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Cartea de fa este destinat celor avansai n studiul limbii engleze, att
studenilor ce studiaz o specializare de limbi strine, ct i altor persoane interesate sa i
perfecioneze nivelul de cunotine. Gramatica propus aici se adreseaz mai ales acelora
care au nevoie s i consolideze noiunile de limba englez i s extind nelegerea unor
probleme fundamentale legate de cunoaterea structurilor acestei limbi. Este important
aadar s precizm c aceasta nu reprezint o introducere n gramatica limbii engleze ci o
revizuire i o rafinare a acesteia.
Abordarea pe care le-o propunem cititorilor are la baz texte englezeti att
literare ct i non-literare grupate pe baz de teme. Am optat pentru aceast formul
ntruct dorim s le insuflm celor ce vor folosi aceast carte att plcerea de a citi i
decoda un text englezesc de bun calitate ct i dorina de a-i pune probleme
fundamentale n legtur cu civilizaia de expresie englez. Nu n ultimul rnd, dorim ca
prin aceast formul, vorbitorii de limba romn s fie stimulai s abordeze probleme
culturale prin prisma limbii engleze. Am preferat s ne limitm la ase teme importante
din universul cultural n sperana de a oferi cititorilor posibilitatea de a-i aprofunda i
extinde vocabularul n special n aceste domenii. Am considerat c o cunoatere
aprofundat ntr-un numr limitat de domenii este preferabil unei abordri superficiale,
care ar lua n calcul mult prea muli parametri.
Cartea cuprinde ase module cu cte patru texte diferite, fiecare dintre acestea
fiind urmate de cte patru seciuni. Prima seciune conine un grup de ntrebri ce ajut la
o mai bun nelegere a textului propus pentru discuie, att din punctul de vedere al
coninutului ct i al vocabularului. Seciunea a doua se axeaz strict pe noiuni de
vocabular introduse de textul de baz. Seciunea a treia, cea mai important de altfel din
punct de vedere teoretic, conine explicaii de gramatic pornind de la structurile
exemplificate de text. n fine, ultima seciune d cititorului posibilitatea s i exerseze
abilitile de redactare n limba englez, propunnd teme n ton cu problematica
textului. Am marcat cu un asterisc exerciiile care au un grad de dificultate sporit i am
oferit soluii care s dea posibilitatea unei verificri individuale.
n sperana c aceast carte v va deschide apetitul pentru un studiu aprofundat
al limbii engleze i v va mai descrei frunile, v urm: Work well and have fun!

There are a few entities that we would like to thank even if
some of them are not entirely there. Thus, wed like to smile our
thanks to: the Easter Bunny, the Tooth Fairy, Rudolf the red-nosed
reindeer, the Boogie Man, Mr. King (our unadulterated love goes to
you!), our Jellicle Cats Banderas and Minou, Humpty Dumpty, Cousin
It, the Owl and the Pussy Cat, and to Cartman and Kenny (youve been
a thing of beauty and a joy forever).
Oh, and our very special thanks go to you, Ignatius!
For these are the people who really helped us and we are
eternally grateful to them!


1. Movies and Reviews

2. Fairytales Told and Retold
3. Womens Voices
4. Class and Consciousness
5. The World Revisited
6. Language


Selznick (U.S.)
Clark Gable (Rhett Butler), Vivian Leigh (Scarlett OHara), Hattie McDaniel (Mamie), Leslie Howard
(Ashley Wilkes), Olivia De Havilland (Melanie Hamilton)
p, David O Selznick; d, Victor Fleming, George Cukor, Sam Wood;
The best remembered and most publicized film in Hollywoods flamboyant history, the biggest of
David O. Selznicks good obsessions, and quite probably the most beloved movie of all times.
This star-studded Civil War epic, based on Margaret Mitchells immensely popular novel, is nearly
as powerful and moving today as when first released in 1939. Beneath the surface of a lavish and
sometimes awe-inspiring production lies a deftly handed story about an endlessly fascinating-if not always
attractive heroine. Though shes frequently dismissed as a simpering belle, Scarlett OHara (Vivien Leigh)
is a resilient, resourceful protagonist, equal to acts of real heroism but incapable of cliched nobility. And for
many of us, theres a lesson in her story - that buying into romantic obsession almost certainly guarantees
that well end up with the last person we need.
Leigh won the most coveted role in film history from a field that included Bette Davis, Joan
Crawford and Jean Harlow, among some 2,000 women in a much ballyhooed two-year talent search. Shes
nothing short of perfection. As Rhett Butler, co-star Clark Gable likewise couldnt be bettered. The only
player among the major who disappoints is Leslie Howard - he just isnt handsome or vigorous enough to
motivate so much of Scarletts energy. Supporting performances are generally in high order, though
McDaniels heart rugging mammy is rather cloying.
From a directorial standpoint, the sequences shot by womens director George Cukor are the
best. His style is more lyrical, and more attentive to the literary qualities of the source material, than that of
Victor Fleming. Nowhere is this more evident than the barbecue at Twelve Oaks and the announcement of
war-possibly the best sequence in the piece. Later GWTW under Fleming seems to settle into itself and just
tell the story. Despite some excellent sequences - Scarletts attempt to get Dr.Meade to leave the railroad
station springs immediately to mind - many of the films purely narrative sequences verge on the mundane.
Cukor began at the films helm but was replaced by Fleming (whose WIZARD of OZ was released in
1939). During the course of the production Fleming suffered a nervous breakdown and Sam Wood stepped
in until Fleming was well enough to return.
Although its historical set pieces (e.g. the burning of Atlanta) are brilliantly realized, GWTW
should not be mistaken for history - it romanticizes the slave-owning south and caricatures Reconstruction.
Still, its the peak example of the collaborative artistic achievement for which Hollywoods Golden Age is
justly celebrated. To quote Olivia de Havilland, Every time I see it, I find something fresh, some shade of
meaning I hadnt noticed before... How fortunate that so many gifted people found immortality in GONE
(from The Ninth Virgin Film Guide)
Civil War
The American Civil War (1861-1865) was fought between the mostly northern states of the Union and the
southern states of the Confederacy that declared their independence and claimed the right of secession from
the Union. The Union prevailed in the Civil War.
In the history of the United States of America, Reconstruction was the period that followed the Civil War
when the southern states were reintegrated in the United States.


Paraphrase the underlined words and phrases.

Is Gone with the Wind one of the most beloved movies of the time in your opinion? Motivate your
Why do you think Scarlett OHara is always dismissed as a simpering belle?
Why is Scarlett thought to be fascinating, while not always attractive?
Do you think the reviewers opinions on the cast are accurate? Motivate your answer.
How can you comment upon Olivia de Havillands statement Every time I see it, I find something
fresh, some shade of meaning I hadnt noticed before... How fortunate that so many gifted people
found immortality in GONE WITH THE WIND.?

1. Fill in the blanks with words and phrases from the text above:
1. GWTW was first _______ in 1939.
2. Many of the films purely narrative sequences verge on the __________.
3. The movie ________ the slave-owning south and ________ Reconstruction.
4. Vivien Leigh is nothing ________ of perfection in this part.
5. McDaniels heart __________ mammy is rather ________.
6. Scarlett is frequently dismissed as a __________ belle.
7. The movie can be seen as a ________ Civil War epic.
8. The main heroine is a _________ resourceful protagonist.
9. The only player among the _______ who disappoints is Leslie Howard.
10. From a directorial ________, the scenes shot by Cukor are the best.
11. Cukor began at the films _______ but was replaced by Fleming.
1. Provide definitions of your own for the following theatre/cinema terms:
1. A dress rehearsal is
2. A title role is
3. A walk-on part is
4. A stagehand is
5. An understudy is
6. A prompter is
7. A stage manager is
8. Props are
9. A continuity girl is
10. A clapper-board man is
11. Extras are
12. Credits are
13. The set is
14. The cast is
15. A flop is
16. A trailer is
17. Subtitles are
18. A close-up shot is
19. A stuntman is
20. A box-office hit is
21. An audition is
22. Editing is

Choose the right word:

My mother is a very exacting teacher: she does not ______ fools gladly.
A. take to B. suffer
C. condone
D. accept


He ________ after wealth and appreciation despite the success hes had lately.
A. crave
B. covet
C. hanker
D. yearn


Dont be so _______! She wont notice you unless you do something. Try offering her something to
A. daft
B. deft
C. dank
D. dire


If you dont _______ and claim your inheritance, youll be left penniless.
A. chip in B. barge in
C. cave in
D. step in


She _________spread her slice of toast with marmalade.

A. heavenly B. lavishly
C. gloriously
D. luxuriously


If you have settled ______the wallpaper, we can now choose the furniture for the new house.
A. for
B. on
C. in
D. into


He appeared to be the proud owner of skills of the highest _______.

A. range
B. species
C. type
D. order


The money he is supposed to receive are taxed at__________.

A. origin
B. source
C. start
D. onset


I think Ill try my luck at winning the big prize. Are you equal _______ the task?
A. for
B. at
C. of
D. to

10. Every time I watch this movie there is a new ________ of meaning that springs to mind.
A. tint
B. taint
C. tinge
D. tingle
3. POLYSEMY: TO BUY. Translate into Romanian:
1. The bank wouldnt help when I was starting the business but they want to buy into it now. 2. What this
new approach buys you is enough time to let the project develop. 3. I cant buy her flimsy excuses, sorry. 4.
Unless he drops the charges, well have to buy him off. 5. A pound today buys much less than it did a year
ago. 6. He bought all his partners out and is now the sole owner of the company. 7. The passengers survived
the accident but Im afraid that the driver bought it. 8. His fame was bought at the expense of health and
happiness. 9. Ill have to buy in potatoes for the winter. 10. Best buys of the week are carrots and cabbages,
which are plentiful and cheap.
5. COMPOUNDING. Match the items in the first set to the ones in the second so as to obtain verbal
compounds (some of the items in the first set can be used more than once). Explain the meaning of
each compound you have obtained by trying to find a context for it:
back, sweet, pussy, double, day, blue, cross, man, side, brow, down, match, white, head.
pencil, beat, talk, make, hunt, cross, dream, breed, step, fire, load, dress, date, bite, stab, foot, wash, handle.
Lets examine the underlined forms in the sentence below:
(1) The best remembered and most publicized film in Hollywoods flamboyant history, the biggest of David
O. Selznicks good obsessions, and quite probably the most beloved movie of all times.
As we can easily see the underlined participial forms (remembered, publicized), adjectival forms (big,
beloved) and adverbial forms (probably) are integrated in a comparison scale. While in the form quite
probably, quite operates a mere intensification of the degree of probability represented by the adverb
probably, the forms best remembered, most publicized, biggest and most beloved represent an
intensification brought to the extreme, namely superlative forms.
(2) His style is more lyrical, and more attentive to the literary qualities of the source material, than that of
Victor Fleming.

Looking at the sentence above that shows the comparative forms of the adjectives lyrical and
attentive, let us remember some of the main facts about the comparison of adjectives:
I. Comparing and intensifying
Adjectives can be compared, namely the qualities which they identify may be expressed in varying
degrees of comparison represented by the comparative (bigger, more attentive, less attentive) or the
superlative (the biggest, the most attentive, the least attentive).
Adjectives can be also intensified (quite probable, very probable), without receiving a precise, definite
degree or value. In order to understand the distinction between comparison and intensification, lets
examine the following examples:
(3) Pauls wife is thinner than his mistress. ( Pauls wife weighs six pounds less than Pauls mistress.)
(4) Pauls wife is the thinnest woman in the world. (Pauls wife weighs less than everybody I have seen)
(5) Pauls wife is rather thin, dont you think? (I think she is thin, but I cant precisely tell how thin.)
(6) Pauls wife is very thin. (I think she is definitely thin, but I dont necessarily compare her to others.)
(7) Pauls wife has become horribly thin. (She is thin to a degree that horrifies me.)
The sentences above show clearly that there is a difference between comparison and intensification.
Sentences (3), (4) show precisely what the degree of thinness of Pauls wife is, namely in (3), it is greater
than someone elses or, in (4), it is the greatest degree in the set of the world (thinner than everyone else),
according to the speaker. Sentences (5), (6), (7) do not show values as precise as the ones shown in (3), (4).
Here, what the speaker tells us is that the intensity of Pauls wifes thinness is great, according to him, but
he does not indicate the precise degree of her thinness in comparison to someone elses.
2. Remembering about the comparison of adjectives
The table below will remind you some simple facts about the comparison of adjectives:



more attentive,
more loyal



less hot,
less clever
less attentive,
less loyal,
less bad


the hottest,
the cleverest
the most attentive
the most loyal

the worst


the least hot,

the least clever,
the least attentive,
the least loyal,
the least bad

A few rules will makes the table above clearer:


Inferiority is always expressed by phrasal comparison as shown above less/least

All adjectives with one syllable (thin, hot, fast) and all adjectives with two syllables ending on -y
(easy, happy, pretty, dirty), -er (clever), -le (simple), -ow (narrow) have inflectional comparison in


All adjectives with more than one syllable (with the exception of the two syllable adjectives in 2)
have phrasal comparison with more/most
A limited number of widely used adjectives have kept the irregular forms they had in AngloSaxon. Examples: bad-worse-the worst, much-more-the most. Try to remember other examples.
There are spelling rules to be obeyed in order to form inflectional comparison. With the help of
examples, try to remember the spelling rules that you have already learned.

Nota bene!
You have to make a distinction between most as a superlative comparison marker and most as an intensifier
(which is rather formal):
Your daughter is the most beautiful woman in the world. (superlative)
I found a most interesting book in that bookshop down the corner. (intensifier)
3. Gradable and non-gradable adjectives
(8) Jean saw a foreign film.
(9) ??? The film Jean saw is more foreign than the one Bill saw.
(10) ??? The film I saw was the most foreign of them all.
(11)??? The film Jean saw is very foreign.
As you can see in the examples above, not all adjectives can be compared or intensified. This is why we
can divide the class of adjectives into gradable (those that can be compared and intensified), such as hot,
attentive or bad and non-gradable (those that cant be compared and intensified), such as foreign.
Generally, adjectives that show the qualities of a thing are always gradable. We can give a few examples
such as old, new, nice and beautiful. Since all these show qualities, they can be compared and intensified.
Non-gradable adjectives can be adjectives that do not show so much the quality of a thing but its belonging
in a class. Many such classifying adjectives are non-gradable, such as:
French, English, foreign, ajar, ruined, dead, alive, married, single, separate, square, triangular, etc.
If you think about the adjectives above, it becomes clear that they mark an object as belonging to a certain
class (that of French objects/persons or that of married people). They do not mark the quality an object or a
person might have, as old, new or hot can do.
One other group of non-gradable adjectives is represented by those already having absolute or superlative
perfect, optimal, maximum, unique, false, utmost, absolute, etc.
Nota bene!
Even non-gradable adjectives can be compared and intensified!
Yes, some of them can indeed, but if you do that you operate a change in meaning. Lets examine the
following examples:
(12) ???This object more French than the other.
(13) ???This is fish is more alive than the other.
(14) Pierre is more French than Marcel.
(15) My mother is very French.
(16) Susan is more alive than you think.
(17) Today I felt very much alive.


