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THE EFFECT OF USING DRILL METHOD IN TEACHING

TRANSACTIONAL SPEAKING STUDENTS


AT TENTH GRADE OF SMK NEGERI 3
PADANGSIDIMPUAN

By :
KASNAWATI SIREGAR
NPM : 11080026

A. Background of the Problem


Language is a tool of communication, and the basic fundamental function in
communication. There are so many language in this world and every language has a
different characteristic and difficulties. Language also has connection with four aspects;
they are listening, speaking, writing and reading which is very important for our life.
The people cannot ignore language and the people have to study it. Language,
especially English is very essential to be learned especially in Indonesia.
In studying English as a foreign language in Indonesia, the government of
Indonesia has priority in order to develop and give the chance to all of the population In
Indonesia. So, the students have to mastery the basic skills of English such as listening,
speaking, writing and reading.
Speaking is one of the important skills that students have to learn. through
speaking, the students will have ability to interact with other and can improve their self
confident in english. Because the primary thing that we should get in learning language
especially english is how we can interact and communicate each other.

In speaking ability, one of the basic skills which students need to learn is
transactional speaking. Transactional speaking is speaking ability which has purpose to
get things done. It means transactional conversations are interactions which have an
outcome, for example, buying something in a shop, enrolling in a school. So, it is
impossible for students to master speaking skill without mastering interpersonal
speaking.
As we know, our curriculum concerns about transactional speaking that must be
learned by students at tenth grade of Senior High School. Because its necessity, students
must be able to identify and build the transactional speaking in order to make them able
to interact each other with very meaning way.
In fact, many students still have low ability in speaking skill especially about
transactional speaking. They face some difficulties to build their idea and vocabulary in
order to make a good sentence, especially in SMK Negeri 3 Padangsidimpuan. It can be
seen from the average of their score in learning speaking which is 65 and it needs
improvement. Because the result of speaking score is at least 70 to indicate they are
better in speaking ability.
However, the teacher has done some efforts to improve students ability in
speaking skills such as making variety in teaching method, giving motivation and
maximizing, giving more exercises, making an interest material as possible, but there is
no significant progress in students learning result.
There are many techniques can be applied for developing students ability in
transactional speaking. One of them is Drill method. Drill method is one of the method
which suit in teaching speaking ability. Because this method will improve students
ability by doing practice in order to make students memorize the skill.
By doing this method, researcher expects students can be active and increase
their ability in learning speaking especially in learning transactional speaking. Because

the researcher believes if this method is applied, it will arise students interest and
motivation in learning proccess.
Based on the case which is explained above, the researcher will conduct a
research entitle The Effect of Drill Method in Teaching Transactional Speaking at the
Tenth Grade Students of SMK Negeri 3 Padangsidimpuan.

B. Formulation of the Problem


Base on the background of the problem above, the problems of this research
formulated as follows:
1. To what extend is tenth grade students ability in teaching transactional speaking
before using Drill Method at SMK Negeri 3 Padangsidimpuan?
2. To what extend is tenth grade students ability in teaching transactional speaking
after using Drill Method at SMK Negeri 3 Padangsidimpuan?
3. Whether is any significant effect of using Drill Method in teaching transactional
speaking at the tenth grade students of SMK Negeri 3 Padangsidimpuan?

C. Review of Literature
1. Theoritical Description
1.1 Transactional speaking
Speaking is an ability to express an idea or something in order to be able
interact each other in communication orally. In other hand, speaking is important
for them to practice their capability and their understanding, how to send idea,
and how to spell word well. Brown in Iskandar (2008:45) stated that speaking is
an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing and
receiving and processing information.
Speaking is also known as spoken language. Luoma in Richard
(2008:19) cites some of the following features of spoken discourse:
a. Composed of idea units (conjoined short phrases and clauses)
b. May be planned (e.g., a lecture) or unplanned (e.g., a conversation)

c.
d.
e.
f.
g.

Employs more vague or generic words than written language


Employs fixed phrases, fillers, and hesitation markers
Contains slips and errors reflecting online processing
Involves reciprocity (i.e., interactions are jointly constructed)
Shows variation (e.g., between formal and casual speech), reflecting speaker
roles, speaking purpose, and the context
According to Pridham (2001:1) Conversation consist of spoken

language. It is different with written language. Because spoken language or


speaking not only focused to the meaning but it is also related to a social context
which determines the purpose of the conversation and shapes its structure and
features.
There are two types of speaking, according to Brown and Yule in
Pridham (2001:25) that any conversation appears to be a chat between
interactants with their different purposes. In one side, transactional language is
used in obtaining goods and services. Interactional language is used when people
relate to each other. The purpose of this conversation, therefore, appears
principally to be interactional language used for socialising. It means,
transactional has purpose to get something done while interactional has purpose
to intimate one to other.
Furthermore, Djuharie (2007:23) stated that transactional speaking refers
to context of speech and involves communicating to get something done,
including the exchange of goods and/or service. it means transactional speaking
is an ability which students need to know in order to make them get something
done.
In curriculum of 2006, students need to learn transactional speaking in
order to know the basic expressions in social interaction for life purposes. They
are about making, approving, and canceling an appointment, and then accepting
and refusing invitation.

