost block moves up, then T1 > Mg, T2 > T1 and the gravitational force

on the rightmost block must overcome both tension and friction:

Page 6 of 25

Final Exam

(b) Choosing our coordinate systems for each component as shown above so that

all objects move in a positive direction, we can write down the following equations

of motion:

leftmost block:

pulley wheel:

rightmost block:

Using this and the first two equations of motion we can relate to two tension

forces:

and using the first and third equations of motion we can solve for the individual

tensions:

Note that the first conditions from part (a) is necessary for acceleration to be

positive.

Page 7 of 25

Final Exam

2R

N particles/m3

MR + M F

coasting through empty space at velocity v0. At some point the rocket enters a

uniform cloud of interstellar particles with number density N (e.g., particles/m3),

with each particle having mass m (<< MR) and initially at rest. To compensate for

the dissipative force of the particles colliding with the rocket, the rocket engines

emit fuel at a rate dm/dt = at a constant velocity u with respect to the rocket.

Ignore gravitational effects between the rocket and cloud particles.

(a) [5 pts] Assuming that the dissipative force from the cloud particles takes the

form F = Av2, where A is a constant, derive the equation of motion of the rocket

(F = ma) through the cloud as it is firing its engines.

(b) [5 pts] What must the rockets thrust be to maintain a constant velocity v0?

(c) [5 pts] If the rocket suddenly runs out of fuel, what is its velocity as a function

of time after this point?

(d) [BONUS 5 pts] Assuming that each cloud particle bounces off the rocket

elastically, and collisions happen very frequently (i.e., collisions are continuous),

prove that the dissipative force is proportional to v2, and determine the constant A.

Assume that the front nose-cone of the rocket has an opening angle of 90.

Page 8 of 25

Final Exam

SOLUTION TO PROBLEM 3:

(a) Consider some time t when a parcel of mass dm is ejected from the rocket at

velocity u. Newtons second law can be written as (assuming the rightward

direction to be positive):

The momentum of the rocket + fuel system before and after ejection of fuel can be

written as:

or

(b) To maintain constant speed, dv/dt = 0 hence the thrust is

(c) When the rocket runs out of fuel, it has a mass MR and there is no thrust term,

hence the equation in part (a) becomes:

Page 9 of 25

Final Exam

collides with the rocket is deflected through 90 (due to

geometry), which means that each particle imparts an

mv

impulse on the rocket of p = mv in the horizontal

direction opposite of motion (it also imparts an impulse of

mv in the vertical direction, but that is balanced by particles

striking the other side of the nosecone). The number of

particles that strikes the rocket per unit time is simple the

volume swept through by the rocket per unit time, Ax/t = R2v. The total

momentum transfer onto the rocket is:

Page 10 of 25

Final Exam

0

2R

M

2M

2R

2M

A uniform disk of mass M and diameter 2R moves toward another uniform disk of

mass 2M and diameter 2R on the surface of a frictionless table. The first disk has

an initial velocity v0 and spin rate 0 as indicated, while the second disk is initially

stationary. When the first disk contacts the second (a glancing collision), they

instantly stick to each other and move as a single object.

(a) [5 pts] What are the velocity and spin angular velocity of the combined disks

after the collision? Indicate both magnitudes and directions.

(b) [5 pts] For what value of 0 would the combined disks not rotate?

(c) [5 pts] How much total mechanical energy is lost in this collision assuming that

the combined disk system is not rotating?

Page 11 of 25

Final Exam

SOLUTION TO PROBLEM 4:

(a) There are no external forces on this system, so the initial and final momenta are

the same and equal to Mv0 toward the right. The total mass of the combined disk

system is 3M, so the final velocity is

The total angular momentum of the system is also conserved, but in this case we

must be more careful, as the question asks for the final spin angular velocity, so it

is important to calculate the initial and final angular momenta about the center of

mass of the combined disk system. This position lies at a distance:

below the contact point of the two disks. About this point, the initial angular

momentum of the system comes from both rotation of the moving disk and its

center of mass translation with respect to the center of mass of the combined disk

system:

The final moment of inertia of the two disks can be found by first adding the center

of mass moments of inertia of the two disks separately and thn applying the

parallel axis theorem (moving to the center of mass of the combined disk system):

(b) For the final spin angular velocity to be zero, the two terms above cancel, so

Page 12 of 25

Final Exam

(c) To keep the math clean, it is assumed that the final system is not spinning, so

that 0 and v0 are related as in part (b). The initial energy is therefore:

Page 13 of 25

Final Exam

L

M

r

COM

p

=0

A cylinder of mass M, length L and radius R is spinning about its long axis with

angular velocity

on a frictionless horizontal surface. The cylinder is

given a sharp, horizontal strike with impulse p at a distance r from its center of

mass (COM). Assume that constant gravitational acceleration acts downward.

NOTE: you do not need to use Eulers equations to solve this problem.

(a) [5 pts] What is the translational velocity of the cylinder after the impulse

(magnitude and direction)?

(b) [5 pts] The strike imparts an angular momentum impulse to the cylinder which

causes it to lift up at one end. At what angle will the cylinder be tilted after the

impulse and which end of the cylinder lifts up? Assume that the angular

momentum impulse is much smaller than the spin angular momentum.

(c) [5 pts] After the cylinder tilts up, it effectively becomes a top. Determine its

precessional rate and the direction of precession. Assume that nutational motion is

negligible (i.e., remains effectively constant) and that R << L (i.e., that the

cylinder can be approximated as a thin rod for this part).

(d) [5 pts BONUS] For a strong enough impulse, the cylinder will tilt high enough

to precess in the opposite direction. What is the minimum tilt angle for this to

happen and what is the minimum impulse required? (Note that you cannot assume

R << L here. This problem is similar to the tipping battery trick pointed out by

one of the 8.012 students.)

Page 14 of 25

Final Exam

SOLUTION TO PROBLEM 5:

(a) The impulse provides the only external force to the system, so the total

momentum of the cylinder is simply the impulse, p in the y-direction. Hence, the

translational velocity of the cylinder is:

the cylinder about its center of mass is

spin angular momentum of the cylinder, as shown in the figure to the right. If we

assume that LS >> L (our standard gyroscopic approximation), then the

magnitude of the total angular momentum is still equal to IS but points in a

direction offset by an angle upwards. Since this is still the cylinder spinning

about its axis, it must be that the right side of the cylinder tips up by an angle :

N = Mg

(c) With the cylinder tipped up, gravity and the

normal contact force on the ground now exert

a net torque on the cylinder, which will cause

the spin angular momentum vector to precess

with rate . Lets measure angular momenta

cylinder (alternately we could have measured

L/2cos - Rsin

Mg

about the pivot point, but since N=Mg, the

result is the same). The horizontal lever arm between the pivot point and the center

of mass is (L/2)cos - Rsin, but assuming L >> R we can drop the second term.

Page 15 of 25

Final Exam

using here our expression for the time derivative of a vector (LS) in a rotating

reference frame. The precession vector must point along the z-direction, a fact we

can ascertain by considering that gravity would initially pull the spin angular

momentum vector down, so to conserve total angular momentum the precession

angular momentum vector must point upward. The precession vector rotates only

the radial component of the spin angular momentum vector, hence:

note that the I here is the moment inertia about the spinning axis, not about the

precession axis.

(d) To precess in the other direction, the center of mass

must be inside the pivot point of the disk, which happens

at a critical angle (see right):

impulse required:

L/2

90-

gyroscopic approximation that LS >> L (indeed, they are of the same order of

magnitude in this case).

Page 16 of 25

Final Exam

M

r0

A bead of mass M is placed on a frictionless, rigid rod that is spun about at one end

at a rate . The bead is initially held at a distance r0 from the end of the wire. For

the questions below, treat the bead as a point mass. Ignore gravitational forces.

(a) [5 pts] What force is necessary to hold the bead in place at r0? Indicate both

magnitude and direction.

(b) [5 pts] After the bead is released, what is its position in the inertial frame (in

polar coordinates) as a function of time?

(c) [5 pts] Now calculate the fictitious forces on the bead in a reference frame that

is rotating with the wire. What real force must the rod exert on the bead in both the

rotating and inertial frames?

Page 17 of 25

Final Exam

SOLUTION TO PROBLEM 6:

(a) The force applied to hold the bead in place is simply the centripetal force:

(b) In the inertial frame, we can write down the equations of motion in polar

coordinates assuming that there is no radial force acting (no friction or constraint

force):

Here, N is some normal force acting on the bead in the angular direction (important

for part c). The angular position is straightforward, since the rod is rotating at

constant angular rate, hence,

For the radial position, we must solve the radial equation of motion:

This can be done by trial, or you can simply remember that the general solution for

this equation is:

Using the initial conditions r(0) = r0 and dr/dt(0) = 0, we find:

So

(c) In the rotating reference frame, there is only radial motion, and there are two

fictitous forces acting: centrifugal and coriolis forces:

Page 18 of 25

Final Exam

where N is again the angular normal force acting on the bead, and the net angular

acceleration component is 0 since is constant in the rotating frame. Hence

Page 19 of 25

Final Exam

A particle of mass m moves within a region under the influence of a force of the

form

The particle is initially at a distance r0 from the origin of the force, and initially

moves with velocity v0 in a tangential direction.

(a) [5 pts] Derive and sketch the effective potential of this system as a function of

radius from the origin. Indicate all important inflection points. Can the particle

pass through the origin of this reference frame?

(b) [5 pts] Find the velocity v0 required for the particle to move in a purely circular

orbit at a radius r0 with this force law.

(c) [5 pts] Compute the frequency of small oscillations about this equilibrium

radius. How does the period of these oscillations compare to the orbital period?

Page 20 of 25

Final Exam

SOLUTION TO PROBLEM 7:

(a) The effective potential arises from the radial equation of motion assuming that

the total angular momentum is a constant:

The potential arising from this total force law is

The figure above provides a rough sketch of this function (with A = 4 and l2 = 2m).

There is one minimum inflection (equilibrium) point where the net force vanishes:

Page 21 of 25

Final Exam

not possible to pass through the origin with this potential.

(b) For a purely circular orbit, the object must reside at its minimum radius in the

potential, hence:

(c) The frequency of small oscillations in any potential can be derived from the

second derivative of the potential about its (stable) equilibrium point:

Substituting in our expression for v0 from part (b) reduces this to:

Page 22 of 25

Final Exam

Page 23 of 25

Final Exam

USEFUL EQUATIONS

Velocity in polar

coordinates

Acceleration in polar

coordinates

Center of mass (COM) of a

rigid body

Volume element in

cylindrical coordinates

Kinetic energy

Work

Potential Energy

(for conservative forces)

where

Angular momentum

Torque

Fixed axis rotation:

Page 24 of 25

Final Exam

for a uniform bar

COM Moment of inertia

for a uniform hoop

COM Moment of inertia

for a uniform disk

COM Moment of inertia

for a uniform sphere

Scalar parallel axis theorem

Moments of inertia tensor

(permute xyz)

Eulers Equations

(permute 123)

inertial and rotating frames

Fictitious force in an

accelerating frame

Fictitious force in a

rotating frame ( constant)

Taylor Expansion of f(x)

Page 25 of 25

Physics Department

Physics 8.07: Electromagnetism II

October 21, 2012

Prof. Alan Guth

QUIZ 1 SOLUTIONS

PROBLEM 1: SOME SHORT EXERCISES (30 points)

(sA),

where s is a scalar

(a) (10 points) Use index notation to derive a formula for

is a vector eld A(

r ).

eld s(r ) and A

SOLUTION:

sA

= ijk j sA

= ijk sj Ak + ijk Ak j s

A

+

sA

.

= s

(b) (10 points) Which of the following vector elds could describe an electric eld? Say

yes or no for each, and give a very brief reason.

r ) = x ex y ey .

(i) E(

r ) = y ex + x ey .

(ii) E(

r ) = y ex x ey .

(iii) E(

SOLUTION: The curl of an electrostatic eld must be zero, but otherwise there is

no restriction. So the answer follows as

Ey

Ex

(i) E (r ) =

x

y

E

(r ) = (1 1)ez = 0 . YES, it describes an electric eld.

(ii)

E

(r ) = (1 1)ez = 2

(iii)

ez . NO, it does not describe an electric eld.

(c) (10 points) Suppose that the entire x-z and y-z planes are conducting. Calculate the

force F on a particle of charge q located at x = x0 , y = y0 , z = 0.