The first two sentences are ungrammatical. Here French and alive are used with their basic meaning
and this is why they are non-gradable. However, sentences (14), (15) and (16), (17) can be interpreted as
grammatical, even if alive and French have been compared/intensified. The sentences can be
interpreted as correct, if we give a different meaning, a figurative meaning to the adjectives. In (14) and
(15) French can be thought to refer to the quality of being French. For example, Pierre is seen to be more
French than Marcel, because he behaves more like French persons do than Marcel, or because, who knows,
hes more nationalistic than Marcel. In the same manner, alive can be taken in its figurative meaning,
namely lively or full of life, etc.
4. Various means of intensifying adjectives
We have already seen the ways in which adjectives can be compared. Let us take a look at the means of
intensifying adjectives. There are intensifiers that can do that, such as:
(18) This tea is quite hot.
(19) Her husband is rather old.
(20) My linguistics teacher is really annoying.
(21) That music you play is so loud!
how (in exclamative sentences)
(22) How interesting this movie is!
(23) The movie I saw last night is very entertaining.
As you can see above, some words can be used with no other meanings, but as that of intensifiers, but there
are words that apart from being used as mere intensifiers, can also function independently. Such words are
adverbs such as:
extremely, immensely, hugely, fairly, fantastically, incredibly, etc.
terribly, awfully, dreadfully, horribly, etc.
(24) You sang fantastically!
(25) She spent a fantastically large amount of money in that shop.
(26) She sang terribly!
(27) She was terribly tired and couldnt come to the party.
5. Intensifying participles used adjectivally
Past participles that are used as adjectives can be compared in the same way as adjectives:
(28) This film has been more publicized than the other.
(29) This has been the most publicized film ever.
There are however some means of intensification that some participles prefer that cant be used for
adjectives, such as better/best or much:


(30) This director is best remembered or better known for this feature.
(31) This is the much acclaimed and the much criticized play that was staged last year.
5. A case of metaphoric intensification
There are other means of intensification that can be used for certain adjectives. For example in the case of
colours, there is a variety of adjectives/nouns used as modifiers meant to express the degrees and variety of
a colour, such as:
bottle green, deep purple, navy blue, dark grey, light blue, pale yellow, soft green, dull grey, etc.
In the same way, metaphoric intensification can be achieved for other adjectives. Lets give some examples:
stark naked, raving mad, stinking rich, etc.
1*. Translate into English:

Malvolio era mbrcat ntr-o jiletc verde przuliu i purta nite ciorpei galbeni iptor cu jartiere
Am citit cartea ta mult ludat i nu mi s-a prut cine tie ce. Cred c ai fi mai cunoscut dac te-ai
mulumi s scrii doar piese.
Fratele lui Joan a venit asear acas beat mort. Cu ct pleac mai repede de pe capul meu, cu att mai
Afar era un ger de crpau pietrele i am ajuns acas cu adevrat ngheat.
Ann este cam prostu, dar este chiar priceput la treburile gospodriei.
Vino i tu la petrecere cu noi. Cu ct vom fi mai muli, cu att mai bine.
Nu-mi place s port haine bleumarin nchis, cu att mai puin n fiecare zi.
Apa din cad era ngrozitor de fierbinte i sincer s spun, nu tiu cum ai fcut baie n ea, cu att mai
mult cu ct tiu c eti bolnav de inim.
S tii c piesa a fost extraordinar de frumoas i ar fi fost cu mult mai frumos dac ar fi venit i
prinii ti s-o vad.
Este oribil de zgrcit cu toate c e putred de bogat i are cei mai muli bani din ora.
Nu m-a cstori cu Victor nici dac ar fi ultimul brbat de pe Pmnt!
Oglind, oglinjoar, cine-i mai frumoas-n ar?
Cred c brbatul tu este destul de chipe ns este ngozitor de slab, pe cnd iubitul lui Ann este al
naibii de artos i pe deasupra extraordinar de musculos.
Chiar dac n camer era ntuneric bezn se gndi c ar fi mai simplu s-i atepte prietenul acolo, n
cazul n care acesta venea mai devreme.
Dei era gol puc i teribil de obosit, i lu inima-n dini s se mbrace i plec chiar mult mai repede
dect anticipase.
Nu vreau absolut deloc s te critic, dar cred c dac ai fi mai puin ngrijorat de reacia celorlali i mai
preocupat de propriile-i griji, ai fi mai fericit.
E blond rocat, frumoas de-i taie rsuflarea i, pe deasupra, are o minte brici.
Dei era srac lipit pmntului, a reuit s-i construiasc o cas cu mult mai frumoas dect a acelora
mai bogai dect el.
Uite, cerneala e uscat iasc, nu cred c se mai poate folosi. Ia un pix la tine i renun la stilou.
Nenea Gicu e surd toac i n-aude nici dac i rcneti n ureche. Nu-i rmne dect s i scrii bileele
dac vrei s te faci neles.

2. Fill in the blanks with the right choice or choices. Try to find an appropriate Romanian translation
for the combinations thus obtained:


buck, scarlet, deep, snow, shocking, lime, dirt, jet, inky, piping, blood, rock, midnight, iron, primrose,
lemon, cherry, pea, chrome, navy, olive, lily, razor, dove.
..... pink,,, .....white, .......purple, ..... solid,,,, ......yellow,, .....grey, .....naked,
3*. Translate into Romanian:
1. The chaplain felt most deceitful presiding at funerals, and it would not have astonished him to learn that
the apparition in the tree that day was a manifestation of the Almightys censure for the blasphemy and
pride inherent in his function. To simulate gravity, feign grief and pretend supernatural intelligence of the
hereafter in so fearsome and arcane a circumstance as death seemed the most criminal of offenses. He
recalled or was almost convinced he recalled the scene at the cemetery perfectly. He could still see
Major Danby standing as somber as a broken stone pillar on his side, see almost the exact number of
enlisted men and almost the exact places in which they had stood, and the large, loose, triumphant mound
of reddish-brown earth, and the massive, still, depthless sky, so weirdly blank and blue that day that it was
almost poisonous. He would remember them forever, for they were all part and parcel of the most
extraordinary event that had ever befallen him, an event perhaps marvellous, perhaps pathological, - the
vision of the naked man in the tree. How could he explain it? It was not already seen or never seen, and
certainly not almost seen; neither dj vu, jamais vu or presque vu was elastic enough to cover it. Was it a
ghost, then? The dead mans soul? An angel from heaven or a minion from hell? Or was the whole fantastic
episode merely the figment of a diseased imagination, his own, of a deteriorating mind, a rotting brain? The
possibility that there really had been a naked man in the tree two men, actually, since the first had been
joined shortly by a second man clad in a brown moustache and sinister dark garments from head to toe who
bent forward ritualistically along the limb of the tree to offer the first man something to drink from a brown
goblet never crossed the chaplains mind.
(Joseph Heller Catch 22)
2. When she abused him in public, she did so with a diamond smile that suggested she was only teasing,
that her constant belittlements were no more than a way of concealing an adoration too enormous to
express; it was an ironising smile that sought to put her behaviour into quotes. This act was never
completely convincing. Often, she drank the anti-alcohol regulations came and went and when she
drank she cursed. Confident of her genius, armed with a tongue as merciless as her beauty and as violent as
her work, she excluded nobody from her coloratura damnations, all delivered with that cheery stone-hard
smile that sought to anaesthetise her victims as she ripped out their innards. (Ask me how it felt! I was her
only son. The closer to the bull you work, the likelier you are to be gored.) (Salman Rushdie The Moors
Last Sigh)
3. This was the closest Aurora came to thanking Abraham for the uncomplaining inexhaustibility of his
cheques, for the city of gold he had so quickly built from her familys wealth, which for all its old-money
graciousness had been no more than, as it were, a village, a country-estate, or a small provincial town,
compared to the great metropolis of their present fortune. Aurora was not unaware that her lavishness
required maintenance, so that she was bound to Abie by her own needs. Sometimes she came close to
admitting this, even to worrying that the scale of her spending, or the looseness of her tongue, might bring
the house down. Always fond of macabre bedtime stories, she would tell me the parable of the scorpion and
the frog, in which the scorpion, having hitched a ride across a stretch of water in return for a promise not to
attack his mount, breaks his vow and administers a potent and fatal sting. As the frog and scorpion are both
drowning, the murderer apologises to his victim. I couldnt help it, says the scorpion. Its in my nature.
(Salman Rushdie The Moors Last Sigh)
4. Translate into English:
1. `De presupus c scrisoarea la care se refereau dicomesienii o trimisese Fibula. I-o trimisese imediat, am
zis, dup ce primise de la mine copia amintit. O scrisoare mnioas i cu gelozii de nepoat batrn care-l
certa pe Umilit c se las ncontinuu pclit de dicomesieni, care-i vor mereu banii si-i folosesc numele
spre ctigul lor, dup cum l certa pe Umilit c se lsase nelat i o primise la Viena pe falsa ngrijitoare
Zoe Lucescu care n-avea alt misiune dect s-l spioneze i s-l trasca spre Dicomesia sau spre
Mavrocordat pentru a fi mai bine golit de averi i moteniri. Aps pe termeni, fiindc limbajul Fibulei la
mnie l cunosc foarte bine. Limbajul ei devine tot mai violent pe msur ce nainteaz n vrst,


masculinizarea expresiei lund forme tot mai dure. Sunt sigur c n scrisoarea ei ctre Umilit pe Zoe
Lucescu n-a scos-o din tot felul de blasfemii i insulte. (tefan Bnulescu Cartea milionarului)
2.Vd c te obsedeaz Dinu, rse ea surprinztor de bucuroas. Da, cu ceva timp n urm ai fi avut motive
de nelinite. Adevrul este c m-am ndrgostit de el brusc, nebunete, de parc m-a fi mbolnvit. Brbat
frumos, cutat, admirat... fost sportiv de performan... armata avea o echip foarte bun... Eram foarte
bucuroas c-l rpesc tuturor femeilor din ora... Dac mi-ar fi cerut, i-a fi oferit orice, fr s ezit o clip,
clcnd interdiciile tatei. Din fericire sau nefericire, Dinu nu mi-a cerut nimic, m trata ca pe o copil de
gimnaziu... i, cu ct l cunoteam mai bine, cu att i reduceam din caliti. Nu are nimic imprevizibil n el,
triete dup nite reguli foarte rigide... Pentru fiecare vizit sau ntlnire cu vreun cunoscut se pregtete
de parc merge la un seminar. Plou, ninge, tun, el nva citate, memoreaz replici celebre i nu pierde
ocazia de a devia discuia spre ceea ce tie. (Augustin Buzura Recviem pentru nebuni i bestii)
3*. Desigur, asupra lui timpul i fcuse simit apsarea; avea douazeci i ase de ani i i trise o parte a
vieii mai mult pe sub pmnt i prin mlatini, spnd gropi i pregtind ambuscade i se putea s i moar
fr s apuce s vad sfritul luptei i s respire n libertate, dar nu se putea ca aceti opt ani s nu-l fi atins
greu i pe inamic, doar viaa s-a scurs i pentru el i opt ani nu e o glum cu att mai mult cu ct muli
dintre ai lui i-au dat i ei viaa pe aceste locuri i uneori n chinuri la fel de cumplite ca acelea pe care ei le
strneau pe unde treceau (fiindc ei au fost cei care s-au artat cei dinti fr cruare aruncnd din avioane
benzin asupra satelor i oamenilor, fcndu-i s ard ca nite tore, i atunci i lor au nceput s le fie
ntinse pe drumurile lor de patrulare nite curse, nu att de spectaculoase ca flcrile unui incendiu, dar nu
mai puin sinistre prin aparena lor inofensiv, gropi de pild, acoperite cu un capac bine camuflat, la fel de
sensibil ca o balan, care se rsturna fulgertor ndata ce era atins cu piciorul, de pe fundul crora trupul
celui czut era ntmpinat de vrfuri ascuite de bambus care i spintecau rinichii i maele i ale crui
urlete nici mcar nu se mai auzeau.)
(Marin Preda - Friguri)
4.Nang simi cum i se nteesc btile inimii i ascultndu-le se mir. Nu i se ntmpla s-i aud inima
dect foarte rar i nc mai rar de emoie, ci mai mult de efort i numai dac era prea flmnd i prea obosit.
O dat capturaser o baterie de artilerie i o duceau n muni prin pduri neumblate. Urcau foarte greu,
trgndu tunurile nhmai la ele.
(Marin Preda - Friguri)
5.Nu mai atept ntunericul, iei din ap i se spl de noroi. Afar era mai frig i ncepu s drdie tot aa
de tare ca Hong genistul cnd trecuser pentru prima dat peste Lach-Tray.
(Marin Preda - Friguri)
6.Dar intrarea ei n cauz era strin de raiuni militare, dar tot att de puternice, ca un ordin pe care l
primea de ast dat din el nsui, dintr-un Nang pe care nu-l cunotea bine, dar tot att de hotrt, de
prudent i de rbdtor: aceast fat trebuia ferit! Iar acesta era parc mai mult dect un ordin, o oapt
parc a unei diviniti care totdeauna l protejase, dar niciodat nu-i dezvluise prezena, iar acum i-o
(Marin Preda - Friguri)
7. Nineta se mbrcase, dar nu pleca, sttea n fotoliu i continua astfel despre copii i povestirea ei nu mai
naint, s aflu i eu ce fcuse atia ani, poate chiar zece i, fr un motiv aparent, izbucni deodat ntrun plns interminabil, asemenea unei Fantine a crei copii se aflau sub puterea unui Thenardier mizerabil,
numai c nu era nici bolnav ca aceea, nu-i vnduse dinii i prul ca s le trimit bani, iar tatl copiilor era
departe de a fi un Thenardier Cu att mai vinovat deci i fr scpare se simea, cu ct, n afar de faptul
c i nscuse, nu fcuse nimic pentru ei. Acest adevr brutal o mpiedica s deschid un proces i s ctige
pentru ea mcar unul. N-ar fi putut ndura s-i aud pe copii n instan optnd pentru tatl lor. I-am
ntrebat, zise Nineta, nseninndu-se ca n faa unei fataliti, i nu mi-au spus chiar nu, dar nici nu mi-au
rspuns nimic, semn c pentru ei hotra tatl, dei cnd le-am pus ntrebarea el nu era de fa. (Marin
Preda Cel mai iubit dintre pmnteni)
8. - De ce? ntreb cu nevinovie. Eu gsesc c uneori Capitala e un ora admirabil! Aceast voie bun nu
este un optimism de ar tnr, de popor tnr, de ora tnr?
Costea Lipan se uit posomort la lanul automobilelor i la mbulzeala cltorilor de pe trotuar.


- Optimism numeti dumneata aceasta? Incontien , iresponsabilitate, oricenu optimism! i vezi cum
trec, cum se salut , cum se invidiaz? Doamnei acesteia, care a trecut pe lng noi i se pare c nu are blana
destul de scump, fiindc doamna de dinaintea ei are una nc mai scump. Fiecare hain, fiecare podoab,
automobilul acesta lung ct un vagon i parfumul pe care l las n urma sa feticana aceasta prea vopsit,
toate sunt preul unui compromis.
(Cezar Petrescu Calea Victoriei)
9. Dar, aa cum se ntmpl de obicei, bogaii deveneau tot mai bogai, iar sracii tot mai sraci. Existau
bogai att de bogai nct nu mai aveau nevoie s fure sau s pun pe alii s fure ca s rmn n
continuare bogai. Dar dac nu mai prdau, srceau, pentru c nevoiaii furau de la ei. Atunci i-au pltit pe
cei mai sraci dintre sraci ca s-i apere averea de ceilali sraci. Aa au ajuns s instituie poliia i s
ridice nchisori.
(Italo Calvino O lume de hoi)


FORMAL REVIEW: Examine the structure of the movie review provided above. Write a movie review
of your own for a movie of your own choice that would have a similar structure.
FOR OR AGAINST: Buying into romantic obsession almost certainly guarantees that well end up
with the last person we need . Argue for or against this statement choosing examples from the movies
you have seen.

SATURDAY 22ND FEB. Last night the film Ghost was on television after the News, and I decided to watch
it, although I had seen it before, with Martin or rather I watched it because I had seen it before with
Martin. It was a surprise hit when it first came out and everybody was talking about it. We enjoyed it, I
recalled, even as we rather despised its slick exploitation of the supernatural. I remembered only the bare
bones of the plot: a young man is murdered in the street walking home with his girl, and tries to protect her
from the conspirators who killed him, though as a ghost he is invisible and can only communicate with her
through a medium. The few details of the movie that had lodged in my memory were the special effects
when characters died: for instance, the hero gets up from the ground apparently unscathed and only realizes
that hes dead when he sees his distraught girlfriend cradling his own lifeless body in her arms; and when
the baddies die they are immediately set upon by dark gibbering shapes that drag them screaming off to hell
(surprisingly satisfying, that). And I remembered that Whoopi Goldberg had been very funny in the role of
the fraudulent medium who is disconcerted to find herself genuinely in touch with the spirit world. These
things were just as effective the second time round. What I wasnt prepared for was the way the love story
would overwhelm me. Demi Moore, whom Ive always considered a rather wooden actress, seemed
incredibly moving as the bereaved heroine. When her eyes filled with tears, mine brimmed over. In fact I
spent most of the movie weeping, laughing at Whoopi Goldberg through my tears. I knew in my head that
the film was cheap, sentimental, manipulative rubbish, but it didnt make any difference. I was helpless to
resist, I didnt want to resist, I just wanted to be swamped by the extraordinary flood of emotion it released.
When the ghostly hero reminds the sceptical heroine, through the Whoopi Goldberg character, of intimate
and homely details of their life together that nobody else could possibly know, and it dawns on Demi
Moore that her dead lover really is communicating with her, my skin prickled with goosepimples. When the
hero (Ive already forgotten his name, and that of the actor who played him) acquires the powers of a
poltergeist and uses them to terrify the thug threatening Demi Moore, I crowed and clapped my hands in
glee. And when, in a sublimely silly scene towards the end, Whoopi Goldberg allows him to inhabit her
body so that he can dance cheek to cheek with Demi Moore to the smoochy tune they made love to at the
beginning well, I almost swooned with vicarious pleasure and longing. [] In a curious way it was a
cathartic experience.
(David Lodge Thinks)


1. Do you think that the text presents a womans point of view or a mans point of view. Motivate your
2. Have you seen Ghost? What do you think about the movie? In the case you havent, talk about a movie
that is similar to the description provided in the text.
3. Why do you think the person talking had previously despised the slick exploitation of the
supernatural in the movie. Can you think about other movies that fit this description?
4. Why is the scene at the end of the movie described as sublimely silly?
5. Why is the experience of seeing the movie described as a cathartic experience?
1. Fill in the blanks with words and phrases from the text:
a) It finally _________ on Demi Moore that her lover was trying to communicate with her.
b) I spent most of the movie weeping or _____________.
c) The few details of the movie that had ____________ were the special effects when characters died.
d) When Demis eyes filled with tears, mine ______________.
e) I remembered only the _______ of the plot.
f) The hero sees his distraught girlfriend ________ his own lifeless body in her arms.
g) Whoopi is disconcerted to find herself genuinely ________ the spirit world.
h) When the evil characters die they are immediately ________by dark gibbering shapes that drag them
__________ to hell.
i) I just wanted to be ________ by the extraordinary flood of emotion the movie released.
j) I crowed and clapped my hands __________.

