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Volume 23

Managing Editor
Mahabir Singh
Editor
Anil Ahlawat
(BE, MBA)

No. 11

November 2015

Corporate Office:
Plot 99, Sector 44 Institutional area, Gurgaon -122 003 (HR).
Tel : 0124-4951200 e-mail : info@mtg.in website : www.mtg.in

CONTENTS

Regd. Office:
406, Taj Apartment, Near Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi - 110029.

Physics Musing Problem Set 28

JEE Workouts

12

Core Concept

18

Physics Musing Solution Set 27

21

Exam Prep 2016

23

JEE Accelerated Learning Series


Brain Map

31
46

JEE Advanced Practice Paper 2016

58

Ace Your Way CBSE XI

64

Thought Provoking Problems

71

Ace Your Way CBSE XII

74

You Ask We Answer

82

Live Physics

83

Crossword

85

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Physics for you | November 15

PHYSICS

MUSING

hysics Musing was started in August 2013 issue of Physics For You with the suggestion of Shri Mahabir Singh. The aim of Physics Musing is to augment
the chances of bright students preparing for JEE (Main and Advanced) / AIIMS / Other PMTs with additional study material.
In every issue of Physics For You, 10 challenging problems are proposed in various topics of JEE (Main and Advanced) / various PMTs. The detailed
solutions of these problems will be published in next issue of Physics For You.
The readers who have solved five or more problems may send their detailed solutions with their names and complete address. The names of those who
send atleast five correct solutions will be published in the next issue.
We hope that our readers will enrich their problem solving skills through Physics Musing and stand in better stead while facing the competitive exams.

single oPtion correct tyPe

1. A metal ring of initial radius r and cross-sectional


area A is fitted onto a wooden disc of radius R > r. If
Youngs modulus of the metal is Y, then the tension
in the ring is
(a) AYR
(b) Yr
AR
r
(c)

AY (R r )
r

(d)

Y (R r )
Ar

2. A piece of pure gold (r = 19.3 g cm3) is suspected


to be hollow from inside. It weighs 38.250 g in air
and 33.865 g in water. The volume of the hollow
portion in gold is
(a) 1.982 cm3
(b) 2.403 cm3
(c) 3.825 cm3
(d) 4.385 cm3
3. A thermally insulated vessel contains an ideal
gas of molecular mass M and ratio of specific
heats g. It is moving with speed v and is suddenly
brought to rest. Assuming no heat is lost to the
surroundings, its temperature increases by
(a)

( g 1)
Mv 2
2( g + 2)R

(b)

( g 1)
Mv 2
2 gR

(c)

gMv 2
2R

(d)

( g 1)
Mv 2
2R

4. In the figure shown, there are


10 cells each of emf e and
internal resistance r. The
current through resistance
R is
(a) zero
(b) e/r
(c) 3e/r
(d) 4e/r
8

Physics for you | november 15

5. A rectangular loop with a


sliding connector of
length 1 m is situated in a
uniform magnetic field of
2 T perpendicular to the
plane of loop. Resistance
of connector is 2 W.
Two resistances of 6 W and 3 W are connected as
shown in the figure. The external force required to
keep the connector moving with a constant velocity
2 m s1 is
(a) 2 N
(b) 1 N
(c) 4 N
(d) 6 N
6. A thin lens of refractive
index 1.5 and focal
length in air 20 cm is
placed inside a large
container containing
two immiscible liquids
as shown in figure.
If an object is placed at an infinite distance close to
principal axis, the distance between two images will be
(a) 25 cm
(b) 40 cm
(c) 65 cm
(d) 85 cm
Solution Senders of Physics Musing
1.
2.
3.
4.

set-27
Manmohan Krishna (Bihar)
Anubhav Jana (WB)
Shiekh Md. Shakeel Hassan (Assam)
Swati Shah (Rajasthan)

1.
2.
3.
4.

set-26
Md. Samim Jahin (Assam)
Deep Anand Basumatary (Assam)
Harsimran Singh (Punjab)
Sayantan Bhanja (WB)

7. The figure shows several


equipotential
lines.
Comparing
between
points A and B, choose the
best possible statement.
(a) The electric field has a greater magnitude at
point A and is directed to left.
(b) The electric field has a greater magnitude at
point A and is directed to right.
(c) The electric field has a greater magnitude at
point B and is directed to left.
(d) The electric field has a greater magnitude at
point B and is directed to right.
8. A light wire AB of length
10 cm can slide on a
vertical frame as shown
in figure. There is a film
of soap solution trapped
between the frame and the wire.
Find the mass of the load W that should be
suspended from the wire to keep it in equilibrium.
Neglect friction. Surface tension of soap solution
is 25 dyne cm1. (Take g = 10 m s2)
(a) 0.25 g
(b) 0.50 g
(c) 2.50 g
(d) 5.00 g

ParagraPh tyPe

Read the given paragraph and answer question


number 9 and 10.
Consider the situation shown in
figure in which a block A of mass
2 kg is placed over a block B of
mass 4 kg.
The combination of the blocks
are placed on an inclined plane of inclination 37
with horizontal. The system is released from rest.
(Take g = 10 m s2 and sin 37 = 0.6)
9. The coefficient of friction between block B and
inclined plane is 0.4 and in between the two blocks
is 0.5. Then
(a) Both blocks will move but block A will slide
over the blocks B.
(b) Both blocks will move together.
(c) None of them will move.
(d) Only block A will move.
10. The frictional force acting between the blocks will
be
(a) 8 N
(b) 6.4 N
(c) 4 N
(d) zero

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Physics for you | november 15

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one or more oPtions correct tyPe questions

1. Assume ABCDEF to be a regular hexagon. Choose


the correct
E
D
statements.

+ DB + BE = 0
(a) ED

F
C
FE
=
(b) BC
= 2FE
(c) AD

A
B
(d) DC = AF
2. A spring mass system is hanging
from the ceiling of an elevator in
equilibrium as shown in figure. The
elevator suddenly starts accelerating
upwards with acceleration a,
consider all the statements in the
reference frame of elevator and
choose the correct one(s).
(a) The frequency of oscillation is

1 k
.
2 m

ma
.
k
m ( g + a)
(c) The amplitude of resulting SHM is
.
k
(d) Maximum speed of block during oscillation is
m
k a .

(b) The amplitude of the resulting SHM is

3. An ideal gas has molar heat capacity at constant


pressure CP = 5R . The gas is
2
kept in a cylindrical vessel fitted
with a piston which is free to
move.
Mass of the frictionless piston is
9 kg. Initial volume of the gas is
0.0027 m3 and cross-section area of the piston is
0.09 m2. The initial temperature of the gas is 300 K.
12

Physics for you | NOVember 15

class-Xi

Atmospheric pressure P0 = 1.05 105 N m2. An


amount of 2.5 104 J of heat energy is supplied to
the gas, then
(a) Initial pressure of the gas is 1.06 105 N m2.
(b) Final temperature of the gas is 1000 K.
(c) Final pressure of the gas is 1.06 105 N m2.
(d) Work done by gas is 9.94 103 J.
4. A man has fallen into a ditch of width d and two of
his friends are slowly
pulling him out using a
light rope and two fixed
pulleys as shown in figure.
Assume both the friends
d
apply forces of equal
magnitude. Choose the
correct statements.
(a) The force exerted by both the friends decreases
as the man moves up.
(b) T h e f o r c e ap p l i e d by e a c h f r i e n d i s
mg 2
d + 4h2 when the man is at depth h.
4h
(c) The force exerted by both the friends increases
as the man moves up.
mg 2
d + h2
(d) The force applied by each friend is
h
when the man is at depth h.
5. Two balls are thrown from an inclined plane at angle
of projection a with the plane, one up the incline
and other down the incline as shown in figure.
(Here, T stands for total time of flight).

Which of the following are correct?


v 2 sin2
(a) h1 = h2 = 0
2 g cos q
2v0 sin
(b) T1 = T2 =
g cos q
(c) R2 R1 = g(sinq) T12
(d) vt = vt
1

6. Two identical buggies move one after other due to


inertia (without friction) with the same velocity v0.
A man of mass m rides the rear buggy. At a certain
moment, the man jumps into the front buggy with
a velocity u relative to his buggy. If mass of each
buggy is equal to M and velocity of buggies after
jumping of man are vrear and vfront. Then
m
(a) vrear = v0 +
u
m+M
m
u
(b) vrear = v0
m+M
mM
(c) vfront = v0 +
u
(m + M )2
mM
u
(d) vfront = v0
(m + M )2
7. A spherical body of radius R rolls on a horizontal
surface with linear velocity v. Let L1 and L2 be the
magnitudes of angular momenta of the body about
centre of mass and point of
contact P respectively.
Then (here K is the radius
of gyration about its
geometrical axis)
(a) L2 = 2L1 if radius of gyration K = R
(b) L2 = 2L1 for all cases
(c) L2 > 2L1 if radius of gyration K < R
(d) L2 > 2L1 if radius of gyration K > R
8. Two solid spheres A and B of equal volumes but of
different densities dA and dB are connected by a
string. They are fully immersed in a
fluid of density dF. They get arranged
A
into an equilibrium state as shown in
the figure with a tension in the string.
B
The arrangement is possible only if
(a) dA < dF
(b) dB > dF
(c) dA > dF
(d) dA + dB = 2dF
9. A body of mass m is attached to a spring of spring
constant k which hangs from the ceiling of an
elevator at rest in equilibrium. Now the elevator
starts accelerating upwards with its acceleration
varying with time as a = pt + q, where p and q are

positive constants. In the frame of elevator,


(a) The block will perform SHM for all value of p
and q.
(b) The block will not perform SHM in general
for all value of p and q except p = 0.
(c) The block will perform SHM provided for all
value of p and q except p = 0.
(d) The velocity of the block will vary simple
harmonically for all value of p and q.
10. A string of mass m is fixed at both its ends. The
fundamental mode of string is excited and it
has an angular frequency w and the maximum
displacement amplitude A. Then
(a) The maximum kinetic energy of the string is
1
EK = mA2 w2 .
4
(b) The maximum kinetic energy of the string is
1
EK = mA2 w2 .
2
(c) The mean kinetic energy of the string averaged
1
over one periodic time is < EK > = mA2 w2 .
4
(d) The mean kinetic energy of the string averaged
1
over one periodic time is < EK > = mA2 w2 .
8
11. A bottle is kept on the ground as shown in the
figure. The bottle can be modelled as having two
cylindrical zones. The lower zone of the bottle has a
cross-sectional radius of
R 2 and is filled with
honey of density 2r. The
upper zone of the bottle is
filled with the water of
density r and has a crosssectional radius R. The
height of the lower zone is
H while that of the upper
zone is 2H. If now the
honey and the water parts
are mixed together to form a homogeneous
solution, then
(Assume that total volume does not change)
(a) The pressure inside the bottle at the base will
remain unaltered.
(b) The normal reaction on the bottle from the
ground will remain unaltered.
(c) The pressure inside the bottle at the base will
1
increase by an amount rgH .
2
(d) The pressure inside the bottle at the base will
1
decrease by an amount rgH .
4
Physics for you | November 15

13

12. A particle moving with kinetic energy 3 J makes an


elastic collision (head-on) with a stationary particle
which has twice its mass. During impact
(a) The minimum kinetic energy of system is 1 J
(b) The maximum elastic potential energy of the
system is 2 J.
(c) Momentum and total energy are conserved at
every instant.
(d) The ratio of kinetic energy to potential energy of
the system first decreases and then increases.
13. Two blocks A and B each of mass m are connected
by a massless spring of natural length L and spring
constant k. The blocks are initially resting on a
smooth horizontal floor with the spring at its
natural length as shown in figure. A third identical
block C, moving on the floor with a speed v along
the line joining A and B, collides with A. Then

(a) The maximum compression of the spring is


v m/k .
(b) The maximum compression of the spring is
v m/2k .
(c) The kinetic energy of A-B system at maximum
compression of the spring is zero.
(d) The kinetic energy of A-B system at maximum
compression of the spring is mv2/4.
14. Three planets of same density and with radii R1, R2
and R3 such that R1 = 2R2 = 3R3, have gravitational
fields on the surfaces E1, E2, E3 and escape velocities
v1, v2, v3 respectively. Then
E1
E1 1
=
(a)
(b) E = 3
E2 2
3
v1 1
v1
=
=2
(c)
(d)
v3 3
v2
15. Water is flowing smoothly through a closed pipe
system. At one point A, the speed of the water is
3.0 m s1 while at another point B, 1.0 m higher, the
speed is 4.0 m s1. The pressure at A is 20 kPa when
the water is flowing and 18 kPa when the water flow
stops. Then
(a) the pressure at B when water is flowing is
6.7 kPa.
(b) the pressure at B when water is flowing is
8.2 kPa.
(c) the pressure at B when water stops flowing is
10.2 kPa.
(d) the pressure at B when water stops flowing is
8.2 kPa.
14

Physics for you | NOVember 15

solutions

1. (a, b,c,
a regular
d):As
ABCDEF

is
hexagon,
\ FE = BC , AD = 2FE , DC = AF
Also, from triangle
law
addition,
of vector


ED + DB + BE = 0.
2. (a, b, d) : As it is a isochronous system
1 k
\ =
2 m
ma
From the reference frame of elevator, A =
k
k ma
m
vmax = wA =
=
a
m k
k
5R
3R
, CV =
2
2
3 2
W n(CP CV )
=
= 1 =
5 5
Q
nC p

3. (a, c) : CP =

2Q
2 .5
= 2
104 = 104 J
5
5
Pressure is constant and equal to
mg
9 10
P = P0 +
= 1.05 105 +
A
0.09
= 1.06 105 N m2
T
4. (b, c) : From figure,
h
sin q =

d2
d/2
h2 +
4
mg
As man moves slowly
2T sin q = mg
mg
T=
2sin q
As man moves upward,
q becomes small
\ sin q decreases
T increases
\ W =

mg
T=
2h

T
h

2
2
d 2 mg d + 4h
h +
=
4
4h
2

5. (a, b, c) : Maximum height of projectile on an


(v sin a)2
inclined plane, h1 max = 0
= h2 max
2 g cos q
(a) is correct
Time of flight
2v sin a
T1 = 0
= T2 (b) is correct
g cos q

where a = angle of projection from inclined plane


q = angle of inclination of surface.
1
R1 = (v0 cos a)T1 g sin q T12
2
(Range upward the inclined plane)
1
R2 = (v0 cos a)T2 + g sin q T22
2
(Range downward the inclined plane)
(R2 R1) = g sin q T12 (c) is correct
vt and vt are the velocities of the particles at their
1
2
maximum height. Let the particles reach their
maximum heights at time t1 and t2 respectively.
Hence, 0 = (v0 sin a) (g cos q) t1
v sin a
t1 = 0
g cos q
v sin a
Similarly, t2 = 0
.
g cos q
Hence, t2 = t1
Hence, vt = v0 cos a (g sin q) t1
1
vt = v0 cos a + (g sin q) t2
2

vt vt
1
2

6. (b, c) : As no external force is applied to the system


v0

v0

u+v

v0

Conserving linear momentum of man and rear


buggy, (M + m)v0 = Mv + m(v + u)
mu
= vrear
v = v0
M +m
Conserving linear momentum of man and front
buggy, m(u + v) + Mv0 = (M + m)v
mu

m u + v0
+ Mv0 = (M + m)v

M + m
Mmu
= ( M + m)v
M +m
Mmu
v = v0 +
= vfront
( M + m)2
7. (a, d)
8. (a, b, d) : Let V be the volume of
each sphere and T is the tension in
the string.
For the string to be taut,
dFVg > dAVg or dF > dA
(a) is correct
and dBVg > dFVg or dB > dF
( M + m)v0 +

dFVg

(b) is correct
For an equilibrium
dFVg + dFVg + T = T + dAVg + dBVg
or dA + dB = 2dF
(d) is correct
9. (c, d) : In the frame of elevator
d2x
mg + ma kx = m
dt 2
2
d x
k
m( g + a)

= x

2
m
k

dt
or

d2x
dt

k
m( g + pt + q)
x

m
k

There is a term involving t on R.H.S., this does not


represent S.H.M. unless p = 0
Differentiating with respect to time
d 2v
k
mp
d3x
k dx mp
=

or
= v

3
2
m dt
k
m
k
dt
dt
Thus the velocity of the block will vary simple
harmonically.
10. (a, d) : Let the displacement of the string be given by
x
y( x , t ) = A sin cos(wt + d)
L
where d is a phase factor. So the transverse velocity
is given by
x
y
v( x , t ) =
= wA sin sin(wt + d)
y
L
The maximum kinetic energy is equal to the strings
total energy of oscillation. Note that all points of the
string achieve their maximum kinetic energy at the
same instant of time, where y = 0 for all x. Since
m
dm = mdx where m = is the mass per unit
L
length of the uniform string.
The maximum kinetic energy,
1 y 2

EK = max imum of dm
2 t

1 L y 2
= maximum of m dx

2 0 y

A
T

dAVg

dFVg
B
dBVg

y
The maximum value of , occurs when
y
2
sin (wt + d) = 1
L
m
x
Hence EK = A2 w2 sin2
dx
L
2
0

Physics for you | NOVember 15

15

x
The integral sin
dx over the half-cycle has
L
0
L
the average value of
2
1
mL 1
Hence, EK = A2 w2 = mA2 w2
2 4
2
2

\ (a) is correct
The mean kinetic energy of the string averaged
over one periodic time is obtained by integrating
the time dependent factor sin2 (wt + d) over one
period, 0 to T.
Now since

sin

(wt + d) dt =

T
2

The mean kinetic energy of the string averaged over


one periodic time is
T

E
E
< EK > = K sin2 (wt + d) dt = K
T
2
0

1 1
1
mA2 w2 = mA2 w2
2 4
8
(d) is correct
=

11. (b, c) : Initial pressure at the bottom


= rg 2H + 2r g H = 4rgH
Final density of the homogeneous mixture
r A 2H + 2r 2 A H 3
=
= r
A 2H + 2 A H
2
Final pressure at the bottom =

3
9
r g 3H = rgH
2
2

12. (a, b, c, d) : In a head on elastic collision between


two particles, the kinetic energy becomes minimum
and potential energy becomes maximum at the
instant when they move with a common velocity.
The momentum and energy are conserved at every
instant.
Let m and u be the mass and initial velocity of the
first particle, 2m be the mass of second particle and
v be the common velocity.
u
1
Then, mu2 = 3 J ; mu = (m + 2m) v or v =
3
2
Minimum kinetic energy of system
2

1
u
= (3m) = 1 J

2
3
Maximum potential energy of system = 2 J
13. (b, d) : After collision of C with A, let velocity
acquired by A and B be v and spring gets compressed
by length x. Using law of conservation of linear
momentum, we have
16

Physics for you | NOVember 15

mv = mv + mv
or v = v/2
Using law of conservation of mechanical energy, we
have
1 2 1
1
1
mv = mv 2 + mv 2 + kx 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
v
v
2
2
or mv = m + m + kx
2
2
mv 2
= kx 2
or
2
1/ 2
m
or x = v \ (b) is correct
2k
At maximum compression of the spring, the kinetic
energy of A-B system will be
2

1
1
mv 2
v
= mv 2 + mv 2 = mv 2 = m =
2
2
2
4
\ (d) is correct
4

G R3r
GM
3

14. (b, c) : E = 2 =
2
R
R
or
ER
E1 R1 2R2
=
=
= 2 \ (a) is not correct.
E2 R2
R2
E1 R1 3R3
=
=
= 3 \ (b) is correct.
E3 R3
R3
Escape velocity, v =

2GM
=
R

2G 4 3
R r
R 3

8 2
R r G or v R
3

v1 R1
=
= 2 \ (c) is correct.
v2 R2

v1 R1
=
= 3 \ (d) is not correct.
v3 R3
15. (a, d) : Let P1, h1, and v1 and P2, h2 and v2 represent
the pressures, heights and velocities of flow at the
two points respectively. According to the Bernoullis
theorem
1
1
P1 + rgh1 + rv12 = P2 + rgh2 + rv22
...(i)
2
2
Putting v1 = 3.0 m s1, v2 = 4.0 m s1, (h2 h1) = 1 m,
P1 = 20 kPa
we get,

10 3
P2 = 20 + 10 3 9.8 ( 1) +
[9 16] 10 3

= 20 9.8 3.5 = 6.7 kPa


Also when the flow stops, v1 = v2 = 0 and then from (i),
P2 = 18 9.8 = 8.2 kPa

Physics for you | NOVember 15

17

Pressure inside a liquid

We choose atmospheric pressure = P0


At a depth h below the free surface, pressure = P.
P0

h
P

To find P, we choose a liquid


column of height h and crosssectional area A.
Since the liquid column is unaccelerated,
P0A + mg = PA
P = P0 +

mg
r( Ah)
= P0 +
g
A
A

P = P0 + rgh
The additional pressure with respect to atmospheric
pressure is known as Gauge pressure.
Hence we conclude that pressure changes by an amount
rgh on moving through a distance h vertically.
Note that this result has been derived from equilibrium
of the liquid column. Hence if the container or liquid
was vertically accelerated, it would not be applicable.
In such cases if the container is vertically accelerated,
say upward with a, then
(Fnet)upward direction = ma
(PA) (P0A + mg) = ma
m
P = P0 + ( g + a)
A
P = P0 + r(g + a)h
\ We replace g with geff where,

g eff = g + (a )
\ P = P0 + rgeff h
So, it is interesting to see that we can also have a
situation that all points inside a liquid irrespective of

their location, will have same pressure as atmospheric if


geff = 0, as in case of free fall.
Measurement of atmospheric pressure (P0)

We take a tub filled partially


with mercury and a tube
completely filled with
mercury. We seal the
mouth of the tube and
invert it upside down
with the mouth inside the
mercury in the tub.
The liquid in the tube drops down a little, creating
almost vacuum in the upper closed end of the tube as
shown.
At equilibrium,
PA + rgh = PB = PC = P0
rgh = P0
[ PA = 0]
Hence, measuring the length of the liquid column in
the tube, P0 can easily be calculated.
Taking P0 = 1 atm 105 N m2
For Hg, r = 13.6 g cm3, h comes out to be almost
760 mm or 76 cm.
Hence you would often see that pressure is given in
terms of length and not N m2 or pascal. If instead
of Hg, some other liquid is used, to find the height of
liquid risen we can easily use,
r1h1 = r2h2
Supposedly, we keep this set-up in an upward
accelerating frame, then how will h change?
Clearly, in such case also, atmospheric pressure does
not change, we need to change g with geff.
\ P1 = rgh = rg eff h = r(g + a)h
g
\ h =
h
g + a
\ h < h height of liquid column decreases.