SOLUTION: we need 3 image charges placed as:

q1 = q

at (x0 , y0 , 0)

q2 = q

at (x0 , y0 , 0)

q3 = + q

at (x0 , y0 , 0) .

p. 2

Note that q1 and the original charge give zero potential on the x = 0 plane, but allow

the potential to vary with x in the y = 0 plane. The second image charge, combined

with the original charge but ignoring the rst image charge, produces a potential

that is zero on the y = 0 plane, but the potential varies with y on the x = 0 plane.

The nal image charge xes these remaining problems. For any point on the y-z

plane (the x = 0 plane) the original charge and q1 pair to give zero potential, and

similarly q2 and q3 pair to give zero potential. For points on the x-z plane (where

y = 0), the original charge and q2 give canceling potentials, as do q1 and q3 .

Having found the image charges, we can write the force as

q + Fq

q + F

F = F

1

2

3

where Fqi is dened as the force of charge qi on charge q. The force exerted on the

charge q is found to be as:

F =

1 q 2

1 q 2

1

q2

x0 x

+ y0 y

+

x

y

.

2

2

2

2

40 4(x0 + y0 ) x20 + y02

40 4x0

40 4y0

Surprisingly, this question was the one that gave the class the most trouble, with a

class average of only 51%. The problem was even illustrated in Lecture Notes 5, on

the fourth page of those notes (labeled p. 61). The moral:

PLEASE REVIEW IMAGE CHARGES!

PROBLEM 2: ELECTRIC FIELDS IN A CYLINDRICAL GEOMETRY (20

points)

A very long cylindrical object consists of an inner cylinder of radius a, which has a

uniform charge density , and a concentric thin cylinder, of radius b, which has an equal

but opposite total charge, uniformly distributed on the surface.

(a) (7 points) Calculate the electric eld everywhere.

(b) (6 points) Calculate the electric potential everywhere, taking V = 0 on the outer

cylinder.

(c) (7 points) Calculate the electrostatic energy per unit length of the object.

p. 3

PROBLEM 2 SOLUTION:

(a) This problem has enough symmetry to allow a solution by Gausss law. In particular,

symmetry considerations imply that the electric eld will point radially outward, and

will have a magnitude that depends only on the distance from the axis. Following

Griths, we use s for the distance from the z-axis, and s for a unit vector pointing

radially outward from the axis, and of course we choose the z-axis to be the axis of

the cylindrical object. Then

= E(s) s .

E

(2.1)

To evaluate E(s), we apply Gausss law to a Gaussian cylinder of length , concentric

with the z-axis. Then

da = Qenc = 2s E(s) .

E

(2.2)

0

For s < a, the Gaussian cylinder is lled with charge density , so

Qenc = s2

s

.

20

(2.3)

a2

.

20 s

(2.4)

E(s) =

Qenc = a2

E(s) =

Finally, for s > b the enclosed charge is zero, so E(s) = 0. Putting this together,

s s

if s < a

2

a

=

E

s if a < s < b

20

s

0

if s > a .

(2.5)

V (r ) = V (r 0 )

r

r0

r ) d

E(

(2.6)

from the formula sheet. Since the line integrals that dene the electric potential are

path-independent, we can choose to integrate only over radial paths. For s > b we

clearly have V (s) = 0, since the absence of an electric eld in this region implies

that V = const, and V = 0 at s = b. Then, for a s b,

s

b 2

b

a2 b

a

ln . (2.7)

E d =

V (s) = V (s=b)

E d = 0 +

ds =

20

s

20 s s

b

s

p. 4

V (s) = V (s=a)

a2

20 ln(b/a) ,

a2

d =

+

E

20 ln(b/a) 20

a

s

s ds

2

2

a2

2a ln(b/a) + a2 s2 .

=

ln(b/a) +

(a s2 ) =

40

40

20

(2.8)

0

2 b

2a ln

V (s) =

40 2 s

2a ln(b/a) + a2 s2

if s > b

if a < s < b

if s < a .

(2.9)

2

3

E d x

(2.10)

(r )V (r ) d3 x .

(2.11)

1

W = 0

2

or

1

W =

2

1

W = 0

2

0

20

2

s2 2s ds +

so

W

2

=

40

20

2

a4

2s ds

s2

a4

s3 ds +

ds

0

a s

b

2 1 4

4

=

a + a ln

a

40 4

=

2 a4

b

1 + 4 ln

.

a

160

,

(2.12)

(2.13)

p. 5

By using Eqs. (2.11) with (2.9), we rst note that V = 0 on the outer cylinder, so

we get a contribution only by integrating over the inner cylinder:

W

2

=

80

=

2

40

2

40

b

2

2

2

2a ln

+ a s 2s ds

a

0

a

a

b

2

2

3

2a ln

+a

s ds

s ds

a

0

0

2 4

a

a

b

2

2

2a ln

+a

a

2

4

(2.14)

2 a4

b

1 + 4 ln

.

a

160

points)

A short piece of wire is placed along the z-axis, centered at the origin. The wire

carries a total charge Q, and the linear charge density is an even function of z: (z) =

(z). The rms length of the charge distribution in the wire is l0 ; i.e.,

l02

1

=

Q

wire

z 2 (z) dz .

(a) (10 points) Find the dipole and quadrupole moments for this charge distribution.

Note that the dipole and quadrupole moments are dened on the formula sheets as

pi =

Qij =

d3 x (r ) xi ,

d3 x (r )(3xi xj ij |r |2 ) .

(b) (10 points) Give an expression for the potential V (r, ) for large r, including all terms

through the quadrupole contribution.

p. 6

PROBLEM 3 SOLUTION:

(a) (10 points) The dipole moment is dened as

pi = d3 x (r ) xi .

In this case the x and y components are zero, since x1 = x2 = 0 for the wire which

runs along z-axis. The z component of the dipole moment is pz , given by

(z) z dz ,

pz =

wire

where d3 x (r ) from the general formalism was replaced by (z) dz. This integration

also yields zero since (z) being an even function makes (z) z an odd function.

Therefore the integral gives zero. The dipole moment is found to be

p = 0 .

The quadrupole moments are dened as,

Qij = d3 x(r )(3xi xj ij |r|2 ) .

Since the wire runs along z-axis we again have x1 = 0 and x2 = 0, and we

also

have |r| = |z| on the wire. Using the rms length of the charge distribution,

z 2 (z)dz = Ql02 , we nd the quadrupole moment as

wire

Qxx = Qyy =

wire

Qzz =

wire

dz(z)(z 2 ) = Ql02 ,

dz(z)(3z 2 z 2 ) = 2Ql02 ,

(b) (10 points) We use the formula for the multipole expansion of the potential on

formula sheet,

1 Q p r 1 ri rj

V (r) =

+ 2 +

Qij + . . . ,

r

2 r3

40 r

where Q, pi and Qij are given in part (a). The r direction is

+ ry y + rz z

r = sin cos ex + sin sin ey + cos ez = rx x

p. 7

1 ry r y

1 rz r z

1 Q 1 r x rx

V (r, ) =

+

Q

+

+

Q

Q

.

.

.

xx

yy

zz

40 r

2 r3

2 r3

2 r3

Up to the quadrupole term,

1 Q Ql02

+ 3 ( sin2 cos2 sin2 sin2 + 2 cos2 )

2r

40 r

1 Q Ql02

+ 3 ( sin2 + 2 cos2 )

=

2r

40 r

V (r, ) =

1 Q Ql02

+ 3 (3 cos2 1) .

2r

40 r

(a) (10 points) A spherical shell of radius R, with an unspecied surface charge density,

is centered at the origin of our coordinate system. The electric potential on the shell

is known to be

V (, ) = V0 sin cos ,

where V0 is a constant, and we use the usual polar coordinates, related to the Cartesian coordinates by

x = r sin cos ,

y = r sin sin ,

z = r cos .

Find V (r, , ) everywhere, both inside and outside the sphere. Assume that the

zero of V is xed by requiring V to approach zero at spatial innity. (Hint: this

problem can be solved using traceless symmetric tensors, or if you prefer you can

use standard spherical harmonics. A table of the low- Legendre polynomials and

spherical harmonics is included with the formula sheets.)

(b) (10 points) Suppose instead that the potential on the shell is given by

V (, ) = V0 sin2 sin2 .

Again, nd V (r, , ) everywhere, both inside and outside the sphere.

(c) (10 points) Suppose instead of specifying the potential, suppose the surface charge

density is known to be

(, ) = 0 sin2 sin2 .

Once again, nd V (r, , ) everywhere.

p. 8

PROBLEM 4 SOLUTION:

This problem can be solving using either traceless symmetric tensors or the more standard

spherical harmonics. I will show the solution both ways, starting with the simplier

derivation in terms of traceless symmetric tensors.

(a) (10 points) We exploit the fact that the most general solution to Laplaces equation

can be written as a sum of terms of the form

1

()

i1 . . . n

i ,

(4.1)

r or +1 Ci1 ...i n

r

()

where Ci1 ...i is a traceless symmetric tensor. In this case we only need an = 1

term, since

x

i n

i .

(4.2)

Fa (, ) sin cos = = x

r

For = 1 the radial function must be r or 1/r 2 . For r < R the 1/r2 option is

excluded, since it is innite at r = 0, so the solution is

V (r ) = V0

r

Fa (, )

R

r

i n

i

V0 x

R

or

r

V0 sin cos .

R

(4.3)

Note that the factor (1/R) was chosen to match the boundary condition at r = R.

For r > R the term proportional to r is excluded, because it does not approach zero

as r , so only the 1/r2 option remains, and the solution is

V (r ) = V0

R

r

2

=

V0

Fa (, )

R

r

2

i

x

i n

or

V0

R

r

(4.4)

2

sin cos .

(b) (10 points) This is in principle the same problem as in part (a), with a slightly more

complicated angular pattern. In this case

Fb (, ) sin2 sin2 =

y2

= (y n

)2 = yi yj n

in

j .

r2

(4.5)

p. 9

This is not quite the expansion in traceless symmetric tensors that we want, because

yi yj is not traceless, but instead has trace ij yi yj = y y = 1. However, we can easily

make it traceless by subtracting 31 ij , writing

1

1

in

Fb (, ) = yi yj ij n

j + .

(4.6)

3

3

To simplify the notation of what follows, I dene

1

1

(4.7)

F2 (, ) = yi yj ij n

in

j = sin2 sin2 ,

3

3

and

1

(4.8)

F0 (, ) = ,

3

so

Fb (, ) = F2 (, ) + F0 (, ) ,

(4.9)

where F2 and F0 refer to the = 2 and = 0 parts. To construct the potential, the

= 2 term can be multiplied by r2 or 1/r 3 , where the second is excluded for r < R

and the rst is excluded for r > R. The = 0 term can be multiplied by 1 or 1/r,

where the second is excluded for r < R and the rst is excluded for r > R. Thus,

for r < R we have

r 2

V (r ) = V0

F2 (, ) + F0 (, )

(4.10a)

R

r 2

1

1

V0

yi yj 3 ij n

in

j + 3

R

V0

For r > R we have

V (r ) = V0

R

r

3

=

V0

F2 (, ) +

R

r

V0

r 2 2

sin sin2 13 +

R

3

R

r

3

R

r

(4.10b)

.

(4.10c)

1

3

or

F0 (, )

yi yj 13 ij n

in

j +

(4.11a)

1

3

2

sin sin2 13 +

1

3

R

r

R

r

or

(4.11b)

.

(4.11c)

p. 10

make use of the fact that the surface charge density is related to the discontinuity

in the radial component of the electric eld. From Gausss law, we know that

Er (r=R+) Er (r=R) =

.

0

(4.12)

From the previous part, we know that we can write the potential as

V (r ) =

A

A

r 2

R

R 3

r

F2 (, ) + BF0 (, )

for r < R

F2 (, ) + B Rr F0 (, ) for r > R ,

(4.13)

continuous at r = R (potentials are always continuous if the electric elds are nite),

we require A = A and B = B; the terms must match individually, since F0 and F2

are orthogonal to each other.

The surface charge density can be written as

(, ) = 0 Fb (, ) = 0 F2 (, ) + F0 (, ) ,

(4.14)

V

V

(r=R+) +

(r=R) =

r

r

3A

B

2A

0

F2 (, ) =

(F2 (, ) + F0 (, )) .

