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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Inginerie, Nr.

2/2010

STUDIUL INDICATORILOR DE

STUDY OF QUALITY INDICATORS

CALITATE AI UNEI APE UZATE

OF RESIDUAL WATER FROM

DIN LOCALITATEA MOTRU

MOTRU

Prof. univ. dr. Gheorghe GMNECI


Universitatea Constantin Brncui din
Trgu-Jiu

Prof. PhD Gheorghe GMNECI


Constantin Brncui University of
Trgu-Jiu

Conf. univ. dr. ing. Camelia


CPN
Universitatea Constantin Brncui din
Trgu-Jiu

Assoc. Prof. PhD Eng. Camelia


CPN
Constantin Brncui University of
Trgu-Jiu

REZUMAT
n lucrare se prezint determinri fizico
chimice ale apelor uzate provenite de la staia de
epurare a apei din localitatea Motru. n prezent,
folosirea raional a resurselor de ap i
protecia mpotriva polurii i epuizrii
constituie o prioritate internaional.
Analizele fizico chimice au constatat n
determinarea indicatorilor caracteristici apelor
uzate la ieirea din staia de epurare:
temperatura, pH-ul, materii n suspensii,
consumul biochimic de oxigen la 5 zile CBO 5 ,
consumul chimic de oxigen (metoda cu bicromat
de potasiu), reziduul fix, azotul amoniacal,
fosforul total i detergeni conform legislaiei n
vigoare. Indicatorii de calitate fizico chimici
urmrii se ncadreaz n limitele prevzute de
Normativul
001/2002,
dar
excepii
fac:
amoniacul, fosforul i detergenii care prezint
uoare depiri la evacuare n perioada
primvar var.

ABSTRACT
The paper presents physical-chemical tests
of residual waters resulted from water treatment
plant from Motru. At present, the rational use of
water resources and protection against pollution
are an international priority.
The physical chemical tests consisted in
the determination of the characteristic indicators
of residual waters at their release from the
treatment plant: temperature, pH, suspended
matters, biochemical oxygen consumption 5 days
CBO 5 , chemical oxygen consumption (potassium
dichromate method), fixed residual matter,
ammonia nitrogen, total phosphor and cleansers
according to the relevant legislation. The
physical chemical quality indicators are within
the ranges provided by the Normative 001/2002,
with the following exceptions: ammonia,
phosphor and cleansers which record small
excesses during the spring summer period.

Cuvinte cheie: rezidual, ape, tratament,


poluare

Keywords: residual, waters, treatment,


pollution

1. INTRODUCTION
1. INTRODUCERE
Motru city is provided with a
n cadrul oraului Motru este
prevzut, executat i funcioneaz n residual sewage and rain waters drainage
sistem separativ reeaua de canalizare ape network which is executed and operates
as a separate system.
uzate menajere i ape pluviale.
Residual sewage results from all
Apele uzate menajere sunt cele
the institutions of water needs of the
Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Engineering Series, Issue 2/2010

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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Inginerie, Nr. 2/2010

provenite din totalitatea instituiilor


cerinei de ap ale obiectivelor care
compun folosine de ap.[1-5]
n general, apele uzate menajere
provin de la urmtorii consumatori:
- blocuri de locuine;
- cldiri socio-culturale;
- cldiri socio-edilitare;
- ateliere ntreinere i reparaii.
Cldirile social-culturale (Casa de
Cultur, club etc.) sunt dotate cu grupuri
sanitare compuse din WC-uri, lavoare,
duuri, ale cror ape uzate rezultate sunt
evacuate n aceeai reea de canalizare.
Apele uzate menajere provenite de
la cldirile social-edilitare (liceu, spital,
cantin etc.) sunt preluate de aceeai
reea. Cele provenite de la cantin, spital,
spltorie, nainte de a fi preluate de
reeaua principal, vor fi trecute printr-un
separator de grsimi i spum pentru
separarea suspensiilor.
Apele menajere evacuate de la
atelierele aparinnd Sucursalei Motru a
RAL Tg-Jiu, Fabrica de tricotaje, sunt
colectate ntr-o reea separat i
racordat tot la colectorul principal al
oraului, avnd acelai coninut de
suspensii,
nscriindu-se
n
aceiai
parametrii cuprini n normele n vigoare.
Reeaua este executat din tuburi de
beton cu diametrul de 200-500 mm,
colectorul principal avnd diametrul de
700 mm, astfel nct poate prelua ntreg
debitul de evacuare de 33,4 L/s.
Reeaua este subteran i se afl la
o adncime de 1,3 m i cu pant de
scurgere.
Pe traseu sunt prevzute cmine de
vizitare la o distan maxim de 50-60 m,
n scopul interveniei mai eficiente n caz
de colmatare.
Dup
colectare,
apele
sunt
conduse
ctre
staia
de
epurare
oreneasc, amplasat pe malul rului
Motru.
n aceast lucrare se prezint
studiul indicatorilor de calitate ai unei