So, it concluded that transactional speaking is one of the important basic


which students have to master. By mastering transactional speaking, students
doing conversation have objective to communicate with others in very
meaningful ways. They are supposed to see the context of culture and the
context of situations in order to achieve the intended meanings.
1.2 Drill method
Teaching method is defined as a way which is used by the teacher or
instructor in doing his/her functions as tool for learning achievement. So,
method is needed as a way to teach the material to the students.
Istarani (2012:1) says, a method is used to realize the strategy that has
been set. While, Hamdani (2011:80) stated that a method is a tool to create
learning process. In learning process, the teacher uses the method in order to
make relationship between teacher and student.
Drill method is one of the kind of intructional which the teacher has the
important role in learning process. The teacher as instuctor which handle and
manage what the students should do. As Hamdani (2011:273) said that drill
method is a method which teacher teach students to do practice in order to make
students have skill which higher than the things which is studied previously.
Similarly, Anitah et all., (2008:4.29) stated that drill method is a
teaching way by giving practice what the students studied in order to get a skill.
So, drill method means a method which students is doing something continuosly
in order to make them get a new skill.
2. Review of Related Findings
There were some related findings to this research about speaking ability and
it is related to transactional speaking. The first Samosir (2013) had done research
about The effect of using question and answer method on studentss speaking

ability (a study at the VIII grade students of SMP Negeri 9 Padangsidimpuan)


which has conclusion: the result of using question and answer method is categorized
Good. By using statistic analysis, the researcher got the score of t test =17,14 and its
compared with the score of ttabel = 2,05. The researcher concludes that the score of t tes
is greater that the score of ttabel (17,14>2,05). It means there is a significant effect of
using question and answer method on studentss speaking ability.
The second Lubis (2015) had done her research about The effect of Role
Play method on students in speaking ability (a study at the seventh grade students of
MTs. Al-Mandily Panyabungan 2014/2015 academic year). It can be found, the
average score of using role play method on students in speaking ability was 51,32
and it categorized poor. It could be gotten that tcount =49,80 and ttable= 2,03 in
significant error level 5 %, significant confidence level 95%, df = N-1 = 63-1= 62. It
could be seen that tcount was greater than ttable (49,80>2,03. It means the alternative
hypothesis was accepted. In other words, there was a significant effect of role play
method on students in speaking ability.
3. Conceptual Framework
Transactional speaking is one of the important thing which students have to
know. It is a basic skill to communicate each other. By mastering transactional
speaking, students will know the basic expressions in social interaction for life
purposes. They are about making, approving, and canceling an appointment, and
then accepting and refusing invitation.
There are many methods to teach speaking, but in this case the method that
is used namely Drill Method. Drill method is a method which teacher use to make
students have new ability by repeating skill. This teaching method is suitable in
teaching speaking because Drill Method is a method that focused on repeating skill

again and again in order to make students understand and memorize the skill. So, the
researcher assumes that there is any significant effect of using Drill Method in
teaching transactional speaking at the tenth grade students of SMK Negeri 3
Padangsidimpuan.

4. Hypothesis
Hypothesis is a way to determine a result of the research will be accepted or
rejected. According to Mackey

et al.,(2005:100), A hypothesis is a type of

prediction found in many experimental studies; it is a statement about what we


expect to happen in a study. While Arikunto (2010:110) said that hypothesis is one
of the important things in research, it is answered and problem tentatively which is
accepted or rejected through data.
Nazir (2011:152) says, The good hypothesis has characteristic such as: a)
the hypothesis must states correlation, b) the hypothesis must be suitable with the
fact, c) hypothesis must relates with knowledge, and relates to the growing of
knowledge, d) hypothesis must be able to be tested, e) Hypotesis must be simple, f)
hypothesis must be able to explain the fact.
Based on the explanations above, the researcher formulates the hypothesis as
There is any significant effect of using Drill method in teaching transactional
speaking at the tenth grade students of SMK Negeri 3 Padangsidimpuan.

