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Ministerul Transporturilor Ordinul nr. 8/2014 pentru stabilirea condiiilor de
operare n spaiul aerian naional a aeronavelor civile motorizate fr pilot la bord
n vigoare de la 21.01.2014 Publicat n Monitorul Oficial, Partea I nr. 50 din
21.01.2014.
Avnd n vedere dezvoltarea continu a industriei aeronautice n ceea ce privete
fabricaia
i
utilizarea
aeronavelor
fr
pilot
la
bord,
lund n considerare faptul c pe plan internaional nu au fost stabilite nc
standarde comune de certificare i operare a aeronavelor civile fr pilot la bord,
innd cont de faptul c la nivelul Uniunii Europene pachetul de reglementri n
domeniului aeronavelor civile fr pilot la bord, cu masa maxim la decolare mai
mare de 150 kg, urmeaz s fie finalizat pn n anul 2016, n timp ce aeronavele
civile fr pilot la bord, cu masa maxim la decolare mai mic de 150 kg, rmn
sub incidena reglementrilor naionale emise de statele membre ale Uniunii
Europene,
pentru a permite operarea n spaiul aerian naional a aeronavelor civile motorizate
fr pilot la bord, pn la emiterea pachetului de reglementri europene i naionale
specifice care s acopere att domeniul certificrii, ct i domeniul operrii acestor
aeronave,
n temeiul prevederilor art. 4 lit. b.) i f.) din Ordonana Guvernului nr. 29/1997
privind Codul aerian civil, republicat, cu modificrile i completrile ulterioare, i
ale art. 5 alin. (4) din Hotrrea Guvernului nr. 24/2013 privind organizarea i
funcionarea Ministerului Transporturilor, cu modificrile i completrile
ulterioare,
ministrul transporturilor emite urmtorul ordin:
Art. 1.
Operarea aeronavelor civile motorizate fr pilot la bord n spaiul aerian naional
este permis numai n zone de spaiu aerian segregat temporar, nfiinate, alocate i
activate
conform
reglementrilor
aplicabile
n
vigoare.

Zonele prevzute la alin. (1) se stabilesc n ntregime n spaiul aerian de clas G,


iar limita vertical superioar a acestora trebuie s fie cu cel puin 150 m sub limita
minim
a
spaiului
aerian
controlat.
Cererea pentru nfiinarea zonei prevzute la alin. (1) se transmite de ctre
operatorul aeronavei Autoritii Aeronautice Civile Romne cu cel puin 45 de zile
nainte de data prevzut pentru nceperea activitii. Modelul cererii i informaii
privind documentele-suport care trebuie anexate acesteia se public pe pagina
proprie de internet a Autoritii Aeronautice Civile Romne http://www.caa.ro.
Alocarea i activarea zonelor prevzute la alin. (1) se efectueaz n conformitate cu
reglementrile aeronautice aplicabile.
Art. 2.
n sensul prezentului ordin, termenii i expresiile de mai jos au urmtoarele
semnificaii:
a.) operator al aeronavei persoan fizic sau juridic care efectueaz operaiuni
aeriene cu o aeronav civil motorizat fr pilot la bord i care solicit n acest
scop nfiinarea unei zone de spaiu aerian segregat temporar conform prevederilor
prezentului
ordin;
b.) spaiu aerian de clas G zon delimitat de spaiu aerian n care nu sunt
furnizate servicii de control al traficului aerian.
Art. 3.
O aeronav civil motorizat fr pilot la bord i cu masa maxim la decolare mai
mare de 150 kg poate fi operat n spaiul aerian naional, n condiiile respectrii
cerinei prevzute la art. 1 alin. (1) i (2), numai dac sunt ndeplinite cumulativ
urmtoarele condiii:
a.)
deine
un
certificat
de
nmatriculare;
b.) deine un certificat de tip i un certificat de navigabilitate, conform cu
reglementrile europene emise n aplicarea Regulamentului (CE) nr. 216/2008 al
Parlamentului European i al Consiliului din 20 februarie 2008 privind normele
comune n domeniul aviaiei civile i instituirea unei Agenii Europene de
Siguran a Aviaiei i de abrogare a Directivei 91/670/CEE a Consiliului, a
Regulamentului (CE) nr. 1.592/2002 i a Directivei 2004/36/CE;
c.) operatorul aeronavei este certificat, dup caz, n funcie de operaiunile aeriene
civile desfurate, n conformitate cu reglementrile aeronautice aplicabile emise la
nivel naional sau cu cele emise la nivelul Uniunii Europene;
d.) aeronava este asigurat, conform legii, pentru daune produse terilor.

