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Form 2 Chapter 2: NUTRITION

2.1 Classes of Food

Food is the source of energy for all living things

Repairs and replaces damaged tissues Builds healthy Growth bodies Builds new cells Importance Provides energy
Repairs and replaces
damaged tissues
Builds healthy
Growth
bodies
Builds new cells
Importance
Provides energy
for carrying out
work
of food
Warms the body

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Nutrition is the process of obtaining and using nutrients from food.

Nutrients help growth, repair body tissues and provide energy to the body

Classes of food and their functions

Carbohydrates

- Supply energy to the body

Proteins

-

build new cells, repair or

damaged cells for tissues

For growth, especially to

Fats

- As an insulator

(energy storage), protect organs, help

transport vitamin A, D, E and K

Water

- Dissolves chemicals, regulates body temperature, acts as a medium for chemical reactions, transports nutrients and oxygen to cells, and excretes waste products.

Fibre (roughage)

- Prevents constipation and aids peristalsis

Minerals

- Needed in small

amounts for

healthy growth and development

Classes of food
Classes
of food

Vitamins

- Needed in small

amounts for maintaining health and growth

Carbohydrates

Is an energy provider

Organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

Include starched, cellulose and sugars

Starch is found in rice, bread and potatoes

Simple sugars are glucose (in grapes), fructose (in honey) and galactose (in milk)

Complex sugars are lactase (in milk), maltose (in malt) and sucrose (in sugar cane)

Excess carbohydrates are stored as fat in our body.

Form 2 Chapter 2: NUTRITION

Proteins

Organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen (sometimes sulphur and phosphorous are also present)

The basic unit of protein is called amino acid

Proteins are founded in fish, meat, bean curd, milk, egg white (albumen), chicken and nuts

Proteins are required in building new cells or tissues

For growth

To replace damaged tissues

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Proteins are also needed for the formation of enzymes, hormones, haemoglobin and antibodies in our body

Growing children need a lot of protein. Insufficient protein intake can cause kwashiorkor (stunted growth)

Proteins also supply energy when carbohydrate is lacking

Fats

Organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

Consist of smaller units of fatty acids combined with glycerol

Fats are solids but oils are liquid at room temperature

Fats are found in margarine, butter, peanuts, cooking oil, ghee, cheese and meat

Functions of fats include:

Supplying energy and warmth

As an insulator of heat to reduce heat loss from the body

Protecting the internal organs such as the kidney and the heart

Dissolving vitamins such as vitamins A, D, E and K in the body

Vitamins

Vitamins are required in small amounts only for our health and growth

Vitamins are classified into two groups

Water-soluble vitamins: vitamins B and C

Fat-soluble vitamins: vitamins A, D, E and K

Vitamins protect the body from various types of diseases and maintains the

health of the body

Vitamin

Food source

Function

 

Deficiency disease

A

Carrots, liver, milk, eggs, fish liver oil

- For night vision

- Night blindness

- For healthy skin

- Dry, scaly skin

B

Eggs, milk, meat, yeast, cereals

- For a healthy nervous system

- Beri-beri (paralysis)

- Formation of red blood cells

- Anaemia (deficiency

 

Releases energy from carbohydrates

-

in red blood cells)

-

Pellagra (mental

- For healthy skin

disorder&skin diseases)

C

Fresh fruits and vegetables

- Healing of wounds

-

Scurvy (bleeding

- Resistance against disease

gums)

 

- For healthy skin and gum

D

Eggs, fish, milk; formed in skin by exposing sunlight

- For strong bones and teeth

-

Rickets (weak bones

Promotes absorption of calcium and phosphorous

-

and dental decay)

E

Vegetable oils, whole grains,nuts

- Maintains fertility

-

Sterility (failure to

- For fighting against diseases

reproduce)

K

Egg yolk, green vegetables

- Promotes blood clotting

-

Prolonged bleeding

Form 2 Chapter 2: NUTRITION

Minerals

Minerals are inorganic chemical elements that are needed in small amounts

Minerals are required to maintain health and regulate body processes.

Lack of minerals causes deficiency diseases.