Contributed By: Bishwajit Barnwal, Aakash Institute, Kolkata

18

Physics for you | november 15

Pressure difference in a horizontally accelerated


container

In such case, clearly, the pressure at same horizontal


level would not be same. To know the exact relation we
consider a thin horizontal liquid column of length l as
drawn. Hence from free body diagram,

a = gsin

gsi

gcos

lel

ral
pa

e
lin

nc
oi

gcos = geff

Since, geff is perpendicular to inclined plane, hence free


surface of liquid is parallel to inclined plane.
Hence a = 0
U-tubes

(P2A P1A) = ma
(P2 P1)A = (rAl)a
P2 = P1 + ral
\ DP = ral along horizontal,
as DP = rgh along vertical.
Vertically pressure increases in the direction of gravity,
horizontally acceleration increases opposite to the
direction of acceleration.
Let us calculate the inclination of free surface with
horizontal now.
We can find pressure at B
from A as well as C.
PB = PA + rgh = PC + raL
h a
tan q = =
L g
This could also have been found out using the fact that
liquids cannot tolerate tangential force on its surface.

Hence the free surface should be perpendicular to g eff


as below.

g eff = g + (a )
[We revert the acceleration of container and add it
vectorially to g ]

Let us apply this to a more


complicated situation. Assume
a container falling down on a
smooth inclined plane.
We have to find a.
Clearly, a = gsinq downwards

Hence, g eff = g + (a )

Let us consider a U-tube


filled with two immiscible
liquids on two limbs.
Note that,
PC = PF but
PA PD
PB PE,
even though (A, D) and (B, E) pair of points are at same level.
Since if we move up from C to B and F to E, the change
in height is same but we have different density of liquids
hence r1h r2h.
If difference in height of free surface of liquids is to be
calculated in terms of H,
PC = PF
r2
P0 + r1gh1 = P0 + r2 gH h1 = H
r1
r
\ Dh = 1 2 H
r1
Archimedes principle

If an object is submerged inside a liquid, partially or


completely, it experiences an upward force by the liquid
due to pressure difference along the vertical column
of the liquid, which is equal to the weight of liquid
displaced by the object. To prove this, let us imagine an
object of cross-sectional area A and height H partially
submerged till height h as shown here.

h
l

FBD of object
P0A

mg
(P0 + l gh )A

\ By definition, force of upthrust (also known as


buoyant force) is
Fup = (P0 + rl gh)A P0A
= rl (hA)g = rlVsub g
= weight of displaced liquid
Physics for you | november 15

19

Note : This result is applicable only if the container is


vertically unaccelerated, else we need to replace g with
geff in the result.
Now, let us see what would the condition of floatation
for the object be.
For equilibrium,
Fup = mg
rl(Ah)g = rs(AH)g
h rs

=
1 [ h H for floatation]
H rl
\ If rs rl, the object floats, else it sinks. Hence it
does not matter how heavy an object is for floating,
what matters is how dense the object is!
h
is
Note here, that the fraction of submerged portion,
H
independent of g, hence even in accelerated containers,
this same fraction will be submerged.
Now, let us seen an application.
Suppose a helium filled balloon
is floating in air (their densities
He air
given as rHe and rair) with a
string tied to a box as shown
here.
Now, if the box is accelerated towards right with
acceleration a, we have to find the direction and angle
with the vertical in which the string gets deflected at
equilibrium.
One would be tempted to say that the string will deflect
towards left due to the pseudo force.
But there is a basic point, one is missing here. As we
saw force of upthrust being generated due to pressure
difference along vertical column of liquid, similar to it
a side thrust can also be generated if pressure difference
is created along horizontal column and on similar
approach it can be proved.
Fside thrust = rl Vsub a
Hence, since, rair > rHe,
so side thrust will be greater
than the pseudo force, so the

balloon deflects towards right.


airVg

HeVa

20

(air He)Vg

airVa

HeVg

(air He)Va

Physics for you | november 15

\ tan q =

(rair rHe )Va a


=
(rair rHe )Vg g

Force exerted by a liquid on a vertical surface

Let us assume, that the wall of a dam of width w


stops a liquid of height h from flowing. It obviously is
experiencing force due to the liquids pressure.
To find this, let us consider a horizontal strip of height
dy at a depth y below the free surface.
The force experienced by this surface due to pressure
of liquid is
dF = (rgy)(dyw)
(P0 is not considered since
it is due to atmosphere)
h

F = dF = wrgydy
0

rgh2w
=
2
\ Net horizontal force on vertical surface
h
= rg (hw )
2
= pressure at centroid of submerged portion
area of submerged portion
Force exerted by liquid on a horizontal surface

Let us consider a horizontal face of area A at a depth h


below the free surface.
We have to find the force exerted by the liquid only.
Net vertical force = PA
= (rgh)A = r(Ah)g
= weight of liquid column above its surface
nn

Solution Set-27

1. (d) : Here, d = 0.5 mm = 0.5 103 m


D = 0.5 m
l = 500 nm = 500 109 m
The distance of third maxima from the second
minima on the other side is
9
= b (where b is the fringe width)
2
9 lD 9 500 109 0.5
=
=
2 d
2 0.5 103
= 2.25 103 m = 2.25 mm
2. (c) : During motion of the particle, total mechanical
energy remains constant.
At the surface of earth, total mechanical energy is
GmM 1 2
Ei =
+ mv0
R
2
GM
1 2
= 2 mR + mv0
2
R
1 2
GM
= gmR + mv0 g = 2

2
R
Total mechanical energy at height h = R is
GmM 1 2
gmR 1 2
Ef =
+ mv =
+ mv
2R
2
2
2
According to law of conservation of mechanical
energy,
Ei = Ef
1 2
gmR 1 2
gmR + mv0 =
+ mv
2
2
2
or 2 gR + v02 = gR + v 2 v = v02 gR
3. (a) : If we consider the cylindrical surface to be a
ring of radius R, there will be an induced emf due
to changing field.

df
dB
E
dl = dt = A dt
dB
dB
R dB
E(2 R) = A
= R2
E=
dt
dt
2 dt
Force on the electron
eR dB
F = Ee =
2 dt
1 eR dB
Acceleration =
2 m dt
As the field is increasing being directed inside the
paper, hence there will be anticlockwise induced
current (in order to oppose the cause) in the ring

(assumed). Hence there will be a force towards left


on the electron.
4. (c) : Total time of flight is T = 4 s and if u is its
initial speed and q is the angle of projection. Then
2u sinq
T=
=4
g
or usinq = 2g
...(i)
After 1 s velocity vector makes an angle of 45 with
horizontal i.e.,
vx = vy
ucosq = usinq gt
( t = 1 s)
ucosq = usinq g
ucosq = 2g g
(Using (i))
or ucosq = g
...(ii)
Squaring and adding (i) and (ii), we get
u2sin2q + u2cos2q = (2g)2 + (g)2
u2 = 5g2 = 5(10)2 m2 s2 u = 22.36 m s1
Dividing (i) by (ii), we get,
u sin q 2 g
=
=2
u cos q g
tanq = 2 or q = tan1 (2)
l
5. (d) : Here, T = 2
...(i)
g
When lift is accelerated upwards with acceleration
T
a, let time period becomes . Then
2
T
l
...(ii)
= 2
2
g +a
Dividing Eq. (i) by Eq. (ii), we get
1/2

g +a a
= 1 +
g
g
Squaring both sides, we get
a
4 = 1 + or
a = 3g
g
6. (c) : Lengths of the two inclined planes are
h
h
l1 =
and l2 =
sin q1
sin q2
Accelerations of the block down the two planes are
a1 = g sinq1 and a2 = g sinq2
1
1
As l1 = a1t12 and l2 = a2t22
2
2
l1 a1t12
t 22 a1l2 g sin q1 sin q1

=
or 2 =
=

l2 a2t22
t1 a2l1 g sin q2 sin q2
t
sin q1
2=
t1 sin q2
7. (a) : Given : f = at2 + bt
The magnitude of induced emf is
2=

Physics for you | November 15

21

a
sin q
2
a
a + cos q
2
a
sin q
tan =
2 (2 + cos q)
a
2 tan
2
tan a =
2a
1 tan
2
sin q
2
sin q
2 + cos q
=
1 + cos q
sin2 q
1
(2 + cos q)2
1
On solving, cos q =
2
q = 120

df d
= (at 2 + bt ) = 2at + b
dt dt
Current flowing, I = | | = 2at + b
R
R
=

Average emf =

dt
0

a
tan =
2

(2at + b)dt
0

dt

= a + b

Total charge flowing,

a2 + b
(2at + b)
dt =
R
R
0

q = Idt =
0

T
8. (a) : Free body diagram for m
For m,
a
m
N
mg T = m 2a (i)
2a
N = ma
(ii)
mg
Free body diagram for M
For M
2T N = Ma
(iii)
2mg
On solving, a =
( M + 5m)
Net acceleration of m,
2 5mg
am = 4a2 + a2 = 5a =
(5m + M )
B sin q
9. (b) : tan a =
...(i)
A + B cos q


where a is the angle made by the vector ( A + B) with A.
B sin q
Similarly, tan b =
...(ii)
A B cos q


where b is the angle made by the vector ( A B) with A.

Note that the angle between A and ( B) is (180 q).


Adding (i) and (ii), we get
B sin q
B sin q
tan a + tan b =
+
A + B cos q A B cos q
2
AB sin q B sin q cos q + AB sin q + B2 sin q cos q
=
( A + B cos q)( A B cos q)
2 AB sin q
= 2
( A B2 cos2 q)

10. (a) :

1
4
5

10

13

26

22

Physics for you | November 15

(i)

D
R
Y

I T

I
C
E

R Y

E M

T
I 27G N A L
28
M A C H I N E
R
T
29

Y
D
M
I
R
R

N D F A R M S
C
M
9

12

15

D A T

F
Y
D R
T
16
F E S
20
O N
L
22
R S C L E R
C I
O
14

N W I
N U C L E A R
I
L A
11

C K
A E

F
L

R A
I V
19
18
P O S
P R U
L
N

B sin q
A + B cos q
sin q
tan a =
.
1 + cos q

nn

solution of october 2015 crossword

tan a =

(ii)

Y O C T O
T
I

O P

Y C E L L P
17

W E I G H T
O
F
23
O M E 24T E R
O 25A
S I

21

U N

R E

L Y
F W

M C

U A
E Y

C L O U D L
S
R

A H
L O
I

N C
E

Winners (October 2015)


Basheer Mazahar (Varanasi)
sidharth sankar sahu (Odisha)
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solution senders (september 2015)
Anoop Jain (Delhi)
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chapterwise McQs for practice

Useful for All National and State Level Medical/Engg. Entrance Exams

Mechanical ProPerties of fluids

1. A hemispherical bowl just floats without sinking


in a liquid of density 1.2 103 kg m3. If outer
diameter and the density of the bowl are 1 m and
2 104 kg m3 respectively, then the inner diameter
of the bowl will be
(a) 0.94 m
(b) 0.96 m
(c) 0.98 m
(d) 0.99 m
2. A body of density r is dropped from rest at a height
h into a lake of density s, where s > r. Neglecting
all dissipative forces, calculate the maximum depth
to which the body sinks before returning to float on
the surface.
h
hr
(a) s r
(b)
s
hr
hs
(c) s r
(d)
sr
3. Water in a vessel of uniform cross-section escapes
through a narrow tube at the base of the vessel.
Which of the following graphs represents the
variation of the height h of the liquid with time t?
h

(a)

13.6 g cm3 and the angle of contact of mercury


and water are 135 and 0 respectively, the ratio of
surface tension of water and mercury is
(a) 1 : 0.15
(b) 1 : 3
(c) 1 : 6.5
(d) 1.5 : 1
5. A metallic sphere of mass M falls through glycerine
with a terminal velocity v. If we drop a ball of mass
8M of same metal into a column of glycerine, the
terminal velocity of the ball will be
(a) 2 v
(b) 4 v
(c) 8 v
(d) 16 v
6. A cylindrical drum, open at the top, contains 15 L
of water. It drains out through a small opening at
the bottom. 5 L of water comes out in time t1, the
next 5 L in further time t2 and the last 5 L in further
time t3. Then
(a) t1 < t2 < t3
(b) t1 > t2 > t3
(c) t1 = t2 = t3
(d) t2 > t1 = t3
7. A sealed tank containing a liquid of density r moves
with a horizontal acceleration a, as shown in figure.
The difference in pressure between the points A and
B is
l

(b)
h

(c)

(d)
t

4. Water rises to a height of 10 cm in a capillary tube


and mercury falls to a depth of 3.42 cm in the
same capillary tube. If the density of mercury is

(a) h r g + l r a
(c) h r g

(b) h r g l r a
(d) l r a

8. The surface area of air bubble increases four


times when it rises from bottom to top of a water
tank where the temperature is uniform. If the
Physics for you | november 15

23

atmospheric pressure is 10 m of water, the depth of


the water in the tank is
(a) 30 m
(b) 40 m
(c) 70 m
(d) 80 m

(c) On the surface of the moon, the height is more


than h.
(d) In a lift moving down with constant acceleration,
height is less than h.

4 th
of its
5
volume submerged, but it just floats in a liquid.
What is the density of liquid?
(a) 750 kg m3
(b) 800 kg m3
(c) 1000 kg m3
(d) 1250 kg m3

14. A candle of diameter d is floating on a liquid


in a cylindrical container of diameter D(D>>d)
as shown in figure. If it is burning at the rate of
2 cm h1, then the top of the candle will

9. A block of wood floats in water with

10. A spherical ball is dropped in a long column of


viscous liquid. Which of the following graphs
represent the variation of
(i) gravitational force with time
(ii) viscous force with time
(iii) net force acting on the ball with time?
F
Q
R

(a) Q, R, P
(c) P, Q, R

(b) R, Q, P
(d) R, P, Q

11. Water is flowing through a horizontal pipe. If at one


point pressure is 2 cm of Hg and velocity of flow of
the liquid is 32 cm s1 and at another point, velocity
of flow is 40 cm s1, the pressure at this point is
(a) 1.45 cm of Hg
(b) 1.98 cm of Hg
(c) 1.67 cm of Hg
(d) 1.34 cm of Hg
12. The rate of flow of glycerine of density
1.25 103 kg m3 through the conical section
of a pipe, if the radii of its ends are 0.1 m and
0.04 m and the pressure drop across its length is
10 N m2, is
(a) 5.28 104 m3 s1 (b) 6.28 104 m3 s1
(c) 7.28 104 m3 s1 (d) 8.28 104 m3 s1
13. Water rises in a capillary tube to a height h. Choose
the false statement regarding a capillary rise from
the following.
(a) On the surface of Jupiter, height will be less
than h.
(b) In a lift, moving up with constant acceleration,
height is less than h.
24

Physics for you | november 15

L
L
d
D

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

remain at the same height


fall at the rate of 1 cm h1
fall at the rate of 2 cm h1
go up at the rate of 1 cm h1

15. A frame made of metallic wire enclosing a surface


area A is covered with a soap film. If the area of the
frame of metallic wire is reduced by 50%, the energy
of the soap film will be changed by
(a) 100% (b) 75% (c) 50% (d) 25%
therMal ProPerties of Matter

16. The plots of intensity versus wavelength for


three black bodies at temperatures T1, T2 and T3
respectively are as shown. Their temperatures are
such that
I

T3
T1

T2

(a) T1 > T2 > T3


(c) T2 > T3 > T1

(b) T1 > T3 > T2


(d) T3 > T2 > T1

17. A solid copper sphere (density r and specific heat


capacity c) of radius r at an initial temperature
200 K is suspended inside a chamber whose walls
are at almost 0 K. The time required (in ms) for the
temperature of the sphere to reach 100 K is
7 r rc
80 r rc
(a)
(b)
80 s
7 s
7 r rc
7 r rc
(c)
(d)
27 s
27 s

18. A clock with an iron pendulum keeps correct time


at 15C. What will be the error in time per day, if
the room temperature is 20C?
(The coefficient of linear expansion of iron is
0.000012C1.)
(a) 2.6 s
(b) 6.2 s
(c) 1.3 s
(d) 3.1 s
19. A body cools from 60C to 50C in
10 min. If room temperature is 25C,
temperature of body at the end of next
10 min will be
(a) 38.5C
(b) 40C
(c) 45C
(d) 42.8C
20. Two rods of same length and material transfer a
given amount of heat in 12 s, when they are joined
end to end (i.e., in series). But when they are joined
in parallel, they will transfer same heat under same
conditions in
(a) 24 s
(b) 3 s
(c) 48 s
(d) 1.5 s
21. A spherical black body with a radius of 12 cm
radiates 450 W power at 500 K. If the radius were
halved and the temperature doubled, the power
radiated in watt should be
(a) 450
(b) 900
(c) 225
(d) 1800
22. A body in laboratory takes 4 min to cool from 61C
to 59C. If the laboratory temperature is 30C, then
the time taken by it to cool from 51C to 49C is
(a) 4 min
(b) 6 min
(c) 8 min
(d) 5 min
23. The wavelength of maximum intensity of radiation
emitted by a star is 289.8 nm. The radiation intensity
for the star is (Take s = 5.67 108 W m2 K4,
Wiens constant, b = 2898 mm K)
(a) 5.67 108 W m2 (b) 5.67 1012 W m2
(c) 5.67 107 W m2 (d) 5.67 1014 W m2
24. The reading of Centigrade thermometer coincides
with that of Fahrenheit thermometer in a liquid.
The temperature of the liquid is
(a) 40C
(b) 0C
(c) 100C
(d) 300C
25. For a black body at temperature 727 C, its radiating
power is 60 W and temperature of surrounding

is 227C. If the temperature of the black body is


changed to 1227C, then its radiating power will be
(a) 120 W
(b) 240 W
(c) 304 W
(d) 320 W
26. A metal plate 4 mm thick has a temperature
difference of 32C between its faces. It transmits
200 kcal h1 through an area of 5 cm2. Thermal
conductivity of the material is
(a) 58.33 W m1 C1
(b) 33.58 W m1 C1
(c) 5 104 W m1 C1
(d) 5 102 W m1 C1
27. A 2 kg copper block is heated to 500C and then it
is placed on a large block of ice at 0C. If the specific
heat capacity of copper is 400 J kg1C1 and latent
heat of fusion of water is 3.5 105 J kg1, the amount
of ice that can melt is
(a) (7/8) kg
(b) (7/5) kg
(c) (8/7) kg
(d) (5/7) kg
28. The maximum wavelength of radiation emitted
at 2000 K is 4 mm. What will be the maximum
wavelength emitted at 2400 K?
(a) 3.3 mm
(b) 0.66 mm
(c) 1 m
(d) 1 mm
29. The net rate at which heat is lost by a body due to
radiation does not depend upon
(a) temperature of the body
(b) temperature of the surroundings
(c) material of the body
(d) nature of its surface
30. We plot a graph, having temperature in C on x-axis
and in F on y-axis. If the graph is straight line,
then it
(a) passes through origin
(b) intercepts the positive x-axis
(c) intercepts the positive y-axis
(d) intercepts the negative axis of both x-and
y-axis
solutions
1. (c) : L e t D 1 b e t h e i n n e r d i a m e t e r of t h e
hemispherical bowl. As bowl is just floating so
3
3
3

4 1
D1
3 4 1
p 1.2 10 = p (2 104 )
3 2
3 2 2

Physics for you | november 15

25

or

1.2 103
= 1 D13
2 10 4
1/3
1/3
1. 2
18.8
D1 = 1
=
20
20

On solving, we get D1 = 0.98 m


2. (c) : The speed of the body just before entering
the liquid is u = 2 gh . The buoyant force FB of
the lake, i.e., upward thrust of liquid on the body
is greater than the weight of the body W, since
s > r. If V is the volume of the body and a is the
acceleration of the body inside the liquid, then
FB W = ma
or sVg rVg = rVa
or (s r)g = ra
(s r)g
or a =
r
Using the relation, v2 = u2 + 2as, we have
(s r)
0 = ( 2 gh )2 2 g
s
r
hr
sr
3. (a) : Let dV be the decrease in volume of water in
vessel in time dt. Therefore rate of decrease of water in
vessel = rate of water flowing out of narrow tube
or

s=

So,

4
dV p(P1 P2 )r
=
8 hl
dt

But, P1 P2 = hrg
\

dV p(hrg )r 4 (prgr 4 )
=
=
(h A)
8 hl
8 hl A
dt

where h A = volume of water in vessel at a time t


=V
prgr 4
V dt = lV dt
\ dV =
8hlA
dV
or
= l dt
V
prgr 4
= l = constant
where,
8hlA
Integrating it within the limits, as time changes
from 0 to t, volume changes from V0 to V.
V
= lt
or ln
V0
or V = V0lt
where, V0 = initial volume of water in vessel = Ah0
Therefore,

26

Physics for you | november 15

h = h0elt
Thus, the variation of h and t will be represented by
exponential curve as given by (a).
2S cos
4. (c) : As, h =
rrg
hr rg
hr
or S
\ S=
2 cos
cos
Sw h1 cos 2 r1
=

\
SHg h2 cos 1 r2
=

cos 135
10
1

(3.42)
cos 0 13.6

10 0.707 1

=
3.42 13.6 6.5

4 3
4
pr r and 8M = pR 3r,
3
3
3
3
So, R = 8r R = 2r

5. (b) : As, M =

v R
2r
Now v r2 so, 1 = = = 4

r
v
r
or v1 = 4 v
6. (a) : If h is the initial height of liquid in drum
above the small opening, then velocity of efflux,
v = 2 gh . As the water drains out, h decreases,
hence v decreases. This reduces the rate of drainage
of water. Due to which, as the draining continues,
a longer time is required to drain out the same
volume of water. So, clearly, t1 < t2 < t3.
7. (a) : Since points A and C are in the same horizontal
line but separated by distance l and liquid tank is
moving horizontally with acceleration a, hence
PC PA = l r a or PC = PA + l r a
l
h

Points B and C are vertically separated by h


\ PB PC = h r g
or PB (PA + l r a) = h r g
or PB PA = h r g + l r a
1/ 2

A
8. (c) : Surface area, A = 4pr2 or r =
4p
3/2

4 3 4 A
pr = p = kA3/2
3
3 4p
4p
1
w here

= k = constant
3 (4 p)3/2

Volume V =

Using Boyles law, we have


P1V1 = P2V2

(10 + h) kA13/ 2
PV
or P2 = 1 1 =
V2
kA23/ 2
A
or P2 = (10 + h) 1
A2

3/2

1
= (10 + h)
4
=

As P2 = 10 m of water, so
10 + h
10 =
or 80 = 10 + h
8
or h = 70 m
9. (b) : Density of water =
Density of solid

3/2

10 + h
8

total volume of solid

immersed volume
V
5
\ r1 = r 4 = r
4
V
5
V
And density of liquid, r2 = r = r
V
5
\ r1 = r2
4
4
4
or r2 = r1 = 1000 = 800 kg m 3
5
5
10. (c) : Gravitational force remains constant on the
falling spherical ball. It is represented by straight
line P. The viscous force (F = 6 phrv) increases
as the velocity increases with time. Hence, it is
represented by curve Q. Net force = gravitational
force viscous force. As viscous force increases,
net force decreases and finally becomes zero. Then
the body falls with a constant terminal velocity. It
is thus represented by curve R.
11. (b) : As per Bernoullis theorem,
1
1
P1 + rv12 = P2 + rv22
2
2
1
2
or P1 P2 = r (v2 v12 )
2
1
or P1 P2 = 1[402 322 ] = 288 dyne cm 2
2
288
=
= 0.02 cm of Hg
13.6 980
\ P2 = P1 0.02 = 2 0.02
= 1.98 cm of Hg
12. (b) : According to continuity equation,
v2 A1
p (0.1)2
25
...(i)
=
=
=
2
v1 A2 p (0.04)
4

According to Bernoullis equation for horizontal tube,


1
1
P1 + rv12 = P2 + rv22
2
2
2(P1 P2 )
2
2
i.e., v2 v1 =
r
(2 10)
i.e., v22 v12 =
= 16 103 m2 s 2 ...(ii)
3
(1.25 10 )
Substituting the value of v2 from equation (i) in (ii)

(6.25v1)2 v12 = 16 103,


i.e., v1 = 0.02 m s1
So rate of flow through the tube
= A1v1 (= A2v2)
= p (0.1)2 0.02
= 6.28 104 m3 s1
13. (d)
14. (b) : Volume of candle = area length
2

d
= p 2L
2
Weight of candle = weight of liquid displaced
Vrg = Vrg
d2

d2

2L r = p
L r
or p
4

r 1
...(i)

=
r 2
Since, candle is burning at the rate of 2 cm h1, then
after an hour, candle length is 2L 2
\ (2L 2)r = (L x)r
r
Lx
\
=
r 2(L 1)
1
Lx
(using (i))
or
=
2 2(L 1)
\ x = 1 cm
Hence, it also decreases 1 cm outside, so, it falls at
the rate of 1 cm h1.
15. (c) : Surface energy = surface tension surface area
or U = S 2A
A
New surface energy, U1 = S 2 = S A
2
% decrease in surface energy
U U1
2SA SA
=
100% =
100% = 50%
U
2SA
1
16. (b) : According to Wiens law, lm .
T
From the figure, (lm)1 < (lm)3 < (lm)2, therefore
T1 > T3 > T2
Physics for you | november 15

27

dT sA 4
=
(T T04 )
dt mcJ
Here, fall in temperature of body
dT = (200 100) = 100 K, temperature of surrounding
T0 = 0 K, initial temperature of body T = 200 K

17. (b) :

18.