Art. 4.
O aeronav civil motorizat fr pilot la bord i cu masa maxim la decolare mai
mic sau egal cu 150 kg poate fi operat n spaiul aerian naional, n condiiile
respectrii cerinei prevzute la art. 1 alin. (1) i (2), numai dac sunt ndeplinite
cumulativ urmtoarele condiii:
a.) deine un certificat de identificare emis de Autoritatea Aeronautic Civil
Romn sau un certificat de nmatriculare ori un document echivalent emis de alt
stat;
b.) n cazul n care aeronava are o mas maxim la decolare mai mare de 15 kg,
deine un permis de zbor naional emis de Autoritatea Aeronautic Civil Romn
sau un document de certificare tehnic echivalent emis de alt stat, recunoscut de
Autoritatea
Aeronautic
Civil
Romn;
c.) aeronava este asigurat, dup caz, conform legii, pentru daune produse terilor.
Art. 5.
Nicio prevedere a prezentului ordin nu exonereaz operatorul unei aeronave civile
motorizate fr pilot la bord de obligaia respectrii prevederilor Hotrrii
Guvernului nr. 912/2010 pentru aprobarea procedurii de autorizare a zborurilor n
spaiul aerian naional, precum i a condiiilor n care decolarea i aterizarea
aeronavelor civile se pot efectua i de pe/pe alte terenuri sau suprafee de ap dect
aerodromurile certificate, cu modificrile i completrile ulterioare, atunci cnd
efectueaz
operaiuni
aeriene
civile
n
spaiul
aerian
naional.
Prezentul ordin nu se aplic:
a.) aeromodelelor, aa cum acestea sunt definite i clasificate de ctre Federaia
Internaional de Aeromodelism i de ctre Federaia Romn de Modelism, atunci
cnd sunt utilizate n cadrul competiiilor, demonstraiilor aeriene sau al altor
manifestaii oficiale organizate de Federaia Romn de Modelism;
b.) aeronavelor civile motorizate fr pilot la bord i cu masa maxim la decolare
mai mic sau egal cu 1 kg, att timp ct
sunt operate ntr-o zon deschis, fr construcii cu destinaia de locuin;
sunt operate fr depirea cmpului vizual al persoanei care asigur comanda
aeronavei de la sol, dar nu mai mult de 150 m distan pe orizontal i de 100 m
distan pe nlime fa de aceast persoan;
nu au montate pe ele aparatur pentru filmare sau transmisie de date.

Rspunderea pentru eventuale daune provocate ca urmare a operrii aeromodelelor


i aeronavelor prevzute la alin. (2) revine n totalitate persoanelor care asigur
comanda acestora de la sol.
Art. 6.
n termen de 30 de zile de la intrarea n vigoare a prezentului ordin, Autoritatea
Aeronautic Civil Romn public pe propria pagin de internet,
http://www.caa.ro, documentele i informaiile prevzute la art. 1 alin. (3).
Pn la data de 30 iunie 2015, Autoritatea Aeronautic Civil Romn va elabora
i va supune aprobrii ministrului transporturilor proiectele reglementrilor
aeronautice civile naionale privind operarea n spaiul aerian naional a
aeronavelor civile motorizate fr pilot la bord i care au masa maxim la decolare
mai mic sau egal cu 150 kg.
Art. 7.
Prezentul ordin se public n Monitorul Oficial al Romniei, Partea I, i intr n
vigoare la 30 de zile de la data publicrii.
Art. 8.
Prezentul ordin se aplic pn la data de 30 ianuarie 2016.
Ministrul
Constantin
subsecretar de stat

transporturilor,
Matei,

http://blog.oscarliang.net/pwm-ppm-sbus-dsm2-dsmx-sumd-difference/
RC Radio Types: PWM, PPM, SBus, DSM2, DSMX, SUMD

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When it comes to radio transmitter and receiver, acronyms are often mentioned:
PWM, PPM, SBUS, DSMX and so on. These are the different radio
communication protocols and technologies. In this post we will explore the
differences of these radio signal types. We will also have a look at some of
the technology, and see how it makes flying more reliable and safer.
PWM
This is the most common receiver output signal. In the old days when there were
only RC fixed wings planes, the receivers were used to control the servos or ESC
directly with standard PWM signal, one channel for each servo. Until today the
same technology is still being used. Multirotors require at least 4 or 5 channels
(sometimes even more) and you will see the same numbers of servo leads
connected between the receiver and flight controller.