Vitamin

Food

Function

Deficiency disease

source

Calcium

Milk, cheese,

- For strong bones and teeth

- Rickets

eggs, green

- Aids in blood clotting

- Delayed clotting

vegetables

- For muscle and nerve activities

- Muscular cramps

Sodium

Table salt,

- Maintains body fluid balance

- Muscular cramps

meat,

- For proper functioning of nerves

- Tiredness

cheese

- lack of appetite

Iron

Liver, egg,

- For the formation of

- Anaemia

meat, green

haemoglobin in red blood cells

vegetables

Iodine

Seafood,

For making hormones of the thyroid gland

-

- Goitre (swelling of

seaweed,

the thyroid gland in

iodized salt

 

the neck)

Phosphorus

Cheese,

- For strong bones and teeth

- Rickets

eggs, green

- Promotes muscle contractions

- Tooth decay

vegetables,

- Helps in the release of energy

- Weak muscles

milk

Potassium

Bananas,

- Normal functioning of nerves

- Weak muscles

meat, nuts,

- Maintains body fluid balance

- Paralysis

fish

- Regulation of heartbeat

Fibre

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Made up of cellulose from plant cell walls

Sources: brown rice, cereals, oats, wholemeal bread, fruits and leafy vegetables

The functions of fibre:

Fibre lowers blood cholesterol levels and controls blood sugar

Fibre absorbs water in the intestine and helps the waste material move from the body more quickly

Fibre prevents digestive problem such as constipation.

Water

Water is the main component of our blood and body fluid

About 70% of our body weight is water

Our body loses water through urine, sweat and exhaled air

The water lost from our body can be replaced by drinking water, soups and fruit juice, or eating fresh fruits and vegetables.

The functions of water:

Controlling body temperature

Acts as a solvent in which chemicals dissolve

Takes part in biochemical reactions

Controlling the concentration of blood

Removing excretory products like carbon dioxide and urea from our body

Acts as a transporting agent for digested food, hormones and antibodies

We can live for several days without food but we cannot survive for more than 3 days without water

Form 2 Chapter 2: NUTRITION

2.2 The Importance of a Balanced Diet

A balanced diet is a meal which contains the seven classes of food in the right amounts to meet the daily requirements of the body

Without a balanced diet, a person can suffer from malnutrition and deficiency diseases.

Factors determine a balanced diet

Physical activity/ occupation

A person who does heavy work such as hard labour and athletes needs more energy than office worker which is light

work

Climate

A person living in a cold climate needs more energy

to keep his body warm compared to a person living

is in a warm climate

Body Size Larger-sized individuals need more energy to supply to more body cells

FACTORS
FACTORS
need more energy to supply to more body cells FACTORS Age • Adolescents and children need
need more energy to supply to more body cells FACTORS Age • Adolescents and children need
need more energy to supply to more body cells FACTORS Age • Adolescents and children need

Age Adolescents and children need more energy because they are more active and still growing

Gender/sex

Men need more energy than women due to more active and lower body fat content

State of Health People with health problems should be careful with their diet. Food intake must be appropriate to their health problems

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Calorific value is the amount of energy released from 1g of food.

Calorific value is measured in joules (J) or calories (cal)

1 calorie (cal) = 4.2 joules (J)

Calorific values depend on the content of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in the food

Class of food

Calorific Value (kJ g -1 )

Carbohydrates

17.2

Proteins

22.2

Fats

38.5

Calorific values of canned or package foodstuffs are stated on their labels.

Table below shows the energy value of some local food

Food

Quantity

Calorific

Food

Quantity

Calorific

value (kJ)

value (kJ)

Boiled egg

1 egg

328

Fried noodles

1 plate

1176

White bread

1 piece

311

Nasi Briyani

1 plate

1890

Doughnut

1 piece

806

Chicken rice

1 plate

1399

Apom balik

1 piece

480

Banana

1 piece

441

Curry puff

1 piece

180

Full cream milk

1 glass

680

Fried rice

1 plate

1050

Low-fat milk

1 glass

550

The calorific value of eating 1 plate of fried rice, 1 piece of banana, 2 pieces of doughnut and 1 glass of full cream milk = 1050 + 441 + 2(806) + 680 = 3783 kJ

Form 2 Chapter 2: NUTRITION

2.3 Human Digestive System

Digestion is the process of breaking down large (complex) food into smaller (simple) molecules that can be readily absorbed by the body.

Digestion involves physical digestion and chemical digestion

Physical digestion involves the breaking down of food by the teeth into smaller pieces and churning (mixing) of food in the stomach

Chemical digestion involves the action of enzymes on food

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Enzyme are proteins that speed up the chemical reactions in our body

There are 3 main types of enzymes in our guts:

Amylase breaks down carbohydrate (such as starch molecules)

Proteases breaks down protein molecules

Lipases break down fat molecules

Characteristics of enzymes:

Enzymes are required in small quantities

Enzymes are not destroyed at the end of digestion

Specific enzymes act only in specific acidic or alkaline condition

Specific enzymes act only on specific foods

Enzymes function best at normal body temperature (37 o C). Enzymes are destroyed at high temperature.