Choose the right word:

When shown the text, she produced a ______ translation of it in record time.
A. easy


The artist chose the _________ of oil for the portrait he had been commissioned to paint.
B. avenue


I intend to ________ a complaint with the police against my neighbours as soon as possible.
C. wedge


I spotted him hidden in the corner, _______ a twisted splinter in his foot.
D. nursing


John couldnt take his eyes off the monkeys gathered in the banana tree, _________ at each other.
E. whimpering


When Jim had stated his opinion, a silence ________ with meaning fell over the audience.
F. distraught


You are never to speak of the cruel accident that ________ him of his wife and child.
G. bereft


The basin perched on the table was brimful ________ water.

H. with


Go back to your stupid job and your _______ wife, see if I care!
I. homely

10. When she heard his cold voice, she felt a ______ of unease and shivered warily.
J. bump


11. The woman looked at her baby and started _________ to him softly.
K. crowing
12. The new movie that was ________ last month, proved to be an unexpected flop.
L. put out
3*. Translate the following texts, paying attention to the specialized vocabulary used in it:
a) On the vast draught-haunted sound stages of Cincita, with actors, extras, freaks, sycophants and
hangers-on, the by now familiar fauna and flora of Felliniana, seeming to enjoy absolutely equal status
with one another; with the relaxed and negligent, on occasion infelicitous but always festive and
carnivalesque mise en scne of the completed work tendering the spectator what one cannot help
suspecting is a fairly transparent mirror image of the noisy, fractious, exuberant caravanserai that was
the shoot that both preceded and engendered it; with, above all, the casts and crews unanimistic faith
(in the films future, in the virtues of communal achievement, in the Maestros own genially tyrannical
presence) exuding from every pore of the screen, that Serbian invasion comes to symbolise for me the
contamination of a films textures by the very means and conditions of its production.
b) I videotape films or rent prerecorded tapes, and may divert myself by playing the same sequence again
and again as though I were watching successive takes on the set. I read Cahiers du Cinma and Sight
and Sound and even, for some unfathomable reason, Variety, that preposterous bible of American
showbusiness which journalists tend to cite as reverently as though it were the Bible itself. I have
learned, albeit on an almost subliminal level, to decipher cinliterate TV commercials full of bogus
Bogeys and James Cagney lookalikes. And, most potently of all, I have visited America America, a
metacinematic experience in itself, a veritable Homerica, an entire continent in Cinerama (of which
word America is a near-anagram), a living road movie, a circuitous cyberspatial tracking-shot by
Wenders. All of which, in a sense, relates to a critical commonplace, that of the cinemas intertextual
and extracurricular discourse. Everyone is a film buff (of sorts) nowadays; in a period of endemic
imagorrhea there truly does exist a literacy and illiteracy of the image. Cinphilia is currently an
essential item in every thinking persons intellectual baggage.
c) At the most ingenuous, infantile level I miss the frisson of feeling totally at ease with a lexicon to
which I never needed to have recourse in a context of professional responsibility the thrill, in other
words, of airily alluding in conversation with my fellows to rough cuts and reaction shots and mike
shadows (I used to fantasise about some B-movie private eye whose name, appropriately enough,
would be Mike Shadow). I miss the sensation, not of bristling outrage, but rather of complicitous
superiority, that I would enjoy when hearing a journalist mention the fact as he would put it, that the
medium has only ever had a handful of true artists who, it would transpire, were always the same
few: in the past, say, Chaplin, Eisenstein, Bunuel and Truffaut; in the present, Bergman, Kubrick,
Woody Allen and Kurosawa (yes, just about everyone has seen Kagemusha and Ran, but who, other
than the genuine cinphile, has heard of Mizoguchi or Ozu, not to mention Kinoshita or Naruse?)
(Gilbert Adair The Film Set)
One of the rather legitimate questions that learners of English keep asking is that regarding the order of
adjectives. Why, for instance, cant one translate adjectives in the exact order they appear in ones mother
tongue? Of course, the most obvious answer to this question is that there are rules constraining the order in
which adjectives can be placed in front of a nominal. This section is devoted to reminding students this
rule, albeit very briefly. Consider the examples taken from our text:
(1) dark gibbering shapes
(2) cheap, sentimental, manipulative rubbish
Why is it that dark must be placed before gibbering? If you want to find out, please read the three rules
below and consider the examples that go with them:



Subjective opinions are farthest from the noun:
an interesting old novel
General description comes next (size, shape, age, colour, etc.)
a nice large meal
Origin comes next
a smartly-dressed old American lawyer, a nice round
wooden box
If you look closely at this table, you will easily see that the adjective that most closely belongs to the noun
must stay near it, while the speakers opinion is farthest in line. What happens when all the adjectives
preceding the noun are of the same type? This is the situation with the example we offered under (2). Here,
the order is up to the writer or speaker that makes use of that string of adjectives.
To round up our brief discussion, consider the comprehensive table below:

All of


Size, shape,

super de
good oldfashioned



Noun made of

Relating to?

solid copper

oil lamp



pink and






Nota bene!
If you want to remember all these rules more easily you can make use of the following memorizing trick.
You only need to learn by heart the sentence below:















1. Some of the adjectives in the following sentences are in the wrong order. Make the necessary
1. We were shown round the museum by a little, old, friendly woman who didnt speak much English.
2. Rob and Sally have bought a delightful old-fashioned country cottage just outside Cheltenham.
3. Where did you buy that round strange Persian rug youve got in the hall?
4. My sister wore an extraordinary large straw orange hat to the party.
5. Have you seen those tiny new amazing wrist TVs that you wear like a watch?
6. There was a beautiful antique French writing desk at the sale but it was too expensive for us.
7. Whatever happened to that red big American sports car you used to drive?
8. Have you read about that ingenious new surgical instrument for carrying out operations through a
small opening in the skin?
9. The original Fiat 500, an incredibly little popular Italian car, is no longer in production.
10. The puppy had such round big lovely brown eyes that I couldnt help bringing him home with me.
2. Translate into Romanian:


a)* Colonel Cathcart was indefatigable that way, an industrious, intense, dedicated military tactician who
calculated day and night in the service of himself. He was his own sarcophagus, a bold and infallible
diplomat who was always berating himself disgustedly for all the chances he had missed and kicking
himself regretfully for all the errors he had made. He was tense, irritable, bitter and smug. He was a
valorous opportunist who pounced hoggishly upon every opportunity Colonel Korn discovered for him and
trembled in damp despair immediately afterwards at the possible consequences he might suffer. He
collected rumours greedily and treasured gossip. He believed all the news he heard and had faith in none.
He was on the alert constantly for every signal, shrewdly sensitive to relationships and situations that did
not exist. He was someone in the know who was always striving pathetically to find out what was going on.
He was a blustering, intrepid bully who brooded inconsolably over the terrible ineradicable impressions he
knew he kept making on people of prominence who were scarcely aware that he was even alive.
Everybody was persecuting him. Colonel Cathcart lived by his wits in an unstable, arithmetical world of
black eyes and feathers in his cap, of overwhelming imaginary triumphs and catastrophic imaginary
defeats. He oscillated hourly between anguish and exhilaration, multiplying fantastically the grandeur of his
victories and exaggerating tragically the seriousness of his defeats. Nobody ever caught him napping. If
word reached him that General Dreedle or General Peckhem had been seen smiling, frowning, or doing
neither, he could not make himself rest until he had found an acceptable interpretation and grumbled
mulishly until Colonel Korn persuaded him to relax and take things easy.
(Joseph Heller Catch 22)
b) Ten men of revolting appearance were approaching form the drive. They were low of brow, crafty of eye,
and crooked of limb. They advanced huddled together with the loping tread of wolves, peering about them
furtively as they came, as though in constant terror of ambush; they slavered at their mouths, which hung
loosely over their receding chins, while each clutched under his ape-like arm a burden of curious and
unaccountable shape. On seeing the Doctor they halted and edged back, those behind squinting and moulting
over their companions shoulders.
( Evelyn Waugh Decline and Fall)
c) The music began again. Teresa stood quite still before the fire and assembled her thoughts. Her left hand
gripped the golden crucifix on her bosom, while her right hand patted her hair, which had been tossed by
the wind. She was examining her reflection in the big mirror above the mantelpiece. She saw the iron-gray
hair streaked with strands of black, and the eyes that formerly had been full and dark but which were now
hard and wide and coarse as her heavy lips, that always seemed to have lurking behind them the laugh of
derision, the explosive threat, the coarse oath, or the soft tongue of blarney. She saw, too, the heavy jaw
under its fat, which was that of self-indulgence and all the selfish complacency of a tyrant. And on the big
hands were the jewelled rings. Now they flashed again at her and excited her cruel instincts for they were
the visible things of success which her savage, pagan soul had always lusted after.
( F.L.Green Odd Man Out)
3. Translate into English:
1.Mai multe nopi la rnd, Iov vis acelai vis: un hipopotam ncins n plato de aram, cu un corn
magnific, rsrit cine tie cum n mijlocul frunii lui teite, i cu urechile strpunse de nenumrate inele, l
urmrea pe ntinderea prfoasa a cmpiei, scond mugete fioroase, i-l nghiea ntr-un trziu, fr icnete,
pe de-a-ntregul, purtndu-l n pntecul ntunecat un timp pe care el nu avea cum s-l msoare; cnd simea
c i se apropie sfritul i inima st gata s-i nlemneasc, fiara l lepda din adncu-i, undeva n deert,
izbindu-l cu fruntea de o piatr triunghiular, pe care, rnit, lsa de fiecare dat civa picuri de snge. Se
trezea ameit, tulbure la minte i ngrijorat. Cerea vin, cupe ceruite i erau aduse n mare grab i se spla
din cretet n tlpi cu licoarea lor. Mirosea proaspt, rscolitor, i femeile n-aveau ngaduina s se apropie
de dnsul. Pe buze nu mai punea dect ap trecut prin zece site. (Mihai Mnuiu Un zeu aproape
2.i nfiarea Amelici era atrgtoare i proaspt. Tinereea ascundea i grosolnia trsturilor, i
asprimea caracterului ce se puteau citi n ochii vinei, sticloi, fr umbre i fr caldur. Zmbetul era
frumos i fraged n rotunjimile trandafirii ale feei, i trupul, bine lega, mldia, sub faldurile bogate ale
rochiei, adevrate ispite. I-ar fi trebuit ns, pentru ca s-i ntregeasc farmecul, o lunecare n mers, care-i
(Ion Marin Sadoveanu Sfrit de veac n Bucureti)
3.Era una din acele femei care dogoresc de cum le ntlneti: te lovete din ntreaga lor fiin o cldur ca
dintr-o gur de cuptor. O femeie nalt, bine fcut, blond, cu o gur crnoas i cu ochii verzi, umbrii de
gene dese i negre, cu un sn bogat, cu minile albe i degetele subiri, cu un picior mic, frumos mbrcat
i cu gust, ea avea o nfiare elegant i ispititoare. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu Sfrit de veac n Bucureti)


4.Celelalte camere se pstrau la fel, cu puti i sbii atrnate pe perei, n fosta camer a lui conu Barbu; cu
dulapurile din sufragerie nesate de farfurii i de pahare, numai bune de ntrebuinat; cu pod vechi din
brne groase de stejar, n care mai erau lzi nalte pline de lucruri uitate chiar de o spi mai veche dect a
lui conu Barbu.
(Ion Marin Sadoveanu Sfrit de veac n Bucureti)
5*.n faa cavoului lor, al Barbilor, i numra adeseori strmoii. Erau, ntr-o boltni, oase mai vechi,
dezgropate de prin curile bisericilor. Numele lor erau scrise n slavonete pe feele unor pietre ntoarse
acum, strjuind pe morii mai noi. Bunicii lui aveau ns dou frumoase busturi de marmur, aezate
alturi, icoan venic a unei cstorii de o jumtate de veac, trainic i linitit. Prin adncimile pietrei,
praful i ploile lsaser urme negre, punnd un fel de umbre de via nou n chipurile ncremenite: Ienache
Barbu, bunicul, avea ochii bulbucai ca ai lui, barb i plete; iar Blaa Barbu, bunica, o frunte nalt,
luminoas, doi zulufi bine potrivii i un zmbet ngheat n colul gurii. ncolo erau unchi i mtui. Cel
mai de curnd sosit era Dumitrache, mort la Viena, unde a avut grij s-l nvee multe pe nepotul su. Iar n
colul cel mai modest al acestui mare cavou de familie, o simpl plac de marmur cu un nume pe ea:
Lotte. Era mama lui Bubi, uitat, mai la o parte. N-a cunoscut-o nimeni n via n afar de btrnul baron,
i apoi mai era i catolic. Astfel se putea lmuri aceast prsire, care l durea ntotdeauna pe fiul ei. (Ion
Marin Sadoveanu Sfrit de veac n Bucureti)
6. Niculaie Gheorghe, ns, de la bun nceput, nu-l putea suferi pe colegul lor puin distant i exact, i,
dup ce nu mai fu chiar periculos, i gsea plceri rafinate n a-l irita. Zaharescu era pedant i cu nervii
slabi, i N.G. avea nervii foarte, foarte puternici. Aa, de plid, n laborator, dup ce venea elegantul lor
coleg, venic bine ras, prea bine ras, cum era i prea ortodox, lipit de cele afirmate, Niculaie se descla i
Zaharescu ntorcea capul scrbit. Apoi i spla ciorapii groi, de ln, n chiuvet, dar nu prea insistent, i
i-i punea s se usuce pe calorifer, lsnd s se scurg apa din ei ncet, pe bucata de ziar maronie, i lipia
cu picioarele pe jumatate bgate n pantofi, pn la biroul su. Zaharescu strmba din nas, apoi se enerva, l
ruga s-i spele ciorapii acas, ns Niculae Gheorghe i explica simplu mai nti c nu are ap cald n
camera sa, i, cu un aer provocator umil, i povestea c este de la ar i poate nu tie s se poarte.
(Alexandru Ivasiuc Iluminri)
7.n severitatea leala a figurii sale in fata morii, S. se lumina cu un zmbet. Era una din cele mai frumoase
biruine. Vedea, dupa visul lui negustoresc, legat de mari sinceriti, cum coboar din lumea boierilor
deprinderea cea bun i se ntinde n lumea ct mai larg a micii burghezii romneti, pe care din
reunostin o iubea, dup cum l iubea i pe Urmatecu, cu toate pcatele lui. De cnd l cunoscuse i se
mprietenise cu el, vienezul, dintr-un sim de devotament nnscut i dintr-o cinstit dorin de a face binele
dup mintea lui, se hotrse n tain s-i ajute i s-i lefuiasc prietenul. La Iancu el iubea n primul rnd
inteligena i voina, puterea lui struitoare de a voi s ajung ntr-o alt lume. l vedea ns de multe ori
stngaci n cile pe care le apuca, dup cum i pentru bucurii l simea cu zri nchise. De aceea, pe
nesimite, el struia s-l atrag n fgaul gusturilor i credinelor sale. Coroana de azi, S. i-o lmurea i ca
pe o nnobilare a lui Urmatecu n adincul unei dureri, i ca pe un sfat care cu ncetul a ajuns s se schimbe
n fapt.
(Ion Marin Sadoveanu Sfrit de veac n Bucureti)

INFORMAL REVIEW: Write an informal review for a movie you have seen twice. Compare the
reaction you had on the first viewing with the one you had the second time you saw the movie.
YOUR OWN MOVIE: What would a movie whose script you wrote look like? Write a short summary
for a movie script of your own.

We are doomed, Professor! The planet is rushing madly toward Earth and no human power can
stop it! Why are you telling me this? asks the professor petulantly and sniffs his armpits. Hmm. Excuse
me, gentlemen, he adds, switching off his scientific instruments and, to their evident chagrin, turning away,
I must take my bath. But there is already an evil emperor from outer space in his bathtub. Even here then!