19.

20.

21.

s 4 pr 2
100
(2004 04 )
=
4 3
dt
pr rcJ
3
rrcJ
rrc 4.2
106 s =

106 (As J = 4.2)


\ dt =
48s
s 48
7 r rc
=
ms
80 s
(a) : Here, DT = 20 15 = 5C
a = 0.000012C1 = 12 106 C1
1
Time lost per day = a(DT ) 86400 s
2
1
= 12 106 5 86400 s
2
= 2.592 s 2.6 s
(d) : According to Newtons law of cooling
T2 T1
T + T

= K 2 1 T0
t
2

60 50
60 + 50

\
=K
25 = 30 K
10
2

1
or K =
30
For next 10 min
50 T
T T
50 + T

=K
25 = K =
10
2 60
2

300
= 42.8 C
or 70T = 3000, T =
7
DQ ( Dx )
(b) : Dt =
KA (DT )
When two rods of same length are joined in parallel
Dx
A = 2A and Dx =
2
Dt 1
= 12 s = 3 s
\ Dt =
4 4
(d) : For a spherical black body of radius r at T K,
Power radiated = energy radiated per second
P = 4pr2 (sT4)
\

2 4
P2 r2 T2
=
P1 r12 T14
2

P2
1
= (2)4 = 4
450 2
P2 = 4 450 = 1800 watt
28

Physics for you | november 15

22. (b) : According to Newtons law of cooling


T1 T2
T + T

= K 1 2 T0
t
2

61 59
61 + 59

\
=K
30 = 30 K
4
2

or 60 K = 1 K = 1/60
51 49
51 + 49

=K
30 = 20 K
Now
t
2

1 1
= 20
=
60 3
\ t = 3 2 = 6 min
23. (a) : Here, lm = 289.8 nm = 289.8 109 m
s = 5.67 108 W m2 K4
b = 2898 mm K = 2898 106 m K
If T is the temperature of star, then
according to Wiens law, lm T = b

2898 106
b
=
= 104

9
lm 289.8 10
From Stefans law, E = sT4
= 5.67 108 (104)4 = 5.67 108 W m2
24. (a) : Temperature on Celsius scale and Fahrenheit
scale are related as
TC 0 TF 32
=
100
180
If the temperature is T at which the readings of two
scales coincide, then from
T
T 32
=
\ T = 40 C
100
180
T=

25. (d) : Radiating power, P (T 4 T0 4 )


Here, T is temperature of the black body and T0 is
temperature of surrounding.
P2 T24 T04
P2 (1500)4 (500)4
\
=
\
=
4
4
P1 T1 T0
60 (1000)4 (500)4
80
or P2 =
60 = 320 W
15
26. (a) : Here, Dx = 4 mm = 4 103 m,
A = 5 cm2 = 5 104 m2, DT = 32C
Heat transmit per hour
DQ
= 200 kcal h 1
Dt
200 1000 4.2 1
=
J s = 233.33 J s1
60 60
As

DQ
DT
= KA
Dx
Dt

Physics for you | november 15

29

Thermal conductivity of material


DQ / Dt
K=
A(DT / Dx )
233.33 4 103
or K =
= 58.33 W m1C1
4
5 10 32

27. (c) : Let x kg of ice melts.


Using law of calorimetry,
heat lost by copper = heat gained by ice
\ 2 400 (500 0) = x 3.5 105
or

x=

2 400 500

8
= kg
7

3.5 105
28. (a) : According to Wiens displacement law
lmaxT = constant

time :
a
t
a
rop
d
e
p and
n
a
O
e
h
c
,
ifier
r
u
A fast
p
r
e
t
e wa
effeacndtainv, Flexible AeplepctliroednicPhsysLaicbs,, IISC, bangalore

l max

T
= 1
T2
l max
1

l max
4

2000
20
or l max = 4
= 3.3 mm
2
2400
24

29. (c)
30. (c) : As

C
F 32
=
100
180

9
F = C + 32
5
Thus the graph between C and F is a straight line
with positive intercept on y-axis as shown in the
figure above.

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30

Physics for you | november 15

ElEctrostatics
Electrostatics is the branch of science that deals with the
study of electric charges at rest. Here we study the forces,
fields and potentials associated with static charges.

Electric charges

Charges are of two types, positive charge and negative


charge. The charge developed on a glass rod when rubbed
with silk is positive charge. The charge developed on a
plastic rod when rubbed with wool is negative charge.

Basic properties of charge

Charge is a scalar quantity.


Charge is transferable : If a charged body is put
in contact with an uncharged body, the uncharged
body becomes charged due to transfer of electrons
from one body to the other.
Charge is always associated with mass, i.e., charge
can not exist without mass though mass can exist
without charge. So, the presence of charge itself is a
convincing proof of existence of mass.
Quantization of charge : Total charge on a body is
always an integral multiple of a basic unit of charge
denoted by e and is given by q = ne where n is any
integer, positive or negative and e = 1.6 1019 C.
The basic unit of charge is the charge that an electron
or proton carries . By convention the charge on
electron is e (1.6 1019 C) and charge on proton is
+e (1.6 1019 C).
Additivity of charge : Total charge of a system is
the algebraic sum (i.e. sum is taking into account

with proper signs) of all individual charges in the


system.
Conservation of charge : Total charge of an
isolated system remains unchanged with time. In
other words, charge can neither be created nor be
destroyed. Conservation of charge is found to hold
good in all types of reactions either chemical or
nuclear.
Charge is invariant : Charge is independent of the
frame of reference.
Like charges repel each other while unlike charges
attract each other.

charging of a Body

Charging a body means transfer of charges (electrons)


from one body to the other. A body can be positively
charged by losing some of its electrons and it can be
negatively charged by gaining electrons.
Methods of charging : A body can be charged by
Friction
Induction
Conduction
Charging by induction is preferred because one charged
body can be used to charge any number of uncharged
bodies without any loss of charge. If q be the source
of charge, then charge induced on a body of dielectric
1

constant K is given by q = q 1
K
For metals, K = \ q = q
Physics for you | november 15

31

i.e., charges induced are equal and opposite only in case


of conductors. In general, magnitude of induced charge
is less than that of inducing charge.
coulombs law

It states that, the electrostatic force between two


stationary charges is proportional to the product of
magnitude of charges and inversely proportional to the
square of the distance between them.
qq
i.e., F 1 2 2
r
qq
1
. 1 2
F=
4 pe0 r 2
1
= k = 9 109 N m 2C 2
Here
4pe 0
is proportionality constant.
e0 = 8.854 1012 C 2 N1 m2 is permittivity of free space.
Vectorially Coulombs law can be written as

q1q2
1
F12 =
(r r )
4pe 0 | r1 r2 |3 1 2
(The force on charge q1 due to charge q2)

q1q2
1
(r r )
and F21 =
4pe 0 | r1 r2 |3 2 1
(The force on charge q2 due to charge q1)
where the position vectors of charges q1 and q2 are

r1 and r2.
The Coulombs force between two charged particles in
a medium is
1 q1q2
1 q1q2
Fmedium =
=
4pe r 2
4pe 0e r r 2
F
Fmedium = vacuum
er
KEY POINT
Permittivity is a measure of how an electric field

affects and is affected by a medium.

comparison between coulomb


gravitational force are as follows :

32

force

and

Coulomb force and gravitational force follow the


same inverse square law.
Coulomb force can be attractive or repulsive while
gravitational force is always attractive.
Coulomb force between the two charges depends
on the medium between two charges while
gravitational force is independent of the medium
between the two bodies.
The ratio of coulomb force to the gravitational
force between two protons at same distance apart is
e2
= 1.3 1036
4pe 0Gm pm p
Physics for you | november 15

Superposition theorem : The interaction between any


two charges is independent of the presence of all other
charges.
Electrical force is a vector
quantity therefore, the net
force on any one charge is
the vector sum of all the
forces exerted on it due to each
of the other charges interacting
with it independently i.e,
Total force on charge q,

F = F1 + F2 + F3 + .......
continuous charge Distribution

Linear charge density : Charge per unit length is known


as linear charge density. It is denoted by symbol l.
Charge
l=
Length
Its SI unit is C m1.
Surface charge density : Charge per unit area is known
as surface charge density. It is denoted by symbol s.
Charge
s=
Area
Its SI unit is C m2.
Volume charge density : Charge per unit volume
is known as volume charge density. It is denoted by
symbol r.
Charge
r=
Volume
Its SI unit is C m3.

SELF CHECK

1. Two charges, each equal to q, are kept at x = a and


x = a on the x-axis. A particle of mass m and charge
q
q0 = is placed at the origin. If charge q0 is given a
2
small displacement (y < < a) along the y-axis, the
net force acting on the particle is proportional to
1
(a)
(b) y
y
1
(c) y
(d)
y
(JEE Main 2013)
2. Shown in the figure are two point charges +Q and
Q inside the cavity of a spherical shell. The charges
are kept near the surface of the cavity on opposite
sides of the centre of the shell. If s1 is the surface
charge on the inner surface and Q1 net charge on it
and s2 the surface charge on the outer surface and
Q2 net charge on it then

charge +q0 at a point P distance r away, in a medium of


permittivity e, can be calculated by imagining a very small
charge +q to be placed at P.

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

s1 0, Q1 0 ; s2 0, Q2 0
s1 0, Q1 = 0 ; s2 0, Q2 = 0
s1 0, Q1 = 0 ; s2 = 0, Q2 = 0
s1 = 0, Q1 = 0 ; s2 = 0, Q2 = 0

(JEE Main 2015)

ElEctric fiElD

An electric field is a region where an electric charge


experiences a force. If a very small, positive point
charge Q is placed at any point in an electric field and it
experiences a force F, then the electric field at that point
is defined as
E=

F
Q

The magnitude of E is the force per unit charge and its


direction is that of F(i.e., of the force which acts on a
positive charge). Thus, electric field is a vector quantity.
If F is in newton (N) and Q is in coulomb (C) then the
unit of E is newton per coulomb (N C1).

By Coulombs law, the force F on q is

1 qq0 , F E = 1 q0
E=
F=
4 pe r 2
q
4pe r 2

as shown. If a point charge


E is directed away from +q
0
q0 is replaced by +q0, E would be directed towards
q0 since unlike charges attract.
Electric field lines

An electric field can be represented and so visualized


by electric field lines. These are drawn so that, the field
lines at a point, (or the tangent to it if it is curved) gives

the direction of E at that point, i.e., the direction in


which positive charge would move and the number of
lines per unit cross-section area is proportional to E.
The field lines are imaginary but the field it represents
is real.
+q

(i)

(ii)

Electric field due to a Point charge

The magnitude of E due to an isolated positive point

The friction caused by rapidly rising and falling currents of moving air creates electrical charges within
a cloud. Water droplets and ice pellets fall, carrying charged electrons to the lower portion of the
cloud, where a negative charge builds. A positive charge builds up near the top of a cloud.
most of the electrical energy in a thunderstorm is dissipated within the clouds, as lightning
hops between the positively and negatively charged areas. Lightning becomes dangerous,
though, when it reaches earth. When the negative charge in the cloud becomes great
enough, it seeks an easy path to the positively charged ground below. The current
looks for a good conductor of electricity, or a tall structure anchored to the ground.
As negative charges collect at the bottom of a storm cloud, a change happens on
the ground below. electrons on the ground feel the power of the clouds negative
charges. The electrons are pushed away from the area underneath the cloud. The
ground and the objects on it are left with a positive charge.
If you were standing on the ground below a storm cloud, you wouldnt be able
to see electrons move. but you might feel your skin tingle or your hair stand
on end.
As the ground becomes positively charged, the attraction between the cloud
and the ground grows stronger. Suddenly, electrons shoot down from the cloud.
They move in a path that reaches out in different directionslike the branches
of a tree. each branch, or step, is about 45 m long. This branching path is called
a stepped leader. After the first electrons have blasted their way through the air,
other electrons from the cloud follow and make new branches. A stepped leader
cuts through the air very quickly. Its average speed is about 1.2 105 m s1. As the
stepped leader nears the ground, a positive streamer reaches up for it. only then, once
this channel is made, does the visible lightning happen. A return stroke runs from the
ground to the clouds in a spectacular flash. Though the bolt appears continuous, it is actually a
series of short bursts. most lightning strikes occur in less than a half second and the bolt is usually
less than 5 cm in diameter.

Physics for you | november 15

33

The electric field due to a positive point charge is


represented by straight lines originating from the charge
as shown in figure (i).
The electric field due to a negative point charge is
represented by straight lines terminating at the charge
as shown in figure (ii).
The lines of force for a charge distribution containing
more than one charge, is such that from each charge we
can draw the lines isotropically. The lines may not be
straight as one moves away from a charge.
The shape of lines for some charge distribution is shown
below.


=
E dS
where represents closed integral done for a closed
surface.
The SI unit of electric flux is N m2 C1 and its dimensional
formula is [ML3T3A1].
ElEctric DiPolE

It is a pair of two equal and opposite charges separated


by a small distance.
Electric Dipole Moment

It is a vector quantity whose magnitude is equal to


product of the magnitude of either charge and distance

between the charges. i.e. | p | = q2a .

By convention the direction of dipole moment is from


negative charge to positive charge.
The SI unit of electric dipole moment is C m and its
dimensional formula is [M0LAT]. The practical unit of
electrical dipole moment is debye.
Electric field intensity on axial line (End on Position)
of the Electric Dipole

The lines of force are purely a geometrical construction


which help us to visualise the nature of electric field in
the region. They have no physical existence.
The number of lines originating or terminating on
a charge is proportional to the magnitude of charge.
In rationalised MKS system (1/e0) electric lines are
associated with unit charge. So if a body encloses a
charge q, total lines of force associated with it (called
flux) will be q/e0.
Lines of force per unit area normal to the area of a
point represents magnitude of intensity, crowded lines
represent strong field while distant lines represent weak
field.
Electric flux

If the lines of force pass through a surface then the


surface is said to have flux linked with it. It is given by

d = E dS

where dS is the area vector of the small area element.


The area vector of a closed surface is always in the
direction of outward drawn normal.
The total flux linked with whole of the body
34

Physics for you | november 15

At the point at a distance r from the centre of the electric


1
2 pr
dipole, E =
.
4pe 0 (r 2 a 2)2
2p
4pe 0r 3
The direction of the electric field on axial line of the
electric dipole is along the direction of the dipole
moment (i.e. from q to q).
At very large distance i.e., (r > > a), E =

Electric field intensity on Equatorial line (broad on


Position) of Electric Dipole

At the point at a distance r from the centre of electric


1
p
dipole, E =
.
4pe 0 (r 2 + a 2)3/2
At very large distance i.e., r > > a,
1 p
E=
.
4pe 0 r 3
The direction of the electric field on equatorial line of
the electric dipole is opposite to the direction of the
dipole moment (i.e. from q to q).

Electric field intensity at any Point due to an Electric


Dipole

The electric field intensity at point P due to an electric


dipole,
1 p
E=
1 + 3 cos 2 q
4pe 0 r 3
Electric field intensity due to a charged ring

At the centre of the ring, i.e. r = 0, E = 0.


torque on an Electric Dipole Placed in a uniform
Electric field

When an electric dipole of dipole moment p is placed

in a uniform electric field E , it will experience a torque


and is given by

t = pE
or t = pE sin q

where q is the angle between p and E


Torque acting on a dipole is maximum (tmax = pE)
when dipole is perpendicular to the field and minimum
(t = 0) when dipole is parallel or antiparallel to the field.

At a point on its axis at distance r from its centre,


KEY POINT
1
qr
E=
When a dipole is placed in a uniform electric field,
4pe 0 (r 2 + a 2)3/2
it will experience only torque and the net force on
where q is the charge on the ring and a is the radius of
the dipole will be zero while when it is placed in a
the ring.
non uniform electric field, it will experience both
1 q
At very large distance i.e. r >> a, E =
2
torque and net force.
4pe 0 r
List of formula for electric field intensity due to various types of charge distribution :
Name /Type

Formula
kq ^
E = 2 r
|r |

Note
f
f

E=

l ^ 2kl r^
r=
2pe 0r
r

s ^
E=
n
2e 0

E=

kQx
2
(R + x 2)3/2

Ecentre = 0

f
f

Graph

q is a source charge.

r is vector drawn from source


charge to the test point.
outwards due to +ve charges and
inwards due to ve charges
l is linear charge density (assumed
uniform).
r is perpendicular distance of point
from line charge.
r^ is radial unit vector drawn from
the charge to test point.
s is surface charge density (assumed
uniform).
^

n is normal unit vector

E
r

E
/20
r

Q is total charge on the ring


x = distance of point on the axis
from centre of the ring.
Electric field is always along the
axis.

E
Emax
R

Physics for you | november 15

2
35

s^
E= n
e0

(i) For r R,
kQ ^
E= 2r
|r |

f
f

(ii) For r < R,


E=0
f

(i) For r R,
kQ ^
E= 2r
|r |
(ii) For r < R,
kQ
E= 3r
R

R is radius of the sphere.

r is vector drawn from centre of


sphere to the point.

(s = surface charge density)

r is vector drawn from centre of


sphere to the point.

f
f

Sphere acts like a point charge


placed at the centre for points
outside the sphere.

E is always along radial direction.


4 3
Q is total charge r 3 pR
(r = volume charge density)
Inside the sphere, E r
1
Outside the sphere, E 2
r

SELF CHECK

3. A long cylindrical shell carries positive surface


charge s in the upper half and negative surface
charge s in the lower half. The electric field lines
around the cylinder will look like figure given in
(Figures are schematic and not drawn to scale)
(a)

(c)

+ + ++
+
+

+ + ++
+
+

(b)

+ + ++
+
+

(d)

(JEE Main 2015)


36

Physics for you | november 15

E
kQ/R2

Sphere acts like a point charge


placed at centre for points outside
the sphere.

E is always along radial direction.


Q is the total charge (= s4pR2)

/0

n is the unit vector perpendicular


to the surface.

s is the surface charge density


(assumed uniform).

kQ/R

4. A thin disc of radius b = 2a has


a concentric hole of radius
a in it (see figure). It carries
uniform surface charge s on
it. If the electric field on its axis
at height h (h < < a) from its
centre is given as Ch then value
of C is
(a)

s
ae 0

(b)

s
2ae 0

(c)

s
4ae 0

(d)

s
8ae 0
(JEE Main 2015)

5. A wire, of length L(= 20 cm), is bent into a semicircular arc. If the two equal halves of the arc, were
each to be uniformly charged with charges Q,
[|Q| = 103 e0 Coulomb where e0 is the permittivity
(in SI units) of free space] the net electric field at the
centre O of the semi-circular arc would be

The total electric flux through a closed surface is zero if


no charge is enclosed by the surface.
In the situation when the surface is so chosen that there
are some charges inside and some outside, the electric
field (whose flux is calculated) is due to all the charges,
both inside and outside the surface. However, the term
(q) represents only the total charge inside the closed
surface.
KEY POINT
Gausss law is true for any closed surface, regardless

of its shape or size.

(b) (25 103 N/C) ^i

(a) (50 103 N/C) j


3

The surface that we choose for the application of

(c) (25 10 N/C) j

Gausss law is known as the Gaussian surface.

Gausss law is based on inverse square dependence

(d) (50 10 N/C) i

on distance.

(JEE Main 2015)

ElEctric PotEntial

Potential Energy of an Electric Dipole in a uniform


Electric field is

Electric potential at a point is defined as amount of work


done in bringing a unit positive charge from infinity to
that point. It is denoted by symbol V.
W
V=
q
Electric potential is a scalar quantity. The SI unit
of potential is volt and its dimensional formula is
[ML2T3A1].