objectives included in water uses.


In general, residual sewage results
from the following consumers [1.5]:
- block of flats;
- socio-cultural buildings;
- socio-public buildings;
maintenance and repair
workshops.
Socio-cultural buildings (Culture
House, club etc.) are provided with
sanitary facilities consisting of WC
rooms, washstands, shower rooms whose
sewage are discharged in the same
drainage network.
The residual sewage resulted from
the social-public buildings (highschools,
hospital, canteen etc.) are taken over by
the same network. The sewage resulted
from canteens, hospitals, laundry, will
pass through a fat and foam separator for
separating suspensions before being
taken over by the main network.
Residual sewage discharged from
the workshops which belong to Motru
Subsidiary of RAL Tg-Jiu, Knitted
Works Factory are collected in a separate
network connected to the main collector
of the city, having the same content of
suspensions and being recorded within
the same parameters provided by the
relevant regulations. The network is
made of concrete pipes having a diameter
of 700 mm, in order to receive the entire
discharge flow of 33,4 L/s.
The network is underground and is
located at 1,3 m depth and is provided
with a drainage slope.
The itinerary is provided with
inspection pits at distances of 50-60 m,
for an efficient intervention in case of
silting.
After catchment, waters are
directed towards the municipal treatment
plant located on the shore of Motru river.
This paper presents the study of
quality indicators of the sewage in Motru
and reveals the need to modernize the
already existing treatment.

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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Inginerie, Nr. 2/2010

ape uzate din localitatea Motru i se


aduce
n
prim
plan
necesitatea
2. EXPERIMENTAL
modernizrii staiei de epurare, deja
The physical chemical tests
existent.
consisted in the determination of the
characteristic indicators of residual
waters at their release from the treatment
2. EXPERIMENTAL
Analizele fizico chimice au plant: temperature, pH, suspended
constatat n determinarea indicatorilor matters,
biochemical
oxygen
caracteristici apelor uzate la ieirea din consumption 5 days CBO 5 , chemical
staia de epurare: temperatura, pH-ul, oxygen
consumption
(potassium
materii n suspensii, consumul biochimic dichromate method), fixed residual
de oxigen la 5 zile CBO 5 , consumul matter, ammonia nitrogen, total phosphor
chimic de oxigen (metoda cu bicromat de and cleansers according to the relevant
potasiu), reziduul fix, azotul amoniacal, legislation.
fosforul total i detergeni conform
legislaiei n vigoare.
3.
RESULTS
AND
DISCUSSIONS
Results achieved for the main
3. REZULTATE I DISCUII
Pe baza rezultatelor obinute la indicators, respectively CBO 5 , CCOCr
indicatorii de baz, respectiv CBO 5 , and suspended matters allowed to
CCOCr i materii n suspensii, s-a calculate the output of the treatment
calculat randamentul staiei de epurare, plant, by applying the following formula:
aplicndu-se urmtoarea formul:

M m
100
M

unde:

M m
100
M

(1)

(1)
where:

M - concentraia substanei la
intrarea n staie;
plant
m - concentraia substanei la
ieirea din staie.
plant

M substance concentration at the


inlet;
m - substance concentration at the
outlet.