He sits on the stool and chews his beard despondently, rubbing his fingers between his old white toes. The
alien emperor, whose head looks like an overturned mop bucket, splashes water on the professor with his
iron claw and emits a squeaky yet sinister cackle. Youre going to rust in there, grumbles the professor in
his mounting exasperation.
The squat gangster in his derby and three-piece suit with boutonniere and pointed pocket
handkerchief waddles impassively through a roomful of hard-boiled wisecracking bottle-blond floozies,
dropping ashes on them from his enormous stogie and gazing from time to time at the plump bubble of fobwatch in his hand. He wears a quizzical self-absorbed expression on his face, as though to say: Ah, the
miracle of it all! the mystery! the eternal illusion! And yet its understood hes a dead man, so the girls
forgive him his nasty habits, blowing at their dcolletages and making such vulgar remarks and noises as
befit their frolicsome lot. They are less patient with the little buggers longing for the ineffable, however,
and are likely, before hes ribbed out (will he even make it across the room? no one expects this), to break
into a few old party songs just to clear the air [].
The husband and wife, in response to some powerful code from the dreamtime of the race, crawl
into separate beds, their only visible concession to marital passion being a tender exchange of pajamas from
behind a folding screen. Beneath the snow-white sheets and chenille spreads, they stroke their strange
pajamas and sing each other to sleep with songs of faith and expediency and victory in war. My cup, the
wife gasps in her chirrupy soprano as the camera closes in on her trembling lips, the luminescent gleam in
her eyes, runneth over! and her husband, eyelids fluttering as though in prayer, or perhaps the onset of
sleep, replies: Your precious voice, my love, here and yet not here, evokes for me the sweet diaphanous
adjacency of presence - (here, his voice breaks, his cheeks puff out) - and loss!
The handsome young priest with the boyish smile kneels against the partition and croons a song of
a different sort to the nun sitting on the toilet in the next stall. The hidden agenda here is not so much
religious expression as the filmic manipulation of ingenues: the nuns only line is not one, strictly speaking,
and even her faint smile seems to do her violence.
The man with the axe in his forehead steps into the flickering light. His eyes, pooled in blood,
cross as though trying to see what it is that is cleaving his brain in two. His chest is pierced with a spear, his
grin with a sword. He stumbles, falls into a soft plash of laughter and applause. His audience, still laughing
and applauding as the light in the film flows from viewed to viewer, rises now and turns towards the exits.
Which are locked. Panic ensues. Perhaps theres a fire. Up on the rippling velour, the man with the split
skull is still staggering and falling, staggering and falling. Oh, my god! Get that axe! someone screams,
clawing at the door, and another replies: Its no use! Its only a rhetorical figure! What?! This is worse
than anyone thought. I only came for the selected short subjects! someone cries irrationally. They place
their tear-streaked faces against the intractable doors, listening in horror to their own laughter and applause,
rising now to fill the majestic old movie palace until their chests ache with it, their hands burn.
Ah, well, those were the days, the projectionist thinks, changing reels in his empty palace. The age
of gold, to phrase a coin. Now the doors are always open and no one enters. His films play to a silence so
profound it is not even ghostly. He still sweeps out the vast auditorium, the grand foyer and the mezzanine
with their plaster statues and refreshment stands, the marble staircase, the terraced swoop of balcony, even
the orchestra pit, library, rest rooms and phone booths, but all hes ever turned up is the odd candy wrapper
or popcorn tube hes dropped himself. The projectionist does this intentionally, hoping one day to forget
and so surprise himself with the illusion of company, but so far his memory has been discouragingly
precise. All that human garbage the chocolate mashed into the thick carpets, the kiddy-pee on the frontrow seats and the gum stuck under them, the used tissues and crushed cups and toothless combs, sprung
hairpins, stools clogged with sanitary napkins and water fountains, with chewing gum and spittle and soggy
butts used to enrage him, but now he longs for the least sign of anothers presence. Even excrement in the
Bridal Fountain or black hair grease on the plush upholstery. He feels like one of those visitors to an alien
planet, stumbling through endless wastelands in the vain search for lifes telltale scum. A cast-out orphan in
pursuit of a lost inheritance. A detective without a clue, unable even to find a crime.
(Robert Coover The Phantom of the Movie Palace)
Robert Coover (b. 1932 - ) is an American author. He is
generally considered a writer of fabulation and metafiction


(experimental fiction in the style of magical realism).

Among his best known works one needs needs to mention:
The Public Burning and A Night at the Movies.


Paraphrase the underlined words and expressions.

What movie genres does the author take as a point of reference in the text?
Can you think about movies you have seen that contain scenes similar to the ones the author presents
What do all the movie scenes presented in the text have in common?
How can you comment upon the following lines : Ah, the miracle of it all! the mystery!?
Why is there no other concession to marital passion than the tender exchange of pajamas behind the
movie screen?
In what way is the opposition presence/ loss relevant in the text?
In what way is the manipulation of ingenues related to religious expression?
Why is the presence on screen of the man with the axe on his forehead seen as comical by the
audience? Is their laughter caused by violence?
In what way do reality and illusion mingle in the scene in which the audience is trapped in the movie
Why does the projectionist regret the past? Why does everything that is no longer present seem like an
age of gold to him?
Why is garbage important to the projectionist and why does the author describe it as lifes telltale
Comment upon the image of the wasteland in connection to the movie theatre.
Is the projectionists position similar to the position of an author or of a god? Motivate your answer?
Why has the audience deserted the movie theatre?
Comment upon the opposition between life/death as it is presented in the text.


ANTONYMS AND SYNONYMS. Choose the right word:

1. Paul looked pale and ____ after his long illness.

A. gawky
B. gaunt
C. bony
D. bonny
2. He was a _____, long-legged, awkward looking teenager.
A. stocky
B. curvy C. saggy
D. gangly
3. The baby had round, _____ cheeks.
A. stocky
B. portly C. squat
D. chubby
4. She was as______ as a partridge.
A. chubby
B. buxom C. overweight

D. plump

5. The old witch stretched out her ugly-looking, ______neck.

A. scrawny
B. slender C. slim D. trim
6. While Roxy is small and curvy, Minnie is tall and ______.
A. scraggy
B. petite
C. willowy
D. diminutive
7. He was a lean, handsome man and he took her in his strong, ______arms.
A. plump
B. lanky
C. skinny
D. brawny


8. It was dark and the teenagers went to the pool for some ______-dipping.
A. scrawny
B. scraggy C. skinny D. slight
9. Although he liked petite women, he had married a tall, _____ girl.
A. thrifty
B. hefty
C. wiry
D. stout
10. Although in his youth he had been lean, her father was now a ____ man.
A. curvaceous B. portly
C. chubby
D. drawn
11. She envied people with nice slender hands, because her own fingers were _____.
A. pot-bellied B. pudgy
C. sticky
D. clammy
12. While his mother and father were stocky, hes always been ________.
A. stringy
B. stodgy
C. spiky
D. flabby
13. When she tried do leave him, her abusive husband gave her a _____ lip and threatened to hurt her even
A. swollen
B. bloated
C. fat
D. plump
2*. POLYSEMY: SPRING. Translate into English:

Pe cnd m plimbam seara, doi oameni au tbrt pe mine i mi-au dat n cap.
Soldaii s-au pus n poziie de drepi cnd a venit colonelul.
A nit din pat i a nceput s se mbrace repede.
Atitudinea asta nu se datoreaz dect proastei educaii pe care a primit-o.
O s pltesc eu cina n seara asta.
Au prsit casa n fug n timp ce ua se trntea n urma lor.
A srit n picioare i a alergat s-i ajute prietenul.
Cred c ar fi mai bine s-o pregteti, n loc s-i trnteti vestea asta neplcut.
mi vin n minte acum dou lucruri la care nu m-am mai gndit.
Nu puteam s-i spun nimic acelui individ, pentru c imediat prietena lui i srea n aprare.
Societatea Poeilor Disprui a luat fiin pe la nceputul anilor aizeci.
Tot felul de magazine noi apar ca din pmnt prin tot oraul.
Cu toate c era destul de vilcean, l-am fcut s cad n capcan.
De cte ori vorbesc despre rposatul meu so, mi vin lacrimi n ochi.

3. SYNONYMY: MASH. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words:

break, smash, shatter, crush, squeeze, squash, mash, grind, wrinkle, crumple, crumble

The film the producer invested in _____all box office records.

If you dont stop ____ your teeth, youll have to wear a brace!
What will you have on the side? Green peas or_______ potatoes.
It _____my heart to see you suffer like this.
This coat is very nice, but, unfortunately it _______ easily.
He _____as soon as he received the heavy blow from his opponent.
Its good to drink a glass of freshly ______ orange juice every morning.
The wings of the insect I had caught simply_____ in my fingers.
I think you went too far! He was simply_____ by your insensitivity.
He was quick to______ the unpleasant rumours that went round about his best friend and his new
11. Life had dealt her a cruel blow. She no longer had anything left but her _______ dreams.
4. Make up a short text of your own choice, using all the words given below:


blockbuster, credits, feature, tearjerker, script, sci-fi, casting, thriller, starring, X-rated, lead, sequel,
supporting actor, editing, costumes, period movie, soap opera, PG, extras, short film, score, remake,
prequel, silent movies, big budget film, rerun, shoot
5. Translate into Romanian:
The decades-old conflict in Colombia has produced a generation of young people for whom war is
the norm. In a courageous documentary, "La Sierra," the filmmakers Scott Dalton and Margarita Martinez
take us to a small hillside community in Medelln where an illegal right-wing paramilitary group holds
When not fighting leftist guerrillas or settling local disputes, the young men of the group - "kids
with guns," one elderly resident grumbles - strut their stuff for local girls whose fecundity seems like a
desperate bid to replace the dead.
There's 22-year-old Edison, the paramilitary commander and de facto leader who enjoys his guns
and "hard-core" activities yet dreams of becoming a civil engineer; his 19-year-old subordinate, Jess,
missing a hand from a grenade accident; and 17-year-old Cielo, already a widow, who sells candy on local
buses to earn money to visit her jailed boyfriend.
Posing proudly with their rifles or musing matter-of-factly about their own deaths, the boys are
tragic enough. But it's the girls who break your heart, stoic and wise beyond their years. "I would have
liked for all my children to be girls," admits Edison, already supporting six children with six different
women. The remark is a poignant acknowledgment that war and revenge are legacies only sons are likely to
(by Jeannette Catsoulis, from the New York Times, November 10, 2005)
This section focuses on a revision of the values of Present Simple and Present Continuous. We are going to
have a look at the way in which these tenses, with their complementary values, can be used together in a
text to form a coherent unit. But before we do that, consider a few samples from the text above and
comment on the uses of the Present Simple and Continuous in them. Which of these sentences contain the
basic use of the two tenses we have mentioned?
(1) The planet is rushing madly toward Earth.
(2) The alien emperor, whose head looks like an overturned mop bucket, splashes water on the professor
with his iron claw and emits a squeaky yet sinister cackle.
(3) He wears a quizzical self-absorbed expression on his face
(4) Now the doors are always open and no one enters.
(5) He still sweeps out the vast auditorium.
A brief perusal of the examples above must have told you that the first sentence contains the basic use of
Present Continuous, whereas the sentences under (4) and (5) encode the main meaning of Present Simple. It
is assuredly no news that Present Simple expresses a general state or a repeated action at speech time,
whereas Present Continuous expresses an action that takes places right as we speak. This is in fact one of
the reasons why state verbs are not normally used with a continuous aspect. (For more information on this
problem see Unit Six, Section Three, C)
Compare: Shes doing a lot of chat shows on TV. / She does a lot of chat shows on TV.
This pair of sentences captures the main difference of meaning between Present Simple and Present
Continuous: while in the first case, the situation is temporary, restricted to speech time only, in the second
case, we assume that the subjects job is that of doing chat shows on TV. This main distinction between
Present Simple and Present Continuous is of an aspectual dimension, as we already know. This is however
a problem for learners of Romanian, that do not identify this distinction in their mother tongue.


Exercise: Translate into English:

1. Mama lui Martin face zilnic de mncare, dei nici lui Martin i nici celorlali membri ai familiei nu le
place cum gtete. 2. De ce faci iar de mncare? Nu vezi c mai e destul tocan n frigider? 3. Tocmai am
aflat c Jim regizeaz un film despre viaa preedintelui. Tu ce prere ai despre asta? 4. Face filme despre
vieile politicienilor i ctig o grmad de bani din asta. 5. Iar te uii la televizor? i-am mai spus de o
sut de ori s-i faci nti temele! 6. Fiul meu se uit la televizor sear de sear i nu las din mn
telecomanda s-l pici cu cear! Schimb canalele i mnnc semine, mereu cu ochii lipii de ecran. 7. Ce
faci acolo? Iar scrii scrisori de ameninare preedintelui Televiziunii romne? 8. De cnd s-a inventat emailul, nimeni nu mai scrie scrisori. Mi se pare foarte deprimant! 9. De cte ori scoate cinele afar,
rmne la vorb n faa blocului. 10. Uite-l cum vorbete cu prietena lui n faa blocului n timp ce eu fac i
treaba lui.
Having mentioned the main difference between the present tenses under discussion, let us remember some
of the other values they can have. In order to do that, we should look at the table offered below. Notice that
we have chosen to place these two tenses in opposition and that the values they exhibit can be said to
parallel each other:

Generic and habitual present

(main value)


Temporary use of present

continuous (main value)

E.g. Love is blind.

She goes to school every day.

E.g. She is eating an apple (at this

very moment).

Future value (scheduled

E.g. The train leaves at 4 p.m.

Instantaneous present (used

instead of a present continuous
structure for stylistic reasons)

Future value (personal

E.g. Were meeting at five.

E.g. Hagi takes over, he runs

towards the goal and shootshe

Emotional present continuous

(used instead of a present simple
structure for stylistic reasons to
show emotion in the tone of the
E.g. Youre always bringing me
presents! Hes always saying the
wrong thing!

Historical present (used

instead of narrative past
I bump into John. He sees me and
starts telling me about his sick
I hear a noise behind. Its just a
barking dog. (informal register)

Frame present continuous (used

instead of frame past continuous)

as I am walking down the street,

While he is talking to me,

This diagram contains three extra values beside the main value characteristic for each tense. The table is far
from exhaustive, which is why students are advised to try and solve the exercises below:
1. Read the following sentences and try to identify the various uses of the present tenses:
1. Im watering the plant while hes away. 2. Hes always losing his keys. 3. I am hoping to see you soon. 4.
We are looking forward to seeing you. 5. I hope to see you soon. 6. Im picking her up at six. 7. Whos