F2 (, ) + F0 (, ) +

R

R

R

0

(4.15)

Again, since F0 and F2 are orthogonal, the coecients must match for each of them,

leading to

R0

R0

,

B=

A=

.

(4.16)

0

50

Inserting these coecients into Eq. (4.13), we nd

R0

V (r ) =

50

2

r

R

sin2 sin2

sin2 sin2

R 3

1

3

1

3

+

+

5

3

for r < R

for r > R .

5 R

r

**************************************************

(4.17)

p. 11

up functions in tables and manipulating complicated expressions involving factors or 4, the method of spherical harmonics is the ideal choice.

Most students in the class chose this option.

(a) This part is pretty straightforward, whether one uses traceless symmetric tensors or

spherical harmonics. Using the table in the formula sheets, and the relation

(, )

(4.18)

i

2

e + ei

Fa (, ) sin cos = sin

=

[Y11 Y1,1 ] .

2

3

(4.19)

The logic is the same as above, and the answer can be written as Eqs. (4.3) and

(4.4), or as

V (r ) = V0

r 2

R

[Y11 (, ) Y1,1 (, )]

for r < R

(4.20)

for r > R .

(4.21)

and

V (r ) = V0

R

r

2

2

[Y11 (, ) Y1,1 (, )]

3

(b) This time more work is required to express the angular function in terms of spherical

harmonics:

i

2

e ei

2

2

2

Fb (, ) = sin sin = sin

2i

1

= sin2 2 e2i e2i

4

2

1

=

[Y22 + Y2,2 ] + sin2

2

15

(4.22)

2

1

=

[Y22 + Y2,2 ] + (1 cos2 )

2

15

2

1

1

1

2

[Y22 + Y2,2 ]

cos

=

+

15

3

2

3

2

1 4

4

[Y22 + Y2,2 ]

=

Y20 +

Y00 .

15

3

5

3

p. 12

F2 (, ) + F0 (, ), where

2

1 4

F2 =

[Y22 + Y2,2 ]

Y20

(4.23)

3

5

15

and

4

Y00 .

(4.24)

F0 =

3

The calculation is then the same as before, so Eqs. (4.10a) and (4.11a) hold for these new

expressions for F2 and F0 . We then conclude that

r 2 2

1 4

4

Y20 +

Y22 + Y2,2 +

Y00

R

3

3

5

15

V (r ) = V0

(4.25)

3

1 4

R

2

4 R

Y20 +

Y00

V (r ) = V0

Y22 + Y2,2 +

3

r

3

5

r

15

(4.26)

for r > R. Of course the answers in Eqs. (4.10c) and (4.11c) are still correct, and can be

found by replacing the Ym s by their explicit forms.

(c) The calculation is the same as above, except that this time we use Eqs. (4.23) and

(4.24) for F2 and F0 . The result is

r 2 2

R0

1 4

Y20

V (r ) =

[Y22 + Y2,2 ] +

R

3

5

15

50

5 4

+

Y00

3

(4.27)

3

R

1 4

2

R0

V (r ) =

[Y22 + Y2,2 ] +

Y20

r

15

3

5

50

5 4 R

+

Y00

r

3

(4.28)

for r > R. Eq. (4.17) is still a valid answer, and is what one would nd by replacing

the Ym s by their explicit values.

MIT OpenCourseWare

http://ocw.mit.edu

8.07 Electromagnetism II

Fall 2012

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

Physics Department

Physics 8.07: Electromagnetism II

November 21, 2012

Prof. Alan Guth

QUIZ 2 SOLUTIONS

QUIZ DATE: NOVEMBER 15, 2012

PROBLEM 1: THE MAGNETIC FIELD OF A SPINNING, UNIFORMLY

CHARGED SPHERE (25 points)

This problem is based on Problem 1 of Problem Set 8.

A uniformly charged solid sphere of radius R carries a total charge Q, and is set

spinning with angular velocity about the z axis.

(a) (10 points) What is the magnetic dipole moment of the sphere?

r ) at large

(b) (5 points) Using the dipole approximation, what is the vector potential A(

is a vector, so it is not enough to merely specify its

distances? (Remember that A

magnitude.)

(c) (10 points) Find the exact vector potential INSIDE the sphere. You may, if you wish,

make use of the result of Example 5.11 from Griths book. There he considered a

spherical shell, of radius R, carrying a uniform surface charge , spinning at angular

velocity

directed along the z axis. He found the vector potential

R

0

r sin , (if r R)

3

A(r, , ) =

4

0 R sin , (if r R) .

r2

3

(1.1)

PROBLEM 1 SOLUTION:

(a) A uniformly charged solid sphere of radius R carries a total charge Q, hence it has

charge density = Q/( 43 R3 ). To nd the magnetic moment of sphere we can divide

the sphere into innitesimal charges. Using spherical polar coordinates, we can take

dq = d = r 2 dr sin d d, with the contribution to the dipole moment given by

dm

= 12 r J d . One method would be to write down the volume integral directly,

using J = v = r. We can, however, integrate over before we start, so we are

breaking the sphere into rings, where a given ring is indicated by its coordinates r

and , and its size dr and d. The volume of each ring is d = 2r 2 dr sin d. The

current dI in the ring is given by dq/T , where T = 2/ is the period, so

dI =

dq

d

=

= r 2 dr sin d .

T

2

(1.2)

p. 2

1

1

dm

ring =

r J d = dI

r d = dI(r 2 sin2 ) z .

2

2 ring

ring

(1.3)

m

= r 2 sin (r 2 sin2 ) dr d z

r dr

=

0

(1 cos2 ) sin d z

Q R5 4

=

3 5 3

R

3

= 4

1

QR2 z .

5

(1.4)

r

0 |m

| sin

= 0 m

A

=

=

3

4 r

4

r2

0 QR2 sin

.

4 5

r2

(1.5)

(c) To calculate the exact vector potential inside the sphere, we split the sphere into

shells. Let r be the integration variable and the radius of a shell, moreover let

dr denote the thickness of the shell. Then we can use the results of Example 5.11

(pp. 236-37) in Griths, if we replace by its value for this case. The value of is

found equating charges

Q

(4r 2) = 4

(4r 2 )dr

(1.6)

3

3 R

and therefore we must replace

dr

4

3

3 R

Making this replacement in Griths Eq. (5.67), quoted above as Eq. (1.1), we now

have

r r if r < r

0

dA (r, , ) = 4 3 dr

sin r 4

(1.7)

2 if r > r .

3

R

3

r

Note that the R of Griths has been replaced by r , which is the radius of the

integration shell. Now we can calculate the vector potential inside the sphere at

p. 3

some radius r < R. The integration will require two pieces, a piece where 0 < r < r

and the other where r < r < R, thus using the two options in Eq. (1.7):

0 Q

sin

A (r, , ) =

4 R3

0

r 4

dr 2 +

r

dr rr

(1.8)

3r 3

rR2

0 Q

sin

+

.

A (r, , ) =

4 R3

10

2

(1.9)

points)

A dielectric sphere of radius R has variable permittivity, so the permittivity throughout

space is described by

0 (R/r)2 if r < R

(r) =

(2.1)

if r > R .

0 ,

There are no free charges anywhere in this problem. The sphere is embedded in a constant

= E0 z, which means that V (r ) E0 r cos for r R.

external electric eld E

(a) (9 points) Show that V (r ) obeys the dierential equation

2 V +

d ln V

=0.

dr r

(2.2)

V (r, ) =

(2.3a)

=0

V (r, ) =

V (r)P (cos ) ,

(2.3b)

=0

where { . . . } denotes the traceless symmetric part of . . . , and P (cos ) is the Legendre polynomial. (Your answer here should depend only on general mathematical

principles, and should not rely on the explicit solution that you will nd in parts (c)

and (d).)

p. 4

(c) (9 points) Derive the ordinary dierential equation obeyed by V (r) (separately for

r < R and r > R) and give its two independent solutions in each region. Hint: they

are powers of r. You may want to know that

d

dP (cos )

sin

= ( + 1) sin P (cos ) .

(2.4)

d

d

The relevant formulas for the traceless symmetric tensor formalism are in the formula

sheets.

(d) (9 points) Using appropriate boundary conditions on V (r, ) at r = 0, r = R, and

r , determine V (r, ) for r < R and r > R.

(e) (4 points) What is the net dipole moment of the polarized sphere?

PROBLEM 2 SOLUTION:

(a) Since we dont have free charges anywhere,

D

=

(E),

(

) +

E

=0.

=E

(2.5)

The permittivity only depends on r, so we can write

dr

result into Eq. (2.5) with E = V , we nd

V ) er d + 2 V

0 = (

dr

V d 1

=

+ 2 V

r dr

=

0=

V d ln

+ 2 V .

r dr

(2.6)

(b) With an external eld along the z-axis, the problem has azimuthal symmetry, implying V / = 0, so V = V (r, ). The Legendre polynomials P (cos ) are a complete

set of functions of the polar angle for 0 , implying that at each value of

r, V (r, ) can be expanded in a Legendre series. In general, the coecients may be

functions of r, so we can write

V (r, ) =

=0

V (r)P (cos ) .

(2.7)

p. 5

The same argument holds for an expansion in { zi1 . . . zi } ri1 . . . ri , since these are

in fact the same functions, up to a multiplicative constant. Note that if depended

on as well as r, then the completeness argument would still be valid, and it would

still be possible to write V (r, ) as in Eqs. (2.3). In that case, however, the equations

for the functions V (r) would become coupled to each other, making them much more

dicult to solve.

d ln

2

(c) For r < R we have

= . Using the hint, Eq. (2.4) in the problem statement,

dr

r

we write

1

V d ln

dV

2

( + 1)

2 V

V +

=

P (cos ) 2

r

+

V = 0 .

r dr

r2

r

dr

r

r r

=0

(2.8)

For this equation to hold for all r < R and for all , the term inside the square

brackets should be zero. (To show this, one would multiply by P (cos ) sin and

then integrate from = 0 to = 2. By the orthonormality of the Legendre

polynomials, only the = term would survive, so it would have to vanish for every

.) Thus,

2

1

r 2 r

2 V

dV

+

dr

2

( + 1)

( + 1)

d2 V

V

=

V = 0 .

2

2

r

r

dr

r2

(2.9)

V (r) = A r +1 +

B

.

r

(2.10)

(This can be veried by inspection, but it can also be found by assuming a trial

function in the form of a power, V r p . Inserting the trial function into the

dierential equation, one nds p(p 1) = ( + 1) . One might see by inspection that

this is solved by p = + 1 or p = , or one can solve it as a quadratic equation,

nding

1 (2 + 1)

p=

= + 1 or .)

2

For r > R,

1 2 V ( + 1)

r

V = 0.

r

r2

r 2 r

(2.11)

V (r ) = C r +

D

.

r +1

(2.12)

p. 6

goes as V (r) = E0 r cos for r R; this gives C = 0 except for C1 = E0 . The

potential V (r, ) is continuous at r = R, implying that

D

A R+1 = +1

for = 1

R

(2.13)

A R2 = E R + D1

for = 1 .

1

0

R2

In addition, the normal component of the displacement vector is continuous on the

boundary of the sphere. Since is continuous at r = R, this means that Er =

V /r is continuous, which one could also have deduced from Eq. (2.2), since any

discontinuity in V /r would produce a -function in 2 V /r 2 . Setting V /r at

r = R equal to its value at r = R+ , we nd

( + 1)A R = ( + 1) D

for = 1

R+2

(2.14)

D1

for = 1 .

2A1 R = 2 3 E0

R

Solving Eq. (2.13) and Eq. (2.14) as two equations (for each ) for the two unknowns

A and D , we see that A = D = 0 for = 1, and that

3E0

,

4R

Then we nd the potential as

A1 =

C1 = E0 ,

and D1 =

2

3E0 r cos

4R

V (r, ) =

R3

E0 cos

r

4r2

E0 R 3

.

4

(2.15)

for r < R

(2.16)

for r < R .

(e) Eq. (2.16) tells us that for r > R, the potential is equal to that of the applied external

eld, Vext = E0 r cos , plus a term that we attribute to the sphere:

E0 R 3

cos .

4r 2

This has exactly the form of an electric dipole,

Vsphere (r, ) =

Vdip =

1 p r

,

40 r 2

(2.17)

(2.18)

if we identify

p = 0 R3 E0 z .

