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Rizalie Ann M.

Andres BB 3-4

Introduction to Database Approach


Data - is the raw material that can be processed into information by any computing machine. It can be letters
or numbers.
Information - is the data that has been processed and becomes more meaningful and useful for the users to
help them in the decision-making.
Table set of data elements that uses a specified number of colums but can have any number of rows. It is also
the logical group of columns and it is the one who make up the entire database and it is important that we
dont duplicate the data.
Column a vertical arrangement of items; a single type collection of data values and defines data in the table
Record a database entry that may contain one or more values and usually stored in table. Record is another
term for rows since adding another record creates new row. It contains data about a single entity.
Metadata it provides a description or information to other data. For example, in a picture, metadata is the
who tells us the size of the picture, image resolution, etc.
Database it is a collection of data or data structure that stores informations and most databases contains
DBMS it is a software responsible for classifying, retrieving, and running queries on data. It also manages
the incoming data, organizes it and provides ways to modify by the other programs or users.


It is an approach wherein the data is being created, stored and the content of the file becomes
accessible. It can also be used in opening saved files fore read only purpose, for creating new file and
replacing existing file.Each file is called as flat file and it means that the file contained a single table only.
We may also use CD-ROM or hard disk to store the data.

Files are independent from each other.

It is a group of file that stores data of a business/organization.
Each file contained a processed information that has one specific function only.
It uses a program languages like COBOL, C, C+ +.
It is easy to use and can keeps file into a organized manner like arranging it alphabetically or

In FPA, there is a duplication of data or Data Redundancy that costs time and money to enter the
data more than once. And causes a file to take a larger space.
The datas are scattered in different file and sometimes have different formats.

Data is dependent to the other. If you change the format of another data, you will have also to
change the formats for the other files or the application program must also be updated.
The security of data is low because data in a flat file can be easily accessible.
File based system would not be able to represent the complex data and offered a little flexibility,
many limitations and were difficult to maintain.


In database processing approach, there is a logically related collection of data intended to provide
information to its users. It is also defined as a self-descirbing collection of integrated or mixed records
because aside from holding the organizations operational data, it also holds the description of data.

It has a command language that allows you to change, create or delete database.
There is a data dictionary documenting all internal structures that make up the database.
A language to support the manilpulation and processing of data.
It supports the ability of viewing the data into different viewpoints based on the requirement of
the user.
There is a level of security and access control in the data.
It should be flexible to change and recoverable in case of damage.
Data in database is shared among multiple users/applications.
Data should be correct and consistent based on the real world entity that they represent.



Reduced data redundancy because the data is

- High Cost of DBMS. A complete DBMS is
stored only once.
very large and sophisticated and expensive.

Improved data integrity. We dont need to update

- It requires an additional memory and
multiple files because data is store only once.
processing power.
Data is independent from the program, thus, data can - Need a specialized proffesionals.
can be used by different programs.
- Centralized control of data,thus, if any of the
It has an improved security because backups can be
data has changed or fails, the whole system
controlled by one database and then multiple file of data
and restricts unauthorized access.
- It is more complex because it supports many
There is a data sharing.
Applications and agreement of terms.
It allows edting and changing of files.
Can have username and password.


1. New, Specialized Personnel the organization must hire a proffesional personnel to run the
DBMS and and hire new ones because there is a rapid change in our technology. They must
upgrade their knowledge on handling/using DBMS.
2. Installation and Management Cost Complexity since database approach allows multiple
users, the application becomes large and complex that has an initial cost. It requires trained
personnel to install and operate and it has also an annual maintenance cost.
3. Conversion Cost the previous applications that are based on File-processing approch need to
be converted into a modern database technology.
4. Need for explicit Backup and Recovery there is a need of a complete procedure for providing
backup copies of data and restoring a database when there is a damage occured. The modern
technology has this capability of providing backup and restoring data.
5. Organizational Conflict there must be a general agreement on data definitions, ownership and
responsibilities for a more accurate data maintenance. Problems may exist on data definitions,
coding, rights to upgrade shared data which often difficult to resolve.


1. Personal Database Approach it is designed for the users personal information for it to be
stored and maintained and can be access by the user only. Ex. Cellphones, laptops etc. There is no
data sharing and working on a stand-alone mode.
2. Work Group Database Approach it consists of 20-25 member resposible for the formation of
the database of an organization. It is designed to support to maintain database by a group of
people and provides data sharing.
3. Departmental Database Approach designed to support to maintain departmental activities
within an organization. It requires 50-100 persons to perform a task. The information is also
being distributed to the department and users. This technology is called two tier database
4. Enterprise Database Approach this is not only responsible for the conrol of organizational
database but also used in making decision to support database. And it also performs all the
activities in an organization.


1. Hardware - it refers to the systems physical devices.

2. Software there are three types of software that we need need in order for the database to
function fully:
Operation System Software it manages the hardwares and enables other software to run
on the computer. Examples are Microsoft Windows and Linux
DBMS Software manages the database within the database system. Ex. Microsofts SQL
Server and IBMs DB2
Application program and Utility software used to manipulate access the data in DBMS
3. People - it includes all the users of database. Example: Database Administrator that is
resposible for maintaining database; System Developers thats responsible for designing
database and software; End users
4. Procedures refers to the instructions that govern the use of database system and also ensures
that there is an organized way to monitor and audit the data that enters the database and the
information that has been processed.

Data the facts that enter the database and it is important for the designer of the database to
determine what data to be entered and how it data will be oraganized.


1. File Management System all data is stored on a singe large file. It would take a long time to
search and sort the data or the records.
2. Hierarchal Database System there is a parent-child relationship between the records in
database. Wherein the origin of data is called the root and the branches at different levels of
data is called the leaf. Its disadvantage is, if you changed a data, all other data must be changed
also that would take time.
3. Network Database System it is consists of records that is connecte through links. A single
data can lead to multiple data elements and can be also pointed by other data elements.
4. Relational Database System there are tables that organize the data and each record forms a
row with many fields. It is also a database created to recognize the relationship of the
information that has been stored.


1. External Level defines the logical records and relationship in external views. It has also a
method that derives the object in the external view from the objects in the conceptual view. It
describes a part of database that is related only to the user.
2. Conceptual Level represents the entire database and describes the records and relation in the
conceptual view. It has also the method of deriving object in the conceptual view from the object
in the internal view. Describes what data has been stored in the database and how the data is
inter-related and doesnt tell us how data is physically stored.
3. Internal Level It tells us how the data has been stored in the database and in the computer
hardware. It also describes the data structures and access method to be used by the database.