U = pE(cosq2 cosq1)

where q1 is the initial angle between p and E and q2 is

the final angle between p and E .


Gausss law

It states that the total electric flux through a closed


surface S is 1/e0 times the total charge enclosed by S.
q
E dS = e 0
where q is charge enclosed by the closed surface S.

Electric potential due a point charge q at a distance r


from the charge is
q
V=
4pe 0r

Electric potential due to various charge distributions are given in table below :
Name /Type
Point charge

Ring (uniform/
non-uniform
charge distribution)

Formula
V=

kq
r

kQ at centre
,
R
kQ
V=
, along the axis
R2 + x 2

V=

Uniformly
charged
kQ
hollow conducting/ For r R , V = r
non-conducting/solid
For r R, V = kQ
conducting sphere
R

Note
f
f

f
f

f
f

Graph

q is source charge.
r is the distance of the point
from the point charge.

Q is charge on the ring.


x is the distance of the point
on the axis.

R is radius of sphere
r is the distance from centre
of sphere to the point
Q is total charge = s4pR2

Physics for you | november 15

37

Uniformly
charged
kQ
solid non-conducting For r R, V = R
sphere
kQ(3R 2 r 2)
For r R, V =
2R 3
r
=
(3R 2 r 2)
6e 0

f
f

f
f
f
f

Infinite line charge

Not defined

Infinite nonconducting thin


sheet

Not defined

Infinite charged
conducting thin
sheet

Not defined

f
f

SELF CHECK

6. A uniformly charged solid sphere of radius R has


potential V0 (measured with respect to ) on its
surface. For this sphere the equipotential surfaces
3V 5V 3V
V
with potentials 0 , 0 , 0 and 0 have radius
2
4
4
4
R1, R2, R3 and R4 respectively. Then
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

R1 = 0 and R2 < (R4 R3)


2R < R4
R1 = 0 and R2 > (R4 R3)
R1 0 and (R2 R1) > (R4 R3)

(JEE Main 2015)


Equipotential surface

An equipotential surface is a surface with a constant


value of potential at all points on the surface.
Properties of an equipotential surface
Electric field lines are always perpendicular to an
equipotential surface. Work done in moving an electric
38

Physics for you | november 15

R is radius of sphere
r is distance from centre to
the point
3
Vcentre = Vsurface
2
4
Q is total charge = r pR 3
3
Inside sphere potential varies
parabolically
Outside potential varies
hyperbolically.
Absolute potential is not
defined.
Potential difference between
two points is given by formula
VB VA = 2kl ln (rB/rA)
Absolute potential is not
defined
Potential difference between
two points is given by formula
s
VB VA =
(r r )
2e 0 B A
Absolute potential is not
defined
Potential difference between
two points is given by formula
s
VB VA = (rB rA)
e0
charge from one point to another on an equipotential
surface is zero. Two equipotential surfaces can never
intersect one another.

Relationship between E and V

E = V

where = i^ + ^j + k^
x
z
y

ve sign shows that the direction of E is the direction


of decreasing potential.
Electric Potential Energy

Electric potential energy of a system of charges is the


total amount of work done in bringing the various
charges to their respective positions from infinitely large
mutual separations. The SI unit of electrical potential
energy is joule.
Electric potential energy of a system of two charges is
1 q1q2
U=
4pe 0 r12

where r12 is the distance between q1 and q2.


Electric potential energy of a system of n point charges
q jqk
1
U=
r
4pe 0 all
pairs jk
Note in this summation, we should include only one
term for each pair of charges.
conductors and insulators

On the basis of conductivity, all bodies can be divided


in two classes, conductors and insulators.
In conductors, electric charges are free to move
throughout the volume. Insulators do not have free
charges to move.
Basic electrostatics properties of a conductor
Inside a conductor, electric field is zero.
At the surface of a charged conductor, electric field
must be normal to the surface at every point.
The interior of a conductor can have no excess
charge in the static situation.
Electric potential is constant throughout the volume
of the conductor and has the same value (as inside)
on its surface.
Electric field at the surface of a charged conductor
s
E = n^
e0
where s is the surface charge density and n^ is a unit
vector normal to the surface in the outward direction.
Electrostatic shielding : It is the phenomenon of
protecting a certain region of space from external
electric field.
Polar and non-Polar Molecules
Dielectrics : Dielectrics are non conducting substances.
In contrast to conductors, they have no (or negligible
number of) charge carriers.
Polar molecule : A polar molecule is one in which the
centres of positive and negative charges are separated
(even when there is no external field). A polar molecule
has a permanent dipole moment e.g., water (H2O) and
HCl.
Non-polar molecule : A non-polar molecule is one
in which the centres of positive and negative charges
coincide. A non-polar molecule has no permanent
dipole moment. e.g., oxygen (O2) and hydrogen (H2).
Polarisation : The dipole moment per unit volume

is called polarisation and is denoted by P. For linear

isotropic dielectrics P = c e E ,
where ce is a constant characteristic of the dielectric
and is called the electric susceptibility of the dielectric
medium.

capacitor

A capacitor is a device that stores electrical energy. It


consists of conductors of any shape and size carrying
charges of equal magnitudes and opposite signs and
separated by an insulating medium.
Capacity of capacitor (Capacitance)
Capacitance (C) of a capacitor is the ratio of charge(Q)
given and the potential (V) to which it is raised.
C=

Q
V

The SI unit of capacitance is farad (F).


1 millifarad (mF) = 103 farad
1 microfarad (mF) = 106 farad
1 picofarad (pF) = 1012 farad.
Capacitance is a scalar quantity. The dimensional
formula of capacitance is [M1L2T4A2].
Capacitance of spherical conductor
Capacitance of a spherical conductor of radius R is
C = 4pe0R
Taking earth to be a conducting sphere of radius
6400 km, its capacitance will be
6.4 106
C = 4pe 0R =
= 711 m F
9 109
Capacity of capacitor depends upon
Total outer surface area
Dielectric constant of the medium around the
capacitor.
Presence of another capacitor in the near about
region.
Capacity of capacitor does not depend upon
Charge
Potential
Shape of capacitor
Material of capacitor
types of capacitors

Parallel plate capacitor : C = e 0 A


d
(when air is between the plates)
e KA
(when dielectric is between the plates)
C= 0
d
Here, A is area of each plate and d is separation between
the two plates.
ab
ba
Here, a and b are the radii of inner and outer coatings
(spherical shells) of the spherical capacitor.
Spherical capacitor : C = 4pe 0

Physics for you | november 15

39

Cylindrical capacitor :
l
l
C = 2pe 0
= 2pe 0
b
b
log e
2.303 log10
a
a
Here, a and b are the radii of the inner and outer
coatings (cylindrical shells) and l is the length of the
either curved surface of the cylindrical capacitor.
combination of capacitors

Capacitors in series
q

C1
V1

C2

C3
V2

V3

Same charge flows through each capacitor.


Different potential difference exists across each
capacitor.
V = V1 + V2 + V3
1 1
1
1
= + +
C C1 C2 C3
The resultant capacity C is less than the smallest
capacitor joined in series. The ultimate effect is to
reduce the capacitance in a circuit.
Capacitors in parallel

Across each capacitor, potential difference is same.


Different charges flow through each capacitor.
q = q1 + q2 + q3
C = C1 + C2 + C3
The resultant capacity C is greater than the greatest
capacitance joined in parallel. Thus the ultimate effect
is to enhance the capacitance in a circuit.
Energy stored in a capacitor

Work done in charging a capacitor gets stored in the


capacitor in the form of its electrostatic potential
energy.
1
1
1 Q2
U = CV 2 = QV =
2
2
2 C
Electric Energy Density (uE )

The energy stored per unit volume in the electric field


between the plates is called energy density.
1
s2
u E = e 0E 2 =
.
2
2e 0
40

Physics for you | november 15

sharing of charges

When two capacitors charged to different potentials are


connected by a conducting wire, charge flows from the
one at higher potential to the other at lower potential
till their potentials become equal. This equal potential is
called common potential (V), where
Total charge Q1 + Q2 C1V1 + C2V2
V=
=
=
Total capacity C1 + C2
C1 + C2
It should be clearly understood that in sharing charges,
there is absolutely no loss of charge. Some energy is,
however, lost in the process which is given by
C C (V V )2
U1 U 2 = 1 2 1 2
2(C1 + C2)
This energy is potential energy.
Effect of dielectric

When a dielectric slab of dielectric constant K is


introduced between the plates of a charged parallel plate
capacitor and the charging battery remains connected,
then, potential difference between the plates remains
constant i.e., V = V0
Capacitance C increases i.e., C = KC0
Charge on a capacitor increases i.e., Q = KQ0
Electric field between the plates remains unchanged i.e.,
E = E0
Energy stored in a capacitor increases
i.e., U = KU0
When a dielectric slab of dielectric constant K is
introduced between the plates of a charged parallel
plate capacitor and the charging battery is disconnected,
then, charge remains unchanged i.e., Q = Q0
Capacitance increases i.e., C = KC0
Potential difference between the plates decreases i.e.,
V
V= 0
K
Electric field between the plates decreases
E
i.e., E = 0
K
Energy stored in the capacitor decreases
i.e., U = U 0
K
where Q0 , C0 , V0 , E0 and U0 represents the charge,
capacitance, potential difference, electric field and
energy stored in the capacitor of a charged air filled
parallel plate capacitor.
Van de Graaff generator
A Van de Graaff generator consists of a large spherical
conducting shell (a few metres in diameter). By

means of a moving belt and suitable brushes, charge


is continuously transferred to the shell, and potential
difference of the order of several million volts is built up,
which can be used for accelerating charged particles.

SELF CHECK

7. In the given circuit, charge Q2 on the 2 mF capacitor


changes as C is varied from 1 mF to 3 mF. Q2 as a
function of C is given properly by (figures are
drawn schematically and are not to scale)
1 F

2 F
E

Charge

Charge

(a) Q2

(b)
1 F 3 F

Q2

1 F 3 F

Charge

(c) Q2
1 F 3 F

Charge
C

(d) Q2
1 F

3 F

(JEE Main 2015)


8. In figure is shown a system of four capacitors
connected across a 10 V battery. Charge that will
flow from switch S when it is closed is

The unit of current is ampere (A).


1A =1

C
s

The dimentional formula of current is [MLTA]


Drift Velocity

It is defined as the average velocity with which free


electrons get drifted towards the positive end of the
conductor under the influence of an external electric field.
Drift velocity of electrons is given by

eE

vd =
t
m
where e is the charge and m is the mass of an electron,

E is the electric field applied and t is known as relaxation


time. The value of drift velocity of an electron is about
104 m s1 and value of relaxation time is about
1014 second.
The direction of drift velocity of electrons in a metal

conductor is opposite to that of electric field applied E.


Drift velocity depends on electric field as vd E. So
greater the electric field, larger will be the drift velocity.
The thermal speed or rms speed of electrons at room
temperature is about 105 m s1, which is very large as
compared to the drift velocity of electrons.
mean free path
Relaxation time =
rms speed of electrons
relationship between current and drift velocity

I = nAevd
where n is the number density of electrons or number
of electrons per unit volume of the conductor and A is
the area of cross-section of the conductor.
Mobility

(a) 5 mC from b to a
(c) 5 mC from a to b

(b) 20 mC from a to b
(d) zero

(JEE Main 2015)

currEnt ElEctricity
Electric current

It is the amount of charge flowing across any section of


wire per unit time. If the moving charges are positive,
the current is in the direction of motion of charges. If
they are negative the current is opposite to the direction
of motion of charges.
Instantaneous current is the current at any point of time
dq
q
=
and average current = .
dt
t

It is defined as the magnitude of drift velocity per unit


electric field. It is denoted by symbol m.
v
qEt / m qt
m= d =
=
E
E
m
where q, t and m are charge, relaxation time and mass
of a charge carrier respectively.
Mobility is positive for both electrons and holes although
their drift velocities are opposite to each other.
The SI unit of mobility is m2 V1 s1 and its dimensional
formula is [M1L0T2A].
ohms law

It was discovered by German physicist Georg Simon


Ohm in 1828. It states that the current (I) flowing
through a conductor is directly proportional to the
potential difference (V) across the ends of the conductor,
Physics for you | november 15

41

provided physical conditions of the conductor such as


temperature, mechanical strain etc. are kept constant.
V I or V = RI
where the constant of proportionality R is called
resistance of the conductor.
V
The graph between potential
difference (V) and current (I)
through a metallic conductor is
slope = tan
a straight line passing through

I
the origin as shown in figure.
O
The slope of V-I graph gives resistance.
V
R = = tan q (slope of V -I graph)
I
Electrical resistance
The resistance of a conductor is the obstruction posed
by the conductor to the flow of current through it.
Resistance of a conductor (R) is defined as the ratio
of potential difference (V) applied across the ends of
conductor to the current (I) flowing through it.
V
R=
I
Resistance is a property of the conductor and is not related
to the circuit in which the conductor is connected. The
V
equation R =
can be used to calculate the current in
I
a conductor if we know the resistance and the potential
difference across the conductor. The SI unit of resistance
is ohm (W) and its dimensional formula is [ML2T3A2].
The resistance of a conductor not only depends on the
material of the conductor but also on the dimensions of
the conductor.
The resistance of a conductor is proportional to its
length and inversely proportional to its area of crosssection.
l
l
R
or R = r
A
A
where constant of proportionality r is called resistivity.
The SI unit of resistivity is W m and its dimensional
formula is [ML3T3A2].
m
The resistivity of a conductor is r = 2
ne t
where m is the mass and e is the magnitude of charge of
an electron, n is the number density of electrons, t is the
relaxation time.
The resistivity of a conductor is independent of its
dimensions but depends on the material of the conductor.
A perfect conductor would have zero resistivity and a
perfect insulator would have infinite resistivity.
42

Physics for you | november 15

If the conductor is in the form of wire of length l and


rl
radius r, then its resistance is R = 2 .
pr
If a conductor has mass m, volume V and density d,
then its resistance R is
rl rl 2 rl 2 rl 2d
R= =
=
=
A Al V
m
If a wire of resistance R is cut into n equal parts, then
resistance of each part = R/n.
If length of a given metallic wire of resistance R is
stretched to n times, its resistance becomes n2R.
If radius of the given metallic wire of resistance R
becomes n times, its resistance becomes (1/n4)R.
If the area of cross-section of the given metallic wire
of resistance R becomes n times, then its resistance
becomes (1/n2)R.
A cylindrical tube of length l has inner and outer radii r1
and r2 respectively. The resistance between its end faces
rl
is R =
.
2
p r2 r12
If a rectangular conducting cube having dimensions
l b h, then
when current passes through the length side, the
rl
resistance offered by cube =
bh
when current passes through breadth side, the
rb
resistance offered by cube =
lh

when current passes through the thickness side, the


rh
resistance offered by cube = .
lb
current density, conductance and conductivity
Current density at a point inside the conductor is
defined as the amount of current flowing per unit area
around that point of the conductor, provided the area is
held in a direction normal to the current. It is denoted
by symbol J.
I
J=
A
If area A is not normal to the current but makes an angle
q with the direction of current, then

I
J=
or I = JA cos q = J A
A cos q

The SI unit of current density is A m2 and its dimensional


formula is [M0L2T0A].
Current density is a vector quantity. Its direction is that
of the flow of positive charge at the given point inside
the conductor.

KEY POINT
Current density is a characteristic property of a

particular point inside the conductor and not of


the whole conductor.
Current is the flux of current density.

relationship between current density and drift


velocity

J = nqvd where n is the number density of charge carriers


each of charge q, and vd is the drift velocity of the charge
carriers. For electrons q = e.
Conductance : The reciprocal of resistance is called
conductance. It is denoted by symbol G.
1
G=
R
The SI unit of conductance is ohm1 which is called mho
and is represented by the symbol ( ). The unit mho is
also called siemen (S) and its dimensional formula is
[M1L2T3A2].
Conductivity : The reciprocal of resistivity is called
conductivity or specific conductance. It is denoted by
symbol s.
1 ne 2t
v d et

s= =
= nem
As m = E = m
r
m
The SI unit of conductivity is W1 m1 or S m1
or mho m1 and its dimensional formula is
[M1L3T3A2].
relationship between J, s and E

J = sE
It is a microscopic form of Ohms law.
ohmic and non-ohmic conductors

Ohmic conductors : Those conductors which obey


Ohms law are called ohmic conductors, e.g. metals. For
Ohmic conductors, V-I graph is a straight line passing
through the origin.
Non-ohmic conductors : Those conductors which do
not obey Ohms law are called non-ohmic conductors
e.g. diode valve, junction diode. For non-ohmic
conductors V-I graph is non-linear.
Effect of temperature on resistance

The resistance of a metallic conductor increases with


increase in temperature.
The resistance of a conductor at temperature TC is
given by
RT = R0 (1 + aT + bT2)
where RT is the resistance at TC, R0 is the resistance at
0C and a and b are the characteristics constants of the
material of the conductor. If the temperature TC is not
sufficiently large, b is negligible, the above relation can
be written as

RT = R0 (1 + aT)
where a is the temperature coefficient of resistance. Its
unit is K1 or C1. For metals, a is positive, therefore
resistance of a metal increases with rise in temperature.
For insulators and semiconductors, a is negative
therefore their resistance decreases with rise in
temperature. For alloys like manganin and constantan,
the value of a is very small as compared to that for
metals. Due to high resistivity and low temperature
coefficient of resistance, these alloys are used in making
standard resistance coils.
thermistors

A thermistor is a heat sensitive device whose resistivity


changes very rapidly with change of temperature.
colour code for resistors

A colour code is used to indicate the resistance value


and its percentage accuracy. Every resistor has a set of
coloured rings on it. The first two coloured rings from
the left end indicate the first two significant figures of
the resistance in ohms. The third colour ring indicates
the decimal multiplier and the last colour ring stands for
the tolerance in percent. The colour code of a resistor is
as shown in the table.
Colour

Number

Multiplier

Tolerance
(%)

Black
0
100
Brown
1
101
Red
2
102
Orange
3
103
Yellow
4
104
Green
5
105
Blue
6
106
Violet
7
107
Gray
8
108
White
9
109
Gold
101
5
2
10
Silver
10
20
No colour
Suppose a resistor has green, red, orange and gold rings
as shown in the figure below. The resistance of the
resistor is (52 103 W) 5%.

Physics for you | november 15

43

combination of resistors

SELF CHECK

resistors in series

The various resistors are said to be connected in series if


they are connected as shown in the figure.
R1

R2

V2

V1

R3
V3
I

10. Suppose the drift velocity vd in a material varied

9. When 5 V potential difference is applied across a wire of


length 0.1 m, the drift speed of electrons is 2.5 104 m s1.
If the electron density in the wire is 8 1028 m3, the
resistivity of the material is close to
(a) 1.6 106 W m
(b) 1.6 105 W m
8
(c) 1.6 10 W m
(d) 1.6 107 W m
(JEE Main 2015)

The current through each resistor is the same.


The equivalent resistance of the combination of resistors
is Rs = R1 + R2 + R3
As current through each resistor is same so
V1 V2 V3
=
=
R1 R2 R3
or V1 : V2 : V3 = R1 : R2 : R3
Series combinations of resistors are used in resistance
box and decorative bulbs.
resistors in parallel

with the applied electric field E as v d E . Then


V-I graph for a wire made of such a material is best
given by
V

(a)

(b)
I

(c)

(d)
I

R1

R3

I3

(JEE Main 2015)

Electric cell

R2

I2

I
+

The potential difference is same across each resistor


(say V).
The equivalent resistance of the combination of resistors is
1
1
1
1
= +
+
R p R1 R2 R3
V
V
V
As I1 = , I 2 =
and I 3 =
so,
R1
R2
R3
1 1 1
I1 : I 2 : I 3 = : :
R1 R2 R3
All the domestic appliances in a house are connected in
parallel combination.
KEY POINT
If n wires each of resistance R are connected in

series, the equivalent resistance is nR.


If n wires each of resistance R are connected in
parallel, the equivalent resistance is R/n.
44

The various resistors are said to be connected in parallel


if they are connected as shown in figure below.
I1

Physics for you | november 15

An electric cell is a device which maintains a continuous


flow of charge in a circuit by a chemical reaction.
Electromotive force (emf) of a cell

It is defined as the potential difference between the


two terminals of a cell in an open circuit i.e., when no
current flows through the cell. It is denoted by symbol e.
The SI unit of emf is J C1 or volt and its dimensional
formula is [ML2T3A1].
The emf of a cell depends upon the nature of electrodes,
nature and the concentration of electrolyte used in the
cell and its temperature.
terminal potential difference of a cell

It is defined as the potential difference between two


terminals of a cell in a closed circuit i.e. when current
is flowing through the cell. It is generally denoted by
symbol V and is measured in volt.
internal resistance of a cell

It is defined as the resistance offered by the electrolyte


and electrodes of a cell when the current flows through it.
Internal resistance of a cell depends upon the following
factors:

Distance between the electrodes


The nature of the electrolyte
The nature of electrodes
Area of the electrodes, immersed in the electrolyte
KEY POINT

n
I

I
R

Grouping of cells

Equivalent emf of the cells is eeq = ne


Equivalent internal resistance of the cells is req = nr
ne
Current in the circuit, I =
R + nr
Special cases :
ne e
If R < < nr, then I =
= .
nr r
ne
If R > > nr, then I = .
R
KEY POINT
When one cell is wrongly connected in series of
n identical cells, each of emf e, it will reduce the
total emf by 2e i.e. effective emf = ne 2e.
The total internal resistance of cells = nr i.e. there is
no effect on the total internal resistance of the cells.
In series grouping of cells their emf s are additive
or subtractive while their internal resistances are
always additive.
Parallel grouping
If m identical cells each of
emf e and internal
m
resistance r are connected
to the external resistor of
I
I
resistance R as shown in
figure, they are said to
R
be connected in parallel grouping.
Equivalent emf of the cells is eeq = e
r
Equivalent internal resistance of the cells is req = .
m
e
Current in the circuit, I =
.
r
R+
m
Special cases :
r
e
If
<< R, then I = .
m
R
r
e
If
>> R, then I = m .
m
r

Cells can be grouped in the following three ways:


Series grouping
If n identical cells each of emf e and internal resistance
r are connected to the external resistor of resistance R
as shown in the figure, they are said to be connected in
series grouping.

If the cells are connected as shown in figure they are


said to be connected in mixed grouping. Let there be
n cells in series in one row and m such rows of cells in
parallel. Suppose all the cells are identical. Let each cell
be of emf e and internal resistance r.