Digestive system

Digestion occurs in the gut or alimentary canal, a long tube which begins at the mouth and ends at the anus

Food substances do not pass through liver, pancreas and gall bladder. These organs only secrete chemicals to help break down the food.

The passage of food in the alimentary canal is as follows :

Mouth

For chewing and the action of salivary amylase

Oesophagus

Food moving down by peristalsis

Stomach

Kills bacteria in food

Churning of food

Digestion of protein

Duodenum

Receives bile from the gall bladder

Digestion of starch, proteins and fats

Small intestine

Digestion of maltose, polypeptides and fats

Absorption of digested products

Large intestine

Reabsorption of water, vitamins and minerals

Stores faeces temporarily in the rectum

Anus

Removes faeces by peristalsis

Form 2 Chapter 2: NUTRITION

Form 2 Chapter 2: NUTRITION  Organs in the digestive system and their function Page |

Organs in the digestive system and their function

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Organ

Function

Mouth

Chews and grins food using teeth

Salivary glands

Secrete saliva containing salivary amylase enzyme which breaks down starch

Oesophagus

Carries food from mouth to stomach

Liver

Produces bile

Gall bladder

Stores the bile

Pancreas

Produces pancreatic juice

Duodenum

Receives partially digestion food from the stomach, bile from the gall bladder, and pancreatic juice from pancreas

Small intestine

Secretes intestinal juice and absorbs nutrients and minerals

Large intestine

Absorbs the remaining water and minerals

Rectum

Stores faeces

Anus

Removes faeces through defecation

Form 2 Chapter 2: NUTRITION

Process of food is broken down in our body

In the mouth

Physical digestion is carried out by the teeth

The teeth bite, chew and grind the food into smaller pieces.

The salivary glands secrete saliva. The saliva contains salivary amylase and mucus.

The salivary amylase digests starch into maltose.

Mucus softens and moistens the food, and then the tongue shapes it into a ball- shaped lump called bolus which is easy to swallow.

In the oesophagus

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The bolus is pushed by the tongue and cheek muscles into the oesophagus.

The bolus moves along the oesophagus towards the stomach by peristalsis.

Peristalsis is a wave-like motion produced by the contractions and relaxations of the wall of the oesophagus.

contractions and relaxations of the wall of the oesophagus.  In the stomach  Food is

In the stomach

Food is mixed with gastric juices secreted by the cells of the stomach wall. Gastric

juices contain proteases, hydrochloric acid and mucus.

Proteases break down proteins into polypeptides or peptones.

The hydrochloric acid:

Kills bacteria in the food

Activates the proteases by providing an acidic medium suitable for the proteases

Stops the action of salivary amylase

The mucus protects the stomach walls from the corrosive acid.

The food is mixed in the stomach to form chime (semi-solid food). Then it moves into

the duodenum.

In the duodenum

The duodenum is the upper part of the small intestine. It receives bile and pancreatic juice.

Liver produces bile (greenish fluid) and gall bladder stores bile temporarily.

Bile is alkaline. It also neutralises the acidic chime.

Bile emulsifies fats into oils droplets for lipase to act upon.

Pancreas secretes pancreatic juice which contains pancreatic amylase, protease

and lipase

Pancreatic amylase digests starch into maltose

Protease digests proteins into polypeptides

Lipase digests fats into fatty acids and glycerol

In the small intestine

Food then enters the jejunum and then the ileum, the final part of the small intestine.

The lower part of small intestine secretes intestinal juice which contains maltase,

protease and lipase.

Maltase digests maltose into glucose

Protease digests polypeptides into amino acids.

Lipase digests fats into fatty acids and glycerol.

Form 2 Chapter 2: NUTRITION

End products of digestion

Digestion of food is completed in the small intestine.

Starch, proteins and fats are complex food substances. They are broken down into simpler forms.

Glucose, amino acids, fatty acids and glycerol are the end products of digestion.

They are smaller and soluble molecules which can be absorbed by the body.

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Minerals, vitamins and water do not need to be digested because they can be absorbed easily by the body

Fibre cannot be digested in our body because we do not produce the enzyme needed for its digestion. Therefore, fibre is not absorbed by the body.

Class of food

End product

Carbohydrates

Glucose

Proteins

Amino acids

Fats

Fatty acids and glycerol

2.4 Absorption of Digested Food

Absorption is the process when the end products of digestion enter the bloodstream through the small intestine walls.

Only small, soluble substances can pass across the wall of the small intestine.