(2.19)

p. 7

Suppose there are two magnetic dipoles. One has dipole moment m

1 = m0 z and

1

is located at r 1 = + 2 a z; the other has dipole moment m

2 = m0 z, and is located at

r 2 = 12 a z.

(a) (10 points) For a point on the z axis at large z, nd the leading (in powers of 1/z)

0, z) and the magnetic eld B(0,

0, z).

behavior for the vector potential A(0,

(b) (3 points) In the language of monopole ( = 0), dipole ( = 1), quadrupole ( = 2),

octupole ( = 3), etc., what type of eld is produced at large distances by this

current conguration? In future parts, the answer to this question will be called a

whatapole.

(c) (3 points) We can construct an ideal whatapole a whatapole of zero size by

taking the limit as a 0, keeping m0 an xed, for some power n. What is the correct

value of n?

(d) (4 points) Given the formula for the current density of a dipole,

r 3 (r r d ) ,

Jdip (r ) = m

(3.1)

where r d is the position of the dipole, nd an expression for the current density

of the whatapole constructed in part (c). Like the above equation, it should be

expressed in terms of -functions and/or derivatives of -functions, and maybe even

higher derivatives of -functions.

PROBLEM 3 SOLUTION:

(a) For the vector potential, we have from the formula sheet that

r

r ) = 0 m

A(

,

4 r 2

(3.2)

= m0 z, and r = z on axis. Thus,

0, z) = 0 .

A(0,

(3.3)

with

This does not mean that B

respect to x and y. From the formula sheet we have

r)

rm

dip (r ) = 0 3(m

,

B

4

r3

(3.4)

0.

Evaluating this expression on the positive z axis, where r = z, we nd

dip (0, 0, z) = 0 2m0 z = 0 m0 z .

B

2 r 3

4 r 3

(3.5)

p. 8

2 dip (0, 0, z) = 0 m0

B

2

0 m0

=

2z 3

0 m0

2z 3

0 m0

2z 3

0 m0

2z 3

1

z 12 a

1

1

3

3

z + 12 a

1a 3

2z

1

1+

z

1a 3

2z

1

1

z

1 32 az

1 + 32 az

3a

3a

1+

1

z

2z

2z

a

3

z

z

30 m0 a

z .

4z 4

(3.6)

(b) Since it falls o as 1/z 4 , it is undoubtedly a quadrupole ( = 2) . For either the E

elds, the monopole falls o as 1/r 2 , the dipole as 1/r 3 , and the quadrupole as

or B

1/r 4 .

(c) We wish to take the limit as a 0 in such a way that the eld at large z approaches

a constant, without blowing up or going to zero. From Eq. (3.6), we see that this

goal will be accomplished by keeping m0 a xed, which means n = 1 .

(d) For the two-dipole system we add together the two contributions to the current

density, using the appropriate values of r d and m

:

J2

r)

dip (

r 3 r a z + m0 z

r 3 r a z .

= m0 z

2

2

Rewriting,

J2

r)

dip (

r

= m0 az

3 (r + a2 z) 3 (r a2 z)

a

(3.7)

.

(3.8)

Now we can dene Q m0 a, and if we take the limit a 0 with Q xed, the above

expression becomes

J2

r)

dip (

r 3 (r ) .

= Qz

z

(3.9)

p. 9

J2

r)

dip (

= Qz

3

r (r ) .

z

(3.10)

points)

Consider a uniformly magnetized innite circular cylinder, of radius R, with its axis

= M0 z.

coinciding with the z axis. The magnetization inside the cylinder is M

r ) everywhere in space.

(a) (5 points) Find H(

r ) everywhere in space.

(b) (5 points) Find B(

PROBLEM 4 SOLUTION:

r ) eld is

= M0 z. The curl of the H(

(a) The magnetization inside the cylinder is M

H(

r ) = Jfree = 0 ,

(4.1)

H

(r) =

r)

B(

(r)

M

0

=

1

BM =0 .

0

(4.2)

Note that for a nite length cylinder, the divergence would be nonzero because of the

at the boundaries. Since H(

r ) is divergenceless and curl-free,

abrupt change in M

we can say

r) = 0

H(

everywhere in space.

(4.3)

(b) Having H(

(r ) = B(r ) M

(r ) = 0

H

0

r ) =

B(

0 M0 z for r < R ,

0

for r > R .

(4.4)

M

= 0 and

In this question we could alternatively nd the bound currents as Jb =

Kb = M n

= M0 . Then, using Amp`eres law as we did for a solenoid, we could nd

obtaining the same answers as above.

the magnetic eld and then also H,

p. 10

SPHERES (10 points)

Compare the electric eld of a uniformly polarized sphere with the magnetic eld of

a uniformly magnetized sphere; in each case the dipole moment per unit volume points

along z. Multiple choice: which of the following is true?

and B

eld lines point in the same direction both inside and outside the

(a) The E

spheres.

and B

eld lines point in the same direction inside the spheres but in opposite

(b) The E

directions outside.

and B

eld lines point in opposite directions inside the spheres but in the

(c) The E

same direction outside.

and B

eld lines point in opposite directions both inside and outside the

(d) The E

spheres.

PROBLEM 5 SOLUTION:

eld of a uniformly

E

polarized sphere

eld of a uniformly

B

magnetized sphere

and B

eld lines point in opposite directions inside the spheres but

The answer is (c), E

in the same direction outside, as shown in the diagrams, which were scanned from the

E

=

rst edition of Jackson. Note that the diagram on the left shows clearly that

0

at the boundary of the sphere, so it could not possibly

be a picture of B. It is at least

E

= 0, or equivalently E

d = 0 for any closed loop, as it

visually consistent with

must be to describe an electrostatic eld. The diagram on the right, on the other hand,

B

=

d =

shows clearly that

0, or equivalently B

0, so it could not possibly be a

B

= 0, as

picture of an electrostatic eld. It is at least qualitatively consistent with

it must be.

p. 11

Physics Department

Physics 8.07: Electromagnetism II

November 13, 2012

Prof. Alan Guth

Exam Date: November 15, 2012

Some sections below are marked with asterisks, as this section is. The asterisks

indicate that you wont need this material for the quiz, and need not understand it. It is

included, however, for completeness, and because some people might want to make use

of it to solve problems by methods other than the intended ones.

Index Notation:

B

= Ai Bi ,

A

B

i = ijk Aj Bk ,

A

ijk pqk = ip jq iq jp

det A = i1 i2 in A1,i1 A2,i2 An,in

Rotation of a Vector:

Ai = Rij Aj ,

j=1

i=1 cos

= i=2

sin

i=3

0

(RT T = I)

j=2

j=3

sin

cos

0

0

0

1

by :

R(

n, )ij = ij cos + n

in

j (1 cos ) ijk n

k sin .

Vector Calculus:

)i = i ,

i

Gradient:

(

xi

Divergence:

A i A i

Curl:

A)

i = ijk j Ak

(

Laplacian:

(

) =

=

2

2

xi xi

Gradient:

(a)

d = (b)

da

A

A

d x=

Divergence:

V

Curl:

S

d

( A) da =

A

P

p. 12

Delta Functions:

(r ) 3 (r r ) d3 x = (r )

(x)(x x ) dx = (x ) ,

d

d

(x) (x x ) dx =

dx

dx x=x

(x xi )

, g(xi ) = 0

(g(x)) =

|g (xi )|

i

1

r

r

= 4 3 (r r )

= 2

3

|r r |

|r r |

x

ri rj

4

1

ij 3

rj

j

=

+

ij 3 (r)

i

i 3 = i j

2

3

r

3

r

r

r

r d

8 3

3(d r)

=

(d ) (r )

r3

3

r d

4

3(d r)

3 (r )

= d

3

3

r

Electrostatics:

, where

F = qE

1

(r r )

1 (r r ) qi

E(r ) =

=

) d3 x

3 (r

40 i |r r |3

40

|r r |

0 =permittivity of free space = 8.854 1012 C2 /(Nm2 )

1

= 8.988 109 Nm2 /C2

40

r

1

(r ) 3

E(r ) d =

d x

V (r ) = V (r 0 )

40

|r r |

r0

E

= ,

E

= 0,

= V

E

0

(Poissons Eq.) ,

= 0 = 2 V = 0 (Laplaces Eq.)

2 V =

0

Laplacian Mean Value Theorem (no generally accepted name): If 2 V = 0, then

the average value of V on a spherical surface equals its value at the center.

Energy:

1 1 qi qj

(r )(r )

1 1

W =

=

d3 x d3 x

2 40

rij

2 40

|r r |

1

W =

2

ij

i=j

1

d x(r )V (r ) = 0

2

3

2 3

E

d x

p. 13

Conductors:

= n

Just outside, E

0

Pressure on surface:

1

2 |E|outside

N isolated conductors:

Vi =

Pij Qj ,

Cij Vj ,

Qi =

a

a2

Image charge in sphere of radius a: Image of Q at R is q = Q, r =

R

R

Separation of Variables for Laplaces Equation in Cartesian Coordinates:

V =

cos x

sin x

cos y

sin y

cosh z

sinh z

where 2 = 2 + 2

Traceless Symmetric Tensor expansion:

1

1

2

r

+ 2 2 = 0 ,

(r, , ) = 2

r

r

r r

where the angular part is given by

1

1 2

2

sin

+

sin

sin2 2

2

()

()

2 Ci1 i2 ...i n

i1 n

i2 . . . n

i = ( + 1)Ci1 i2 ...i n

i1 n

i2 . . . n

i ,

()

n

= sin cos e1 + sin sin e2 + cos e3 .

General solution to Laplaces equation:

()

C

()

i2 ...i

ri1 ri2 . . . ri ,

V (r ) =

Ci1 i2 ...i r + i1+1

r

=0

where r = rr

p. 14

Azimuthal Symmetry:

B

A r + +1 { zi1 . . . zi } ri1 . . . ri

V (r ) =

r

=0

where { . . . } denotes the traceless symmetric part of . . . .

Special cases:

{1} = 1

{ zi } = zi

{ zi zj } = zi zj 13 ij

zi jk + zj ik + zk ij

{ zi zj zk zm } = zi zj zk zm 71 zi zj km + zi zk mj + zi zm jk + zj zk im

1

ij km + ik jm + im jk

+ zj zm ik + zk zm ij + 35

{ zi zj zk } = zi zj zk

1

5

General solution to Laplaces equation:

Bm

V (r ) =

Am r + +1 Ym (, )

r

=0 m=

Orthonormality:

0

Azimuthal Symmetry:

B

A r + +1 P (cos )

V (r ) =

r

=0

First several terms:

1 Q p r 1 ri rj

Q

+

, where

V (r ) =

+ 2 +

ij

2 r3

40 r

r

3

3

Q = d x (r ) , pi = d x (r ) xi Qij = d3 x (r )(3xi xj ij |r |2 ) ,

dip (r ) = 1

E

40

E

dip (r ) = 0 ,

p r

r2

1 3(p r)

r p

1

pi 3 (r )

3

40

r

30

E

dip (r ) = 1 dip (r ) = 1 p

3 (r )

0

0

p. 15

V (r ) =

1 1

()

Ci1 ...i ri1 . . . ri ,

+1

r

40

=0

where

()

Ci1 ...i

(2 1)!!

=

!

(r ) { xi1 . . . xi } d3 x

(r rr xi ei )

(2 1)!! r

1

=

{ ri1 . . . ri } ri1 . . . ri ,

!

r +1

|r r |

for r < r

=0

(2)!

, with (1)!! 1 .

2 !

Griths version:

1 1

V (r ) =

r (r )P (cos ) d3 x

+1

40

r

=0

r

1

<

=

P (cos ) ,

+1

|r r |

r>

=0

1

P (x) =

2 !

d

dx

=

P (x)

2

1 2x +

=0

(x2 1) ,

(Rodrigues formula)

P (1) = 1

2

2 + 1

1 4 qm

V (r ) =

Ym (, )

2 + 1 r +1

40

=0 m=

where qm =

Ym

r (r ) d3 x

4 r

1

=

Y ( , )Ym (, ) ,

2 + 1 r +1 m

|r r |

=0 m=

for r < r

p. 16

Electric Dipoles:

p = d3 x (r ) r

r 3 (r r d ) , where r d = position of dipole

dip (r ) = p

= (p

)E

=

(p E)

F

(force on a dipole)

= p E

(torque on a dipole)

U = p E

Electrically Polarizable Materials:

(r ) = polarization = electric dipole moment per unit volume

P

n

bound = P ,

bound = P

0 E

+P

,

D

D

= free ,

E

= 0 (for statics)

Boundary conditions:

Eab

ove Ebelow =

0

E

above Ebelow = 0

Dab

ove Dbelow = free

D

above Dbelow = Pabove Pbelow

Linear Dielectrics:

= 0 e E,

P

e = electric susceptibility

= E

0 (1 + e ) = permittivity,

D

r =

= 1 + e = relative permittivity, or dielectric constant

0

N /0

, where N = number density of atoms

1 N

30

or (nonpolar) molecules, = atomic/molecular polarizability (P = E)

1

E

d3 x

(linear materials only)

Energy: W =

D

2

W (Even if one or more potential dierences are

Force on a dielectric: F =

held xed, the force can be found by computing the gradient with the total

charge on each conductor xed.)