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Figura 1. Influena temperaturii asupra randamentului staiei pentru CBO5 i CCOCr


Figure 1. Temperature influence on plant output for CBO5 and CCOCr

Rezultatele obinute experimental sunt


Experimental results are presented in
prezentate n figura 2 i n tabelul 1.
figure 2 and table 1.

Figura 2. Randamentul staiei (%) pentru CBO5, CCOCr


Figure 2. Plant output (%) for CBO5, CCOCr

Tabelul 1. Caracteristicile fizico-chimice ale apei uzate


Indicatori fizico -

UM

Data prelevrii

Valori limit

chimici

admise conf.
NTPA 001/2002

Temperatura

pH
Materii

12.03.2009

16.06.2009 13.08.2009 9.12.2009

Intr.

Intr.

le.

le. Intr. le. Intr.

le.

16,5 16,5

18

18,5

23

23

21

20,5

35

Unitate pH

7,7

7,3

7,6

7,3

7,6

7,2

7,8

7,6

6,5-8,5

mg/dm3

49

46

54

51

40

38

47

43

60

suspensie
CB05
CCOCr
Azot amoniacal

mgO2/dm3
3

mgO2/dm

57,5 54,3

26,2

24,4 29,4 27,2 31,5 29,2

25

128

120

69

60

77

64

80

73

125

mg/dm

2,7

1,5

2,3

1,7

3,4

1,7

20

1,2

3,0

mg/dm3

0,19

2,06

1,5

1,24

2,0

NH3
Fosfor total P

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Detergeni

mg/dm3

0,34

mg/dm3

185

209

223

0,15

0,52

0,13

0,5

179

2000

sintetici
Reziduu fix

262 272 272 134

Table 1. Sewage physical-chemical characteristics


Physical

MU

Sampling date

Maximum

chemical

rated values

indicators

according to
NTPA
001/2002
12.03.2009

16.06.2009

13.08.2009

9.12.2009

Inlet Outlet Inlet Outlet Inlet Outlet Inlet Outlet


Temperature

16,5 16,5

18

18,5

23

23

21

20,5

35

pH

pH unit

7,7

7,3

7,6

7,3

7,6

7,2

7,8

7,6

6,5-8,5

Suspended

mg/dm3

49

46

54

51

40

38

47

43

60

matters
CB05

mgO2/dm3 57,5 54,3

26,2 24,4

29,4 27,2

31,5 29,2

25

128 120

69

60

77

64

80

73

125

2,7

1,5

2,3

1,7

3,4

1,7

20

1,2

3,0

Total Phosphor P mg/dm3

0,19

2,06

1,5

1,24

2,0

mg/dm3

0,34

0,15

0,52

0,13

0,5

mg/dm3

185 209

223

262

272 272

CCOCr
Ammonia

mgO2/dm
3

mg/dm

nitrogen NH3
Synthetic
cleansers
Fixed waste

pH-ul apelor uzate influeneaz


sensibil
activitatea
enzimatic
a
microorganismelor implicate n procesul
de epurare.
Procesele de epurare biologic se
pot realiza n limite destul de largi ale pHului
apelor
uzate
(6,5-8,5),
dar
desfurarea optim a unor procese are
loc n limitele de pH = 7,0-7,5.

134 179

2000

Sewage pH sensitively influences


the enzymatic activity of microorganisms
involved in the treatment process.
Biological treatment processes can
be developed within broad ranges of
sewage pH (6,5-8,5), but the optimal
development of some processes is made
within pH ranges = 7,0-7,5.
In the case of sewage from Motru,

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n cazul apelor uzate din localitatea


Motru, pH-ul a nregistrat valori cuprinse
ntre 7,6-7,86 la intrare n staie i 7,227,63 la evacuare n emisar.
Materiile n suspensie influeneaz
procesul de epurare mai ales din punct de
vedere funcional.
Concentraii ale materiilor n
suspensie mai mari 80-120 mg/dm3 fac s
creasc concentraia de nmol n bazinele
de aerare, ducnd la colmatarea acestora.
n cazul materiilor n suspensie
randamentul staiei de epurare a fost ntre
61.1% n luna martie i 70.4% n luna
iunie.
Consumul biochimic de oxigen la 5
zile (CBO 5 ) i consumul chimic de oxigen
prin
metoda
cu
bicromat
de
potasiu(CCO Cr ), exprim concentraie
substanelor organice coninute n apa
uzat.
Determinarea gradului de ncrcare
organic a apelor uzate la intrarea n staia
de epurare indic valori cuprinse ntre
686-82,1 mgO 2 /L pentru CCOCr i 49,671,1 mgO 2 /L pentru CBO5 .
Valorile raportului CBO 5 /CCOCr
pentru apa evacuat sunt prezentate n
figura 3.