A cell is a source of constant emf but not a constant

current.
The emf is not a force.

relationship between e, V and r

When a cell of emf e and internal resistance r is


connected to an external resistance R as shown in the
figure.
r

I
R

Current in the circuit, I =

e
R+r

Terminal potential difference, V = IR =


Internal resistance of a cell,
e V
e

r=
R = 1 R
V
V

eR
(R + r)

During discharging of a cell, terminal potential


difference = emf of a cell voltage drop across the
internal resistance of a cell i.e. terminal potential
difference across it is lesser than emf of the cell. The
direction of current inside the cell is from negative
terminal to positive terminal.
During charging of a cell, terminal potential difference
= emf of a cell + voltage drop across internal resistance of
a cell i.e. terminal potential difference becomes greater
than the emf of the cell. The direction of current inside
the cell is from positive terminal to negative terminal.
When the cell is short circuited, i.e., R = 0, the
maximum current is drawn from a cell whose value is
e
given by I max =
r

Mixed grouping

Physics for you | november 15

45

I1 I2 I3 I4 + I5 = 0 I1 + I5 = I2 + I3 + I4
This law is based on conservation of electrical charge.

n
m

second law (Loop rule)


I

I
R

Equivalent emf of the cells is eeq = ne


Equivalent internal resistance of the cells is
nr
m
ne
Current in the circuit, I =
nr
R+
m

req =

In case of mixed grouping of cells, current in the circuit


will be maximum, when
R=

nr
m

i.e. external resistance = total internal resistance


of all cells
Potential Divider

If two resistors R1 and R2 are joined in series and a


potential difference V is applied across them, and an
output taken from the point P, at the joint of the two
resistors, and the opposite end of R2, the arrangement
is known as a potential divider. The potential difference
across R2 is V2 where V2 = R2 V .
R1 + R2

SELF CHECK

R1
V

P
R2

Output (V2)

Kirchhoffs Laws

There are two laws given by Kirchhoff for


determination of potential difference and current in
different branches of any complicated network.
first law (Junction rule)

In an electric circuit, the algebraic sum of the current


meeting at any junction is zero.
I2
Sum of the currents entering
I3
the junction is equal to sum
I1
of the currents leaving
I5
the junction.
SI = 0
48

In any closed circuit, the algebraic sum of emfs and


algebraic sum of potential drop is zero.
SIR + Se = 0
This law is based on law of conservation of energy.
While moving from negative to positive terminal
inside the cell, emf is taken as positive while moving in
the direction of current in a circuit the potential drop
(i.e., IR) across resistance is taken as negative.
When we move through a resistor in the same direction
as current, the IR term is negative because the current
goes in the direction of decreasing potential.
When we move through a resistor in the direction
opposite to the assumed current, the IR term is positive
because this represents a rise of potential.
According to sign convention while traversing a closed
loop (in clockwise or anti-clockwise direction), if
negative pole of the cell is encountered first then its
emf is positive, otherwise negative. The product of
resistance and current in an arm of the circuit is taken
positive if the direction of current in that arm is in
the same sense as one moves in a closed loop and is
taken negative if the direction of current in that arm is
opposite to the sense as one moves in the closed loop.

Physics for you | november 15

I4

11. In the circuit shown,


the current in the 1 W
resistor is
(a) 0.13 A, from Q to P
(b) 0.13 A, from P to Q
(c) 0.3 A, from P to Q
(d) 0 A

6V

P 2
1

9V

Q 3

(JEE Main 2015)

12. A 10 V battery with internal


resistance 1 W and a 15 V battery
with internal resistance 0.6 W
are connected in parallel to
a voltmeter (see figure). The
reading in the voltmeter will
be close to
(a) 11.9 V
(b) 12.5 V
(c) 13.1 V
(d) 24.5 V

10 V

15 V

0.6

(JEE Main 2015)

13. In the electric network shown, when no current flows


through the 4 W resistor in the arm EB, the potential
difference between the points A and D will be

(a) 3 V
(c) 5 V

(b) 4 V
(d) 6 V

where K is known as potential gradient i.e., fall of


potential per unit length of the given wire.
comparison of emfs of two cells by using
potentiometer

(JEE Main 2015)

Wheatstones Bridge

It is an arrangement of four
resistances P, Q, R and S connected
as shown in the figure. Their values
are so adjusted that the galvanometer
G shows no deflection.
The bridge is then said to be balanced. When this
happens, the points B and D are at the same potential
and no current flows through galvanometer and it can
P R
be shown that =
Q S
This is called the balancing condition. If any three
resistances are known, the fourth can be found.

e1 l1
=
e 2 l2

where l1, l2 are the balancing lengths of potentiometer


wire for the emfs e1 and e2 of two cells respectively.
Determination of internal resistance of a cell by
potentiometer

Metre bridge or slide metre bridge

It is based on the principle of Wheatstones bridge.

l1 l2
R
Internal resistance of cell, r =
l2
where l1 = balancing length of potentiometer wire
corresponding to emf of the cell, l2 = balancing length of
potentiometer wire corresponding to terminal potential
difference of the cell when a resistance R is connected
in series with the cell whose internal resistance is to be
determined.
Joules Law of heating

The unknown resistance, R = Sl


100 l
where l is the balancing length of metre bridge.
Potentiometer

Principle of potentiometer : It is based on the fact


that the fall of potential across any portion of the wire
is directly proportional to the length of that portion
provided the wire is of uniform area of cross-section
and a constant current is flowing through it.
i.e., V l (If I and A are constants)
or V = Kl

According to Joules heating effect of current, the


amount of heat produced (H) in a conductor of
resistance R, carrying current I for time t is
H = I2Rt (in joule)
I 2Rt (in calorie)
or H =
J
where J is Joules mechanical equivalent of heat
(= 4.2 J/cal).
Electric Power

It is defined as the rate at which work is done by the


source of emf in maintaining the current in the electric
circuit.
Physics for you | november 15

49

Electric power, P =

Electric work done


Time taken

V2
P = VI = I 2R =
.
R
The SI unit of power is watt (W).
The bigger unit of power is kilowatt (kW).
1 kilowatt = 1000 watt.
The commercial unit of power is horse power (hp)
1 hp = 746 watt.
Electric energy
It is defined as the total electric work done or energy
supplied by the source of emf in maintaining the current
in an electric circuit for a given time.
Electric energy = electric power time
V2
= Pt = VIt = I 2Rt =
t
R
The SI unit of electrical energy is joule (J).
The commercial unit of electric energy is kilowatt-hour
(kWh), or Board Trade Unit (BTU).
1 kWh = 1000 Wh = 3.6 106 J
Number of units of electricity consumed
watt hour
= No. of kWh =
1000
Maximum power transfer theorem
It states that the power output across load due to a cell or
battery is maximum if the load resistance is equal to the
effective internal resistance of cell or battery.
fuse wire
It is generally made up of tin-lead alloy. It should have
high resistivity and low melting point. It is used in series
of the electrical installations to protect them from strong
currents.

50

Physics for you | november 15

If P1, P2, P3 .... are the powers of electric appliances in


series with source of rated voltage V, the effective power
consumed is
1 1 1
1
= + + + ......
PS P1 P2 P3
If P1, P2, P3.... are the powers of electric appliances in
parallel with a source of rated voltage V, the effective
power consumed is
PP = P1 + P2 + P3 + .....

SELF CHECK

14. In a large building, there are 15 bulbs of 40 W,


5 bulbs of 100 W, 5 fans of 80 W and 1 heater of
1 kW. The voltage of the electric mains is 220 V. The
minimum capacity of the main fuse of the building
will be
(a) 14 A (b) 8 A
(c) 10 A (d) 12 A
(JEE Main 2014)
15. The supply voltage to a room is 120 V. The resistance
of the lead wires is 6 W. A 60 W bulb is already
switched on. What is the decrease of voltage across
the bulb, when a 240 W heater is switched on in
parallel to the bulb?
(a) 10.04 V
(b) zero V
(c) 2.9 V
(d) 13.3 V
(JEE Main 2013)
ansWEr KEys (sELf chEcK)
1. (b)
2. (c)
6. (a,b) 7. (d)
11. (a) 12. (c)

3. (c)
8. (a)
13. (c)

4. (c)
9. (b)
14. (d)

5. (b)
10. (c)
15. (a)
nn

1. The plates of a parallel plate capacitor are charged


up to 100 V. A 2 mm thick plate is inserted between
the plates, then to maintain the same potential
difference, the distance between the capacitor plates
is increased by 1.6 mm. The dielectric constant of
the plate is
(a) 5
(b) 1.25 (c) 4
(d) 2.5
2. In the circuit shown in figure, resistance of each
resistor is R. The value of current I is
10V0
B
(a)
7R
R
R R
15V0
R
R
(b)
A
C
7R
E
I
R
7V0
R R
(c)
8R
V0
D
15V0
(d)
8R
3. One plate of a capacitor is
connected to a spring as
shown in figure. Area of
both the plates is A.
In steady state, separation between the plates is
0.8 d (spring was unstretched and the distance
between the plates was d when the capacitor was
uncharged). The force constant of the spring is
approximately
6 0 V 2
4 0 AV 2
(a)
(b)
Ad 3
d3
(c)

0 AV 3

(d)

2 0 AV

d2
2d
4. Six charges, three positive and three negative of
equal magnitude are to be placed at the vertices of
a regular hexagon, such that the electric field at O
is double the electric field when only one positive
charge of same magnitude
P
Q
is placed at R, as shown
in figure. Which of the U
O
R
following arrangement of
charges is possible for P, Q,
S
R, S, T and U respectively?
T
3

(a) + + +
(c) + + +

(b) + + +
(d) + + +

5. A point charge q1 = 9.1 mC is held fixed at origin.


A second point charge q2 = 0.42 mC and of mass
3.2 104 kg is placed on the x-axis 0.96 m from
the origin. The second point charge is released at
rest. What is its speed when it is 0.24 m from the
origin?
(a) 2.4 m s1
(b) 9.6 m s1
(c) 26 m s1
(d) 48 m s1
6. At room temperature, copper has free electron
density of 8.4 1028 m3. The electron drift velocity
in a copper conductor of cross-sectional area of
106 m2 and carrying a current of 5.4 A, will be
(a) 4 m s1
(b) 0.4 m s1
1
(c) 4 cm s
(d) 0.4 mm s1
7. A battery of emf 2.1 V and internal resistance
0.05 W is shunted for 5 s by a wire of constant
resistance 0.02 W, mass 1 g and specific heat
0.1 cal g1C1. The rise in the temperature of the
wire is
(a) 10.7C
(b) 21.4C
(c) 107C
(d) 214C
8. Two small spheres of masses M1 and M2 are
suspended by weightless insulating threads of
lengths L1 and L2. The spheres carry charges Q1 and
Q2 respectively. The spheres are suspended such that
they are in level with one another and the threads
are inclined to the vertical at angles of q1 and q2
as shown. Which one of the following conditions is
essential, if q1 = q2?
(a) M1 M2, but Q1 = Q2
(b) M1 = M2
(c) Q1 = Q2
(d) L1 = L2
9. A solid conducting sphere
of radius a having a
charge q is surrounded by
a concentric conducting
spherical shell of inner
radius 2a and outer radius
3a as shown in figure.

S
3a

Physics for you | November 15

2a

51

Find the amount of heat produced when switch is


closed.

1
Here, k = 4 e
0

kq2
(a)
2a
(c)

(b)

kq2
4a

(d)

13. A conical wire of length l has end diameters a and b


as shown in figure. The resistivity of the material of
wire is r. The resistance of the wire between its two
ends is

kq2
3a
kq2
6a

10. Three infinitely long charge sheets are placed as


shown in figure. The electric field at point P is

(a)
(c)

4rl
2

(b)

(a + b )
4rl

(d)

(a + b)2

4rl
ab
16rl
(a + b)2

14. A conductor with rectangular cross-section has


dimensions (a 2a 4a) as shown in figure.
Resistance across AB is R1, across CD is R2 and
across EF is R3. Then
2
k
e0
4
k
(c)
e0

2
k
e0
4
k
(d)
e0

(b)

(a)

11. If an electron enters into a space between the plates


of a parallel plate capacitor at an angle a with the
plates and leaves at an angle b to the plates, the ratio
of its kinetic energy while entering the capacitor to
that while leaving will be
sin b
(a)

sin a

cos b
(b)

cos a

sin a
(d)
sin b

cos a
(c)
cos b

2a
E

(a) R1 = R2 = R3
(c) R2 > R3 > R1

(b) R1 > R2 > R3


(d) R1 > R3 > R2

(a) x

x (b) x

52

R1 is 32 W
R2 is 35 W
total resistance of circuit is 48 W
total resistance of circuit is 75 W
Physics for you | November 15

4a

15. Four equal charges of magnitude q each are placed


at four corners of a square with its centre at origin
and lying in y-z plane. A fifth charge +Q is moved
along x-axis. The electrostatic potential energy (U)
varies on x-axis as shown in figure.

12. In the circuit shown in figure, the value of

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

(c) x

x (d) x

16. A number of condensers, each of the capacitance


1 mF and each one of which gets punctured if a
potential difference just exceeding 500 V is applied,
are provided. An arrangement suitable for giving
capacitance of 2 mF across which 3000 V may be
applied requires at least
(a) 6 component capacitors
(b) 12 component capacitors
(c) 72 component capacitors
(d) 2 component capacitors
17. A charge q is placed at the centroid of an equiliateral
triangle. Three charges equal to Q are placed at the
vertices of the triangle. The system of four charges
will be in equilibrium if q is equal to
(a) Q 3
(b) Q/3
(c) Q / 3

(d) Q/ 3

18. Consider a non-conducting shell as shown in figure.


Two point charges are inside the shell and two are
outside the shell. If we apply Gausss law over the

non-conducting shell as Gaussian surface, the E on


LHS of Gauss equation is due to
q2 q
(a) q1 and q2 alone
3
q1
(b) all charges q1, q2, q3 and q4
q4
(c) q1, q2 and q3 alone
(d) We cannot take the non-conducting shell as a
Gaussian surface
19. Three concentric spherical conductors are arranged
as shown in the figure. The potential at point P will
be
1 Q1 Q2 Q3
+
+
(a)
r
r
4 e0 r
(b)

1 Q1 + Q2 Q3
+
c
4 e0 r

Q3
Q2

Q1
C B A a

b
c

Q1 Q2 Q3
a + b + c
Q1 Q2 Q3
c + c + c

20. Two identical particles of charge q each are


connected by a massless spring of force constant k.
They are placed over a smooth horizontal surface.
They are released when the separation between
them is r and spring is unstretched. If maximum
extension of the spring is r, the value of k is (neglect
gravitational effect)
1
(c)
4 e0
1
(d)
4 e0

(a)
(b)
(c)

q2

8e0r 3

q2

4e0r 3
q2

(d)

e0r 3

4q 2

e0r 3

21. A ring of radius R is made out of a thin metallic wire


of area of cross section A. The ring has a uniform
charge Q distributed on it. A charge q0 is placed at
the centre of the ring. If Y is the Youngs modulus of
the material of the ring and DR is the change in the
radius of the ring then
q0Q
qQ
(a) DR =
(b) DR = 2 0
4e0 RAY
4 e RAY
0

q0Q

q0Q

(d) DR = 2
8 e0 RAY
82 e20 RAY
22. Uniform electric field exists in a region and is

given by E = E0 i + E0 j . There are four points


A(a, 0), B(0, a), C(a, 0) and D(0, a) lying in x y
plane. Which of the following is the correct relation
for the electric potential ?
(a) VA = VC > VB = VD (b) VA = VB > VC = VD
(c) VA > VC > VB = VD (d) VA < VC < VB < VD
(c) DR =

23. A circuit consists of a battery,


a resistor R and two light bulbs
A and B as shown in figure.
If the filament in light bulb
A burns out, then which
of the following is true for
light bulb B?
(a) It is turned off.
(b) Its brightness does not change.
(c) It gets dimmer. (d) It gets brighter.
24. Charges +q and q are
placed at points A and
B respectively which are
at distance 2L apart,
C is the midpoint between A and B. The work done
in moving a charge +Q along the semicircle CRD is
qQ
qQ
(a) 2 e L
(b) 6 e L
0
0
qQ
qQ
(c)
(d)
4 e0 L
6 e0 L
Physics for you | November 15

53

25. In the Wheatstone bridge shown in the figure, in


order to balance the bridge, we must have

(a) R1 = 3 W; R2 = 3 W
(b) R1 = 6 W; R2 = 15 W
(c) R1 = 1.5 W; R2 = any finite value
(d) R1 = 3 W; R2 = any finite value
26. A resistance of 4 W and a wire of length 5 m and
resistance 5 W are joined in series and connected
to a cell of emf 10 V and internal resistance 1 W.
A parallel combination of two identical cells is
balanced across 3 m of the wire. The emf E of each
cell is
(a) 1.5 V
(b) 3.0 V
(c) 0.67 V
(d) 1.33 V
27. In the circuit shown, A and V are ideal ammeter
and voltmeter respectively. Reading of the voltmeter
will be
2V
(a) 2V
(b) 1 V
A V
(c) 0.5 V
1 1
(d) zero
28. In the figure, a carbon resistor has bands of different
colours on it as shown in the figure. The value of the
resistance is
Red

Silver

White Brown

(a) (2.2 10%) kW


(c) (5.6 5%) kW

(b) (3.1 5%) kW


(d) (9.1 10%) kW

29. At room temperature (27C) the resistance of a


heating element is 100 W. What is the temperature
of the element if the resistance is found to be
117 W given that the temperature coefficient of the
material of the resistor is 1.70 104 C1 ?
(a) 300C
(b) 627C
(c) 1027C
(d) 1700C
54

Physics for you | November 15

30. Rated power of a bulb at voltage V is P. Now same


voltage V is applied in all conditions mentioned in
column I. Match this column I with column II in
which actual total power consumed is given.
Column I
P. Two bulbs are connected
in parallel.
Q. Two bulbs are connected
in series.
R. Two bulbs are conncected
in parallel and one bulb
in series with this
combination.
S. A group of two-two bulbs
in parallel are mutually
connected in series.
(a) P 2, Q 3, R 1, S 4
(b) P 3, Q 2, R 4, S 1
(c) P 2, Q 3, R 4, S 1
(d) P 3, Q 2, R 1, S 4

Column II
1.
P
2.

2P

3.

P
2

4.

2P
3

sOLUTIONs
1. (a) : Here, t = 2 mm, x = 1.6 mm
As potential difference remains the same, capacity
must remain the same.
1

\ x = t 1
K
1

1.6 = 2 1 , which gives K = 5


K
2. (b) : In the given circuit, potential at B = potential at D.
Therefore, points B and D can be joined together.
Due to it, the arm AB will be parallel to arm AD. The
arm BE will be parallel to arm ED and arm BC will
be parallel to arm CD. The equivalent circuit will be
as shown in figure.
The resistance of arm BE is parallel to resistance of
arm BCE. The effective resistance between B and E
R R

+ R
3R
=
= 2 2
R R
8
+ + R

2
2

Resistance of arm ABE


R 3R 7 R
= +
=
2 8
8
7R

V0
+ R
8
15V0
\ Current, I =
=
7R
7R
R
8
3. (b) : In equilibrium, electrostatic force of attraction
between the plates = restoring force in the string
q2
= kx
2e0 A

7. (d) : Given, e = 2.1 V, r = 0.05 W, t = 5 s, R = 0.02 W,


m = 1 g and s = 0.1 cal g1C1
As per question,

or

(CV )2
= k(d 0.8d ) = 0.2kd
2e 0 A

C 2V 2
2e0 A(0.2d )
e A
Now C = 0
0.8d
\

k=

k=

DT = 214C
8. (b) :

e20 A2

4e0 AV 2
V2
=
0.64d 2 2e0 A(0.2d )
d3

4. (d) : According to option (d), electric fields at O, due


to P and S will cancel. Again electric fields at O due
to Q and T will cancel. Electric fields at O due to U
and R will add up to give double the electric field.
5. (c) : From conservation of mechanical energy, we
have decrease in gravitational potential energy
= increase in kinetic energy.
or

I 2 Rt
4. 2
2
e

Rt
m s DT = R + r
4. 2
2.1 2.1 0.02 5
1 0.1 DT =

0.07 0.07
4. 2
90
900
DT =
=
0 . 1 4 . 2 4. 2
m s DT =

q q 1 1
1 2
mv = U i U f = 1 2

2
4 e0 ri r f

For sphere 1, in equilibrium


T1 cos q1 = M1g
and T2 sin q1 = F1
F
\ tan q1 = 1
M1 g

F2
M2 g
F is same on both the charges, so q will be same
only if their masses are equal.
9. (c) :
Similarly for sphere 2, tan q2 =

q q r f ri
= 1 2
4e0 ri r f
or
=

v=

q1q2 r f ri
2e0m ri r f

(9.1 106 )(0.42 106 ) 2 9 109 0.24 0.96


(0.24)(0.96)
3.2 104

= 26 m s1

6. (d) : Drift velocity in a copper conductor


I
5. 4
v=
=
28
neA 8.4 10 1.6 1019 106
= 0.4 103 m s1 = 0.4 mm s1

Heat produced = Ui Uf
= (U1 + U2) U2 = U1
=

kq2
q2
q2
=
=
2C

a 2a 4a
2 4 e0
a a
2

{ }

10. (b) : Using principle of superposition of electric


field, the total electric field intensity at P due to
various plane sheets of charge will be
Physics for you | November 15

55

EP =
(k ) +
( k ) +
(k )
2e 0
2e 0
2e 0
2
= k
e0

11. (b) : Suppose,


u = velocity of electron while entering the field
v = velocity of electron while leaving the field
As electric field is perpendicular to the plates,
component of velocity parallel to plates will remain
unchanged.
\ u cos a = v cos b
2
Ke u2 cos b
u cos b
=
\
=
=
or

v cos a
K l v 2 cos a
12. (c) : Potential difference across C and D
= 0.05 120 = 6 V
Potential difference across B and E = Potential
difference across C and D = 6 V
6
\ R2 =
= 30 W
0. 2
Potential difference across R1 = 12 6 = 6 V
= (0.05 + 0.2) R1
6
= 24 W
or R1 =
0.25
Total resistance of the circuit
R R
30 120
= R1 + 2 3 = 24 +
= 48 W
R2 + R3
30 + 120
13. (b) : Area of cross-section of the conical wire,
A = geometric mean of the area of two end faces
of the wire, i.e.,
a2 b2 ab

=
4
4
4
\ Resistance of conical wire,
A=

R=

rl
rl
4rl
=
=
A ab / 4 ab

rl
14. (b) : As R =
A
So R1 =

r(4a) 2r
=
(2a)(a) a

15. (c) : At the centre of the square, net force on +Q


is zero. But at x = 0, the charge
U
+Q is in unstable equilibrium.
Therefore, potential energy
is maximum. On either side
of x-axis, potential energy
x
x
O
decreases as shown in figure.
16. (c) : Minimum number of condensers in each row
= 3000/500 = 6.
If Cs is capacity of 6 condensers in a row,
1 1 1 1 1 1
= + + + + =6
Cs 1 1 1 1 1
1
or Cs = mF
6
Let there be m such rows in parallel.
Total capacity = m Cs
1
or 2 = m
\ m = 12
6
17. (c)
qin
18. (b) : In Gauss theorem,
E
dS = e0

The E on LHS of equation, i.e., the E at any point


on surface is due to all the charges present in space.