Clausius-Mossotti equation: e =

Magnetostatics:

Magnetic Force:

= q (E

+ v B)

= dp ,

F

dt

where p = m0v ,

1

=

1

v2

c2

=

F

p. 17

=

I d B

d3 x

J B

Current Density:

J da

S

Charge conservation:

J

=

t

Biot-Savart Law:

0

0

K(r ) (r r )

d (r r )

I

=

da

B(r ) =

4

|r r |3

4

|r r |3

0

J(r ) (r r ) 3

=

d x

4

|r r |3

where 0 = permeability of free space 4 107 N/A2

Examples:

= 0 I

Innitely long straight wire: B

2r

Inntely long tightly wound solenoid:

unit length

0, z) =

Loop of current on axis: B(0,

B

0 IR2

z

2(z 2 + R2 )3/2

r ) = 1 0 K

n

Innite current sheet: B(

, n

= unit normal toward r

2

Vector Potential:

(r )coul = 0

A

4

J(r ) 3

d x ,

|r r |

=

A

,

B

A

coul = 0

B

= 0 (Subject to modication if magnetic monopoles are discovered)

(r ) = A(

r ) + (

r ) for any (r ). B

=

A

is

Gauge Transformations: A

unchanged.

Amp`eres Law:

d = 0 Ienc

B

B

= 0 J , or equivalently

p. 18

Traceless Symmetric Tensor version:

{ ri1 . . . ri }

0 ()

Aj (r ) =

Mj;i1 i2 ...i

r +1

4

=0

(2 1)!!

()

where Mj;i1 i2 ...i =

d3 xJj (r ){ xi1 . . . xi }

!

Current conservation restriction:

d3 x Sym(xi1 . . . xi1 Ji ) = 0

i1 ...i

i1 ...i

Special cases:

= 1:

d3 x Ji = 0

d3 x (Ji xj + Jj xi ) = 0

= 2:

r

(r ) = 0 m

Leading term (dipole): A

,

4 r 2

where

1

(1)

mi = ijk Mj;k

2

1

1

m

= I

r d =

d3 x r J = Ia ,

2

2 P

where a =

da for any surface S spanning P

S

r

0 3(m

r)

rm

20

dip (r ) = 0

m

m

3 (r )

B

=

+

2

3

4

r

3

4

r

B

dip (r ) = 0 ,

B

dip (r ) = 0 Jdip (r ) = 0 m

3 (r )

Griths version:

0 I 1

(r ) P (cos )d

A(r ) =

r +1

4

=0

Magnetic Dipoles:

1

1

r d =

m

= I

d3 x r J = Ia

2 P

2

p. 19

Jdip (r ) = m

=

(m

F

B)

(force on a dipole)

=m

B

U = m

B

(torque on a dipole)

(r ) = magnetization = magnetic dipole moment per unit volume

M

M

,

bound = M

n

K

Jbound =

B

=0

1B

M

,

H

= Jfree ,

0

Boundary conditions:

Hab

Bab

ove Bbelow = 0

ove Hbelow = (Mabove Mbelow )

)

H

B

above Bbelow = 0 (K n

above Hbelow = Kfree n

Linear Magnetic Materials:

= m H,

m = magnetic susceptibility

M

= H

B

= 0 (1 + m ) = permeability,

Magnetic Monopoles:

(r ) = 0 qm r ;

B

Force on a static monopole: F = qm B

4 r 2

= 0 qe qm r , where r points

Angular momentum of monopole/charge system: L

4

from qe to qm

0 qe qm

1

Dirac quantization condition:

= h integer

4

2

Connection Between Traceless Symmetric Tensors and Legendre Polynomials

or Spherical Harmonics:

(2)!

{ zi1 . . . zi } n

i1 . . . n

i

P (cos ) =

2 (!)2

For m 0,

(,m)

i1 . . . n

i ,

Ym (, ) = Ci1 ...i n

(,m)

+

im+1 . . . zi } ,

where Ci1 i2 ...i = dm { u

+

i1 . . . u

im z

2m (2 + 1)

(1)m (2)!

,

with dm =

4 ( + m)! ( m)!

2 !

1

ex + iey )

and u

+ = (

2

(, )

p. 20

2 + 1 ( m)! m

P (cos )eim

Ym (, ) =

4 ( + m)!

where Pm (cos ) is the associated Legendre function, which can be dened by

Pm (x)

+m

(1)m

2 m/2 d

=

(1 x )

(x2 1)

+m

2 !

dx

Legendre Polynomials:

l=0

Y00 =

4

3

sin ei

8

Y11 = l=1

3

cos

4

Y10 =

Y22 =

l=2

1

4

15

sin2 e2i

2

15

sin cosei

8

Y21 = -

Y20 =

5

( 32 cos2

4

1

)

2

35

sin3 e3i

4

Y33 = -

1

4

Y32 =

1

4

105

sin2 cos e2i

2

Y31 = -

1

4

21

sin (5cos2 -1)ei

4

l=3

Y30 =

7

( 5 cos3

4 2

3

2

cos )

MIT OpenCourseWare

http://ocw.mit.edu

8.07 Electromagnetism II

Fall 2012

For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms.

Problem 1

A sprinter running a 100 meter race starts at rest, accelerates at constant acceleration with

magnitude A for 2 seconds, and then runs at constant speed until the end.

a) Find the position (relative to the start position) and speed of the runner at the end of the 2

seconds in terms of A.

b) Assume that the runner takes a total of 10 seconds to run the 100 meters. Find the value of

the acceleration A. You can leave your answer in terms of a fraction but clearly indicate the

units.

Problem 2

36.9

8m

meters above the water at an initial speed of v0 and an angle of

36.9 o from the vertical as shown. Use g=10 m/s2 to solve this

problem. See note on formula sheet about the values of

trigonometric functions for this angle.

a) Write a set of equations for the horizontal and vertical

positions and velocities of the rock as a function of time.

Clearly indicate on your drawing your choice of axes and

what point you are using as your origin.

b) The rock reaches its highest point in 2 seconds. How high is

the rock above the water at that instant? (Hint: First you

need to find v0).

Problem 3

A rock is thrown downward from a bridge at an initial speed of 10

m/s and an angle of 36.9o from the vertical as shown. At the

o

same instant a boat is passing under the bridge traveling 6 m/s in

36.9

10 m/s

the direction shown. See note on formula sheet about the values

6 m/s

velocity of the rock as seen by a person on the bridge. Clearly

indicate on your drawing your choice of axes.

b) Find the vertical and horizontal components of the initial

velocity of the rock as seen by the person on the boat. Clearly indicate on your drawing your

choice of axes.

c) Draw a clear vector diagram showing how to relate the velocity the rock appears to be moving

as seen from the bridge, the velocity the rock appears to be moving as seen by the person in

the boat, and the velocity of the boat with respect to the bridge.

Problem 4

The position of a particle of mass M is given by the following equations:

X = A + Bt Ct 2

Y = D + Et F cos(Gt ) Z = H + F sin(Gt )

where A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and H are all constants.

answer.

Explain your

Problem 5

the same magnitude. Two of the forces are perpendicular and

the third acts at an angle as shown above. No other forces act

on this object. Which of the following is true? For full credit,

explain your answer.

1) It is possible for this particle to remain at rest.

2) It is not possible for this particle to remain at rest.

3) You cannot answer this question without knowing the value of

the angle .

4) You cannot answer this question without knowing both the

value of the angle and the magnitude of the forces F.

Problem 6

A person pulls on a block by applying a force F and the block

F = f and N = W

F = f and N > W

F > f and N < W

F > f and N = W

None of the above choices is correct.

Problem 7

The position of a particle is given by the following equations:

x = at + bt 3 where a = 2.0 m s and b = 0.5 m

F

W

s3

rad

s

2

a) Write equations for the components of the velocity, vx and vy, as functions of time.

b) Write equations for the components of the acceleration, ax and ay, as functions of time.

c) Make an XY plot showing (as dots numbered 0 and 1) the position of the particle at t=0 and 1

seconds. On this same plot, draw two arrows at each dot showing the approximate direction

of the velocity and acceleration at that time. If either velocity or acceleration has zero

magnitude, indicate that clearly. Label your two arrows so we know which is which. Don't

worry about the length of these arrows, just their approximate directions

y = A sin(Bt ) where A = 2.0m and B =

Problem 8

While driving along the highway at 40 m/s, you spot a police car 50 m ahead, traveling at a

constant speed of 30 m/s which is the speed limit. You apply the brakes and begin decelerating

at 1.0 m/s2. Assume that the police officer will give you a speeding ticket only if you pass her car.

Will you get a ticket? Justify your answer numerically. [Hint: You can solve this problem by

trying to solve a quadratic equation; look closely at the numbers! Instead, you might want to

think about when the cars have equal velocities.]

Problem 9

A rocket, initially at rest on the ground, accelerates straight upward with constant net

acceleration, B, from time t=0 until t=T1, at which time the fuel is exhausted. Neglect air

resistance and assume that the rocket stays close enough to the ground that the acceleration due

to gravity (after the rocket engine stops) is given by g.

a) Find the maximum height, H, that the rocket reaches above the ground.

b) If the rocket's net acceleration, B, is equal to 1.0g, find an expression for the total time, Tmax,

that the rocket is in the air (i.e. from liftoff until it hits the ground) in terms of T1. You do not

need to solve your expression numerically but simplify it as much as possible.

Problem 10

You are standing on the Mass Avenue Bridge watching the

boats on the Charles. You see a motorboat pass directly below

you, traveling perpendicular to the bridge at a speed of 6 m/s. A

person on the boat throws a baseball at an initial speed of v0

and at an angle of 36.9o from the vertical (Note: both v0 and the

angle are with respect to the boat). Find the value of v0

necessary for the ball to travel straight up towards you. Show

clearly on the drawing the direction the ball is thrown relative

to the boat.

6 m/s

Problem 11

A circus acrobat is launched by a catapult at a speed of 15 m s at an angle of = 40 above the

horizontal as shown. At a distance of 20 m away, her partner is standing on a platform at a

height of h meters. At the instant that the acrobat is launched, her partner throws a basketball

towards her horizontally at a speed of 5 m s . Ignore air resistance in solving this problem.

a) Write equations for the horizontal and vertical

positions as functions of time for both the

acrobat and the basketball. Be consistent in

your choice of origin.

b) When will the performer and basketball be at

the same horizontal position?

c) Find the value of h for which the acrobat will

catch the ball. Assume that she and the ball

must be at the same height for her to catch it.

d) Find the magnitude of the velocity of the ball

relative to the acrobat at the instant that she

catches it.

Problem 12

Young & Freedman 5.11 and 5.12 on page 194.

20 m

5 m/s

15 m/s

Department of Physics

Physics 8.01L

SAMPLE EXAM 1

SOLUTIONS

Problem 1

a)

x=

1 2

1

At = A(2)2 = 2A

2

2

Vx = At = 2A

b)

8 seconds to run 100 2Am at speed 2A.

8(2A) = 100 2A 18A = 100 A =

100

18

x = 2A + 2At

x = 100, at t = 8

100 = 2A + 2A(8)

A=

100

18

Problem 2

a)

x = v0 sin(36.9)t = 0.6v0 t

vx = v0 sin(36.9 ) = 0.6v0

1 2

1

gt = 8 + 0.8v0 t gt2

2

2

vy = v0 cos(36.9 ) gt = 0.8v0 gt

y = 8 + v0 cos(36.9 )t =

b)

At top, vy = 0

y = 8 + 0.8(

0 = 0.8v0 10 (2)

v0 =

20

0.8 .