pH has recorded values between 7,6-7,86


at the plant inlet and 7,22-7,63 at the
outlet in the collector.
Suspended matters influence the
treatment
process
especially
from
functional point of view.
Concentrations
of
suspended
matters higher than 80-120 mg/dm 3 result
in the increase of the mud concentration
in the aeration basins, leading to their
silting.
In the case of suspended matters
the output of the treatment plant was
between 61.1% in March and 70.4% in
June.
The 5-day oxygen consumption
(CBO 5 ) as well as the chemical oxygen
consumption through the potassium
dichromate method (CCO Cr ), express the
concentration of the organic substances
from the waste water.
The determination of sewage
organic load at the inlet in the treatment
plant indicates values between 686-82,1
mgO 2 /L for CCO Cr and 49,6-71,1 mgO 2 /L
for CBO 5 .
The values of the CBO 5 /CCO Cr ratio for
discharged water are presented in figure
3.

Fig. 3. Variaia raportului CBO5/CCOCr pentru apa evacuat / Figure 3. Variation of the CBO5/CCOCr
ratio for discharged water

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4. CONCLUZII

4. CONCLUSIONS

Studiile ntreprinse n cursul anului


2009 privind epurarea apelor n localitatea
Motru au condus la urmtoarele concluzii:
1.
Valorile
raportului
CBO 5 /CCOCr atribuite pentru apa uzat la
ieirea din staie indic prezena a
substanelor organice uor biodegradabile.
n conformitate cu Normativul NTPA
001/2002 privind stabilirea limitelor de
ncrcare cu poluani a apelor industriale
i oreneti la evacuarea n receptorii
naturali, indicatorii urmrii se ncadreaz
n mare parte n aceste limite. Excepie
fac amoniacul, fosforul i detergenii, care
prezint uoare depiri la evacuare n
perioade primvar - var.
2. Influena temperaturii sczute a
apei s-a manifestat prin reduceri
temporare ale eficienei de epurare a
instalaiilor, lucru evideniat mai ales n
cadrul treptei biologice de epurare.
Randamentul cel mai mare s-a nregistrat
la temperatura de 23 C. Valorile mai
mari obinute pentru consumul biochimic
de oxigen i consumul chimic de oxigen
indic predominaia materiilor organice
biodegradabile n ap.

The studies made in 2009


regarding water treatment in Motru have
resulted in the following conclusions:
1. The values of the CBO 5 /CCO Cr
ratio assigned to residual water at the
outlet from the plant indicate the
presence of easily biodegradable organic
substances. In accordance with the
Normative
NTPA
001/2002
for
determining the load maximum values
with industrial and municipal polluting
agents at the discharge in natural
receptors, the indicators are mostly
within these maximum values. There are
several exceptions: ammonia, phosphor
and cleansers which record small
excesses during the spring summer
period.
2. The influence of low water
temperature could be seen in temporary
decreases of plants treatment output,
which is especially revealed within the
biological treatment stage. The greatest
output was recorded for the temperature
of 23 C. The higher values resulted for
the biochemical oxygen consumption
indicate
the
predominance
of
biodegradable organic matters in water.

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BIBLIOGRAFIE

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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oreneti,
Editura
Tehnic,
Bucureti, 1978
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1976
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2000
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Bucureti, 1989

1. Antoniu, R. i colab., Industrial


sewage treatment. Technical Press,
Bucharest, 1987
2. Negulescu, M., Municipal
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Bucharest, 1978
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Technical Press, Bucharest, 1976
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Diaconu,
Environmental
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Bucharest, 2000
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