Here, only four point charges are given, so E is due


to all four charges.
19. (b) : Point P is outside the spheres A and B and
inside C. By applying principle of superposition,
potential at point P,
Q3
Q1
Q2
V=
+
+
4 e0r 4 e0r 4 e0c
20. (b) : By conservation of energy
q2
1 2
1 q2 q2
kr =
=

2
4 e0 r r + r
8 e0r

56

r(a)
r
=
\ R1 > R2 > R3
(4a)(2a) 8a

Physics for you | November 15

q2

4e0r 3

Q
21. (d) : Linear charge density of ring, =
2 R
q
qQ
F = 0 = 20 2
4 e0 R 8 e0 R

r(2a)
r
R2 =
=
(4a)(a) 2a
and R3 =

k=

F
Stress
Y=
= A
Strain DR
R
q0Q
DR =
82 e0 RAY

22. (b) : Since potential decreases along electric field as


E0
D

E0

E=

25. (d) : The bridge ABCD is balanced if


10 30
=
or R1 = 3 W
R1 9
When this bridge is balanced, no current flows in
arm BD. Therefore, R2 can have any finite value.

dV
dx

\ VA > VC and VB > VD


Also due to symmetry
VA = VB, VC = VD
\ VA = VB > VC = VD
23. (d) :

2
I 2r
I
; P = I 2 r
P1 = r =
2
4 2

P1 =

1 q 1
q
1 =

4 e0 L 3 6 e0 L
Work done in moving charge +Q along the
semicircle CRD is given by
q

qQ
W = [VD VC ](+Q) =
0 (Q) =
6 e0 L
6 e0 L
=

e2 r
e r
e
=
;P =
r

r 4 (2R + r )2 2 R + r
R +
2
2

P2 2R + r
=
> 1 or P2 > P1
P1 R + r

26. (b) : For potentiometer,


emf E l
or E = kl
where k is a constant.
IR
Also E =
l
L
E
R
\ E=
l
(R1 + R2 + r ) L
10
5
\ E=
3=3V
5 + 4 +1 5
27. (d) : Resistance in parallel with voltmeter is zero.
28. (d)
R R0
,
29. (c) : Using the relation, a = T
R0 DT
a=

So bulb B will become brighter.


R

24. (c) :
+q

or
or

q
C

2L

From figure, AC = BD = BC = L
\ AD = 3L
Potential at C is given by
1 q (q )
1 q q
VC =
+
=

=0

4 e0 AC BC 4 e0 L L
Potential at D is given by
VD =

1 q (q )
1 q q
+
=

4 e0 AD BD 4 e0 3L L

RT R27
R27 (T 27)

R R27
117 100
= 1000
=
T 27 = T
R27 a 100 1.7 104
t = 27 + 1000 = 1027C

30. (c) : Let the resistance of bulb be R,


V2
R
R
2V 2
Now, RP = , \ PP =
= 2P
2
R
\

P=

RQ = 2R, \ PQ =

V2 P
=
2R 2

3R
2V 2 2P
, \ PR =
=
2
3R
3
V2
RS = R, \ PS =
=P
R
RR =

Physics for you | November 15

nn
57

JEE

ADVANCED

PRACTICE PAPER

2 16
CLASS

XII

Section-1

one integer Value correct Type


This section contains 6 questions. Each question, when worked
out will result in one integer from 0 to 9 (both inclusive).

1. The given figure shows


two identical parallel-plate
capacitors A and B connected
to a battery with the switch
S closed. The switch is now
opened and the free space between the plates of
the capacitors is filled with a dielectric of dielectric
constant 3. The ratio of the electrostatic energies
stored in both the capacitors before and after
introduction of the dielectric is x : 10. Find the
value of x.
2. An equiconvex air lens of radius of curvature
10 cm is made in an extended glass medium having
refractive index m = 3/2. Find the refractive index of
the material to be filled in, so that the power of the
lens changes without change in its magnitude.
3. A vibration magnetometer consists of two identical
bar magnets placed one over the other such that
they are mutually perpendicular and bisect each
other. The time period of oscillation in a horizontal
magnetic field is 4 s. If one of the magnets is taken
away, the period of oscillation of the other in the
same field is 2x/4 s. Find the value of x.
4. A particle is uncharged and is thrown vertically
upward from ground level with a speed of

5 5 m s 1. As a result, it attains a maximum


height h. The particle is then given a positive
charge +q and reaches the same maximum height
h when thrown vertically upward with a speed of
13 m s1. Finally, the particle is given a negative

58

Physics for you | november 15

charge q. Ignoring air resistance, determine the speed


(in m s1) with which the negatively charged particle
must be thrown vertically upward, so that it attains
exactly the same maximum height h ?
5. A neutron of energy 2 meV and mass 1.61027 kg
passes a proton at such a distance that the angular
momentum of neutron relative to proton approximately
equals 41034 J s. The distance of closest approach
neglecting the interaction between particles is given by
a31016 m. Find the value of a.
6. Twelve identical resistors of
resistance R each
are
connected as shown in the
figure.
A
Equivalent resistance
between points A and E is
xR . Find the value of x.
12

B
F
G

H
D

Section-2

one or More Than one options correct Type


This section contains 6 multiple choice questions. Each
question has four choices (a), (b), (c) and (d) out of which
ONE or MORE THAN ONE are correct.

7. Two conducting spheres of radii R and 3R carry


charges Q and 2Q. Between these spheres a neutral
conducting sphere of radius 2R is connected. The
separation between the sphere is considerably large.
Then

(a) The final charge on initially neutral conducting


Q
sphere is .
3
(b) The decrease in electric potential energy of
sphere of radius R is

35kQ 2 .
72R

(c) The decrease in electric potential energy of

37kQ 2 .
72R
(d) The final electric potential on sphere of radius
kQ .
3R will be
6R
sphere of radius R is

8. In the given circuit, R1R4 = R2R3.


Then choose the correct
statement(s).
(a) If positions of battery
and galvanometer are
interchanged, then
galvanometer will still
show zero deflection.
(b) Rate of heat dissipation through R1 will change
if position of battery and galvanometer are
interchanged.
(c) If emf e is doubled, still no deflection is shown
by galvanometer.
(d) If galvanometer is not ideal, it will show
deflection if emf is doubled.
9. A lens made from a material of refractive index 1.5
behaves as a converging lens in air. When placed in
liquid of refractive index 8/5, it will
(a) still behave as a converging lens
(b) behave as a diverging lens
(c) have its focal length increased
(d) have its focal length decreased
10. Figure shows a square loop of side 10 cm in the x-y
plane with its centre at the origin. An infinite wire
is at z = 12 cm above y-axis.

Which of the following statements are correct ?


(a) Resultant magnetic force on loop due to infinite
wire is 6 103 N.
(b) magnetic force on wire segment AB due to
infinite wire is in positive x-direction.
(c) magnetic force on wire segment CD due to
infinite wire is in negative x-direction.
(d) Torque on loop due to magnetic force is
7.2 105 N m.
11. The switches in figures (a) and (b) are closed at t = 0.
Then

(a) The charge on C just after t = 0 is eC.


(b) The charge on C long after t = 0 is eC.
(c) The current in L just after t = 0 is e/R.
(d) The current in L long after t = 0 is e/R.
12. A microammeter has a resistance of 100 and a full
scale range of 50 mA. It can be used as a voltmeter
or as a higher range ammeter provided a resistance
is added to it. Pick the correct range and resistance
combinations(s).
(a) 50 V range with 10 k resistance in series.
(b) 10 V range with 200 k resistance in series.
(c) 5 mA range with 1 resistance in parallel.
(d) 10 mA range with 1 resistance in parallel.
Section-3

comprehension Type (only one option correct)


This section contains 1 paragraph, describing theory,
experiments, data etc. Two questions relate to the paragraph.
Each question has only one correct answer among the four
given options (a), (b), (c) and (d).

Paragraph for Question Nos. 13 and 14


Uniform electric and magnetic fields with strength
E and induction B, respectively, are along y-axis as
shown in figure. A particle with specific charge q/m
leaves the origin O in the direction of x-axis with an
initial non-relativistic velocity v0.
Physics for you | november 15

59

13. The coordinate yn of the particle when it crosses the


y-axis for the nth time is

(c)

qB2
2 2 mn2 E

(d)

3qB2

3.

Deviation in the
light ray is equal
to 90

S.

60
n=1 i

mn E
qB2
32 mn2 E
qB2

14. The angle a between the particles velocity vector


and velocity along y-axis at that moment is
3v B
(a) tan 1 0
2 nE

v B
(b) tan 1 0
nE

1 v0 B
(c) tan
2 nE

v B
(d) tan 1 0
2 nE

This section contains 1 question, having two matching


lists. Choices for the correct combination of elements from
Column-I and Column-II are given as options (a), (b), (c) and
(d), out of which one is correct.

15. match the columns if deviation in the column II is


the magnitude of total deviation (between incident
ray and finally refracted or reflected ray) to lie
between 0 and 180. Here n represents refractive
index of medium.
Column II
1.

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

P
1,4
2,4
1
2

Q
2
1
2,4
3,4

R
3,4
1,4
2
3

S
2
3
1,4
2,4

SolutionS
1. (6) Charge on capacitor A, qA = CV
1
1
U i = CV 2 + CV 2 = CV 2
2
2
When S is opened, capacitor B will be disconnected
from the battery while capacitor A will remain
connected to the battery. In such a case, potential
difference across A remains the same , V while
the charge on B remains the same i.e., CV.
Since the space between the plates of the capacitors
A and B is filled with a dielectric of dielectric
constant k(=3), capacitance of each capacitor is kC.
1
(CV )2
U f = UA + UB = (kC )V 2 +
2
2(kC )

Deviation in the
light ray is greater
than 90

1
1 1

1 5
= CV 2 k + = CV 2 3 + = CV 2

2
k
2
3 3
Thus,

60

60

Codes

Matching List Type

P.

4.

Charge on capacitor B, qB = CV

Section-4

Column I

60

Speed of finally
reflected
or
refracted
light
is
i em
erg
same
as
speed
of
en
tr
ay
incident light.

n= 2

n=2

en
t ra
y

(b)

R.

nc
id

2 mn E

Deviation in the
light ray is less
than 90

zin
gi

2.

gra

(a)

Q.

Physics for you | november 15

Ui
3 x
CV 2
=
= =
x=6
2
5 10
U f (5 / 3)CV

2. (2) When no matter was filled, it behaves like an air


lens.

1
1 ma
1 2 1
1
= 1 +
=
1

f m g
R
R
3
10
10
1
2

f = 15 cm, i.e., divergent lens of focal length


15 cm. In opposite case, it will behave as
convergent lens of focal length 15 cm.
Let mm be the refractive index of the material to be
filled.
1 mm 1
1
=
1

f m g
R
R

1
2

v23

(Using eqn. (i))

= 250 169 = 81 v 3 = 9 m s1

5. (5) : L = mvlmin = 2mK lmin


L
lmin =
2mK
4 1034
=
2 1.6 1027 2 106 1.6 1019
= 1.25 1014 m = 125 1016 m
a3 = 125 or a = 5
6. (7) Points B and D have same potential, similarly F
and H have same potential. The equivalent circuit is
shown in figure.

1 1
2m
= m 1 +
10 10
3

1 2
1
mv3 = 2mgh mv22
2
2
v32 = 2v12 v22

1 2m m 1
=
1 m m = 2
5
15 3

3. (7) Time period of angular SHm of a dipole in a


magnetic field,
I
MB

T = 2

...(i)

Initially there are two identical dipoles at right angles


to each other, so resultant magnetic moment,
M0 = M 2 + M 2 = 2 M
and I 0 = I + I = 2 I
So, T0 = 2

2I
( 2 )MB

= 2

( 2 )I
MB

...(ii)

And when one magnet is taken away, the other will


oscillate with period given by eqn (i), so dividing
eqn (i) by (ii),
T
1
= 1/ 4
T0 (2)
or
4. (9)

T=

T0

1/ 4

(2)

1/ 4

(2)

= 27 / 4 s

1 2
mv = mgh
2 1
1 2
mv = mgh + qEh
2 2
1 2
mv = mgh qEh
2 3

...(i)
...(ii)

The equivalent resistance of network is 7R/12.


7. (a, b, d) : Finally, potential on all spheres will be equal.
kQ1 kQ2 kQ3
i.e.,
=
=
R
2R
3R
and Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = (Q) + (2Q) = Q
Q
Q
Q
, Q2 =
, Q3 =
Q1 =
6
3
2
Change in electric potential energy of sphere of
radius R = Ui Uf
k
k
(qi )2 (q f )2
2R
2R
2

k
35kQ 2
2 Q
=
Q
=
2R
36
72R
Potential on sphere of radius 3R
k Q
kQ
=
=
3R
2
6R
=

8. (a, b, c) : On interchanging galvanometer and


battery, since still R1R4 = R2R3,
i.e. Wheatstone bridge condition is satisfied.

...(iii)

From equations (ii) and (iii)


Physics for you | november 15

61

No deflection in galvanometer.
Initially current through R1 is
e
I1 =
R1 + R2
Now current through R1 after interchanging
e
I2 =
R1 + R3
Since current has changed,
Rate of heat dissipation changes.
Since current through galvanometer is zero,
It will always show zero deflection for any
value of emf.
9. (b, c) As per lens makers formula,
1
1
1
= ( a m g 1)
fa
R1 R2
fa = focal length of lens in air

L
1
1 ( m g 1) 1
1
L
= ( m g 1) = a
fL
R1 R2 ( m g 1) f a
3/2
15
1

1 1

1
1 1
8/5
=
= 16
= .
1
fa
8 fa
3 f
1 a
2
2

f L = 8 fa
10. (a, d)
11. (b, d) : As switch in figure (a) is closed, capacitor
starts charging such that charge on C at any time t
is given by
q = eC (1 e t /CR ) .

Charge on C just after t = 0 is zero and long


after t = 0 (t ) is C.
As switch in figure (b) is closed, that grows a current
such that current in L at any time t is
e (
I=
1 e tR / L ) .
R
Current in L just after t = 0 is zero and long after
e
t = 0 (t ) is .
R
12. (b, c) : In order to increase the range of ammeter,
a low resistance is connected in parallel with the
ammeter. Let S be the low resistance.


62

Ig
Ig
S
=
or S = G
I Ig
G I Ig

or S = (100)

50 106
5 103 50 106

Physics for you | november 15

or

100 50 106

5 103
Option (c) is correct.

or S = 1 .

In order to change ammeter into a voltmeter, a high


resistance is connected in series with the ammeter.
Let the high resistance be R.
I g (R + G ) = V

V
10
G or R =
100
Ig
50 106

or

R=

or

R = 200 k 100 or R 200 k

Option (b) is correct.


13. (a) : Particles acceleration is in y-direction,
dv y qE
=
= constant
dt
m
The motion of the particle is equivalent to circular
motion in xz plane with uniform acceleration in
y-direction.
Hence, v02 = v x2 + v z2 = constant
The magnetic force cannot change the magnitude
of v0 .
qE
The y-component of velocity, vy =
t
m
1 qE 2
t
2 m
The time period of circular motion in xz plane,
2m
T=
qB
The particle crosses y-axis after n rotations, then
2mn
t = nT =
qB
2
qE 2 mn
2 2 mn2 E
Thus, yn =

=
2m qB
qB2
The y-coordinate at time t, y =

qE 2 mn 2 nE
14. (d): As v y = a y t =
=
m qB
B
Thus, tan a =

v0
v B
= 0
vy 2 nE

1 v0 B

a = tan
2 nE

15. (a): P 1, 4 ; Q 2 ; R 3, 4 ; S 2

nn

Physics for you | november 15

63

Series 3
CHAPTERWISE UNIT TEST : Gravitation | Properties of Matter
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)

All questions are compulsory.


Q. no. 1 to 5 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each.
Q. no. 6 to 10 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each.
Q. no. 11 to 17 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each.
Q. no. 18 is a value based question and carries 4 marks.
Q. no. 19 and 20 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each.
Use log tables if necessary, use of calculators is not allowed.

1. A person sitting in a satellite of Earth feels


weightlessness but a person standing on Moon has
weight though Moon is also a satellite of Earth. Why?
2. A wire of length L and cross-sectional area A is
made of material of Youngs modulus Y. What is the
work done in stretching the wire by an amount x?
3. The velocity of water in a river is less on the bank
and large in the middle; why?
4. A blackened platinum wire, when gradually heated,
first appears dull red, then blue and finally white.
Explain why.
5. Why iron rims are heated red hot before being put
on the cart wheels?
6. When the tension in a metal wire is T1, its length is
l1. When the tension is T2, its length is l2. Find the
natural length of wire.
7. The excess pressure inside a soap bubble is thrice
the excess pressure inside a second soap bubble.
What is the ratio between the volume of the first
and the second bubble?
8. A simple pendulum has a time period T1 on the
earths surface, and T2 when taken to a height R
above the earths surface, where R is the radius of
the earth. What will be the value of T2/T1?
64

Physics for you | november 15

OR
An astronaut on the Moon measures the acceleration
due to gravity to be 1.7 m s2. He knows that the
radius of the Moon is about 0.27 times that of the
Earth. What is his estimate of the ratio of the mass
of the Earth to that of the Moon? (Take, acceleration
due to gravity on the Earths surface as 9.8 m s2)
9. A cable is replaced by another of the same length
and material but of twice the diameter. (a) How
does this affect its elongation under a given load?
(b) How many times will be the maximum load
it can now support without exceeding the elastic
limit?
10. Explain why:
(i) A balloon filled with helium does not rise in
air indefinitely but halts after a certain height
(Neglect winds).
(ii) The force required by a man to raise his limbs
immersed in water is smaller than the force for
the same movement in air.
11. If an isotropic solid has coefficients of linear
expansion, ax, ay and az for three mutually
perpendicular directions in the solid, what is the
coefficient of volume expansion for the solid?

12. A solid sphere of uniform density and radius R exerts


a gravitational force of attraction F1 on a particle
placed at P. The distance of P from the centre of the
R
sphere is 2R. A spherical cavity of radius is now
2
made in the sphere. The sphere (with cavity) exerts
a gravitational force F2 on the same particle at P.
F
Calculate the ratio 1 .
F2

R/2
O

14. Three capillary tubes of same radius r but of lengths


l1, l2 and l3 are fitted horizontally to the bottom of a
long cylinder containing a liquid at a constant head
and flowing through these tubes. Find the length of
the single overflow tube of the same radius r which
can replace the three capillaries.
15. (a) Is it necessary that all black coloured objects
should be considered black bodies?
(b) Due to the change in mains voltage, the
temperature of an electric bulb rises from 3000 K
to 4000 K. What is the percentage rise in electric
power consumed?
OR
(a) The line that joins the Saturn to the Sun sweeps
areas A1, A2 and A3 in time intervals of 6 weeks,
3 weeks and 2 weeks respectively as shown in the
figure. What is the correct relation between A1, A2
and A3?
3 weeks
A2

Sun
Saturn

stress F / A
F l
=
=
strain Dl / l A(Dl)
The value of E depends upon nature of material. A
material with higher value of E is said to be more
elastic.
(i) Which is more elastic, steel or rubber? Why?
(ii) What values of life do you learn from this
concept?
19. The distance between the centres of two stars is
10 a. The masses of these stars are M and 16 M and
their radii a and 2a respectively. A body of mass
m is fired straight from the surface of the larger
star towards the smaller star. What should be its
minimum initial speed to reach the surface of the
smaller star? Obtain the expression in terms of G,
M and a.
OR
A steel wire of length 2l is clamped between two
points P and Q which are 2l apart. A body of
mass M is suspended exactly from the middle of
the wire. The cross-sectional area of the wire is A
and its Youngs modulus is Y. In the equilibrium
position, each half of the steel wire is inclined with
the horizontal at an angle q. Find q.
20. A sphere is dropped under gravity through a fluid
of viscosity h. Taking the average acceleration as
half of the initial acceleration, show that the time
to attain the terminal velocity is independent of the
fluid density.
OR
Two rods of different materials having the same area
of cross-section A are placed end to end between
E=

2R

13. A box-shaped piece of gelatin dessert has a top area


of 15 cm2 and a height of 3 cm. When a shearing
force of 0.50 N is applied to the upper surface, the
upper surface displaces 4 mm relative to the bottom
surface. What are the shearing stress, shearing strain
and the shear modulus for the gelatin?

6 weeks A1

(b) The time period of a satellite of Earth is 5 hours.


What will be time period if the separation between
the Earth and the satellite is increased to 4 times the
previous value?
16. Find the velocity of efflux of water from an orifice
near the bottom of a tank in which pressure is
500 gf/sq cm above atmosphere.
17. A drop of liquid of density r is floating
half-immersed in a liquid of density d. If S is the
surface tension, then what is the diameter of the
drop of the liquid?
18. Read the passage and answer the following questions.
The property of a body by virtue of which it tends
to regain its original configuration as soon as the
deforming forces applied on the body are removed
is called elasticity. Coefficient of elasticity,

A3

2 weeks

Physics for you | november 15

65

two massive walls. The first rod has a length l1,


coefficient of linear expansion a1 and Youngs
modulus Y1. The corresponding quantities for the
second rod are l1, a2 and Y2. The temperature of
both the rods is now raised by T degrees.
(a) Find the force with which the rods act on each
other at the higher temperature.
(b) Also calculate the length of the rods at the
higher temperature.
solutions

1. When a person is sitting in an artificial satellite


of Earth, the gravitational attraction on him due
to Earth (i.e., his weight on Earth) provides the
necessary centripetal force. Since the net force acting
on him is zero, the person feels weightless. But when
he is standing on Moon, the gravitational attraction
acting on him due to Moon, is left unbalanced,
which accounts for his weight on Moon.
2. Work done = elastic potential energy of stretched wire
1
= Y (strain)2 volume
2
2
1
x
YAx 2
= Y
(A L) =
2
L
2L
3. In the river, water flows in the form of streams.
The force of adhesion is less on the streams in the
middle of river than those near the bank. Due to it,
the velocity of streams near the bank is least and is
maximum in the middle of river.