20

1

)(2) (10)(2)2 = 8 + 40 20

0.8

2

y = 28m.

1

Problem 3

a)

vx = 10sin(36.9) = 6

m/s

vy = 10cos(36.9 ) = 8 m/s

b)

vx = 6 6 = 0m/s

vy = 8 0 = 8m/s

c)

Problem 4

a)

vx = B 2Ct

vy = E + F Gsin(Gt)

ax = 2C

ay = F G2 cos(Gt)

az = F G2 sin(Gt)

vz = F Gcos(Gt)

b)

|a| =

4C 2 + F 2 G4

Problem 5

Fx = F cos() F

Fy = F sin() F

Problem 6

a)

F =f

and N = W

F =f

and N > W

F >f

F >f

and N < W

and N = W

f = F cos() < F

N + F sin() = W

N <W

Problem 7

a)

3

vx = a + 3bt2 = 2 + t2

2

vy = ABcos(Bt) = cos( t)

2

b)

ax = 6bt = 3t

ay = AB 2 sin(Bt) =

sin( t)

2

2

c)

0

1

x

0

2 21

y

0

2

vx

2

3 21

vy

ax

0

3

ay

0

2

2

Problem 8

1

x1 = 40t (1)t2 v1 = 40 t

2

x2 = 50 + 30t v2 = 30

v1 = v2

@ t = 10

Method 1:

x1 = 400 50 = 350

x2 = 50 + 300 = 350

Dont pass No ticket!

x1 = x2

Method 2:

t=

Only happens once

1

40t t2 = 50 + 30t

2

1 2

t 10t + 30 = 0

2

10 100 4( 21 )(50)

1

Problem 9

a) Boost phase: y = 12 BT12

vy = BT1 .

vy = 0 @ 0 = (BT1 )2 2g(y 21 BT12 ) or t =

H=

B 2 T12

2g

BT1

g .

+ 21 BT12

b) Tmax = T1 + t

where 0 = 21 BT12 + BT1 t 12 gt2

If B = g t2 2T1 t T12 = 0

t=

2

t = T1 +

2T1

Tmax = 2T1 +

2T1 = T1 (2 + 2).

= 10

Problem 10

vball,x must be < 0

6 v0 sin(36.9 ) = 0

6 v0 (0.6) = 0

v0 = 10m/s.

Problem 11

a)

Acrobat

x = 0 + 15cos()t + 0

x = 11.5t

y = 0 + 15sin()t 21 gt2

y = 9.6t 4.9t2

b) x1 = x2

c)

Basketball

x = 20 5t

y = h 21 gt2 = h 4.9t2

at 11.5t = 20 5t t = 1.21s.

Acrobat: y = 4.44m.

h = 11.6m.

d)

Acrobat

vx = 11.5m/s

vy = 2.26m/s

Basketball

vx = 5m/s

vy = 11.9m/s

Relative

vx = 5(11.5) = 16.5m/s

vy = 11.9 (2.26) = 9.6m/s

Mag = 19.1m/s

Problem 12

Young & Freedman 5.11 on page 194.

a)

T sin(45) = 60N

T = 85N

b) T cos(45) = F2 F2 = 60N

c) Looking at the diagonal string F1 = F2 , so F1 = 60N .

Fy = T cos() w = 0

T = w/cos()

Fx = N T sin() = 0

N = T sin() = wtan()

You can nd from sin() =

= 4.2

T = 2.7N

R

l+R ,

N = 0.2N

Department of Physics

Physics 8.01L

SAMPLE EXAM 2

SOLUTIONS

November 1, 2005

Problem 1

i) a) Object A Same force, smaller mass, so A has a bigger acceleration and moves the same distance in a

shorter time.

ii) c) Both are the same. Same force, same distance, so the same change in kinetic energy.

iii) a) Object A. Smaller mass so smaller normal force, therefore smaller friction. Net force is larger on A,

iv) a) Object A. B moves up and stops completely. At its maximum height, A still has horizontal motion.

v) b) Objects B They start with the same kinetic energy (KE). B converts all of its KE to gravitation

Problem 2

A) iv) Same force by Newtons 3rd law.

D) iv) Normal force does work and creates PE. N points up, motion is up + Work KE is constant, but

PE rises.

Problem 3

a)

a = vR , v = 2R

2

2

b) a = vR = 4 2R Spring

is stretched a distance R so:

4 2

T = kR = ma = m 2 R , R drops out.

= 2 m

k

Problem 4

a)

b)

Fx = Bsin() f = 0, f = Bsin()

Fy = Bcos() + N = 0, N = Bcos()

B drops out. Block will move if sin() > cos(), or tan() >

Problem 5

a) y = H + vt 21 gt2 , y = H at vt 12 gt2 = 0, t = 2v

g .

b) N = B by Newtons 3rd law.

c) N = 0 No contact.

d) EI = 0, EF = mg H + 21 mv 2 , W = BH = EF EI B = mg +

mv 2

2H

Problem 6

a) Fx = F cos() =

2mg

tan() ,

ax =

2g

tan()

2g

x = 100t + 12 ax t2 = 100(12) + 12 tan()

(12)2 = 1200 +

y = 0 (12) + 12 g (12)2 = 720.

1440

tan()

b) This problem uses a calculator, your exam will not require a calculator.

2g

vx = 100 + tan()

(12) = 239 m/s.

vy =

g (12) = 120 m/s

v=

Problem 7

a)

b)

Fy = 0 mg + N sin() = 0, N =

mg

sin()

2

c)

Fx = N cos() = m vR , R = Htan()

mg

mv 2

cos() = Htan()

, v 2 = Hg.

Use answer to (b): sin()

Problem 8

a)

b)

Fx = N sin() = ma,

Fy = N cos() mg = 0.

N sin()

mg

c) N = cos() , a = m = gtan().

2

Problem 9

a) The suit case is sliding so it has kinetic friction. Belt is horizontal and no vertical forces other than

gravity so f = k mg.

b) a =

F

m

= k g, v = at = k gt = u t =

u

k g .

d) At this point, the suit case moves at constant velocity, so f = 0.

Problem 10

a)

b)

Fx = T + T sin() = m vL

Fy = T cos() mg = 0.

a) Call h = 0 the bottom end of the rod when it is vertical. Call the length of the rod L:

KEI = 0, KEF = 12 mrat v 2 + 12 mmouse v 2 .

The rod pivots around the center so both animals move at the same speed.

P EI = g(mrat + mmouse ) L2 , P EF = g(mrat mmouse )L.

mmouse )Lg

, v = 1.8m/s.

W = 0, since no forces other than gravity: v 2 = (mmrat

rat +mmouse

a) Dropping a distance h, no friction: 12 mv 2 = mgh, v 2 = 2gh.

Dropping a distance d with friction, but gaining the same KE: KEI = 0, KEF = mgh, P EI = mgd.

P EF = 0, W = f d, W = E, f d = mgh mgd

. If h = d, f = 0, as expected.

f = mg dh

d

If h = 0, no velocity! f = mg.

b) 440 Newtons.

c) KEI = 0, KEF = 12 mv 2 , P EI = mgd, P EF = mgy, W = f (d y)

Using the value of f found in a): f (d y) = mg (dh)(dy)

= 12 mv 2 + mgy mgd

d

(dy)h

=

2g

,

v

=

2g (dy)h

m drops out v 2 = 2g(d y) 2g (dh)(dy)

d

d

d

a) W = E, KEI = 21 (m)(4.8)2 , KEF = 0, W = f d

f = N and N = mg , so: 21 m(4.8)2 = mgd, = 0.39

b) W = E, P EI = mg(1.6), P EF = 0, KEI = 0, KEF = 12 m(4.8)2

W = E = 21 m(4.8)2 mg(1.6) = 0.83 J

3

8.01L

Fall 2005

Exam 3 Sample Problems

Note that some of these problems were from an exam allowing calculators. Your exam will

not allow calculators.

Problem 1

a) Two large spherical stars with masses of M and 2M

m

M

2M

are positioned a distance D apart (measured from

the center of one star to the center of the other

star) as shown. A small spherical asteroid with

D

mass m is located with its center exactly halfway

between the two large stars. Find the magnitude and direction of the total

gravitational force acting on the asteroid.

m

b) A small probe of mass m is released from rest at a distance of

2R above the surface of a spherical planet of mass M and radius

R. Find the speed that the probe will have when it hits the

surface of the planet. Assume that the planet does not have an

atmosphere and no forces other than gravity act on the probe.

c) Assume that the probe is released at the same distance from

the planet but now with a velocity of vo = GM 4R . The probe

has a rocket which fires to put it into a circular orbit at that

height. Find the speed the probe would have once it is in the

circular orbit and, using that, find the work done by the

rocket. Assume that, at all times, the probe is at the same

distance from the planet and that there are no forces acting

on the probe other than the planets gravity and the rocket.

2R

vo

2R

Extra Credit Question This question may require a lot of thought for the points

available. Try it only if you have finished with all other problems

d) Redo part (b) but assuming that the planet is a hollow shell and that the probe falls

through a hole in the shell. Find the speed of the probe when it gets to the center of

the hollow shell. Explain your answer.

Problem 2

a) An object of mass, M=2 kg, is attached to a spring of

spring

k

spring constant k=50 N/m which is compressed a

uncompressed

distance d=20 cm and then released at rest. Find the

M

speed of the object when it has gone past the point

d

where the spring is uncompressed and now the

spring is stretched a distance of 10 cm. Assume that

the mass is moving on a horizontal, frictionless

surface.

b) Write an equation for the position of the mass as a function of time with t=0 being the

instant that the mass was first released from rest. Use this equation to find out how

long it takes the mass to get from the initial point with the spring compressed by 20 cm

to the point where the spring is stretched by 10 cm. (Hint: Think carefully about the

units of when doing the trig functions on your calculator.)

c) Write an equation for the velocity as a function of time, using the same definition of

t=0 as in part (b). Use this equation to find the velocity (magnitude and direction)

when the time is t = 3T 4 where T is the period of motion of the mass on the spring.

Problem 3

Two hockey pucks collide on a

horizontal, frictionless surface. The

velocities of both pucks before the

collision are shown in the drawing.

After they collide, puck A is moving

as shown. Assume that the mass of

puck A is twice as large as the mass

of puck B: MA = 2*MB.

BEFORE

A

40

AFTER

25 m/s

30 m/s

25

15 m/s

B v=?

a) Find the magnitude and direction of the velocity of puck B after the collision. Clearly

indicate on your drawing the angle you are using to specify the direction of puck B.

b) Is kinetic energy conserved in this collision? Justify your answer. If not, clearly indicate

whether KE is gained or lost.

Problem 4

a) A baseball-player-turned-astronaut stands on Mimas, a small moon of Saturn, and

throws a baseball with initial speed 37m/s. The mass of the baseball is 0.15kg ; the mass

19

of Mimas is 3.8x10 kg and its radius is 200km. If the astronaut throws the ball

horizontally, will it go into a circular orbit around Mimas? Explain your answer.

b) For the same situation given in part b), if the astronaut throws the ball vertically, how

high above the surface of Mimas will it rise before stopping?

Problem 5 Short Answer Questions:

You must show your work or write an explanation of your answer to get credit

for these problems.

i) A ball hits a wall and bounces off as shown. Assume that the collision is elastic. Which

vector best represents the direction of the change in momentum of the ball?

a) Circle your choice and explain it b) Not enough information to answer.

ii) A small car is moving along a straight level highway at a speed of 3v. The car hits from

behind a large truck moving in the same direction at speed v. After the collision, the car

is stuck onto the truck. During the collision, which vehicle experiences the greater

average force? Explain your answer.

a) The car

b) The truck

iii) Two balls of masses 2 kg and 3 kg slide along a frictionless horizontal surface with

speeds of 4 m/s and 2 m/s, respectively. After an inelastic collision, the balls stick

together and move at a speed of 2 m/s. What direction did the two balls move before the

collision?

a) In the same direction

b) In opposite directions

Problem 6

Two steel spheres are shot at each other and then collide headon as shown. Sphere A has a mass of 10 kg and a velocity just

A

B

before the collision of 3 m/s to the right. Sphere B has mass of 4

kg and velocity just before the collision of 4 m/s to the left.