The small intestine has

Highly folded inner surface area to increase the surface area for the efficient absorption of nutrients

Millions of villi (singular: villus) to absorb nutrients more efficiently. A villus is a finger-like projection. It has very thin walls which is only one-cell thick to help

absorb nutrients more efficiently.

Many blood capillaries to increase absorption

The nutrients are absorbed through the villi into the bloodstream by diffusion. The blood

carries the nutrients to the liver, then to the heart and finally to all body cells.

bloodstream by diffusion. The blood carries the nutrients to the liver, then to the heart and

Form 2 Chapter 2: NUTRITION

Form 2 Chapter 2: NUTRITION Page | 9 2.5 Reabsorption of Water and Defecation  The

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2.5 Reabsorption of Water and Defecation

The main function of the large intestine is to reabsorb water.

Reabsorption occurs in the large intestine (colon) where a lot of water, dissolved minerals and vitamins are reabsorbed into the blood.

As the water is reabsorbed, the undigested food substances changes into semi-solid waste which consists of fibre, dead cells and bacteria.

The semi-solid waste is stored in the rectum, and expelled through the anus as faeces. This process is called defecation.

If the undigested matter passes through the large intestine too slowly, too much water will be absorbed. The faeces would be very hard and dry, and this results in constipation.

Constipation is caused by lack of water and roughage (fibre) in the diet.

2.6 Healthy Eating Habits

The key to healthy eating is to eat a wide variety of food in the right amounts:

Eat a nutritious and balanced diet

Eat in the right amounts according to the requirements of the body

Avoid eating junk food

Unhealthy eating habits can lead to various health problem

Excessive nutrients

Health problems

Sugar

Tooth decay, obesity, diabetes

Salt

High blood pressure, heart disease, kidney damage

Fat/oil

Heart disease, high blood pressure

Form 2 Chapter 2: NUTRITION

We can use food pyramid to plan a healthy and balanced diet.

Foods that form the base of the food pyramid should be eaten more every day.

Foods at the top of the pyramid are required in lesser amounts in our daily diet. This group of food provides the highest risk of getting heart diseases if taken excessively.

highest risk of getting heart diseases if taken excessively. Page | 10  We should respect

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We should respect and accept the differences in dining cultures of others based on their religious beliefs. For example:

Serving only halal food to the Muslims

Avoid serving pork to the Muslims

Avoid serving beef to the Hindus

Avoid serving any kind of meats to vegetarians

Being considerate when consuming food amongst Muslims who fast during Ramadan

We must not waste food. Donate food generously to the underprivileged or the needy.

Form 2 Chapter 2: NUTRITION

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM SUMMARY TABLE I

 

CARBOHYDRATES

PROTEINS

FATS

 

SITE OF

1. Mouth

1. Stomach

1. Duodenum

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DIGESTION

2. Duodenum

2. Duodenum

2. Small intestine

3. Small intestine

3. Small intestine

DIGESTIVE

1. Salivary Amylase

1. Pepsin;

Lipase

ENZYME(S)

2. Pancreatic Amylase

*HCl

*Bile

3. Maltase

2. Pancreatic Protease

3. Protease

END-

1 & 2. Starch to Maltose

HCl denatures

Bile emulsifies fats;

PRODUCT(S)

proteins;

3.

Maltose to Glucose

1 & 2. Proteins to polypeptides;

Lipases break fats into fatty acids & glycerol

 

3.

Polypeptides to

amino acids

Form 2 Chapter 2: NUTRITION

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM SUMMARY TABLE II

Organ

Function

Secretion

Enzyme

End Product

Mouth

Chews and grins food using teeth

Saliva

Salivary amylase

Starch Maltose

Oesophagus

Carries food from mouth to stomach by peristalsis

Mucus

-

-

Stomach

Secretes gastric juice

Gastric juice

Hydrochloric acid

Acidic medium, kill bacteria

Protease (pepsin)

Protein polypeptides

Duodenum

Receives partially digestion food from the stomach, bile from the gall bladder, and pancreatic juice from pancreas

Bile

-

Emulsifies fats

Pancreatic

Pancreatic amylase Protease

Starch Maltose Protein Polypeptides

juice

 

Lipase

Fats Glycerol + Fatty acids

Small intestine

Secretes intestinal juice and absorbs nutrients and minerals

Intestinal juice

Maltase

Maltose Glucose

(ileum)

Protease

Polypeptides Amino acids

 

Lipase

Fats Glycerol + Fatty acids

Large intestine

Absorbs the remaining water and minerals

-

-

-

Rectum

Stores faeces

-

-

-

Anus

Removes faeces through defecation

-

-

-

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