D. Methodology of the Research


1. Place and Time of the Research
This research will be done at SMK Negeri 3 Padangsidimpuan. It is located
at Silandit, Padangsidimpuan. The subject of this research is tenth grade students of
SMK Negeri 3 Padangsidimpuan. The researcher chooses this school because this

school provides the data which is needed in the research. The time of this research is
started on May until July 2012 at SMK Negeri 3 Padangsidimpuan. So, this research
will be done for two months.
2. Method of the Research
This research is conducted by using an experimental research. According to
Sugiyono (2013:107) said that experimental method is a method that is used to find
the effect of treatment in control conditions. While Nazir (2011:63) stated that
experimental research is a research which is done by doing manipulation toward
research object and also has control on it.
From the above quotation, the research concludes that the experimental
research is a kind of research which has the aim to know causals effect relationship
between one variable and more to other variable. The experimental research controls
the selection of participant for the study and divides the selection participants into
more group having similar characteristics. The design is pre-test and post test design
which is applied in order to investigate the effect of Drill method in teaching
transactional speaking of tenth grade students of SMK Negeri 3 Padangsidimpuan.

3. Population and Sample


3.1 Population
There many perception about population that published by the experts.
First, Arikunto (2010:73) said that a population is a set (or collection) of all
elements processing one or more attributes of interest. The second is Nazir
(2011:63) said that population is a group which has quality and particular
characteristic. The third is Sugiyono (2013:80) stated that population is
generalization area that consist of objects or subject who has specific quality and

characteristics that chosen by the researchers to be studied and then to be


concluded.
From the explanations above, the researcher concludes that population is
generalization area that has characteristic and quality who want to be studied and
want to be concluded by the researcher. In this research, the researcher chooses
all of students who study in tenth grade of SMK Negeri 3 Padangsidimpuan as
population which amounts to 302 students. More details can be noted as below:
Tabel 1
Total of Population The Tenth Grade Students at SMK Negeri 3
Padangsidimpuan
Grade

Program

X-Bg-1
X-Bg-2
X-Bs-1
X-Bs-2
X-Bs-3
X-Kc-1
X-Kc-2
X-TKJ-1
X-TKJ-2

Tata Boga
Tata Busana
Kecantikan
Teknik Komputer
Jaringan
Total

Gender
Male
5
3
1
28
25
62

Female
29
30
34
36
35
30
28
8
10
240

Total
34
33
34
36
35
31
28
36
35
302

3.2 Sample
Sample is an element of the population to get the data. Arikunto
(2010:174) said that sample is a part presenting of population. Similarly, Nazir
(2011:271) said that sample is part of population.
Furthermore, Arikunto (2010:177) says, There are some kinds of
sampling technique, a) random sampling which is used if the population are
homogenous, b) cluster sampling which is used if the population are in group, c)
stratified sampling which is used if the population are in subject groups that
there is stratification, d) porpuse sampling which is used if the researcher has a

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determinein sample taking, e) area sampling, f) double sampling, propotional


sampling.
In this research, the researcher decides to take one class as sample. The
sample is the experimental class by using pre-test and post-test. Then, sample is
taken by using cluster sampling technique. Sugiyono (2013:83) stated that
cluster sampling is used when the population is big enough so it needs to be
classified into classer or groups.
Based on the explanation above, the researcher gets one class as the
sample which is taken randomly. It is X-Bg-2. The total number is 38 students
from the population. It can be seen in this following table:
Table 3:
The Experiment class
Female
3

X-BG-2
Male
30

Total
33

4. Technique of Collecting Data


In conducting a research, researcher needs to collect data in order to get the
result in this research. According to Nazir (2011:174) Pengumpulan data adalah
procedur yang sistematis dan standar untuk memperoleh data yang diperlukan. It
means collecting data is a procedure which is systematic and standard to get data
which is needed.
The data of this research will be collected by using instrument. The
instrument is a test which is in the form multiple choice. The test will be applied to
the experimental by doing pre-test and post-test.. Then the result of the test will be
used as the data of this research. The indicator of the test:
a. Able to comprehend and make an appointment.
b. Able to response an appointment.
c. Able to comprehend and make an invitation.
d. Able to response an invitation.

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5. Technique of Analysis Data


After the instrument is applied,

the researcher will identify their score

individually and then classified the score into criteria score as follow:
Table 3
The Criteria of Score
The Symbols of Score
Score
8 10 = 80 100
7 7.9 = 70 79
6 6.9 = 70 79
5 5.9 = 70 79
0 4.9 =
0 49

= 3.1 4
= 2.1 3
= 1.1 2
=
1
=
0

Mark
A
B
C
D
E

Predicate
Very Good
Good
Enough
Low
Fail

In analizing the result of the test, the researcher use t-test and the formula
can seen as follow (Suharsimi 2010:354)
M X MY
t=
x 2 + Y 2 1 + 1
N X + N Y 2 N X N Y
Where:
t
= Test
Mx = The mean of experimental group
My
= The mean of control group
X2
= The variable of experimental group
Y2
= The variable of control group
NX
= The number of experimental group
Ny
= The number of control group

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