Immediately after the collision the velocity of sphere B is observed to be 6 m/s to the right.

a) What is the magnitude and direction of the velocity of sphere A immediately after the

collision? Clearly indicate your coordinate system and what direction is positive.

b) Is this collision elastic or inelastic? Explain your answer.

c) Assume that the collision lasts 10 !3 seconds. Calculate the magnitude and direction of

the average force that sphere A exerts on sphere B during the collision. Clearly indicate

your coordinate system and what direction is positive.

Problem 7

Maximum

A spring-loaded toy gun is used to shoot a ball of mass M

Height

straight up in the air. The ball is not attached to the

spring. The ball is pushed down onto the spring so that

the spring is compressed a distance S below its

3S

unstretched point. After release, the ball reaches a

maximum height 3S, measured from the unstretched

position of the spring (see diagram).

Spring

unstretched

S

Spring compressed

Mass released from rest

on the spring with no forces other than gravity and the

spring acting on it. Clearly indicate the point you are

Mass = M

using as the origin of your coordinate system and what

direction is positive.

c) Now, the ball is glued onto the spring so that it

oscillates up and down rather than flying off the

spring. The spring is again compressed the same distance S below its unstretched

point. Write an equation for the position of the ball as a function of time after it is

released. Clearly indicate the point you are using as the origin of your coordinate

system and what direction is positive.

Problem 8

A projectile is launched straight up. It explodes into two pieces at the top point of its

trajectory. One piece has twice the mass of the other one. The more massive piece has

kinetic energy equal to K right after the explosion. Show that the total energy released in

the explosion (i.e. the total kinetic energy of the two pieces right after the explosion) is

exactly equal to 3.0K. Justify your answer with a calculation.

Problem 9

A metal block of mass M is free to

slide on a frictionless, horizontal

surface. A metal ball of mass

M/4 is fired at the block with

velocity V, and bounces straight

backward off the block with onethird its original speed.

The

block is initially at rest.

BEFORE

AFTER

v=?

V

M

M/4

=0

V/3

M/4

=0

b) Is this collision elastic?

c) If the impact lasts t sec, what average force (magnitude and direction) acts on the

block?

d) How does the average force (magnitude and direction) that acts on the ball compare to

what you found in part (c) for the force on the block. Explain your answer.

Problem 10

positive X, V

BEFORE

A metal block of mass M

AFTER

is attached to a spring of

spring

negligible

mass

and

uncompressed

v=?

V

spring constant k as

k

k

M/4

shown, and is free to slide

M

M/4

M

on

a

frictionless,

horizontal surface. A clay

=0

=0

ball of mass M/4 is fired

at the block with velocity V, and sticks to it as shown. The block is initially at rest and the

spring is initially uncompressed.

a) What is the speed of the block+ball immediately after the impact?

b Write an equation for the position of the block as a function of time after the collision,

assuming that at t = 0 , the instant of the impact, it is at x = 0 which is the unstretched

point of the spring. Determine values for the amplitude, angular frequency, and phase

in terms of the given quantities. Assume that X and V are positive to the left as shown.

Problem 11

A small object of mass m is launched from the surface of the Earth

v0

with a speed of v0 in a direction perpendicular to the Earths surface.

m

a) What is the total mechanical energy of the object at its starting point

in terms of m, v0 , the radius of the Earth Re , the mass of the Earth

M e , and the gravitational constant G ?

b) Find an expression for the speed v of the object at a height h = Re

(i.e., a distance 2Re from Earth's center).

c) What is the minimum value of v0 that will allow the object to reach the height h ?

d) Now consider a different situation where the object is placed in a circular orbit at a

height h = Re (i.e., a distance 2Re from Earth's center). Find the velocity the object

needs to be in a circular orbit at that height.

Problem 12

Short Answer Questions

A) Two blocks move on a horizontal, frictionless surface and

Springs uncompressed

are attached to springs as shown. The left block has mass m

and spring constant k. The right block has mass 2m and

k

2k

spring constant 2k. The masses just touch each other at X=0

m 2m

at which point both springs are at equilibrium (i.e.

uncompressed). The left mass is pulled to the left a distance

X=0

Both masses are released from rest at the same time.

Explain why both masses get back to X=0 at the same

time.

k

m

2k

2d d

2m

X=0

B) The diagram shows a binary star system

with one star of mass M and the other of mass

d

5M with the centers of the two stars separated

by a distance D as shown. Assume that a third

5M

small object of mass m is located a distance d

M

m

from the center of the left star. The centers of

all three objects are on the same line.

i) Is there a value of d for which the total

D

gravitational force on the small mass is zero?

If so, write the equation you would solve to find this value of d. Note that you do NOT

need to find the value of d. If there is no such value, explain why not.

ii) Using the standard equation for potential energy due to gravity far from the surface, is

there a value of d for which the total gravitational potential energy of the small mass is

zero? If so, write the equation you would solve to find this value of d. Note that you do

NOT need to find the value of d. If there is no such value, explain why not.

Problem 13

Rocket A propels an object of mass m from the surface of the Earth to an altitude 3RE (RE

is the radius of the Earth) above the surface of the Earth at which point the object stops

momentarily before falling back. Rocket B propels an object of the same mass into a

circular orbit at an altitude of RE above the surface. Which rocket does more work?

Assume that the initial velocity due to the rotation of the Earth can be ignored. Justify

your answer.

Problem 14

An object of mass m is attached to a spring of spring

Spring uncompressed

constant k and moves on a frictionless horizontal surface.

k

The mass is at X=0 (where the spring is unstretched) and it

V0

has an initial velocity of V0 in the positive X direction as

m

shown. The subsequent position and velocity of the object

as a function of time are given by:

X(t) = Asin(Ct) and V(t) = Bcos(Ct)

X=0

a) Find the values of A, B, and C in terms of k, m, and V0.

b) Since X=0 at t=0, the average velocity between t=0 and a later time can be written

simply as

Vavg(t)=X(t)/t

Find the average velocity between t=0 and t=T/2, where T is the period of oscillation of

the mass on the spring. Hint: If you think carefully, you can get the answer with almost

no calculations.

c) Find the average velocity between t=0 and t=T/3, where T is the period of oscillation of

the mass on the spring. Express your answer in terms of V0 only. Your answer can

contain trigonometric functions (like sin, cos, tan, etc.) and numerical constants but no

variables other than V0.

Department of Physics

Physics 8.01L

SAMPLE EXAM 3

SOLUTIONS

December 4, 2005

Problem 1

G(2M)m

GMm

4GMm

a)Flef t = (D/2)

2 =

D2 , Fright = (D/2)2 =

FT OT = Fright Flef t = 8GMm

4GMm

D2

D2

FT OT = 4GMm

D2 , to the right.

P EI + KEI = P EF + KEF GMm

+0=

3R

GM

GM

2GM

4GM

1 2

2

v

=

+

=

v

=

2

R

3R

3R

3R

v = 4GM

3R

8GMm

D2

GMm

R

+ 12 mv 2

2

GM

v

=

c) For a circular orbit at distance 3R: m 3vR = GMm

(3R)2

3R

Wrocket = E, P E = 0, because always at the same distance.

1

GM

GMm 1

1

Wrocket = KEF KEI = 12 mvF2 21 mvI2 = 12 m GM

3R 2 m 4R =

R

6 8)

GMm

Wrocket = + 24R

d) Force = 0 inside shell P E = constant

KE = constant.

4GM

3R .

Problem 2

a) Mechanical energy is conserved.

d 2

2

1

1

1

2

2

, mv 2 = k(d2 d2 ) = 34 kd2

2 kd + 0 =2 mv + 2 k 2

3k

v=

4m d, v = 0.87m/s

k

= 5 rad

b)X = Acos(t), A = 0.2 m, = m

sec

, 0.1 = 0.2cos(5t), cos(5t) = 0.5

5t =

2

3 ,

t=

15

= 0.42s.

6

3

3

c) v = Asin(t), T = 2

4 T = 4 = 2

3

t = 2 , sin(t) = 1, v = A(1) = A.

v = 1.0 m/s, to the right.

In the rst 41 T , the block moves from xmax to x = 0. In the second 14 T , it moves from x = 0 to xmax .

In the third 41 T , it moves from xmax to x = 0 .

So at 43 T , the block is at x = 0, and its moving back towards initial position.

Problem 3

a) Conserve momentum:

vy = 19.5m/s. vB = 40.5m/s @28.8 below x axis.

1

2

2

+ 21 MB vBI

= 12 (2MB )(25)2 + 21 MB (30)2 = 1075MB

b) KEI = 12 MA vAI

1

1

2

2

KEF = 2 MA vAF + 2 MB vBF = 12 (2MB )(15)2 + 21 MB (40.5)2 = 1045MB

KE is lost

Problem 4

a) For a circular orbit

GMm

r2

mv 2

r

v=

GM

r

b) KEI = 12 mvI2 P EI =

GM

r2

GM

r1

+ 12 vI2 ,

GMm

, KEF = 0

r1

vI2

1

1

1

r2 = r1 2GM , r2 =

P EF =

4.73

GMm

r2

106 , r2

= 2.11 105 m

Problem 5

i)

iii) c) At an angle not equal to 0 or 180 .

P1 = 8, P2 = 6, Pf = (2 + 3)(2) = 10,

P1 + P2 = Pf .

Problem 6

a) pT OT = 14, pInitial = (10)(3) (4)(4) = 30 16 = 14, pF inal = (10)vA + 24

14 = 24 + 10vA , vA = 1 m/s = 1 m/s to the left

b) KEI = 12 (10)(9) + 12 (4)(16) = 45 + 32 = 77

KEF = 12 (10)(1) + 12 (4)(36) = 5 + 72 = 77

KEI = KEF , collision is elastic.

c) F = p

t , p = pf pi = (4)(6) (4)(4) = 24 + 16 = 40

40

F = 3 = 40, 000 N = 40, 000 N to the right

10

2

Problem 7

a) KEI = 0, P EI = 12 kS 2 , W ork = 0

KEF = 0, P EF = M g(4S) , 21 kS 2 = M g(4S)

8M g

, k=

k = 2Mg(4S)

S2

S

b)Use unstretched point as origin, and up = +.

= Mg

kyeq M g = 0, yeq = Mg

8M g ,

k

S

yeq

S

=

8

c) y = Acos(t + ), vy =0 at t

= 0, so = 0.

k

vy = Asin(t + ). = M = 8g

S

A=S

S

8

7S

8

Problem 8

1

2

2 (2M )v2 = K,

1

1

2

2

2 (2M )v2 = 2 M (4v2 )

KET OT = 21 M v12 +

KET OT = 3K

K

M

1

2

2 (2M )v2

v2 =

M v1 = 2M v2 , v1 = 2v2 ,

K

= 3M v22 = 3M ( M

)

Problem 9

M

V

a) V ( M

4 ) = M v ( 4 )( 3 )

V

4

Mv = (M

v=

4 ) 3 V,

3

1

1 M

V 2

1

V 2

2

2

b) KEI = 12 ( M

4 )(V ) = 8 M V , KEF = 2 ( 4 )( 3 ) + 2 M ( 3 ) =

2

5

Not elastic

KEF = MV

8 ( 9 ) 6= KEI ,

c) F =

p

t

M V3 0

t

MV 2 1

9 (8

+ 12 ) =

MV

, to the left.

3t

Problem 10

5

a)( M

4 V ) = ( 4 M )v,

b) Amplitude:

1

2

2 kA

v=

=

V

5

1 5

V 2

2 ( 4 M )( 5 ) ,

Angular frequency: =

k

5M

4

V

A=

5

5M

4k

4k

5M

X = Asin(t)

Mv 2 5

9 (8)

Problem 11

a) E =

GmME

1

mv02

2

RE

GmME

2RE

b) 12 mv 2

= 12 mv02

mv 2

2RE

GmME

(2RE )2 ,

. v 2 = v02

GME

RE

GME

RE

GME

v=

2RE

c) v = 0 , if v0,min =

d)

GME m

RE

Problem 12

A)lef t =

k

m,

right =

2k

2m

k

m

B) i) Let right be positive direction: FT OT = 0 =

(D d)2

d2

(Not required: d = 0.31D)

B) ii)P ET OT =

G(5M)m

(Dd)

GMm

d

Problem 13

Rocket A: EI =

GMm

RE ,

Rocket B: EI =

GMm

RE

GMm

2RE ,

EF =

P EF =

EF =

GMm

4RE

GMm

(2RE )2

1 GMm

4 RE

, WA = E =

mv 2

2RE ,

GMm

2RE

v2 =

GM

2RE ,

GMm

4RE

KEF =

( GMm

RE ) =

1 GMm

2 2RE

= GMm

4RE . WB = E =

3GM m

= WA

4RE

1 GMm

4 RE

3GM m

Same as A .