posting the letters while hes away? 7. I cant come on Monday, Im babysitting. 8. Hes having a
wonderful time. 9. Look, first I beat the eggs and then I add the flour. 10. Two and two make four. 11. Hes
always buying her a new dress although in fact he never gets to do so. 12. I hear youve been busy. 13. Pink
Satin is coming up on the rails, hes overtaking Rover Boy, but Little Nell is pulling away 14. He passes
the ball to Clark, he swerves, aims and scores. 15. Bush Visits Romania. 16. This man goes to the restaurant
and says: Do you serve frogs? The waiter says, Yes, so he says, Right, Ill have a coffee myself and
some flies for my frog. 17. My bus leaves at three. 18. When you heat ice, it melts.
2. Consider the text by Robert Coover. Which value of Present Simple prevails in this text?
3. Put the verbs in brackets into either the Present Simple or the Present Continuous tense:
1. The butter (melt)! You should take it and put it in the fridge. I didnt know butter (melt) so fast.
2. You forever (use) my shaving kit. Cant you buy one for yourself? You (be) terribly impolite.
3. I (walk) to work this week because I have managed to crash my car.
4. Dont forget that the exam (start) the day after tomorrow. You should rest tomorrow so you could score
maximum points.
5. Wheres your sister? I (think) she (kiss) a boy outside.
6. My father is the most generous man. He always (buy) us things!
7. Sorry, cant make it tonight! I (have drinks) with the boys at the Lion.
8. They (buy) a lot of magazines because they (hope) to win the big prize.
9. And, sure enough, at the end of the movie Rambo (manage) to rescue the girl and (release) the
10. This month I (live) in my sisters apartment while mine (get redone).
11. Sampras (serve) and Chang (return) but the ball (go) into the net. Game to Sampras!
4. Translate into English, paying attention to the grammar problems discussed in this section:
1.i construieti casa pentru o femeie, cumperi mobila pe care a ales-o ea, i fixezi deprinderile cum le-a
dorit ea. Toate planurile de viitor pn la moarte sunt fcute pentru doi ini. A plecat de-acas i eti
necontenit ngrijorat s nu i se ntmple ceva Te strpunge ca un stilet orice aluzie despre ea i eti
nebun de fericire cnd, dup greutai materiale i umiline uneori, ai izbutit s-i faci o surpriz care s o
uimeasc de plcere. Ei bine, ntr-o zi vine femeia acas i-i spune c toate acestea trebuie s nceteze pn
mine la ora 11.35, cnd pleac la gar. Shylock n-a avut curajul s taie din spatele unui om viu exact livra
de carne la care avea dreptul, cci tia c asta nu se poate. Totui femeia crede c din aceast simbioz
sentimental, care e iubirea, poate s-i ia napoi numai partea pe care a adus-o ea, fr s fac ru restului.
Nici un doctor nu are curajul s despart corpurile celor nscui unii, cci le-ar ucide pe amndou. Cnd e
cu adevrat vorba de o iubire mare, dac unul dintre amani ncearc imposibilul, rezultatul este acelai.
Cellalt, brbat sau femeie, se sinucide, dar nti poate ucide. De altminteri aa e si frumos. Trebuie s se
tie c i iubirea are riscurile ei. C acei care se iubesc au drept de via i de moarte unul asupra celuilalt.
(Camil Petrescu Ultima noapte de dragoste, ntia noapte de rzboi)
2. A, tiu eu o ntmplare a lui cu o femeie din Bucureti.
- Stai, stai, c i asta e interesant. ntr-o zi, cnd femeia era la el in garsonier, i-l credea pe brbatu-su
plecat pentru trei zile la o conferin diplomatic, nu tiu unde, ea se hotrete s rmn toat noaptea la
Grigoriade, dar, pentru orice ntmplare, trimite acas un plic desfcut, ca din partea celei mai bune
prietene. Madeleine o chema, zice el prin care asta o roag s vie s doarm la ea, c i-e urt singur,
cci brbatul ei e plecat. i, sigur de aceast prieten, cea mai bun a ei, nici n-o mai ntreab mcar.
Trimite biletul cu indicaia printr-un comisionar s spuie cameristei s-l puie chiar pe masua din dormitorul
ei. Catastrof. Brbatul vine de diminea de tot, i face un scandal imens. Pas-mi- te, el petrecuse toat
noaptea cu cea mai buna prieten a nevestii-si Femeia, uluit, prins n aa curs, se stapnete, nu
spune o vorb i pleac. Dar cnd tipul vrea s divoreze ea i aduce aminte c mai are o prieten,
Madeline, o roag, o implor pe ea i pe brbatul ei s declare c ea a scris scrisoarea i, dup multe
peripeii, izbutesc s-l conving i pe brbat de acest lucru, c voia nebunul s strice casa.
(Camil Petrescu Ultima noapte de dragoste, ntia noapte de rzboi)
3. Mereu vine cte unul, mzglete ceva pe o hrtie i pleac. Era un tip cu ochelarii pe nas care a tot scris
ceva ntr-un caiet. Mai nainte se uitase cu bgare de seam de jur-mprejur i s-a mai uitat i dup, apoi a


plecat. sta fusese, cred, primul. Apoi sosi un grsan care voia s tie mai mult i care i i nsemn mai
mult ntr-un mic calendar de buzunar, nearuncnd nici o privire de jur-mprejur, salutnd ns la plecare.
Era tare grbit s o ntind de aici i mai c ncepu s alerge, dup ce bgase n buzunar calendarul. Al
treilea nu-i nscrise dect numele meu i numrul de la cas, cci nu exist pe aici dect o singur strad.
Aps apoi pe un buton al cutiei ce o purta cu el. Se auzi un clinchet i un zumzit i a trebuit apoi s
vorbesc foarte repede i el mi fcea semne nerbdtor s spun rapid ceea ce voia. i aa am i fcut. i
apoi i nsemn timpul exact, ceea ce am ghicit dup felul n care se uitase cu o clip nainte la ceas. Dau
nval cu toii i fiecare caut s mai afle vreun amnunt i eu li-l spun. V pot povesti i dumneavoastr
cte ceva, dac dorii Ei, am tiut eu. Nici nu trebuie s v notai nceputul, deoarece ceea ce o s v spun
acum mi-a trecut prin cap abia azi diminea. Stau aa i m gndesc. V mirai, desigur, creznd c a fi
mai puin n stare dect alii de asemenea lucru. Cum vrei s o iei! A putea s v spun exact cum s-a
ntmplat aadar adevrul. Dar, tii e aici o problem. Nu tiu dac ceilali i-au notat dup cum le-am
spus eu. Ct despre cel cu cutia, luia i-am repetat ceea ce dnsul mi suflase mai nainte, cci nu voiam s-l
supr. Sosete aa cte unul de departe, de-abia dac a apucat s aipeasc noaptea; l vezi deodat n faa
ta, i ar vrea s plece n aceeai clip napoi: mare pcat s nu-i faci pe plac. Ei, da. La drept vorbind, nc
n-am aflat de ce vor cu toii s scrie despre asta. tiu c nu e nimic mai bun de fcut: lucruri care s merite,
la care tii apoi c ii ceva n mn. Ia privii acest b. Ieri mi l-am taiat i l-am cojit, iar acum l crestez cu
grij. Alii se pricep mai bine, dar mie-mi plac crestturile fcute de mna mea, crestturi semicirculare, nu
drepte tii, cele drepte mi se par neinteresante. Poate de aceea i spun fiecruia din ci vin la mine
altceva. Lasa-i s-i sparg frumos capul dupa aceea, c mie totuna mi e. i cu ct se scurge mai mult
vreme, cu att mi trec mai multe gnduri prin cap. i toate aceste gnduri au oarecum de-a face cu
problema. Aadar pot fi ntr-o oarecare msur adevarate. Oricum, ns nici un gnd nu e att de adevrat
pe ct e acest b. Drept s v spun, chiar nu tiu ce dorii. V uitai la acest cuit? mi aparine. Nimeni nu-l
dorete. Pot s-l scot cnd vreau, s-mi tai cu el o slnin sau pine. Sau s cioplesc mai departe la acest
b. Serviciul mi-o permite. Stau pe aici, umblu sau m aez ct vreme e nevoie i am grij s nu
izbucneasc vreun foc n cldire. Mai am grij i de altele. Spre exemplu s nu intre vreunul i s fure ceva.
Dar nu-i cunosc pe toi ci intr i ies. Deunzi l-am oprit pe unul, iar a doua zi am fost fcut de trei parale.
Cic avea la el o hrtie. Dar cine n-are azi aa ceva? O groaz de oameni nu fac altceva dect s scrie la
hrtii. i de-atunci vin mereu alii, m tot descos, nseamn ceva i pleac. Dumneavoastr v voi spune o
poveste nou. Ateptai, ncep imediat, vreau doar s pun bine cuitul i s-mi proptesc bul. i-aa: nainte
de a veni aici primul, acela cu ochelarii pe nas, fusese cel cu hrtia, pe care ns nu l-am lsat s intre. Cu
cteva zile n urm ns mai fusese unul, care ma ntrebase cum m cheam. I-am spus i el a notat. V-am
spus doar, toi vin, scriu cte ceva i pleac
(Arnold Hauser - Bul)
4*.Hagiul se rostogolete n pat. E prea fericit. Nu poate dormi. Rde i ofteaz. E detept i viseaz. Ce
vis! De nu s-ar sfri. Dac aici, n zduf i ntuneric, ar sta n picioare, i banii ar crete, ca o revrsare de
ap, de la tlpi n sus, pn peste cretetul capului Oh, ce fericit ar fi hagiul! nainte s-i dea sufletul, ar
vedea faa i venicia lui Dumnezeu. Moartea s aib coas de aur, el i-ar nfinge amndou minile n
tiul ei.
Picturi de ploaie bat n geamurile Hagiului. Hagiul tresare. Nimeni. Se terge pe frunte de nadueal.
Rsufl greu, ca pe un sui de deal c-o povar n spinare. i bate inima: visul unei mori fericite i s-a
prefcut ntr-o via de spaim. Picturi grele izbesc n geamuri. Gndul c ar putea s-l jefuiasc cineva l
face s sar din pat. Aprinde lumnarea. E galben ca ceara. Prul, nepieptanat i lung, i atrn n viioane
pe ceaf i pe frunte. Se uit la icoane. Se-nchin. i aduce aminte de Dumnezeu. Firete c se gndete la
El! Se gndete c sufera pe pmnt din cauza leneilor i tlharilor. Lui nu i-ar fura o bic cu zece mii
de galbeni, ngropai sub crmizile de sub pat, ci l-ar fura de zece mii de ori, i-ar fura sufletul turnat n
fiece galben. El niciodat nu a priceput ce este zece, o mie, o sut. Astea sunt vorbe, sunt numere pe rboj
sau pe hrtie. n zece galbeni este inima lui de zece ori, ntr-o sut - inima lui de-o sut de ori, ntr-o mie,inima lui de-o mie de ori. n zece mii el nu vede un purcoi de galbeni, ci zece mii de copii ai lui, fiecare cu
chipul i cu viaa lui. Iac de ce se gndete la Dumnezeu.
(B.t.Delavrancea- Hagi Tudose)
5. Birourile noastre sunt toate pe un coridor ce nu se mai sfreste. Cnd ai nevoie de cineva, iei i-i
rcneti numele. n toate instituiile ajung s fac tradiie unele obiceiuri curioase. La noi, de exemplu, se
strig. Coridorul reverbereaz mult vreme sunetele; cu strigtele te obisnuieti greu, orict de tare ai fi. Pe
Alexandru Popescu nu-l cheam nimeni. Cu toate acestea, e primul care scoate capul din birou i st aa, cu
gtul alungit, pn ce chestiunea se lmurete.


- Ce e, ce e? ntreaba el, privindu-te n adncul ochilor.

- Nimic.
- Aha, nimic!
Un aha mai degrab buimac, ca i cum mari evenimente stau s vin i nimeni nu se sesizeaz.
Despre funcionarii de la registratur, am, ca toat lumea, o opinie. Mi-am nsuit, mai bine zis,
prejudecata general. Am citit o mulime de consideraii suficiente cu privire la arhive i arhivari. Intru ntrun birou ca toate birourile, cu oameni ca toi oamenii, dar, vorbind de registratur i arhiv, spun ce tiu din
citit: nite soareci printre dosare, nite prfuii.
Ca i cum nu-s tot funcionar, un oarece rtcind printre dosare. N-ar trebui s fiu att de mndru c nu
lucrez la registratur. Adevrul e c nici nu sunt. E suficient s-mi imaginez ce crede directorul despre
oamenii lui, un director care a trit i vremuri mai bune, ca s revin la realitate. Odinioar, mi spuneam:
pn jos mai este, am dreptul la unele iniiative, am oarecare libertate de micare, n-am ajuns s dau numr
de ordine la nite hrtii, nu-s Alexandru Popescu.
Acum gndesc altfel. La Alexandru Popescu m gndesc adesea, viaa m-a apropiat de el ntr-un chip
S-a ntmplat, cum se spune, ceea ce era dat s se ntmple. (Tudor Octavian - Ana la Boston)
6. Actul 2.
Hol-tind acas la Caragiale.Are un birou, dulapuri de cri. Servete i ca odaie de lucru. E trziu, dup
miezul nopii. Caragiale mbrcat, cu paltonul pe umeri, lucreaz la birou. Are un teanc de foi in faa lui.
Foarte multe alte foi mototolite i aruncate pe jos. E nervos, nedormit, cu ochi vizibil obosii. Dup un timp
trage cu urechea spre una din camere a crei u e deschis, cu mult ngrijorare, aproape cu spaim. Apoi,
nemulumit, se aeaz ntr-un fotoliu i parc vorbete singur, gesticuleaz. Noteaz. A tuit un copil. El
alearg la camera cu ua deschis. Reapare. Se duce la birou. Peste puin, vine Didina, cu o hain lung de
cas pe ea.
Scena 1.
Caragiale (extrem de obosit, pare ameit): Tu de ce nu dormi? De ce nu eti nelegtoare?
Didina (slbit): Aipisem, dar am auzit copilul tuind
C: De data asta a fost mai uor
D: Ct e ceasul?
C: E aproape 3
D: Atunci nu m mai culc, am dormit destul patru ore
C: N-ai dormit patru ore, c ai tot tresrit i venit aici. Aa, nu ai s poi rezista. Pna mine e mult, cnd
vine sora ta s te schimbe.
D: E mai bine s te odihneti i tu puin. Ai putut lucra ceva? Ai terminat actul nceput ieri?
C (ngndurat): Nu(stnjenit l arat jos) Am rupt totul. Nu merge.
D: Nu trebuie s fii necajitNu poi lucra aa, atent n fiecare clip la respiraia copiilor.
C (nelinitit): Didino, tu crezi c tusea asta convulsiv poate ucide un copil n cteva clipe?
(Didina tace, artnd c i ea s-a gndit mult la asta.)
C: Am vorbit ieri i cu doctorul. Zice c pericolul, la copii mai mici de doi ani, este c se pot sufoca tuind.
D: tiu. De asta mi-e groaz i mie. Din pricina asta tresar chiar cnd dorm, dac le aud tuindBietele
C: Pe la unu jumtate s-a trezit cea mai mare- ntr-o tuse care i sfia pieptul; de spaim i ieeau ochii din
orbite, se nvineise ca plumbul toat, i era gura plin de snge. Am umblat cu ea n brae jumtate de or,
prin cas. Nu puteam face nimic s-i potolesc aceste accese de tuse.(Se frnge) Simi c s-ar putea s-i
moar n braeDac ai vedea un copil al tu cuprins de foc, ai sri in flcri s-l scapiAi sri in ap, i
fr s tii s noi, hotrit s-l scoi. Dar aa, l vezi frngindu-se njunghiat de durere i spaim, n gheara
morii i nu poi s faci nimic.(Se frnge de durere)
D (l privete lung): Du-te i odihnete-te puin. De vreo sptmn nu-mi plac ochii ti. Sunt foarte obosii.
C: Cum o s stau n cas? Avem procesul cu proprietarul, care ne evacueaz pentru neplata chiriei.(Didina
face un gest: totui) Didina, tii c noi nu mai avem n cas dect treizeci de bani? Spui c nu mai ai
lemne, pe o vreme ca asta. C nu mai ai nimic n buctrie.
D: O s nclzim doar dou camere pentru fetie. Nu le putem culca n aceeai camer, cci, tuind, se
scoal una pe alta, abia aipite.


C (nelinitit): Oh! S nu fac vreo pleurizie! (Tresar amndoi. Ea alearg spre odaia din care vine plnsetul
i tusea grea a copilului. Caragiale ateapt, apoi se aeaza nuc parc la masa de scris) (Camil Petrescu
Caragiale n vremea lui)

REMAKES: A lot of remakes have appeared lately taking old movies as point of reference. Giving
examples of remakes you have seen yourselves argue for the positive aspects/negative aspects of
remaking movies. (50 lines)
FOR OR AGAINST: Argue for/against violence in movies being harmful to children.