()

l1 l T1
If tension is T2, then
l2 l T2
l1 l T1
=
or l1T2 lT2 = l2T1 lT1
l2 l T2
or

l(T1 T2) = l2T1 l1T2

or

l=

4S 3 4S
=
r1
r2
or r2 = 3r1
4 3
3
3
r
\ V1 = 3 1 = r1 = 1 = 1 : 27
V2 4 3 r2 3
r
3 2
8. When pendulum is on the earths surface,

\
66

F
= constant or Dl F
Dl
If tension is T1, then
Physics for you | november 15

4S
r

g1 =

GM
R2

When pendulum is at a height equal to R,


g2 =

or

Excess pressure inside a soap bubble, P =

5. The radius of the iron rim is smaller than the radius


of the cart wheel. When the iron rim is heated,
its size becomes larger than the wheel. After the
rim has been planted on the wheel and is allowed
to cool, it fits tightly on the wheel due to thermal
contraction.

Q Y, l and A are constants,

l2T1 l1T2 l1T2 l2T1


=
T2 T1
T1 T2

7. Given : P1 = 3P2

Fl
ADl

...(ii)

Dividing eqn. (i) from eqn. (ii)

4. According to Wiens displacement law, when


blackened platinum wire is gradually heated, it first
emits radiations of longer wavelengths, so it appears
red. At higher temperatures, it emits blue radiations
more strongly than red and appears blue. At very
high temperatures, it emits all radiations strongly
and appears white.

6. Y =

...(i)

GM g 1
=
(2R)2 4

As T2 = 2

T2
=
T1

l
l
and T1 = 2
g2
g1
g1
=
g2

g1
=2
g1 / 4

OR
g e M e Rm 2
GM e
GM m
ge =
;
g
=
\ g = 2M
m
Re
m
m
Re 2
Rm 2
2
9.8 Re 2
Me
g R 2 9.8 Re
= e e2=
=
M m g mRm 1.7 Rm 2
1.7 (0.27 Re )2
9. 8
=
79
1.7 0.27 0.27

9. (a) Youngs modulus,


4 Mgl
Mgl
Mgl
=
Y= 2
=
2
r Dl
D 2 Dl
D
Dl

2
where D is the diameter of the wire.

()

4 Mgl
1
i.e., Dl 2
2
D Y
D
Clearly, if the diameter is doubled, the elongation
will become one-fourth.
D 2 Dl Y
i.e., Mg D 2
(b) Load, Mg =
4l
Clearly, if the diameter is doubled, the wire can
support 4 times the original load.
Elongation, Dl =

10. (i) A balloon filled with helium goes on rising in


air as long as the weight of the air displaced by it
(i.e., upthrust) is greater than the weight of filled
balloon. We know that the density of air decreases
with height. Therefore, the balloon halts after
attaining a height at which density of air is such that
the weight of air displaced just equals the weight of
helium filled balloon.
(ii) Water exerts much more upthrust on the limbs
of man than air. So the net weight of limbs in water is
much less than that in air. Hence the force required
by a man to raise his limbs immersed in water is
smaller than the force for the same movement in
air.
11. Lx = L0(1 + ax DT), Ly = L0(1 + ay DT)
and Lz = L0(1 + az DT)
Thus, V = LxLyLz

= L03(1 + ax DT)(1 + ay DT)(1 + az DT)


Neglecting higher order terms such as axay, ayaz,
azax and axayaz, we get
V = V0[1 + (ax + ay + az) DT]
\ Coefficient of volume expansion of the solid
= ax + ay + az

12. F1 =

GMm GMm
=
(2R)2
4R 2

4 R
1
Mass removed, M = r = M
3 2
8
Force due to hollow sphere,
F2 = Force due to solid sphere Force due to
removed mass
M
GMm G 8 m

F2 =
2
4R 2
3R
2
or

F2 =

GMm 1
4

R 2 4 9 8

or

F2 =

GMm 1 1

R 2 4 18

F2 =

GMm 9 2
R 2 36

7 GMm
36 R 2
F 9
F GMm 36R 2
Now, 1 =
1=

2
F
7
7
F2
GMm
4R
2
or

F2 =

13. A = 15 104 m2, l = 3 102 m, F = 0.50 N,


Dl = 4 103 m
F
0.50
Stress = =
N m 2 = 333.3 N m2
A 15 10 4
3
Dl 4 10
Strain = =
= 0.133

l 3 10 2
Shear modulus,
3 10 2
stress
0.50
=
=

N m 2
strain 15 10 4 4 10 3
1. 5
=
105 N m 2 = 2500 N m 2
60
4

4
Pr
Pr 4
14. V1 = Pr , V2 =
...(i)
and V3 =
8hl1
8h l2
8h l3
Total rate of flow,
V = V1 + V2 + V3
...(ii)
If l be the length of the single overflow tube, then

Pr 4
8h l
From eqns. (i), (ii) and (iii),
V=

...(iii)

Pr 4 Pr 4 1 1 1
=
+ +
8h l
8h l1 l2 l3
or

4
Now, mass of complete sphere, M = R 3r
3

( )
( )

or

1 1 1 1
= + +
l l1 l2 l3

or l =

l1l2l3
l1l2 + l2l3 + l3l1

15. (a) No, it is not necessary that all black coloured


objects should be considered as black bodies. For
example, if we take a black surface which is highly
polished, it will not behave as a perfect black body.
On the other hand, the sun, which is a shining hot
sphere, behaves as perfect black body.
(b) Electric power consumed in first case,
P1 = sT14 = s(3000)4
Electric power consumed in second case,
P2 = sT24 = s(4000)4
4
\ P2 = (4000) = 256
P1 (3000)4 81
Physics for you | november 15

67

18. (i) Steel is more elastic than rubber.

P2 P1 P2
256
175
= 1=
1=
P1
P1
81
81
\

Percentage rise in power


P P
175
= 2 1 100% =
100% = 216%
81
P

1
OR
(a) According to Keplers second law, the areal
velocity of planet around the sun is constant.
Therefore,
A1 > A2 > A3 and A1= 2A2, A1 = 3A3.
(b) Here, time period of a satellite of Earth is 5 h.
By Keplers third law,
...(i)
T2 r3
If separation is increased to 4 times, then time
period, T2 (4r)3
...(ii)
Dividing eqn. (ii) by eqn. (i)
T 2 (4r)3 T 2
T
= 3 , 2 = 64 or
=8
2
T
T
r
T
\ T = 8 T = 8 5 = 40 h

This is because E

Under a given deforming force F,


(Dl)steel < (Dl)rubber
\ Esteel > Erubber
(ii) In day to day life, elasticity corresponds to
adjustability of the person, which depends on his
nature.
stress
stress
From, E =
, we find, strain =
.
strain
E
For a given stress in life, strain will be minimum
when E is maximum. It implies that a person with
adjustable/flexible nature will undergo minimum
strain (tension) due to stresses (ups and downs) of
life.
19. Let the gravitational field due to the two stars be
zero at some point O lying at a distance x from the
centre of smaller star.
10a

16. Pressure at orifice, P = 500 gf cm


500
=
9.8 (100)2 N m 2 = 500 98 N m 2
1000
Let h be the depth of orifice below the surface.
As, P = h r g,
P 500 98
\ h=
=
=5m
rg 103 9.8
The velocity of efflux,
v = 2 gh = 2 9.8 5 = 9.899 m s 1
17. As per question,
Force due to surface tension + weight of liquid
displaced = Weight of liquid drop
1 4 3
4
r dg = r 3 rg
2 3
3
3
r g
2rS =
[4r 2d]
3
3 2S
r2 =
g[4r 2d]
3S
r2 =
g (2r d)

\ 2rS +
or
or
or

68

3S
g (2r d)

or

r=

Diameter = 2r =

12S
g (2r d)

Physics for you | november 15

1
(Dl)

8a

m
O

a
x

2a

16 M

Threshold

Then,
(16 M)m
Mm
G 2 =G
(10 a x)2
x
1
16
=
or
2
x
(10 a x)2
or 16x2 = (10a x)2
or 4x = (10a x)
The negative sign is inadmissible, so x = 2a
The body of mass m when fired from point P lying on
the surface of heavier star must cross the threshold
(the point O), otherwise it would return back.
The gravitational potential energies when the body
of mass m lies at positions P and O are given by
65 GMm
GMm G 16 M m
Up =

=
8a
2a
8a
G

16
M

m
5
GMm
GMm
Uo =

=
2a
8a
2a
\ Increase in potential energy,
5 GMm 65 GMm 45 GMm
DU = U p U o =
+
=
2a
8a
8a
If v is the minimum speed with which the body is
fired from P so as to reach O, then

45 GMm
1 2
mv = DU =
2
8a
or

v=

45 GM 3 5 GM
=
4 a
2
a
OR

Clearly, T sin q + T sin q = Mg


or 2T sin q = Mg
Mg
or T =
...(i)
2 sin q
T
Mg
Stress = =
...(ii)
A 2 A sin q
Change in length = PCQ PQ = 2CP PQ
=

1 cos q
2l
2l = 2l
cos q
cos q

OP
l
l

as cos q = CP = CP or CP = cos q
2l(1 cos q) / cos q
Longitudinal strain =
2l
1 cos q
=
cos q
stress
As, Y =
longitudinal strain
Mg cos q
2A sin q (1 cos q)
Mg
Mg
or Y =
= 3
2
2A(q) (q / 2) Aq
[as q is small, sin q q, cos q 1,
(1 cos q) = 2 sin2 (q/2) 2(q/2)2 q2/2]
or

Y=

( )

1/3

Mg
Mg
q3 =
or q =
YA
YA
20. Let r = radius of the sphere
r, s = densities of the sphere and fluid respectively
a = initial acceleration of the sphere when it just
enters the fluid
vt = terminal velocity of the sphere
Net downward force (F) acting on the sphere as it
just enters the fluid
or

70

Physics for you | november 15

= weight of the sphere weight of the fluid displaced


by the sphere
i.e., F = 4 r 3 rg 4 r 3 sg = 4 r 3 g(r s)
3
3
3
4 3
r g (r s) (r s)g
F
Thus, a = = 3
=
r
m
4 3
rr
3
When the sphere attains terminal velocity, its
acceleration becomes zero. Thus,
a+0 a
average acceleration =
=
2
2
Let t be the time taken by the sphere to attain
terminal velocity (vt)
at
From v = v0 + at, vt =
2
(as initial velocity v0 of the sphere is zero, v = vt)
2r 2(r s)g
2
4r 2r
2v

9h
or t = t =
=
9h
a
(r s)g / r
Hence, t is independent of s (the fluid density).
OR
(a) When heated in free state, total expansion,
Dl = Dl1 + Dl2
or Dl = a1l1T + a2l2T = (a1l1 + a2l2)T
When the rod are placed end to end between the
massive walls and if Dl1 and Dl2 are the compressions
in the two rods,
Fl
Fl
Dl1 = 1 , Dl2 = 2
AY1
AY2
Fl
l
Total compression = Dl1 + Dl2 = 1 + 2
A Y1 Y2
Since the total length remains unchanged,
Dl1 + Dl2 = Dl1 + Dl2
or

F l1 l2
+
= (a1l1 + a 2l2)T
A Y1 Y2

or

F=

AT (a1l1 + a 2l2)
(l1 / Y1 + l2 / Y2)

(b) Length of the first rod at TC,


= l1 + Dl1 Dl1
Fl
= l1 + a1l1T 1
AY1
l T (a l + a 2l2)
= l1 + a1l1T 1 1 1
Y1(l1 / Y1 + l2 / Y2)
Similarly, length of the second rod at T C
l T (a1l1 + a 2l2)
= l2 + a 2l2T 2
Y2(l1 / Y1 + l2 / Y2)

nn

By : Prof. Rajinder Singh Randhawa*

1. Two equal masses of 6.4 kg are separated by a


distance of 0.16 m. A small body of mass M = 0.10 kg
is released from a point P equidistant from the two
masses and a distance 0.06 m from the line joining
them, as shown in figure.

(a) Calculate the velocity of this body when it


passes through point Q.
(b) Compute the acceleration of this body at P and Q.
2. A cosmic body P coming from infinity with velocity
v0 is approaching the Sun of mass M, with its line
of motion at distance d from the Sun as shown in
figure. When it gets closest to the Sun, i.e. at point
O, what will be its distance from the Sun?

3. A planet moves around the Sun in an elliptical orbit


of semi-major axis a and eccentricity e. If the mass
of the Sun is M, find the velocity of the planet at the
perigee and apogee.

4. Two particles of masses m and 2m are placed at a


distance d apart. Initially 2m is given a velocity u
away from m and m is at rest. Find the minimum
separation between the particles.
5.

The figure shows a semicircle of mass m and radius


r. Find the gravitational field intensity at centre O of
the semicircle ?
6. Light from a massive star suffers gravitational red
shift, i.e., its wavelength changes towards the red
end due to the gravitational attraction of the star.
Obtain the formula for this gravitational red shift
using the simple consideration that a photon of
frequency u has energy hu and mass = hu/c2.
7. Two equal masses m each are hung from a balance
whose scale pans differ in vertical height by h. Find
the error in weighing, if any, in terms of earths
density r.
SOLUTIONS

1. (a) : According to conservation of total mechanical


energy between P and Q, we have
KEP + PEP = KEQ + PEQ

*Randhawa Institute of Physics, S.C.O. 208, First Fl., Sector-36D & S.C.O. 38, Second Fl., Sector-20C, Chandigarh, Ph. 09814527699
Physics for you | November 15

71

where M is the mass of the Sun, m is the mass of


the body, r is the distance of closest approach and
v is the velocity at O. Since the angular momentum
of the body about the Sun will remain conserved,
therefore,
(mv0)d = mvr v0d = vr
...(ii)
From (i), and (ii), we get
GMm 1 v0d
1
mv02 =
+ m
r
2
2 r

GMm GMm
0 +

r
r

2
v 2d
GM

0
Solving, we get, r =
1 + GM 1
v02

3. Let m be the mass of the planet.

1
GMm GMm
Mv 2 +

2
0.08
0.08
where v is the velocity of M at point Q
=

Here, r = (0.06)2 + (0.08)2 = 0.1 m


\

1
v2
1
= 2Gm

2
0
.
08
0
.1

Putting the values of m and G, we get


v = 6.5 105 m s1
(b) Since the gravitational force due to two
masses at point Q is zero. So, at point Q, there is no
acceleration of the body.
When the body is at point P, then there are two
forces of equal magnitude along PA and PB. The
magnitude of either force is
GMm
F= 2
r
The resultant force along PQ is given by
FR = Fcosq + Fcosq = 2Fcosq,
0.06 0.06
where, cosq =
=
= 0.6
r
0.1
FR = 1.2F =
=

1.2 GMm

r2
1.2 6.67 1011 0.1 6.4

= 5.12

(0.1)
109

Applying the conservation of angular momentum


at the perigee and apogee, we get, mvprp = mvara
v p ra a + c
or
= =
...(i)
va rp a c
Using conservation of total mechanical energy, we
get,
GMm 1
GMm
1
mv 2p
= mva2
rp
ra
2
2
1 1
v 2p va2 = 2GM
rp ra
r
Putting v p = va a , we get,
rp
va =

(using (i) and e =

2. Applying principle of conservation of energy,


KEi + PEi = KEf + PEf
1
1
GMm
0 + mv02 = mv 2
2
2
r
Physics for you | November 15

...(ii)

GM a c
GM 1 e
=

a a + c
a 1 + e

Hence, acceleration = 5.12 10 9 N/0.1 kg


= 5.12 108 m s2.

72

...(i)

Similarly, vp =

GM
a

c
)
a

1 + e
1 e

4. Due to gravitational attractive force, the velocity


of mass m will increase and mass 2m will decrease.
Suppose at minimum separation r, velocity of both

particles is v. According to conservation of linear


momentum, 2mu + 0 = mv + 2mv
v = 2u/3
...(i)
According to conservation of energy, m
Gm(2m)
1
(2m) u2
d
2
Gm(2m)
1
1
= mv 2 + (2m)v 2
r
2
2

2m
d

where
u

5. Let mass of given semicircle be m. Consider a small


element of length rdq as shown in figure. The mass
of this element is
y

d O
r

c2

is the mass of the photon

dI =

Gm
r 2

r2

...(i)

dq
(using (i))

dq

By symmetry, the net field along y-axis is zero. The


component along negative x-axis is dIsinq
The resultant field intensity is given by
Gm

I = dI sin q =

I=

Gm
r

sin q dq =

[ cos + cos 0] =

^
\ I = (2Gm / r 2 ) i

2Gm
r 2

Gm
r

c c GM
=
1
Rc 2

7. Since acceleration due to gravity varies near the


earth surface as
2h
g (h) = g 1
R

Gravitational field intensity at centre O due to this


Gdm

u or

GM
GM
= 1 + 2 or | |=
Rc
Rc 2

m
m
(rdq) = dq
r

element is dI =

Rc

GM
or = 1 2
Rc
GM
If
< < 1, then using binomial theorem
Rc 2

h1

dm =

GM

(rd)

hu

GM hu
,
R c 2

or u = u

2Gm2 3 2
2Gm2
mu
= m u
d
r (using (i))
2 3
1
r=
1
u2

d 6Gm
2

hu = hu

[ cos q]0

along negative x -axis.

6. If hu is the energy of the photon neglecting the effect


of gravitational attraction and hu is the energy after
the red shift, then

h2

From figure h1 > h2, so W1 will be lesser than W2


h h
and W2 W1 = mg2 mg1 = 2 mg 1 2
R R
GM h
or W2 W1 = 2m
R2 R

GM
As g = 2 and (h1 h2 ) = h

R
2mhG 4 3
or W2 W1 =
R r
3

R3
4 3

M = r R
3

8
\ W2 W1 = rGhm
3

nn

Our greatest weakness lies in


giving up. The most certain
way to succeed is always to
try just one more time
-Thomas A. Edison

Physics for you | November 15

73

Series 6
CHAPTERWISE PRACTICE PAPER :
Semiconductor Electronics - materials devices and simple circuits | Communication Systems
Time Allowed : 3 hours

Maximum Marks : 70
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

(i) All questions are compulsory. There are 26 questions in all.


(ii) This question paper has five sections: Section A, Section B, Section C, Section D and Section E.
(iii) Section A contains five questions of one mark each, Section B contains five questions of two marks each, Section C
contains twelve questions of three marks each, Section D contains one value based question of four marks and Section
E contains three questions of five marks each.
(iv) There is no overall choice. However, an internal choice has been provided in one question of two marks, one question
of three marks and all the three questions of five marks weightage. You have to attempt only one of the choices in such
questions.

section-A
1. Define the term critical frequency in relation to sky
wave propagation of electromagnetic waves.
2. Name two factors on which electrical conductivity
of a pure semiconductor at a given temperature
depends.
3. Give one example each of a system that uses the
(i) Skywave
(ii) Space wave
mode of propagation.
4. What happens to the width of depleting layer of a
p-n junction when it is
(a) forward biased
(b) reverse biased?
5. If the base region of a transistor is made large as
compared to a usual transistor, how does it affect
(a) the collector current
(b) current gain of this transistor ?
section-b

6. Why is communication using line of sight mode


limited to frequencies above 40 MHz?
7. A semiconductor is known to have an electron
concentration of 8 1013 per cm3 and a hole
concentration of 5 1012 per cm3.
74

Physics for you | November 15

(i) Is the semiconductor n-type or p-type?


(ii) What is the resistivity of the sample if the
electron mobility is 23,000 cm2 V1 s1 and
hole mobility is 100 cm2V1s1?
8. A diode detector, with a load resistance R = 250 kW
in parallel with a capacitor C = 100 pF, is used
to detect an amplitude modulated carrier. Find
the highest modulation frequency that can be
detected without excessive distortion.
9. The output of an AND gate is connected to
both the inputs of a NAND gate. Draw the logic
circuit of this combination of gates and write its
truth table.
10. In half-wave rectification, what is the output
frequency if the input frequency is 50 Hz ?
What is the output frequency of a full-wave
rectifier for the same input frequency?
OR
A Zener of power rating 1 W is to be used as
a voltage regulator. If Zener has a breakdown of
5 V and it has to regulate voltage which
fluctuates between 3 V and 7 V, what should

be the value of Rs for safe operation as per the


given figure?

section-c

11. What is a carrier wave? Why high frequency


carrier waves are employed for transmission?
12. From the output characteristics of common emitter
circuit shown in figure, calculate the values of bac
and bdc of the transistor when VCE is 10 V and
IC = 4.0 mA.

13. Draw a block diagram for a simple amplitude


modulator and explain briefly how amplitude is
modulation achieved.
14. State the factor, which controls (i) wavelength of
light and (ii) intensity of light, emitted by a LED.
Write two advantages of LED over incandescent lamp.
15. Write the symbol and truth table of an AND gate.
Explain how this gate is realised in practices by
using two diodes.
16. Consider the circuit arrangement shown in figure (i)
for studying input and output characteristics of
n-p-n transistor in CE configuration.

76

Physics for you | November 15

Select the values of RB and RC for a transistor whose


VBE = 0.7 V, so that the transistor is operating at
point Q as shown in the characteristics shown in
figure (ii).
Given that the input impedance of the transistor
is very small and VCC = VBB = 16 V, also find the
voltage gain and power gain of circuit making
appropriate assumptions.
OR
If each diode in given figure has a forward bias
resistance of 25 W and infinite resistance in reverse
bias, what will be the values of the current I1, I2, I3
and I4?
A
C
E
I1
G

I4

125

I3

125

I2

125
25

5V

B
D
F
H

17. In the circuit shown in


figure, when the input
voltage of the base
resistance is 10 V, VBE
is zero and VCE is also
zero. Find the values
of IB, IC and b.
18. Suppose a n-type wafer is created by doping
Si crystal having 5 1028 atoms per m3 with 1ppm
concentration of As. On the surface 200 ppm
concentration of Boron is added to create p region
in this wafer. Considering ni = 1.5 1016 m3,
(i) Calculate the densities of the charge carriers in the
n and p regions. (ii) Comment which charge carriers
would contribute largely for the reverse saturation
current when diode is reverse biased.
19. Write the truth table for the circuits given in figure
consisting of NOR gates only. Identify the logic
operations (OR, AND, NOT) performed by the two
circuits.