PWM radio receiver is the most common and usually the cheapest option.

PWM stands for pulse width modulation, the length of the pulse specifies the servo
output or throttle position. The length of the signal pulse normally varies between
1000 & 2000s (micro seconds), with 1000s being the minimum & 2000s the
maximum.
PPM
PPM is also known as PPMSUM or CPPM. The advantage of PPM is that only one
signal wire is needed for several channels (typically 8 channels max), instead of a
number of individual wires. So you should only connect the ground, power and
signal cable.

A PPM signal is basically a series of PWM signals sent one after another on the
same wire, but the signal is modulated differently.
PPM is what they call analog signal in time domain, channels are sent one after
another and not at the same time. Therefore tts not as accurate or jitter free as
serial communications, but its more widely available and supported by many
Flight controllers.
Check out this post for a more detail difference between PWM and PPM.
PCM

PCM stands for pulse code modulation, its a data types like PPM. However PCM
signal is digital (ones and zeros) and the PPM signal is analogue, which is the
length of time the signal is on. PCM has the potential of signal error detection even
error correction, but this still depends on the product you buy.
PCM is more reliable and less susceptible to interference, but additional
conversion is required so the equipment is more expensive in theory. But it looks
like PPM is still the mainstream in RC radio at the moment.
Serial
Serial Receiver is a digital loss-less protocol that uses only 3 wires (signal, power,
ground) for multiple channels. As the name suggests this type of receiver
requires serial port on the flight controller. This includes SBUS, XBUS, MSP,
IBUS, and SUMD.
SBUS (S.BUS) Frsky, Futaba
SBUS is a type of serial communication protocols, shared by Futaba and FrSky,
that supports up to 18 channels using only one signal cable.
SBUS is an inverted UART communication signal. Many flight controllers can
read UART input, but cannot accept inverted one (such as the Naze32) and an
inverted is required. But some FC such as Pixhawks has built-in dedicated signal
inverter for this purpose.
XBUS JR
XBUS is used by JR, which supports up to 14 channels in one signal wire. One of
the advantages is the tiny time delay between each channel.
MSP (multiwii serial protocol)
Protocol that was created as part of the multiwii software. Basically it allows you
to use MSP commands as the RC input and it supports 8 channels in one signal
cable.
Flysky IBUS
IBUS is the new flysky serial protocol. Its a two way communication: one port for
servo data output and one port for sensors.

Graupner Hott SUMD


The Graupner SUMD is a serial protocol like Speksat and SBUS. The channels are
encoded into one digital signal and there you have no latency. But we are talking
ms of difference, I doubt anyone can tell the difference. Advantages of SUMD:

VS SBUS SUMD doesnt require signal inverter.


VS PPM SUMD has better resolution and zero jitter while PPM has only
250 steps and always 4ms jitter.

Graupner SumH
SUMH is a legacy Graupner protocol. Graupner have issued a firmware updates
for many recivers that lets them use SUMD instead.
Spektrum DSM2 and DSMX
DSM2 signal is more resistant to noise, interference and other transmitters
transmitting on the same frequency. It also finds a backup frequency at start-up in
case the primary frequency fails. This lower the chance of losing signal greatly,
however if both channels becomes unusable you may still lose the connection.
DSMX was based on and improved from DSM2, which also uses the same
econding scheme. The difference is the DSMX signal is able to switch to a new
frequency channel in case of cut out within a couple of milliseconds, so in theory
you wouldnt even notice the glitch.
DSM2 is still a popular technology, if you are away from sources of radio
interference (such as wifi, microwaves, and wireless security cameras), it should
work just as well as DSMX. But DSMX is just more reliable.
Spektrum Satellite
A Spektrum Satellite is an additional antenna and receiver circuit that usually gets
connected to the main receiver to improve link reliability by providing diversity
reception.
Related

PPM vs SBUS - D4R-II vs X4R-SB


In "Multicopter"

DIY PWM to PPM Converter for 2.4GHz Receiver using Arduino


In "DIY and Hacks"

PWM and PPM Difference and Conversion


In "Electronics"
Posted in Electronics, Featured, Multicopter, Tutorial on 27th March 2015.
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