Look, if you cant see whats so irresistible about Clark Jug Ears Gable of the Jack oLantern
grin, then much of the appeal of Gone With the Wind goes out the window. Furthermore, if Vivien Leighs
anorexic, over-dressed Scarlett OHara seems to you one of the least credible of Hollywood femmes fatales,
most of whose petulant squeaks are, to boot, audible only to bats
And, finally, if you cant see anything romantic AT ALL about the more than feudal darkness of
the Old South, then, oh, then, you are left alone with the naked sexual ideology of the most famous movie
ever made in all its factitious simplicity. Macho violence versus female guile, bull vs. bitch.
The first time I saw this meretricious epic, it was the fifties, on one of the many occasions when
they dusted off the reels and sent it on the road again to warp the minds of a new generation. Though I was
but a kid in short pants, then, with zilch consciousness, truly I thought it stank. But I was of that
generation whose sexual fantasies were molded by Elvis Presley and James Dean.
Presley, white trash with black style, in his chubby, epicene and gyrating person, himself the
barbarian at the gates of Tara talk about irresistible, how could even Scarlett have resisted had Elvis
pleaded with her to let him be her teddy bear? As for Dean impossible to imagine James Dean carrying a
girl upstairs. I used to fantasise about doing that to him. Fifty-six was, perhaps, the best year in which to
view Gone With the Wind.
But the big question. Why, oh, why did the BBC choose to empty out Gone With the Wind, that
hoary sackful of compulsive trash at this point in time? More why did the Corporation decide to play
Santa with this thing at the fag-end of Christmas, when, softened up by grub and booze, the notion might be
deemed to be uniquely vulnerable? Impossible not to smell a rat. Part of the Womens Lib backlash?
I still think it stinks, this movie famous for being famous: that reduces the American Civil War to
the status of spectacle (the Hollywood attitude to war, which reaches its apogee in Apocalypse Now); that
advertises the masochistic pleasures of tight lacing did you notice how often Mammy is depicted brutally
compressing Scarlett into her corset? What kind of image is that?
But, goodness me, how enjoyable it is! I curled up in my armchair, giggling helplessly, weakly
muttering: Break his kneecaps, about every five minutes, sometimes more often.
Whose kneecaps? Well, Ashley Wilkes, obviously! What a whingeing creep. Not those of Big
Sam, patently the Best Man on the entire plantation even if touched with Uncle Tom, such an obvious
father figure that I cant see why Scarlett, father-fixated as she is, doesnt marry him, thereby giving the
plot a whole new dimension.
But it is, of course, Rhett Butlers kneecaps that seem ripest for the treatment. That Rhett Butler
and his travelling salesmans lines: You need to be kissed often, by somebody who knows how to do it.
This is the authentic language of a sexually incompetent man whistling in the dark, but let me not continue
with that train of thought or else Ill start feeling sorry for him. And who could feel sorry for a man who
says, as he closes in for the clinch: This is what you were meant for?
Since Scarlett is characterized as Maggie Thatcher manque, I would have thought she was meant
for high office rather than low innuendo. And, give Gone with the Wind its due, implicit in the script is just


how ill at ease Scarlett is with the role in which the plot has cast her. Given any other option than that of the
Southern belle, even that of a poor white farmer, she grasps it with both hands. Her sexual manipulations
seem to spring from sheer boredom rather than actual malice, from the frustrated ambition of a baulked
entrepreneur of the kind who has given capitalism a bad name. A bitch, not from sexual frustration (that old
chestnut!) but from existential frustration.
After all, as soon as she gets her hands on that lumber mill, she starts coming on like the
Godmother and Rhett cant think of a way to stop her.
Yet all this is going on in the gaps of the overt ideology of the movie. Which is very simple no
more than The Taming of the Shrew in hooped skirts. But in a film so extravagantly long, the viewer has
ample time to ponder the socially determined nature of the shrew, which is often that of a woman forced to
live for love when she really isnt interested in love at all, and why should she be, dammit.
Not that Rhett Butler does manage to tame this shrew, in the end. He may give out with genuinely
unforgivable things as: Ive always thought a good lashing with a buggy whip would benefit you
immensely. But he never does batter her. Since he is the sort of macho weakling who is off like a long dog
at the whiff of a genuine emotional demand, the obvious strategy to be rid of him is to say you truly love
So Scarlett wins out; off goes Rhett, thank goodness, and tomorrow is another day. Now Scarlett
can get on with amassing a great estate and bankrupting small businessmen, for which activity breaking
hearts must always have been an inadequate substitute.
There is, of course, the one really disgusting scene, that of the famous marital rape, which, in the
late thirties, was deemed the very stuff of girlish dream and is now grounds for divorce. As a teenager, Im
bound to admit I didnt find this scene as repellent as I do now. Since it occurs three-quarters of the way
through the second half, it is high time for Scarletts come-uppance and, God help us, the whole scene is set
up so that the viewer wants Rhett Butler to rape his wife!
Not that there is any suggestion it is rape. Irresistible Rhett, his ears rampant as if ears were
secondary sexual characteristics, is but asserting his rights over the body of the woman who has rejected
him out of selfish, narcissistic reasons such as disinclination for motherhood. This one night youre not
turning me out. He scoops her up in his arms.
Cut to the morning after, Scarlett stretches luxuriously in bed, smiling, singing a happy little song
to herself. See? Thats just what the bitch needed all the time. And if you believe that, you will believe
But. Perhaps. Perhaps she had broken his kneecaps, at that! Surely that is the only thing that could
make her smile, at this juncture! And that must be the real reason why he has to go off to Europe, to visit a
good kneecap specialist. Of course, they cant say that in the script, but I am sure that is what happened,
(Angela Carter The Belle as Businessperson)

What is the movies naked sexual ideology according to the author? Do you agree to her opinion?
Why is the movie described as meretricious?
Why does the author say that the fifties were the best period for watching the movie?
Compare Clark Gable to Elvis Presley or James Dean. What is the main difference from the point of
view of the characters they portray on screen?
5. Why is the author wondering about the reasons for BBCs decision to play the movie? How can you
characterize her reaction?
6. According to the author, in what way can Gone with the Wind be described as depicting violence?
7. Why does the auhtor say that Scarlett should break Ashleys kneepcaps? Do you agree with her?
8. Is the description of Scarlett as a Maggie Thatcher manquee accurate in your opinion?
9. What does the movie have in common with The Taming of the Shrew?
10. Comment upon the authors representation of the rape scene. Do you agree with her views?



Fill in the blanks with words and phrases from the text above:
He behaved with the ambition of a ________ entrepreneur of the kind who has given capitalism a bad
2. Scarlett doesnt marry him, ________ giving the plot a whole new dimension.
3. In that scene Rhett _________ her up in his arms and takes her to her bedroom.
4. Perhaps Scarlett has broken his kneecaps, ________!
5. Most of Scarletts squeaks are, ______, audible only to bats.
6. The movie is a _______ sackful of compulsive trash.
7. It is Rhetts kneecaps that seem _________ for the treatment.
8. Her sexual manipulations seem to spring from _______ boredom rather than actual malice.
9. And _______ in the script is just how ill at ease Scarlett is with her role.
10. On that occasion they ________ off the reels and sent the movie on the road again.
11. Could it have been part of the Womens Lib ________?

Choose the right word:

My old aunts are very ________, Im afraid. You have to be very careful about your manners around
A. strait-jacket
B. strait-laced
C. tight-laced
D. straitened


I think he would like to go to bed with Susie. He behaves like a __________ bull around her.
A. whingeing
B. tamed
C. rampant
D. rabid


You have a ___________ sense of humour if you can say such a preposterous thing to me!
A. crooked
B. bent
C. warped
D. wry


Oh, come on! Ive heard this old __________ for the tenth time this week. Credit me with some
intelligence, for Gods sake.
A. peach
B. apple
C. chestnut
D. nut


The odds were against him in that situation and he was more or less left __________ in the dark.
A. whistling
B. singing
C. chirruping
D. clamouring


I felt hurt and threatened by her reply. Then the other guests started agreeing with her and it felt as if
they were ___________ me.
A. coming on
B. closing in on C. hitting on
D. coming against


There are laws in this country against wife ___________, you know.
A. pounding
B. licking
C. whooping
D. battering


Although in his _________ forties, Jim was still a good catch for every woman in town.
A. old
B. last
C. ripe
D. late


When prompted to confess, she would shrug her shoulders innocently and cast him a __________
A. guileless
B. winsome
C. penetrating
D. deprecatory

10. Look at the tantrums he throws! Hes behaving like a ___________ child!
A. fractious
B. diffident
C. contrite
D. petulant

Consider the table below. Match the following list of words with the right entry:
factitious, meretricious, belle, booze, manipulation, epicene, creep, clinch, apogee, Goodness me!,
smell a rat, overt, zilch, come-uppance, grub, it stinks, innuendo.
Outdated words

Familiar register

Formal register


4*. POLYSEMY: EAR. Translate into English:

1.L-a tras de urechi drept pedeaps pentru nota mic de la biologie. 2. La ct brf a auzit dup cstorie
probabil c i acum i iuie urechile. 3. Rugminile ei nu au fost bgate n seam deloc. 4. Probabil c tie
deja, doar e genul care casc urechile bine i e mereu informat. 5. Prieteni! Atenie v rog. 6. Nu i-a putut
crede urechilor cnd a auzit ce voia ea de la el. 7. Bine, dac nu vrei s ne gndim mpreun la o strategie, o
s improvizm ceva pe loc, dup ureche. 8. Ciulete bine urechile i ascult ce-i spun. 9. Am treab pn
peste cap sptmna asta. 10. N-o asculta prea atent, dei ea i povestea o ntmplare foarte amuzant. 11. A
rs cu gura pn la urechi cnd a citit articolul din ziar. 12. L-au trimis acas ruinat i umilit. 13. Uite ce
urechi clpuge are!
a. Fill in the blanks with the right adjective and paraphrase:
1. _______-eared 2. _______-nosed 3. __________-handed 4. ________-headed 5. ________-necked 6.
________-kneed 7. __________-handed 8. _________-handed blow 9. ________-minded 10. _________jawed 11. ________-boned 12. ________-legged 13. __________-lipped 14. ________-minded 15.
________- fisted
b. Paraphrase and use in sentences of your own:
Weak in the head, tight in the neck, long in the tooth, wet behind the ears, high in the instep, white around
the lips, purple in the face, green about the gills, plump in the pocket, right in the head.
c. Translate into English:
Nalt la stat, mic de statur, bun de gur, ru de gur, ru de foame, ru de pagub, bun la suflet, greu de
cap, nu-i ntreg la cap, lat n umeri, scump la vorb, slab de nger, srac cu duhul, alb la fa, bun de carne,
ncet la minte, iute la mnie, slobod la gur, tras la fa.
GRAMMAR: IT vs. THERE (the existential use)
One of the perpetual puzzles that students of English have is the use of dummy subjects, i.e. there and it.
They are called empty or dummy subjects, because they have no semantic content and are placed in the
sentence only to fill the subject position, a sine qua non requirement of this language. Why are there and
it so difficult to use? When do we use one and when do we use the other? These are the questions we will
be happy to answer in this section.
Now, consider the examples extracted from the text above:
(1) Not that there is any suggestion it is rape.
(2) There is, of course, the one really disgusting scene...
(3) How enjoyable it is!
(4) It is, of course, Rhett Butlers kneecaps that seem ripest for the treatment
(5) It is high time for Scarletts come-uppance.
The more one looks at these examples, the more puzzled one seems to become. This is because there seems
to be no rhyme or reason in the use of there and it. Indeed, there seems to be no apparent pattern of
usage in this set of examples. Let us try and establish a few rules and then go back to our sentences.
It is muddy on the street. / There is mud on the street.


The first rule students should remember in connection with dummy subjects is that normally existential it
is combined with an adjective whereas there is followed by an (indefinite) noun. Consider the examples
below and remember this rule:

It is muddy on the street.

It is foggy today.
It is glorious outside.
It is nice and quiet all
It is naughty of you to
behave like that.

There is mud on the street.

There is fog outside.
There is glory to be gained
from her actions.
There was peace and quiet all
There was naughtiness in his

So, remember never to use a noun after it with an existential meaning:

There is a cat on the
There is a book on
the table.

But not:
*It is a cat on the mat.
* It is a book on the table.

* - the star indicates that the sentence following it is

grammatically incorrect

This rule practically tells us something very important about the examples we have listed at the beginning
of this section. It tells us that all those sentences where it is followed by a noun are not in fact existential
it sentences. For instance, example (4) contains the so-called emphatic it. What is the difference
between existential it and emphatic it? Translation is a good test: only the existential it sentence can be
translated by a sentence beginning with the verb a fi:
(7) It is muddy on the street = este noroi pe strad
(8) It is Rhett who needs to be kissed = Rhett este cel care are nevoie s fie srutat.
The translation for (8) shows you that this sentence lays emphasis on a certain element, in this case Rhett.
On the other hand, the example under (7) introduces a new object/ property in the world of our discourse,
and thus has an existential meaning.
It is high time / There is enough time
How do we account for these two constructions? We have just stated that existential it should never be
followed by a noun. Well, then, how about the sentence under (5)? This is an instance of idiomatic use.
There is practically no accounting for it. Students are advised to learn these examples by heart:
Idioms with it
Its no secret that mother likes
Its no surprise/wonder that he
knows English so well.
Its no use/good telling me
It was no coincidence/accident
that they met in the station.
It was about time for her to
admit her mistake.
It is three miles/kilometers to
the next village.

Idioms with there

Im sorry, but theres no
alternative/choice but to tell her the
Theres no denying that he is
Theres no need to tell me your
Theres no question of going to the
concert tonight.
Theres no chance of finding a cure
for cancer in the near future.
Theres no doubt that she enjoys


It is (five) years/an eternity

since they first met in the

Theres no telling what shell do
when she finds out!

As you can notice, the theres no pattern is very productive.

There is a cat on the mat. / Oh, theres the cat next door, we can use it in our movie.
There is one last remark to be made. This concerns the so called indefiniteness effect rule. What is this
rule about? It states that dummy there should be followed by an indefinite noun only. Consider the
following table for this rule:
There is a cat on the mat.
There is a girl in the room.

But not: * There is the cat on the mat.

* There is the girl in the room.

However, there are cases when this rule is not observed, as you could see in example (2). This example is
possible when we want to introduce a new object in our discourse about which there exists some previous
knowledge. Generally the definite noun must be followed by further modification for the sentence to be
correct. Consider also the examples under (9) and (10) and notice the underlined modifiers attached to the
definite noun:
(9) Alternatively, there is the choice to vote against the planned changes.
(10) And then there is the question of who is going to pay.
Nota bene!
Dont forget that dummy there is not combined only with the indicative. It can appear in the vicinity of
participles or infinitives in formal English:
(11) There being nothing left to say, Susan left the room enraged.
(12) It is desirable for there to be at least two sets of examples in your dissertation.
1. Use the most logical form of the verbs between brackets:
a) It (be) just this that gave me my perspective for finding her there.
b) There (be) two men and one dog in that room.
c) There (be) one dog and two men in that room.
d) What you need and what you get (be) your problem.
e) What you need and what you get (be) two different things.
f) He liked her. There (be) some talk of her marrying William Banks once, but nothing had come of it.
2. Translate into English:
a) Pn la casa unde locuia Florin erau cel mult dou sute de metri. Cei doi mergeau ncet, tcui. Prea
ncet i prea tcui pentru o distan att de mic. Ion se temea s nu vorbeasc, fiindc, mergnd
alturi, ar fi trebuit s se ntoarc mai mult dect ar fi fost normal, ca s-i vad i s-i arate faa. Ca i
cum i-ar fi ghicit gndurile, Florin se opri i se ntoarse spre el, care imit brusc micarea, aa nct se
puteau privi. Ea rosti: mulumesc, cred c am ajuns. Vznd c tnrul nu spunea nimic i o privea
numai, adug: se spune c vei mai sta pe la noi un timp.
b) Era uor s fie centrul ateniei. Ori de cte ori era solicitat, se ducea pe scen i recita o poezie.
Oamenii l rugau mereu s se produc.
c) Nu mi e greu s fac nite calcule. E greu ns s trag concluziile i s i ofer soluii.
d) S-ar putea ca mine s plou. Totui nu se aude nici o veste despre acest lucru la radio. Poate c s-au
plictisit s anune ploaie i apoi s nu plou.
e) De-abia intrar n sal, c unul din spectatori se apuc s strige la ei i s-i faca n toate felurile.





N-are nici o importan cnd a spus profesorul lui Tom c poate prsi clasa. Important e c a fcut-o.
Ajuni acas, se apucar s fac de mncare.
Ce m deranjeaz cel mai mult sunt ideile lui fixe.
Cnd o s nceap s bat vntul, ar fi bine s ne ntoarcem din parc acas i s dm drumul la cldur.
Diplomatul tia bine englezete i nu acest lucru l supra pe Tom. Iritant era ce spunea i modul n
care nghiea cuvintele.
Cine spuneai c a venit i a mncat tot tortul? Tom, bineneles c Tom.
Sunt vreo doi kilometri pna la aeroport. Putem merge pe jos pn acolo dac nu cltoreti cu multe
Recunosc c e foarte neplcut s intre la nchisoare acum n floarea vrstei. Dar i mie mi-e greu s nu
spun adevrul despre el.
Dintre toate posibilele variante care ni s-au explicat pn acum, nici una nu pare a fi la fel de palpitant
ca penultima.
Nimeni dintre cei de fa, fie c erau profesori sau doar prini, nu prea s l asculte pe vorbitor.
Socotesc c e o prostie s depind de un asemenea om.
E timpul s mergi la culcare, dar mai e timp s-i citesc o poveste.
Terminnd de mncat i lsndu-i s vorbeasc alandala, am ieit. Era un aer rece i nmiresmat. Un
soare uria, apunnd, nroea cerul. Sus, pe un deal, se vedea albind mnstirea Draga. Curnd se fcu
ntuneric ochilor notri. Eram fericit fr s se tie de ce. (L. Blaga Proz)
Un viciu urt, sau ce-i nchipuie lumea c e un viciu urt, orict l-ai ascunde, - i dac judeci bine,
tocmai pentru c-l ascunzi, - contiina ta venic nelinitit ajunge cu vremea s-l cread public. Poate
c nu era nimic. Putea fi exagerarea de moment a unui lucru, care totui, n principiu, n-ar fi fost exclus
s nu se ntmple. Cu Brummer discuta direct. Cu Georgeoiu, dei i purta simpatie, veriga de
ncredere ce-i lega fiind uria, nu reuea niciodat s vorbeasc deschis, din cauza ironiilor i
zeflemelilor lui, cu toate c tia c ele sunt aparente i c dedesubtul lor se ascundea altceva, oricum nu
i s-ar fi destinuit niciodat. (Constantin oiu Galeria cu vi slbatic)
Nu sunt un spirit tiinific. Iat de ce nu-mi pot explica n ciuda lmuririlor dumneavoastr competente,
cum se face c n locul acesta e ntotdeauna timp frumos! Poate c, i asta v-a uurat probabil sarcina,
locurile pe-aici sunt mai ferite? Nu vd ns nici un fel de dealuri n jur care s le fereasc de
intemperii! De altfel, dealurile nu gonesc norii, nu mpiedic ploaia, o tie oricine. Exist poate cureni
calzi i luminoi care vin dintr-un al cincilea punct cardinal sau de la o a treia nlime? Nu-i aa c nu?
De altfel, asta s-ar ti. Sunt un caraghios. Nu e nici o briz, cu toate c aerul miroase frumos. E totui
ciudat, domnule arhitect al orasului, foarte ciudat! (Tudor Octavian Istoria unui obiect ciudat)
La Alexandru Popescu ma gndesc adesea. Viaa m-a apropiat de el n chip neateptat. S-a ntmplat,
cum se spune, ceea ce era dat s se ntmple. (Tudor Octavian Istoria unui obiect ciudat)

3. Fill in the gaps with a suitable variant of it is/are or there is/are:


____ a man at the door, waiting to see you.

____ a good idea to sleep after a heavy meal.
____ every reason to believe that he is a thief.
____ a fact that most men are larger and heavier than most women.
____ a concert at the Festival Hall tomorrow evening.
____ no sense in waiting for her; shes always late.
____ often believed that the English are reserved.
____ I who cannot bear these hateful words.
____ time you left this place.
____ enough time for you to wash your hair.
____ fog outside; dont go out.
____ windy outside; please, stay indoors.
____ time you confessed your crime, you know!
____ a lot of smoke in this place, I cant stay here.
____ a long way to London!
____ sunny outside and the birds are chirping.
____ two books and one chair in the room upstairs.
____ so much mud outside that we wont be able to walk to church.