20. An amplitude modulated wave is as shown in figure.


Calculate (i) the percentage modulation, (ii) peak
carrier voltage and, (iii) peak value of information
voltage.
V

20 V
100 V
t

21. An n-p-n transistor is connected in CE configuration


in which collector supply is 8 V and the voltage-drop
across the load resistor of 800 W connected in the
collector circuit is 0.8 V. If the current amplification
factor is 25, determine collector-emitter voltage
and base current. If the internal resistance of the
transistor is 200 W, calculate the voltage-gain and
power-gain.
22. An amplitude modulated wave is represented as
cm(t) = 5(1 + 0.6 cos 6280 t) sin 211 104 t, volts.
(i) What are the minimum and maximum
amplitudes of the A.M. wave?
(ii) What frequency components are contained in
the modulated wave?
(iii) What are the amplitudes of the components?
section-D
23. Two students namely Shobit and Amit were asked
to take up a project on efficient lighting for road
ways, cycle paths and bus lanes. They found LED
is the best source for the above said reasons. They
collected the information from various sources and
submitted the project about its working, advantages
and its applications by presenting with a good
working model.
(a) By seeing these two students, what kind of
qualities do you want to adopt from them?
(b) Explain LED with neat diagram and draw its
symbol.
section-e

24. Explain briefly, with the help of circuit diagram,


how V-I characteristics of a p-n junction diode are
obtained in (i) forward bias, and (ii) reverse bias.
Draw the shape of the curves obtained.
OR
Discuss common emitter amplifier, using n-p-n
transistor. Find its current gain, voltage gain and
power gain.

25. Draw the energy band diagrams of p-type and


n-type semiconductors. Explain with a circuit
diagram the working of full-wave rectifier.
OR
What are energy bands? How are these formed?
Distinguish between a conductor, an insulator
and a semiconductor on the basis of energy band
diagram.
26. Draw a labelled circuit diagram of a common emitter
amplifier using a p-n-p transistor. Explain how the
input and output voltages are out of phase by 180
for a common-emitter transistor amplifier. Define
the term voltage gain and write an expression for
it.
OR
Explain briefly, with the help of a circuit diagram,
how a p-n junction works as a half wave rectifier.
Explain with the help of a circuit diagram how a
Zener diode works as a dc voltage regulator. Draw
its I-V characteristics.
solutions
1. Critical frequency is the highest frequency of the
radiowaves which when sent normally towards
the given layer of ionosphere gets reflected from
ionosphere and returns to the earth. It is given by
uc = 9 (Nmax)1/2
where Nmax is the maximum number density of
electrons in the given layer of ionosphere.
2. (a) Width of the forbidden gap (Eg).
(b) Intrinsic charge carrier concentration (ni).
3. (i) Short wave broadcast
(ii) Television transmission.
4. (a) Decreases (b) Increases.

5. When the base region becomes large, most of


the charge carriers coming from emitter will
be neutralized in the base by the electron-hole
combination. Due to this (a) collector current
decreases and as a result of this (b) current gain also
reduces.
6. At frequencies above 40 MHz, communication is
limited to line-of-sight communication. At these
frequencies, the sizes of transmitting and receiving
antennas are relatively smaller and can be placed
at heights of many wavelengths above the ground.
During line of sight communication, the waves
coming directly from transmitting antenna towards
receiving antenna get blocked at some point by the
curvature of the earth.
Physics for you | November 15

77

7. (i) Given
ne = 8 1013 cm3, nh = 5 1012 cm3
Since ne > nh, the semiconductor is n-type.
(ii) As me = 23,000 cm2 V 1s1, mh = 100 cm2 V 1s1
s = e(neme + nhmh)

= (1.6 1019)[(8 1013) (23,000)


+ (5 1012) 100]
1
1
= 0.29448 W cm
1
1
Thus, = =
= 3.396 W cm
s 0.29448 W1 cm 1

8. Here, R = 250 kW = 250 103 W = 2.5 105 W,


C = 100 pF = 100 1012 F = 1 1010 F
1
For satisfactory detection,
> RC
uc
or uc <

1
1
=
= 40 kHz
5
RC (2.5 10 W)(1010 F)

Thus, the highest modulation frequency that can be


detected with permissible distortion is 40 kHz.
9. The logic circuit for the given combination of gates
is shown in the figure.
Y = A.B

A
B

AND Gate

OR
Given P = 1 W, Vz = 5 V
Vi(max) = 7 V
P 1
Iz =
= = 0.2 A
Vz 5
For safe operation,
Vi(max) Vz 7 5
2
Rs =
=
=
= 10 W
Iz
0.2
0.2
11. A carrier wave is an electromagnetic wave of
high frequency and of constant amplitude, which
is employed to carry the audio signals from one
location to other on the surface of earth.
For the transmission of audio signals, the high
frequency carrier waves are used, because the
effective power radiated by a longer wavelength
2

NAND Gate

Truth table
A

Y = A B

Y = Y .Y

0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1

0
0
0
1

1
1
1
0

l
base-band signal should be small as P .

Thus, for a good transmission, we need high powers


and hence we need high frequency carrier waves to
carry the base-band signal (message signal).
12. Consider any two characteristics for two values
of IB which lie above and below the given value of
IC. Here IC = 4.0 mA, therefore we select the two
characteristics for IB = 20 mA and 30 mA.

10. In half wave rectification, only one ripple is obtained


per cycle in the output.

Output frequency of a half wave rectifier


= input frequency = 50 Hz
In full wave rectification, two ripples are obtained
per cycle in the output.
Output frequency = 2 input frequency
= 2 50 = 100 Hz
78

Physics for you | November 15

From the graph, at VCE = 10 V,


DIB = (30 20) mA = 10 mA
DIC = (4.5 3.0) mA = 1.5 mA
DIC 1.5 mA
=
= 150
Therefore, bac =
DIB
10 m
At VCE = 10 V, either (i) IB = 30 mA and IC = 4.5 mA
or (ii) IB = 20 mA and IC = 3 mA.

Therefore
4.5 mA
I
= 150
For (i), bdc = C =
IB
30 mA
3 mA
IC
=
= 150
For (ii), bdc =
IB 20 m
13. The block diagram is shown here.

(ii) Truth table

Bandpass AM
x(t)
Square y(t)
m(t)
wave
filter
+
law device
Am sin mt
centred at c
c(t)
(Modulating
Ac sin ct
2(t)
Bx
(
t
)
+
Cx
signal) (Carrier wave)

The modulating signal is superposed on carrier


wave of high frequency. Let the signal produced be
x(t) = Amsinwmt + Acsinwct
...(i)
The resultant wave so obtained is sent to square law
device which produces wave
y(t) = Bx(t) + Cx2(t)
...(ii)
where B and C are arbitrary constants.
From equations (i) and (ii), we get
C 2
y(t) = BAmsinwmt + BAc sinwct +
(Am+ A2c )
2
C
C 2
Am
cos 2wmt Ac2 cos 2wct
2
2
+ CAmAccos(wc wm)t CAmAccos(wc + wm)t
C 2
( A + Ac2 ) and
2 m
sinusoidal waves of frequencies wm, 2wm, wc, 2wc ,
(wc wm) and (wc + wm).
This is finally sent to bandpass filter which rejects
dc and sinusoids of frequencies wm , 2wm and 2wc
allows the frequencies wc, wc wm and wc + wm. The
output of bandpass filter is an amplitude modulated
wave.
In this equation, there is dc term

14. (i) Wavelength of light emitted depends on the


nature of semiconductor.
(ii) Intensity of light emitted depends on the
forward current.
Advantages of LED over incandescent lamp are as
follows
(a) low operational voltage and less power.
(b) fast action and no warm-up time required.

B
0
1
0

Y=A.B
0
0
0

(iii) Realisation of AND gate

+5V
+5V

(a) When A = 0, B = 0
Both the diodes D1 and D2 conduct. Potential
at Y is zero as most of potential falls across the
resistance R.
(b) When A = 1, B = 0.
Diode D1 do not conduct but D2 conducts.
Voltage of 5 V drop across R. Now potential at
Y is 0.
(c) When A = 0, B = 1.
D1 conducts, D2 do not conduct. Voltage drop
of 5 V across R. Potential at Y is 0.
(d) When A = 1, B = 1
D1 and D2 both do not conduct, no current flow
through R. Hence output Y = 1
16. From the output characteristics at point Q,
VCE = 8 V and IC = 4 mA
VCC = ICRC + VCE
16 8
V VCE
, RC =
= 2 kW
RC = CC
IC
4 103
Since, VBB = IBRB + VBE
16 0.7
RB =
= 510 kW
30 106
I
4 103
= 133
Now, b = C =
I B 30 106
R
2 103
Voltage gain, AV = b C = 133
= 0.52
RB
510 103
R
Power gain, AP = b AV = b2 C
RB

15. (i) The symbol of AND gate is as follows.


A

A
0
0
1

= (133)2

2 103

510 103

= 69

Physics for you | November 15

79

OR
I3 is zero as the diode in that branch is reverse
biased. Resistance in the branch AB and EF are each
(25 + 125) W = 150 W.
A
C
E
I1
G

17.

I4

125

I3

125

I2

125
25

5V

B
D
F
H

As AB and EF are identical parallel branches, their


150
= 75 W
effective resistance is
2
\ Net resistance in the circuit = (75 + 25) W
= 100 W.
5
= 0.05 A
\ Current I1 =
100
As resistances of AB and EF are equal,
0.05
\ I2 = I4 =
= 0.025 A
2

Given Vi = 10 V, RB = 400 kW = 400 103 W


RC = 3 kW = 3 103 W, VBE = 0
VCE = 0, VCC = 10 V
As Vi VBE = RBIB
\ 10 0 = (400 103)IB
10
IB =
= 25 106 A = 25 mA
3
400 10
and VCC VCE = ICRC
10
IC =
= 3.33 103 = 3.33 mA
3 103
I
3.33 103
b= C =
= 133
IB
25 106
18. (i) For n-type region,
1
ne = ND =
5 1028 = 5 1022 m3
6
10
1

1 ppm =

106
As nenh = ni2,
80

Physics for you | November 15

n 2 (1.5 1016 m3 )2
nh = i =
= 0.45 1010 m3
ne
5 1022 m3
For p-type region,
200
25 3
nh = NA =
5 1028 = 1 10 m
6
10
ni2 (1.5 1016 m 3 )2
=
Now, ne =
= 2.25 107 m3
nh
1 1025 m 3

(ii) The minority carrier holes of n-region wafer


(nh = 0.45 1010 m3) would contribute more to
reverse saturation current than minority carrier
electrons of pregion wafer (ne = 2.25 107 m3)
when p n junction is reverse biased.
19. Boolean expression for logic circuit (a)
Y=A

Here the given NOR gate with


A
short circuit input is acting as
0
1
NOT gate. Its truth table is
Boolean expression for logic circuit (b)

1
0

So by De-Morgans theorem

Y = A + B = AB = AB
Hence, the logic circuit acts like AND gate.
Its truth table is
A
0
0
1
1

B
0
1
0
1

Y
0
0
0
1

20. According to diagram,


Vmax =
V

100
20
= 50 V , Vmin =
= 10 V
2
2
20 V
100 V

(i)

Percentage modulation, P = m 100


Vmin
V
100
P = max
Vmax + Vmin

where m = modulation index


50 10
2
=
100 = 100 = 66.7%
50 + 10
3
(ii) Peak carrier voltage, Vc = Vmax + Vmin
2
50 + 10
=
= 30 V.
2
(iii) Peak information voltage = Vm = mVc
2
= 30 = 20 V.
3
21. Here, VCC = 8 V, RC = 800 W, ICRC = 0.8 V,
b = 25, ri = 200 W
0.8 V
= 1.0 103 A
As ICRC = 0.8 V, IC =
800 W
Further, VCE = VCC ICRC = 8 V 0.8 V = 7.2 V
I
I
1.0 103
Since b = C , I B = C =
A
IB
b
25

= 0.04 103 A = 40 mA
800 W
R
Voltage gain, AV = b out = 25
= 100
Rin
200 W
(As Rout = RC = 800 W and Rin = ri = 200 W)
Power gain, AP = bAV = 25(100) = 2500
22. Given the A.M. wave,
cm(t) = 5(1 + 0.6 cos 6280 t) sin 211 104 t, volts.
Comparing with the standard A.M. wave,
cm(t) = Ac(1 + m cos wm t) sin wc t,
we get Ac = 5 V, m = 0.6
w
6280
Modulating frequency, fm = m =
= 1 kHz
2
2

w
211 104
Carrier frequency, fc = c =
= 336 kHz
2
2
(i) Minimum amplitude of A.M. wave
= Ac mAc = 5 0.6 5 = 2 V.
Maximum amplitude of A.M. wave
= Ac + mAc = 5 + 0.6 5 = 8 V.
(ii) Frequency components of the A.M. wave are
fc fm, fc, fc + fm i.e., 336 1,336,336 + 1
or 335 kHz, 336 kHz, 337 kHz.
(iii) The amplitudes of the three components are
mAc
mA
0. 6 5
0. 6 5
, Ac , c i.e.,
, 5,
2
2
2
2
or 1.5 V, 5 V, 1.5 V.

23. (a) Initiative, curiosity, scientific awareness,


community service.
(b) Light emitting diode (LED)
is a junction diode made of
gallium arsenide or indium
phosphide in which when holeelectron pairs recombine at
forward biased p-n junction,
energy is released in the form of light.
The principle on which LED works is spontaneous
emission of radiation, when an electron jumps
from higher energy level to lower energy level in
a semiconductor atom. At forward biased p-n
junction, free electrons of n-type combine with
holes of p-type semiconductor. As free electrons lie
in conduction band and holes lie in valence band, so
electron falls from the higher to lower energy level
containing holes and the energy is released in the
form of radiation. The energy of radiation emitted
by LED is equal to or less than the forbidden energy
band gap Eg of the semiconductor used, and is given
hc
by hu =
= Eg .

The frequency of emitted radiation in LED, thus


depends upon the band gap energy Eg of the
semiconductor used. The intensity of emitted
radiation in LED depends upon the forward current
flowing through the LED. More the forward current
flowing through the LED, more the hole-electron
pairs combine at forward biased p-n junction,
releasing more number of photons and hence larger
will be the intensity of emitted radiation.
24. Refer point 9.3(4,5) page no. 588 (MTG Excel in
Physics).
OR

Refer point 9.4(8) page no. 595 (MTG Excel in


Physics).
25. Refer point 9.2, (2 (a, b)) page no. 585 and point
9.3(6(ii)) page no. 588 (MTG Excel in Physics)
OR
Refer point 9.1 (3,4,5,6) page no. 583 (MTG Excel
in Physics)
26. Refer point 9.4 (9) page no. 595 (MTG Excel in
Physics)
OR
Refer point 9.3(6(i), 7(i)) page no. 589 (MTG Excel
in Physics)
nn
Physics for you | November 15

81

Y U ASK

WE ANSWER
Do you have a question that you just cant get
answered?
Use the vast expertise of our mtg team to get to the
bottom of the question. From the serious to the silly,
the controversial to the trivial, the team will tackle the
questions, easy and tough.
The best questions and their solutions will be printed in
this column each month.

Q1. When you load up a plastic shopping bag with


groceries and then carry the bag by the loops at
the top of the bag, why will the loops initially
withstand the load but then, several minutes
later, begin to stretch, perhaps to the point of
tearing?
Akash Jain (UP)

Ans. If you suspended a load from the lower end of


a spring hanging from a ceiling, the spring will
stretch by a certain amount and then stay stretched.
Plastic, which consists of polymers, is different. If
you suspend a load from the lower end of a plastic
strip, the strip will initially stretch like the spring
but thereafter it will gradually stretch more in
what is called viscoelastic creep. The mechanism
of this creep can vary from polymer to polymer.
The polymer consists of many long and entangled
molecules. When the polymer is put under load,
these molecules gradually disentangle somewhat
because very are pulled in the direction of the
load. The gradual reorientation of the molecules
allows the plastic to gradually stretch.
Q2. What causes the tides? Why do most shore
locations have two high tides per day but others
have only one?
Sahil Verma (Delhi)

Ans. The primary cause of tides is the Moons


gravitational pull on Earths oceans even though
that force is not strong enough to lift the water.
Because the force varies over Earths surface
(strongest on the side facing the Moon, weakest
on the opposite side), the force reshapes the water
distribution by stretching it parallel to the line
connecting Earth and the Moon. The stretching
82

Physics for you | November 15

produces two bulges in the water distribution,


one on the side facing the Moon and one on the
opposite side. If Earth did not rotate, then a shore
location in the bulge facing the Moon would have
high water (high tide) all day and a shore location
in the opposite bulge would as well. However,
Earths rotation means that a shore location rotates
through both bulges in about a day and will thus
have two high-water intervals.
The bulges are not exactly positional on a line
through Earth and the Moon because the water
motion encounters friction within the water and
against shorelines. The friction delays the waters
response to the stretching by the Moon. So, the
high-water point in a port city may occur an hour
or more after the Moon is highest in the sky.
Another complicating factor is that the gravitational
force from the Sun also tends to stretch the water
distribution. However, the solar effect is, roughly
less than half the lunar effect. Although the Sun is
much larger than the Moon, it is also much farther
from Earth. During New Moon and Full Moon, the
Sun and Moon are aligned and their tidal effects
sum to give larger tides called spring tides. When
the directions to the Sun and Moon are separated
by 90, the sum gives neap tides. Because of these
various complications some shore locations can
have only one noticeable tide per day.
Q3. When an airplane flies somewhat overhead and
close enough to be heard, lower your head by
stooping to the ground. Why does the frequency
of the airplane noise increases as you lower your
head ?
Shreyas (Haryana)

Ans. The sound you hear consists of the sound coming


directly to you from the airplane and the sound
that reflects to you from the ground. The two sets of
sound waves undergo interference at your ears and
you hear primarily the waves that constructively
interfere, they reinforce one another rather than
cancel one another. The height above the ground
at which constructive interference occurs depends
on the wavelength, greater wavelength requires
greater height. As you lower your head, you move
down to the heights at which shorter wavelengths
or higher frequencies, undergoes constructive
interference. So, as you stoop, the sound you hear
increases in frequency.

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NASA plans to set up


Mars colonies by 2030

Live Physics

ize 2015
Nobel Pr e in P h y s ic s

ISRO will launch Indias


own satellite navigation:
IRNSS

he Global Positioning System used by almost


all countries in the world is controlled by USA
Govt. American monopoly on satellite based
navigation is all set to end now, as Indian Space
Research Organisation will launch Indias own
satellite based navigation next year. Christened
as Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System
or IRNSS, this navigation system would be
controlled by Indian Govt.
Scientists at ISRO started a series of meetings
with various location and navigation device
manufacturers, mobile phone companies and
global information system (GIS) technology
developers from all over the world, to explain
them the advantages and benefits of using
IRNSS.
As per reports coming in, ISRO will offer two
types of services via IRNSS; Standard Positioning
Service (SPS), which would be available for all
users, mobile phones, e-commerce services,
digital services and Restricted Service (RS),which
would be exclusively for defense users.

ASA is planning to have humans living on Mars in the next few


decades. Moving to have Earth independent colonies on the Red
Planet will be the end point of years of research, the agency has said,
but it plans for that to be complete by the 2030s. NASA laid out the plans
in a large document: NASAs Journey to Mars -Pioneering Next Steps in
Space Exploration. The document lays out the three stages of NASAs
plan to get to Mars. The first is Earth Reliant; the second is Proving
Ground, where the operations will be tested out in deep space, but in
an environment that allows humans to get back to Earth in days.
NASA hopes that those two first stages allow it to get to the Earth
independent stage. It sees the Earth independent colonies as being a
global achievement that marks a transition in humanitys expansion as we
go to Mars not just to visit, but to stay. While there, humans will live and
work within habitats that support human life for years, with only routine
maintenance. Theyll harvest resources to create fuel, water, oxygen and
building materials and use advanced communication systems to send
information back with only a 20-minute delay .
NASA has expressed such interest before, most recently proposing
to send a small greenhouse to the planet in order to experiment with
cultivating plant life, something that would be essential to establishing a
permanent colony in the future. Although Mars does not currently seem
to be a great habitat for existing life. It is still possible, things may be
living beneath the surface something that can only be explored effectively
by humans, not robots.

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Physics for you | November 15

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Winners' name with their valuable feedback will be published in next issue.

across

1. A region under the influence of some physical


agency. (5)
3. An abnormal transient electrical disturbance in a
conductor. (5)
5. Rotating part of electric motor or generator. (8)
7. A penlike device attached to a VDU by which
information may be input to a computer. (5, 3)
8. A manually operated device by which people
communicate with computer. (8)
9. A mechanical device that prevents any sudden or
oscillatory motion of a moving part of any piece of
apparatus. (7)
13. A device that allows microwave radiation to pass
in one direction, while absorbing it in the reverse
direction. (8)
15. The converse of compression. (11)
17. A type of circuit having two stable states. (8)
19. A thread like body, particularly the conductor of
metal or carbon in an incandescent lamp. (8)
22. X-rays of long wavelength produced when electrons
are accelerated by voltages of 25 kV or less. (5, 4)
24. A conductor or group of conductors used for
the transmission and/or distribution of electrical
power. (4)
25. A device incorporated in an electrical or other
indicating instrument to provide the necessary
damping. (6)

down

1. A system of wires or waveguides that conveys radio


frequency power between a radio aerial and a
transmitter or reciever, with minimum loss. (6)
2. A planoconcave lens placed between the objective
and eyepiece in a telescope to increase magnification.
(6, 4)
4. Process of boiling. (10)
6. The adjustment of tuning of the notes of a keyboard
instrument to give a near diatonic scale for all
keys. (11)

Cut Here
1
2
3

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10

13

14
15

16

18

17

20

19
21
22

23
24

25

10. The science concerned with the production, properties


and propagation of sound wave. (9)
11. A device used for stabilizing voltage, consisting of a
sensitive metallic resistor whose resistance increases
with temperature. (9)
12. To bring neutrons into thermal equilibrium with
surrounding. (10)
14. The number of hydrogen (or equivalent) atoms that an
atom will combine with or displace. (7)
16. The study of the production and effects of very low
temperatures. (10)
18. A unit of work or energy equal to one watt operating
for one hour. (4, 4)
20. An acronym for allied submarine detection
investigation committee. (5)
21. The disappearance of signals for short time due to
variations in the height and density of ionisation of
ionosphere. (6)
23. A missile or space vehicle powered by ejecting
gas. (6)

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