4RE

Problem 14

a) C = =

k

m

B = V0 .

1

2

2 kA

1

2

2 mV0

A=

m

V0

k

c) VAV G =

m

k

V0 sin(

T /3

T

m 3

. But T =

= 2

m

k

, so: VAV G =

3V0

2

sin( )

2

3

The Final Exam will be given on Monday, January 30 from 9 am - Noon

There will be no makeup exam.

You will be provided with a copy of the formula sheet during the exam. You may wish to

memorize other formulas but a good understanding of the concepts and applicability of these

formulas should allow you to do all of the problems on the exam.

The problems on the following pages are mostly problems from exams in previous 8.01L classes.

Note that all topics for which you are responsible are NOT included in this sample. We have

only included sample problems for the material since the last exam. You should also review the

previous three exams (and the sample problems for them) as well as the material included on all

of the homework assignments. The final exam will contain about 7-9 problems similar in

difficulty to these, with roughly half the exam covering material since the last exam.

Some of these problems were from exams where calculators were allowed. You will not be

allowed to use a calculator in this exam.

Problem 1

a) A closed weather balloon with an initial volume V rises up in the atmosphere to a point where

the outside air pressure is 1/10 of the pressure at the surface and the temperature of the air

has dropped by a factor of 3. Assume that the balloon is filled with an ideal gas and that the

material of the balloon exerts no pressure and does not insulate so that the temperature and

pressure are the same inside and outside the balloon. Does the volume of the gas increase,

decrease, or stay the same as the balloon rises? Justify your answer.

b) A solid object of a material with a density of 4000 kg/m3 has a volume of 0.002 m3 and thus a

mass of 8 kg. How much force do you need to exert to support this object

i) In air.

The density of water is 1000 kg/m3. Use g=10 m/s2 in this problem.

c) Assume that water is flowing through a rubber tube. Due to a weakness in the material, a

section of the tube expands so it has a larger radius than the other parts. Describe what

would happen to the water flow velocity and the water pressure in the enlarged section of the

tube.

r

Problem 2

air

a) Your physics professor is standing inside a cylinder of radius r

which is floating in equilibrium in water of density . The

cylinder is filled with air of negligible mass. The physicist and

water

cylinder have a combined total weight of W. Find the depth d

d

to which the bottom of the cylinder sinks into the water.

b) Now assume that the cylinder starts at a higher position and

falls down into the water. Find the acceleration when the bottom of the cylinder is at a depth

of d/2. Assume that you can ignore the viscous force of the water (the liquid equivalent of air

resistance).

Problem 3

a) Archeologists have recently uncovered evidence that people living in South America many

centuries ago were able to climb to the summit of a mountain at a height of 6500 m above sea

level. The air pressure at sea level is 1.013 ! 10 5 N 2 . Assuming that the atmosphere has an

m

kg

m3

b) Assume that a pressurized helium bottle contains gas at a pressure of 1.50 ! 10 7 N/m2 and is

inside a building at a temperature of 20oC. If you take the bottle outside to a New Years

Day parade where the temperature is 20oC, what will the pressure inside the bottle be once

it has fully cooled?

Problem 4

A standard track used in almost all running events consists of two

straight parts and two semicircles, each of the four sections having

roughly equal length of 100 m.

i) On the following drawing of a runner rounding a curve, draw labeled

arrows to show all the forces acting on the runner. Your drawing should

indicate clearly where the forces act and their directions. The arrow on

the drawing points towards the center of the circle. Assume that the

runner is moving with constant speed.

ii) Using your picture from part ii) and concepts of equilibrium, explain why it is impossible to

run quickly around a curve standing straight up as shown (i.e. without leaning over).

iii) Draw a force diagram of a leaning runner and explain how leaning over makes rounding the

curve possible i.e. what changes in the equilibrium equations. Show clearly the direction of

the lean assuming that the center of the circle is to the left as in part ii) above.

Problem 5

The physics of pushups: The drawing

shows a simplified model of the force

L

needed to do a pushup. Assume that a

4L

persons body is a bar of mass M with a

moment of inertia about the pivot (the

3

c.m.

toes) of IT. Assume that the center of

h

mass is a distance L from the pivot and

F

!

that the force shown (due to the arms) is

purely vertical and applied at a distance

of 4L/3 from the pivot.

a) Draw a free-body diagram showing all

the forces acting on the bar.

b) Find the value of the applied force F needed for the object to be in equilibrium and show that

it is independent of the angle and thus independent of the height h.

c) What is the value of the force (magnitude and direction) exerted on the person by the ground?

This means the force applied at the toes, not the force applied on the arms.

Problem 6

Max force = Mg

A plank of mass M and Max force = 3Mg

length L is held up a cable at

each end. The left cable has

D

a maximum tension of 3Mg

(any more force and the cable

mass=?

will break) while the right

cable can exert a maximum

force of only Mg. A load of

Plank has mass=M

bricks is placed on the plank

with its center of mass

located a distance D from the

L

left edge (see drawing)

a) Considering only forces, how massive can the load of bricks be before the cables will fail?

b) Assume that the bricks have the maximum mass as calculated on part (a). Where must the

bricks be placed (i.e. what is D) so that neither cable exceeds its maximum tension?

Problem 7

A plank of mass M and length L leans against a wall at one end and

rests on a circular support at the other end. Assume that there is

L

friction between the plank and the wall also between the ladder and

the cylinder. Assume the plank is uniform so its center of mass is at

the center. Note that the plank must hit the cylinder tangentially so

!

the normal force from the cylinder is perpendicular to the plank and

the friction force due to the cylinder is along the plank. Assume that

the plank does not move.

a) Draw a clear diagram showing all the forces acting on the plank.

b) Choose and X and Y axis and write a set of force equations for

those two directions.

c) Write a torque equation using the left end of the plank as the axis.

d) Repeat part (c) but using the right edge of the plank as the axis.

Problem 8

A uniform bar of mass M and length L is attached to a wall by a

frictionless hinge (i.e. there are no torques exerted by the hinge).

The bar is released from rest in a horizontal position as shown.

L

The bar has moments of inertia about its center and about its end

M

2

2

of I cm = ML 12 and I end = ML 3 , respectively.

a) What is the angular acceleration of the bar at the instant that it

is released?

b) At the instant after the bar is released, find the magnitude and

direction of the force exerted on the bar by the hinge.

c) Use Work/Energy concepts to find the angular velocity of the bar when it has swung down to

a vertical position and is just about the hit the wall.

Problem 9

A small child runs and jumps onto a merry-go-round which has

a moment of inertia I0 about its axis of rotation. The child has

TOP

mass m and is initially moving with velocity v; she grabs onto a

VIEW

bar attached to the plate which is a distance R from the center

of the merry-go-round. The merry go round was initially not

R

rotating. Assume that the child is running tangential to the

merry-go-round before jumping on as shown.

m

v

a) What is the magnitude of the final angular velocity of the

merry-go-round, final? Give your answer in terms of m, v,

R and I0.

b) What fraction of the initial kinetic energy of the running child remains in the final system

(i.e. what is KEF/KEI)? Give your answer in terms of I0, m, v, and R.

Problem 10

A gyroscope supported at one end is rotating as shown (the edge

UP

towards you is moving up, the top edge is moving away from you,

the edge away from you is moving down, and the bottom edge is

x

moving towards you). Assume that the support pivot can exert

forces on the gyroscope but cannot exert any torques. For the

multiple choice questions, you do not need to explain your answer.

i) In what direction does the angular velocity point?

Left

Right

Up

Down

Out of the page

Other

ii) Consider torques around the pivot where the gyroscope is supported. Is there a torque

around that point and if so, what force causes the torque?

iii) Consider torques around the pivot where the gyroscope is supported. If there is a torque,

how would you describe the direction of that torque (there are 2 correct answers)?

Left

Right

Up

Down

Into the page

Out of the page

Other

Clockwise

Counter-clockwise

iv) In what direction do you predict the unsupported end of the gyroscope will move?

Left

Right

Up

Down

Into the page

Out of the page

Other

Problem 11

The physics of baseball.

TOP VIEW

AFTER

BEFORE

Pivot

No torque

!

0.8 m

50 m/s

0.35 !

40 m/s

after which the baseball is still traveling horizontally but in exactly the opposite direction from

its initial motion at a speed of 40 m/s. Consider the collision of the bat and the ball. Assume

that before the collision, the bat is moving in a horizontal circle at an angular velocity of

rad/s. Assume that the player holding the bat exerts no torque. The bat has a moment of

inertia of 0.30 kg m2 about the pivot and the ball hits at a point that is 80 cm away from the

pivot. After the collision, the bat is still swinging in the same direction around the same pivot

but with a reduced angular velocity of 0.35. Find the numerical value of .

Department of Physics

Physics 8.01L

SAMPLE FINAL EXAM

SOLUTIONS

Problem 1

a) V =

N kT

P

, VN EW =

N k T3

P

10

10 N kT

3 P

V goes up

(ii)FBuoy = (1000)(.002)(10) = 20N,

F = 80 20 = 60N

c) Velocity goes down, pressure goes up.

Problem 2

a) Equilibrium, so FBuoyant w = 0 FB = w.

FB = Vf f g = (r2 d)g = w, d = rw2 g

2

b) FT OT = M a = FB w, FB = r2 ( d2 )g = d( r2g )

2

Half as deep half as large buoyancy force.

w

FT OT = M a = w2 w = w

2 , a = 2m , but w = M g.

g

a = 2 , accelerating downward at g2 .

Problem 3

a) P + gy = constant, P1 + g(0) = P2 + g(6500)

P2 = P1 g(y2 ) = 1.013 105 (0.95)(9.8)(6500),

P2 = 4.08 104 N/m2 = 0.40 atm

b) N = const, V = const, P V = N kT

P1

T1

P2

T2 ,

P1 T2

= 1.30 107 N/m2

T1

Problem 4

ii) f exerts torque around center of mass, so you fall over.

iii) Now N exerts torque which can balance torque due to friction.

Problem 5

a)

c)T + F = M g, T =

3

Mg

4

1

Mg .

4

Problem 6

a) 3M g + M g = 4M g.

Problem 7

a)

b)

c)

d)

Fx = N2 + N1 sin() f1 cos() = 0

Fy = f2 M g + N1 cos() + f1 sin() = 0

= M g( L2 cos()) N1 L = 0.

= N2 L sin() + f2 L cos() M g L2 cos() = 0.

Problem 8

a) = I, take torques about hinge.

2

(M g)( L2 )(sin(90 )) = ( ML

3 )() =

gL

2

L2

3

3g

2L ,

3g

2L

L

4.

b)

All forces and acceleration are vertical FH = 0 .

3g

)( L2 ) = 3Mg

FV M g = M a = M ( L2 ) = M ( 2L

4

Mg

Mg

3Mg

FV = M g 4 FV =

, FT OT =

, up .

4

4

3g

3g

MgL

2

L

ML2 2

1 ML2

2

or =

= 2 , =

.

2 ( 3 ) + M g 2 = M gL,

6

L

L

Used center of mass:

2

+ 21 ICM 2 , vCM = ( L2 )

KEI = 0, KEF = 21 M vCM

1

L 2 2

1 ML2

1

3

1

KEF = 2 M ( 2 ) + 2 ( 12 ) 2 = M L2 2 ( 81 + 24

) = M L2 2 ( 24

+ 24

)

2 2 1

= M L ( 6 ) Same answer.

Problem 9

a) L is conserved: mvR = (I0 + mR2 )f

mvR

f =

I0 + mR2

2 2

1 m v R

2

b) KEI = 12 mv 2 , KEF = 21 (I0 + mR2 )( I0mvR

+mR2 ) = 2 ( I0 +mR2 )

mR2

KEF

=

KEI

I0 + mR2

Problem 10

a) Left

b) Yes, gravity.

c) Out of the page; Counter-clockwise.

d) Yes, pivot force.

e) Out of the page; Counter-clockwise.

f ) Out of the page.

Problem 11

Take clockwise to be positive. Angular momentum is conserved: II mvI d = If + mvf d

0.20 = 6 + 4.8

= 54rad/s . Period = 0.12 sec.