____ a while since we last met.

____ a cat that ate our canary, despite what you might think.
____ so stuffy in here! How can you bear it?
____ no room for you in my plans, Im sorry!

4. Fill in the blanks with either it or there:

Toni thought _____ was probably better to be a little vague about the interview until ______ was over.
_____ was no guarantee that she would get that job, anyway. Miss Black had been careful to point out that
_____ would be other applicants; and then ______was this Managing Director, Mr. Lawrence, who
sounded rather a brute. Not an easy man to satisfy, Miss Black had said, and Toni knew from experience
what that meant. ______ meant that he was a perfectionist and _______ was hardly any doubt that he was a
slavedriver as well. But she didnt suppose _______ was him she would be working for. _______ was
doubtless that he had his own personal secretary, with years of faithful service behind her. _______ being
no choice in the matter, she would try to make the best of it.

NEGATIVE REVIEWS: Taking Angela Carters review as a point of reference, write a negative
review of a widely known movie that you dislike.
WOMEN IN MOVIES: Some people think that women often receive stereotyped parts in movies.
Argue for or against that opinion.




It is a northern country. They have cold weather, they have cold hearts.
Cold. Tempest. Wild beasts in the forest. It is a hard life. Their houses are built of logs, dark and
smoky within. There will be a crude icon of the virgin behind a guttering candle, the leg of a pig hung up to
cure, a string of drying mushrooms. A bed, a stool, a table. Harsh, brief, poor lives.
To these upland woodsmen, the Devil is as real as you or I. More so. They have not seen us nor
even know that we exist, but the Devil they glimpse often in the graveyards, those bleak and touching
townships of the dead where the graves are marked with portraits of the deceased in the naif style and there
are no flowers to put in front of them, no flowers grow there, so they put out small, votive offerings, little
loaves, sometimes a cake that the bears come lumbering from the margins of the forest to snatch away. At
midnight, especially on Walpurgisnacht, the Devil holds picnics in the graveyards and invites the witches.
Then they dig up fresh corpses, and eat them. Anyone will tell you that.
Wreaths of garlic on the doors keep out the vampires. A blue-eyed child born feet first on the night
of St. Johns Eve will have second sight. When they discover a witch some old woman whose cheeses
ripen when her neighbours do not, another old woman whose black cat, oh sinister!, follows her about all
the time, they strip the crone, search for her marks, for the supernumerary nipple her familiar sucks. They
soon find it. Then they stone her to death.
Winter and cold weather.
Go and visit your grandmother, who has been sick. Take her the oatcakes Ive baked for her on the
hearthstone and a little pot of butter.
The good child does as her mother bids five miles trudge through the forest. Do not leave the
path because of the bears, the wild boar, the starving wolves. Here, take your fathers hunting knife. You
know how to use it.
The child had a scabby coat of sheepskin to keep out the cold. She knew the forest too well to fear
it but she msut always be on her guard. When she heard that freezing howl of a wolf, she dropped her gifts,
seized her knife and turned on the beast.
It was a huge one, with red eyes and running, grizzled jaws. Any but a mountaineers child would
have died of fright at the sight of it. It went for her throat, as wolves do, but she made a great swipe at it
with her fathers knife and slashed off its right forepaw.
The wolf let out a gulp, almost a sob, when it saw what had happened to it. Wolves are less brave
than they seem. It went lolloping off disconsolately between the trees as well as it could on three legs,
leaving a trail of blood behind it. The child wiped the blade of her knife clean on her apron, wrapped up the
wolfs paw in the cloth in which her mother had packed the oatcakes and went on towards her
grandmothers house. Soon it came on to snow so thickly that the path and any footsteps, track or spoor that
might have been upon it were obscured.
She found her grandmother was so sick she had taken to her bed and fallen into a fretful sleep,
moaning and shaking so that the child guessed she had a fever. She felt the forehead, it burned. She shook
the cloth from her basket, to use it to make the old woman a cold compress, and the wolfs paw fell to the
But it was no longer a wolfs paw. It was a hand, chopped off at the wrist, a hand toughened with
work, and freckled with old age. There was a wedding ring on the third finger and a wart on the index
finger. By the wart, she knew it for her grandmothers hand. She pulled back the sheet but the old woman
woke up at that, and began to struggle, squawking and shrieking like a thing possessed. But the child was
strong, and armed with her fathers hunting knife. She managed to hold her grandmother down long enough
to see the cause of her fever. There was a bloody stump where her right hand should have been, festering
The child crossed herself and cried so loud the neighbours heard her and came rushing in. They
knew the wart on the hand at once for a witchs nipple. They drove the old woman, in her shift as she was,
into the snow with sticks, beating her old carcass as far as the edge of the forest, and pelted her with stones
until she fell down dead.
Now the child lived in her grandmothers house. She prospered.
(Angela Carter The Werewolf)


Angela Carter was born in Sussex in 1940 and read English at Bristol
University. She is a writer of novels, all of which received considerable
critical acclaim, including Wise Children, Nights at the Circus, The
Magic Toyshop, The Infernal Desire Machines of Doctor Hoffman. She
has also published a few collections of short stories, including The
Bloody Chamber and Other Stories, Fireworks. Her books of essays,
including The Sadeian Woman and Nothing Sacred recommend her as
an accomplished essayist too. One of her short stories, The Company of
Wolves, was made into a film by director Neil Jordan.
One of the most vibrant writers of the 20th century, Angela Carter
managed to create works in which old myths and archetypes are
reshaped into new forms of potent artistry.

The story above is meant as a rewriting of Red Riding Hood. Underline the similarities as well as the
distinctions between this story and Red Riding Hood.
Comment upon the style of the author. Why does she choose short, elliptical sentences for her text?
Comment upon the following: To these upland woodsmen, the Devil is as real as you or I. More so.
Identify the instances in which the author uses the second person in her text. How can you comment
upon this use?
In what way does the author describe the wolf? Are there any differences between this description and
your own representation of this character of the fairytale?
What about the Red Riding Hood in this story? How can you characterize her?
What can you say about the treatment that the community inflicts upon the grandmother?
How can you interpret the last sentence of the text: She prospered.


Fill in the blanks with words/phrases from the text:

There will be the leg of a pig hung to _______ in the kitchen.
She made a great _________ at the wolf with her fathers knife.
The wolf ______ a gulp, almost a sob.
________ of garlic on the doors keep out the vampires.
The child had a ________ coat of sheepskin to keep out the cold.
The snow _______ the tracks left by the child.
The old womans hand was _________ work and _________ age.
______ the wart, she knew that hand _____ her grandmothers hand.
The villagers _______ her with stones.
The wolf _______ her throat but she dodged it.
Her grandmother had fallen into a ________ sleep.
If an old womans cheeses ______ when her neighbours do not, she must be a witch.


Match the items in the first column with the ones in the second so that you obtain resultative

within an inch of ones virtue

to tatters
into submission
to death
to distraction
under the table



out of their wits

to sleep
within an inch of ones life
into a stupour
to smithereens

3. Translate the following weather expressions into Romanian:

a) Theres a nip in the air. Yes, its a bit nippy today. b) Freezing, isnt it? Look at my fingers, theyre
stiff with cold. c) This day is going to be a scorcher, I can tell. d) The days are closing in, and its getting
colder and colder. e) He braved the blizzard to reach her doorstep. f) The light is fading fast, theres a storm
brewing. g) It was raining heavily and visibility was low. h) She couldnt breathe in the sweltering heat. i)
There was a fine drizzle falling over the city. j) After the heavy frost, the road was a sheet of ice. k) The
rain was coming down in sheets. l) All that hail pelting down the roof must have drilled holes in it already.
a)* STONE. Translate into English:
1. Purta pe deget un inel cu o piatr preioas de mrimea unui ou de porumbel. 2. Te rog ajut-m s scot
smburii de la ciree dac vrei s mnnci dulcea. 3. Demonstranii aruncau cu pietre n maini. 4. N-am
s las nici un ungher necercetat, i promit. 5. Dac i cumperi flori, o convingi s mearg la mare cu tine i
se va bucura i mama ei: dou dintr-o lovitur. 6. Nu poi s-l faci s vorbeasc, mai uor scoi ap din
piatr seac. 7. Ce-mi spui tu m las de-a dreptul rece, drept s-i zic. 8. Dup atia ani de predat, muli
profesori ajung surzi toac. 9. Se uit la ea cu o fa mpietrit i i spuse c nu o poate gzdui. 10. M
ntreb dac ai mcar un dram de compasiune n tine! Parc ai fi de piatr!
b) TRACK. Translate into Romanian:
1. Hes off the beaten track again. 2. The Earth crosses the track of certain comets. 3. The train on the next
track was moving. 4. Can I have the sports page, theres some important track event I want to check. 5. He
looks quite pleased with himself, he must be on the track of something. 6. The mans grim face stopped Jim
dead in his tracks. 7. Sorry, Im afraid Ive lost track of time. 8. Its getting late, we must make tracks, guys.
9. Im sorry, but I think youre on the wrong track here. 10. Can we talk about something else than booze
and babes? You sure have a one-track mind, man. 11. The tracking station identified a vehicle running at an
ungodly speed on the main highway.

SYNONYMY: lumber, lollop, lurch, trudge, plod, hobble, stroll, saunter, amble, shamble, stagger,
clump. Fill in the blanks using the appropriate synonym:
1. The hound ________ along, eager for the chase.
2. The armoured vehicle started to ________ towards the tower, heavy with equipment.
3. The three of us ________ up the stairs in our heavy ski boots.
4. Paul _______ sideways two steps as the boat rolled suddenly.
5. Aunt Sophy was _______ slowly round the room on her crutches.
6. As usual, he carelessly ________ in the class twenty minutes late.
7. I ______ along the beach with the warm sun on my face.
8. Mother walked the four miles to the nearest store and then ___________ back home with her bags of
9. The travelers ________ through the deep snow at the side of the railroad.
10. Looking tired and fat, Parker ________ onto the stage and started playing.
11. One of the horses, a white one, slowly ________ towards me.
12. I was hit on the head and just managed to ________ out of the room.
GRAMMAR: Modal verbs: WILL and SHALL
Look at the following sentences taken from the text above:
(1) There will be a crude icon of the virgin behind a guttering candle.
(2) A blue-eyed child born feet first on the night of St Johns Eve will have second sight.


Look at the context they are placed in. What is the meaning of will in these sentences?
Sentence (1) cant be paraphrased as: There is going to be a crude icon...., but as There is always a crude
icon or as You are likely to find a crude icon..... The same goes for sentence (2).
The meaning of the sentences clearly indicates that, although the auxiliary will is sometimes used to
express future time, here the sentences do not refer to the future, but to a characteristic or habitual action,
that is to something that is bound to happen frequently. Thus, although the meaning of the sentences can be
said to be similar to the sentences containing future will, there are significant differences. Due to this
difference in meaning, will is interpreted, not as a future auxiliary, but as a modal auxiliary.
Future doesnt mean modal and volition is not the same with probability!
We have established that there are two kinds of will: will the future auxiliary and will the modal auxiliary.
The sentences 1 and 2 in the text have helped us to underline one of the meaning values of will as a modal
auxiliary. Let us see now how many meanings modal will has. Look at the following sentences:

If you will help me, Ill be very grateful. (If you want to help me, Ill be grateful.)
If you hurt me, my father will kill you. (In case you hurt me, my father is going to kill you).

(5) I keep telling him the truth, but he wont listen. (I told him the truth but he refused to listen.)
(6) He wont listen to music tomorrow. (Hes not going to listen to music tomorrow.)
(7) She will have already eaten her dinner by now. (She has probably already eaten her dinner.)
(8) She will have eaten her dinner this time tomorrow. (Shes going to eat her dinner tomorrow. Tomorrow,
at this hour, it will be already eaten.)
(9) If you cut hair, it will grow back.
(10) Your hair will grow back in no time.

(Hair always grows back, when cut)

(Your hair is bound to grow back in the future)

If you compare the pairs of sentences and look at the paraphrases that have been provided, you will notice
that while the first sentence in the pair contains modal will, the second sentence of the pair contains future
will. Let us look at sentences (3) and (4). It is clear that the will in the first sentence doesnt indicate the
future, since future will is not allowed in conditional sentences. In sentence (3), will indicates something
slightly different from futurity, namely volition, as the paraphrase want to underlines. Volition refers to
the willingness, insistence or intention of the subject to do something.
If we look at the next pair of sentences, we clearly see that in sentence (5) will also has the meaning of
volition: the speaker refuses to listen. Unlike sentence (6), where the context clearly indicates that will
refers to the future, in sentence (5) will has a present meaning, since the speaker hears the truth, but doesnt
want to listen. Thus sentences (3) and (5) contain modal will and refer to the willingness/refusal of the
subject to do something.
If we look at the two other pairs of sentences, we will see that the meaning of modal will is something other
than volition. Sentence (7) refers to something that has probably happened, unlike sentence (8) that predicts
that a certain thing will be accomplished in the future. In the same manner, sentence (9) refers to something
that usually occurs if certain conditions are met (Generally, if you cut hair, it is most likely that is grows
back), while sentence (10) refers to an event that will happen in the future. As you can see, sentences (7)
and (9) both refer to probable/ likely events. This meaning, which we will call probability, is different from
the volition meaning of the previous sentences: (7) and (9) describe events that are likely to happen/to have
happened, while sentences (3) and (5) show that the speaker wants/refuses to enact certain things.


Characteristic behaviour means probability!

Lets return to sentence (1) and at the paraphrase that has been provided:
There will be a crude icon of the virgin behind the guttering candle. (The candle is generally there. This is
very likely to happen).
It seems clear that the value of characteristic behaviour or habitual action that we have first indicated is part
of the meaning of probability will. Characteristic behaviour does not refer to the will of the subject to do
something, but to the frequency of an event that has all the probabilities to happen. Lets look at more
similar examples:
(11) He will walk on the beach for hours every day. (This is what he usually does.)
(12) The window wont open. (This is how it generally works)
(13) A cat will be affectionate, if you pet it often. (This is how it generally behaves.)
The past form of will, would is often used to indicate habitual actions/characteristic behaviour in the past:
(14) John would walk on the beach for hours every day.
(15) He would always give me flowers when he came to see me.
Nota bene!
In translating narratives from Romanian to English, i.e. those sentences showing something that usually
happen in the past, which in Romanian are in the tense called Imperfect, it is often recommended that one
should use habitual would:
(16) Mara mergea n fiecare zi la biseric.
(17) Mara would go to church every day.
Lets generalize!
Now that weve seen examples that show the values of will we can provide a generalization:
Modal will has two meaning values: volition and probability.


