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SCHIZOFRENIA SI DIABETUL ZAHARAT

Schizofrenia este o tulburare psihiatrica cronica caracterizata de tulburari ale gandirii,


emotiilor si comportamentului. Afecteaza aproximativ 1% din populatie, debutand in mod
tipic pana la 25 de ani si mentinandu-se pe tot parcursul vietii pacientului.
Schizofrenia este asociata cu o morbiditate si o mortalitate semnificative, precum si cu
o functionare zilnica defectuoasa. Pacientii cu schizofrenie au o speranta de viata mai
redusa decat populatia generala datorita riscului crescut de deces prin boli
cardiovasculare. Afectiunile endocrinologice si cardiovasculare sunt cele mai frecvente
comorbiditati asociate afectiunilor psihiatrice.
Numeroase studii au demonstrat legatura dintre schizofrenie si diabetul zaharat.
Cateva dintre motivele carora se datoreaza riscul crescut pentru diabetul zaharat tip II la
aceasta categorie de pacienti includ predispozitia genetica pentru diabet zaharat tip II,
moduri de viata nesanogene, asistenta medicala deficitara si efectele adverse ale
tratamentului antipsihotic . In plus, simptomatologia negativa si disfunctia cognitiva
asociate schizofreniei pot contribui la neglijarea starii de sanatate si inadresabilitate catre
serviciile medicale. Mai mult, stigma asociata afectiunilor psihiatrice majore, precum si
disconfortul si chiar teama personalului medical din alte specialitati de a lucra cu
pacientii cu afectiuni mentale grave fac ca asistenta medicala pe care o primesc acestia
sa scada si mai mult.
Material si metoda: studiul literaturii de specialitate.
Obiective: Stabilirea legaturii dintre diabetul zaharat si schizofrenie inainte si dupa
instituirea tratamentului antipsihotic.
Concluzii
Schizofrenia este asociata cu diabetul zaharat din mai multe motive.
Pacientii cu schizofrenie sunt mai predispusi decat populatia generala la
supraponderalitate sau obezitate, chiar inaintea instituirii tratamentului antipsihotic.
Folosirea atat a antipsihoticelor tipice, cat si a celor atipice a fost asociata cu cresterea in
greutate, toleranta alterata la glucoza si diabet zaharat. Screeningul factorilor de risc
pentru diabetul zaharat ar trebui realizat la toti pacientii cu schizofrenie. Studii recente au
aratat ca pacientii cu schizofrenie raspund la programe de exercitii si control al greutatii.
O buna relationare a acestor pacienti cu sistemul primar de ingrijire duce la preventia si
controlul eficace al diabetului zaharat.
Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric disorder that is characterized by abnormalities in
thinking, emotions, and behavior. It usually affects1% of the population, typically
beginning before age 25 years and persisting throughout the life of the individual.
It is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and compromised daily functioning.
Persons with schizophrenia have lower life expectancies than the general population,
primarily associated with increased risk of cardiovascular death. Endocrine and
cardiovascular disorders are, in fact, among the most common medical problems
affecting these patients.

Numerous reports have consistently found an association between schizophrenia and


diabetes. Some of the reasons that have been offered for the increased risk for type 2
diabetes mellitus in this population include a predisposition to diabetes mellitus, less
healthy lifestyles, poorer health care, and side effects of antipsychotics. Additionally, the
negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction associated with schizophrenia may further
contribute to self-neglect and failure to seek treatment for medical conditions.
Furthermore, the stigma associated with serious mental illness, as well as the general
medical communitys discomfort and fear related to working with patients who have
serious mental illness influence the care they receive (negatively).
Material and method. Study of the speciality literature.
Objectives. Establishing the conection between schizophrenia and diabetes mellitus
before and after the treatment with antipsychotics.
Conclusions. Schizophrenia is associated with diabetes mellitus for a variety of reasons.
Patients with schizophrenia are more likely than the general population to be overweight
and obese, even before the age of antipsychotic treatments. The use of both typical and
atypical antipsychotic medications has been associated with weight gain, glucose
intolerance, and diabetes mellitus. All patients with schizophrenia should be screened for
diabetes risk factors.Recent studies have shown that patients with schizophrenia can and
do respond to structured weight control and exercise programs. Close partnerships with
primary care providers are invaluable in providing excellent quality care for patients with
diabetes and schizophrenia.