There are various degrees of volition, the subject may be
willing to do something, or he may express stronger
volition: he may insist to do something or promise to
do something
Present: WILL
Will you pass me the salt?
(Are you willing to?)
He will eat red meat, although the doctor forbade it.
(He insists on eating red meat)
I will marry you, come what may.
(I promise to marry you)
Past meaning:
The doctor told him not to eat that, but he wouldnt listen.
Would can be used also in the present and, since it is a past
form, would is considered more polite and more attenuated
than will:
Would you pass me the salt? present meaning
(more polite/more formal)

Several values are included
here. Scientific probability,
characteristic behaviour,
likelihood (See the examples
Present: Likelihood
He will be in his office at this
(He is probably there)
Probability (Induction)
If you put vinegar into water,
it will turn sour.
Past: will/would + perfect
He will have finished his
meal by now.
Present: Characteristic
The watch wont work.
Past: Habitual WOULD
She would go to see him
every afternoon and they
would dance together.

Exercise: Translate the following sentences:

1. Iese afar n frig i dup aia se plnge c l doare i spatele i capul. 2. Acolo gseti tot ce vrei, att
Whiskas ct i Chappy. 3. Pi, cei ca el o s se poarte tot timpul aa, orict de mult credit le-ai acorda. 4.
Vrei nu vrei, ai s dansezi tango, i spuse Daniel partenerei sale. 5. Dei decanul n-o s vrea n ruptul
capului s se poarte corect cu colegii mai tineri, o s gsim o modalitate s aplanm conflictul. 6. Vezi, dac
te ncpnezi s stai bosumflat n camera ta, cu lumina stins, n timp ce alii se distreaz, n-ai s mai
ajungi niciodat s nvei s dansezi dansuri de societate, precum tangoul. 7. G., un obinuit al slilor de
dans, insista s poarte pantofi de lac i pe strad, ceea i dezgusta pe apropiaii lui. 8. Uneori se mai
ntmpl i necazuri de-astea, dar nu-i nici o nenorocire, le rezolvm noi pe toate. 9. Cred c dac o s te
uii cu atenie dup el, ai s-l gseti la biliard, fumnd i ctignd banii celor care vor s joace. 10. La u
probabil e soul tu, dac nu cumva o fi potaul. Pe cine preferi? 11. Pi, da, sta e obiceiul lui: nti
promite i apoi nu se ine de cuvnt. 12. Coofana se ascunde n frunzi ori de cte ori este atacat de ulii.
What about shall?
Shall evinces the same distinction as will between the modal value and the future value:
(18) We shall throw a party tomorrow afternoon. (future).
(19) Shall we go to the party together? (modal)
The modal meanings of shall.
What we have to underline is that shall is restricted to the formal register and that nowadays it is
infrequently used, being considered archaic. So, you wont hear shall in familiar English!


As a modal, shall shows the speakers willingness, insistence to do something and also the authority of the
speaker. A look of the following sentences will show you how it is used: to inquire about the listenerss
desires/volition when used in first person questions or to express the speakers desires about another
persons actions when used in the second and third person:
(20) Shall I turn off the lights? (Do you want me to turn off the lights?)
(21) He shall go home only if he apologizes. (I refuse to let him go home unless he apologizes.)
(22) He shall do as I please. (I want him to do as I please.)
(23) Thou shalt not kill! (This is the biblical commandment: S nu ucizi!. As you can see shall
expresses authority).
(24) Offenders shall be punished according to the law. (The law commands that offenders should be
punished. Shall is often found in formal commands, or sets of rules.)
Shall or will?
We have seen that both shall and will act both as modal and future auxiliaries. As you have seen they both
refer to the authority/will of a person. But is there then any difference between them?
And the answer will of course be....Yes, there is!. Lets look at the following sentences:
(25) Violet shall wear this coat as long as I want her to. (I want Violet to wear the coat. This is my will.)
(26) Violet will wear this thin coat in the rain, although I told her not to. (Violet insists on wearing the coat.
It is her will.)
The difference between the two sentences above illustrates the distinction between the meaning of shall and
that of will. If in the first sentence it is the speaker (I) that insists on a certain course of action, in the second
sentence it is the subject (Violet) and not the speaker (I) who insists on a certain course of action. Thus, as
you can see, the difference between shall and will is more or less a difference of point of view: shall
expresses the authority/volition of the speaker, while will expresses the authority/volition of the
What about the situations where the speaker and subject are one and the same? The two sentences below
indicate precisely that when this happens, there are virtually no distinctions and will and shall can be
interpreted in the same manner:
(27) I shall marry her, come what may! (I intend to do that.)
(28) I will marry her, come what may! (I intend to do that.)
Is should the past tense of shall?
A natural question to ask is whether the modal should, that expresses mild obligation (advice) or probability
is to be considered as the past tense of shall. We have seen that would is the past tense of will.
Task: Lets remember the meanings of should and compare them to the meaning of shall.
As you can see if you compare the two, while the meanings of should are similar to those of shall, should
doesnt act as the past counterpart/past tense of should, since there is a difference in meaning between the
(29) He shall obey my orders! (I insist that he obey my orders. There is no other way.)
(30) I told him that he should obey my orders. (I suggested that he obey my orders. This is my advice.)
Nota bene!
While it was originally used to be a past tense of shall, the form should acquired a separate meaning of its
own and is no longer a past tense, but a different modal in its own right.
1. Translate into Romanian:
1. For a few moments she was borne away on the wild wings of ambition. Gerald, with his force of will and
his power for comprehending the actual world, should be set to solve the problems of the day, the problem


of industrialism in the modern world. She knew he would, in the course of time, effect the changes he
desired, he could reorganize the industrial system. She knew he could do it. As an instrument, in these
things, he was marvelous, she had never seen any man with his potentiality. He was unaware of it, but she
He only needed to be hitched on, he needed that his hand should be set to the task, because he was so
unconscious. And this she could do. She would marry him, he would go into Parliament in the conservative
interest, he would clear up the great muddle of labour and industry. He was so superbly fearless, masterful,
he knew that every problem could be worked out, in life as in geometry. And he would care neither about
himself nor about anything but the pure working out of the problem. He was very pure, really. (D.H.
Lawrence Sons and Lovers)
2. When I was very young (though not so small), Vasco Miranda would creep into my bedroom while I
slept and change the pictures on the walls. Certaian windows would shut, others would open; mouse or
duck or cat or rabbit would change position, would move from one wall, and one adventure, to the next. For
a long time I believed that I did indeed inhabit a magic room, that the fantasy-creatures on the walls came
to life after I fell asleep. Then Vasco gave me a different explanation.
You are changing the room, he whispered to me one night. It is you. You do it in your sleep, with this
third hand. He pointed in the general direction of my heart. (Salman Rushdie The Moors Last Sigh)
2. Translate into English:
1. Fantastice pentru mine nu erau viziunile lui Ion M.Ion, care nu micau nimic n lume, ci felul i mobilul
cuvntului zilnic rostit de oameni. Am devenit scriitor descoprind treptat fora lui magic, pn ce ntr-o zi,
spre aptesprezece ani, am ncercat s-l fixez pe hrtie. Chiar cuvintele care mi treziser via contiinei
nu fuseser ele misterioase? Dac eu luasem n brate o pine i nu mai vroiam s o dau celorlali, cum s mi
se mai dea nc una? Firesc ar fi fost s mi se smulg din brae. n loc de asta, am auzit: Na, m, i peasta!. i fora magic a cuvntului astfel rostit m fcuse s las din brae ceea ce luasem i s devin
contient c exist. (Marin Preda Viaa ca o prad)
2.Vzndu-m c ineam cartea prea aproape de ochi, Nil m ntreb la un moment dat de ce naibii nu-mi
puneam o pereche de ochelari. C el m tia de mic c nu vd bine, cnd m trimitea s aduc un lan, c
lanul era la picioarele mele i eu m chioram la el i nu-l vedeam. Ce-ar fi? mi-am zis. i ntr-o dup mas
am rmas minute lungi n faa unei vitrine de pe strada Doamnei, pe care scria amicii orbilor. Eu pn
atunci nu fusesem la un cinematografO s-i pun i eu numai atunci, mi-am zis, ncolo nu simeam c am
nevoie, uitnd c i n clas adormeam n timpul orelor de matematici i chimie din pricin c tabla la care
profesorul fcea demonstraia rmnea n faa mea neagr. (Marin Preda Viaa ca o prad)
3. i din nou glasul ei sun ca un avertisment; dac el va crede acest lucru, nu va fi bine.
Totul se va sfri nainte de a ncepe, dac te iei dup cuvintele mele, rosti ea cu patim.
- Da, conveni el nfiorat ca de-o tain. i parc i fcu un jurmnt: n-o s m iau dup mrturisirile tale,
Luchi, pe care s-ar putea s le regrei n clipa de fa. numai ceea ce simt eu e ceva adevrat i numai dup
asta o s m iau.
N-o s te gndeti la mine?! exclam ea.
Nu, zise el parc cu o decizie dureroas.
i se uita drept, de ast dat sigur pe el, copleit dar linitit Nu era sta singurul lucru pe care l putea
ghida, simirea i cutremurarea inimii lui cnd i vedea chipul? Ea putea s spun orice, el va rmne
statornic i o va pstra n inim nu cu secretele sfiate, ci ntregi. Se oprir, dar numai o secund. Luchi
deschise poarta i o lu nainte, fr s-l invite, dar fr s-i ia la revedere. Silueta ei care se ndeprta
astfel prin curtea lung, fr s se uite napoi, i aminti lui tefan de ce Ioana, care tot aa, l dusese undeva,
lund-o singur i tcut nainte
i n clipa aceea nelese c i se ntmpl n via ceva decisiv i la fel de buimcitor ca i minutele
care i hotrser destinul n biroul marelui ziarist. De ce se ntmpla aa? Nici nu vroia s afle, era un fapt,
mersul ei linitit, neovielnic, dar fr grab, arta intenia ei de a fi cu el fericit ca i Ioana, acum, n
aceste clipe, nainte de a se trezi mine ca dintr-un vis, cu regretul acela adnc c n-a putut tri pn la
capt, cum se ntmpl ntotdeauna n vis, ceea ce ar fi fost un miracol dac s-ar fi putut mplini Se va
mplini Se lu dup ea fr s se grbeasc s-o ajung i atepta s vad dac va deschide i va nchide
ua n urma ei. Bineneles c n-o nchise dect dup ce el intr. Nu era ua care da n hol, ci direct, printr-o
scar lateral, n camera ei.
(Marin Preda Delirul)


4. - E n regul, repetase, v promit c nu vei mai auzi nimic despre el dect atunci cnd vei considera c
v va fi util. i atunci vei gsi n el omul pe care l-ai descoperit, gata s fac ceea ce o s-i cerei.
n acest timp, ct vorbise, secretarul general de redacie vzuse cum patronul i desface cravata sa de
mtase de la gt i o arunc pe birou. Da, gndi el, iat, acelai gest
- D-i asta din partea mea
i ochii patronului se holbar spunnd aceste cuvinte. Imediat, ca la un semnal, cellalt se ridicase n
picioare; asta era semnificaia acelei uitturi: c tot ceea ce trebuia spus se spusese i c omul sau
colaboratorul din faa lui trebuia s se ridice i s plece. Niki Dumitrescu bgase cravata n buzunar i se
(Marin Preda Delirul)
5*.Pe drum i numr banii. Ar fi vrut el s dea gata pe Paraschiv, dar dac cheful de asear nu-l simise,
chiria pe care trebuia s-o plteasc chiar n aceste zile avea s-i nghit cel puin o treime din salariu. E
drept c n asta intra totul, i lumina i cldura i c timp de o lun de zile (o venicie!) nu mai avea nici o
grij cu frumoasa lui garsonier, dar oricum, dac i mai ddea i lui taic-su trei mii de lei, i rmneau
prea puini ca s mai aib cu ce s-i cumpere cri, cum dorise ndat ce-i simise buzunarul plin de bani.
O carte cost ct o mas! Chiar alturi de ziar, n centrul pieei, descoperise o cldire n form de chioc,
numit Casa anticarilor. Alta n Bucureti asemntoare nu mai vzuse. Se aflau nuntru, fiecare cu mica
lui ncpere nesat cu cri, ase anticari, pe care i puteai vizita circular i gsi la ei orice carte ai fi dorit.
Aa cel puin i spusese unul dintre ei, un domn a crui chelie i figur cptaser parc culoarea hrtiei
prfuite, i care i ctigase de ndat lui tefan simpatia, prin sugestia pe care i-o fcuse acesta c el nu era
un simplu negustor de cri, ci un intelectual, fost profesor. n trei zile v fac rost de cartea pe care o
cutai, i optise el tnrului ziarist, ca i cnd l-ar fi iniiat astfel ntr-o tain n care nu erau iniiati
obinuiii i vulgarii cititori de rnd. El tia, pasionaii cuvntului scris cutau lucruri rare, nu istorii de
adormit Miuratefan i spusese cine e, unde lucreaz i c dorete s-i fac o bibliotec. Eu v fac
biblioteca, ii rspunsese anticarul. Dou mii i ajung tatei, hotr tefan n timp ce liftul l ducea sus n
mansarda n care Nil avea odaia lui de portar cu gndul c, chiar a doua sau a treia zi de Crciun, s se
duc la acest anticar i s-i umple odaia cu cri. Tata nu se ateapt nici la o mie, ba chiar nu se ateapt la
nimic, la att de scurt timp de cnd am plecat de-acas, aa c mai bine renun la proiectul de a-l da gata pe
Paraschiv, artndu-le ci bani am, le mai pltesc o mas i o s vd eu ct i dau tatei. Bunicii mai degrab
ar trebui s-i dau, s-i cumpr ceva. Fiindc f mamudelele ei ar fi fost imposibil s ajung ceva mai mult
dect Oprescu, secretar de primrie, stesc, plus darul beiei, care ar fi venit i el negreit(Marin Preda
6.Cel mai detestabil obicei al prietenului meu Artur este acela de a m deranja noaptea. Fie c vine, fie c
pleac, el face acest lucru cu o total lips de consideraie pentru linitea i somnul meu. Poate c aceasta e
doar o form de manifestare a personalitii lui, cci Artur e posesorul unei inteligene calme i limitate, dar
i al unei ncpnari de catr ce scap controlului oricrei metode de educaie i nu cedeaz n faa nici
unei argumentaii. (Alexandru George Nocturn)

REWRITE: Angela Carters text is a fairytale that has been rewritten. Rewrite your own favorite
fairytale, trying to reinterpret it in your own way. Write at least 50 lines.
POINT OF VIEW: Pretend you are the girl in the story. Rewrite the story from the girls point of view.

He was a good husband, a good father. I dont understand it. I dont believe in it. I dont believe
that it happened. I saw it happen but it isnt true. It cant be. He was always gentle. If youd have seen him
playing with the children, anybody who saw him with the children would have known that there wasnt any
bad in him, not one mean bone. When I first met him he was still living with his mother, over near Spring
Lake, and I used to see them together, the mother and the sons, and think that any young fellow that was


that nice with his family must be one worth knowing. Then one time when I was walking in the woods I
met him by himself coming back from a hunting trip. He hadnt got any game at all, not so much as a field
mouse, but he wasnt cast down about it. He was just larking along enjoying the morning air. Thats one of
the things I first loved about him. He didnt take things hard, he didnt grouch and whine when things
didnt go his way. So we got to talking that day. And I guess things moved right along after that, because
pretty soon he was over here pretty near all the time. And my sister said see, my parents had moved out
the year before and gone south, leaving us the place my sister said, kind of teasing but serious, Well! If
hes going to be here every day and half the night, I guess there isnt room for me! And she moved out
just down the way. Weve always been real close, her and me. Thats the sort of thing doesnt ever change. I
couldnt ever have got through this bad time without my sis.
Well, so he come to live here. And all I can say is, it was the happy year of my life. He was just
purely good to me. A hard worker and never lazy, and so big and fine-looking. Everybody looked up to
him, you know, young as he was. Lodge Meeting nights, more and more often they had him to lead the
singing. He had such a beautiful voice, and hed lead off strong, and the others following and joining in,
high voices and low. It brings the shivers on me now to think of it, hearing it, nights when Id stayed home
from meeting when the children was babies the singing coming up through the trees there, and the
moonlight, summer nights, the full moon shining. Ill never hear anything so beautiful. Ill never know a
joy like that again.
It was the moon, thats what they say. Its the moons fault, and the blood. It was in his fathers
blood. I never knew his father, and now I wonder what become of him. he was from up Whitewater way,
and had no kin around here. I always thought he went back there, but now I dont know. There was some
talk about him, tales, that come out after what happened to my husband. Its something runs in the blood,
they say, and it may never come out, but if it does, its the change of the moon that does it. Always it
happens in the dark of the moon. When everybodys home and asleep. Something comes over the one thats
got the curse in his blood, they say, and he gets up because he cant sleep, and goes out into the glaring sun,
and goes off all alone drawn to find those like him.
And it may be so, because my husband would do that. Id half rouse and say, Where you going
to? and hed say, Oh, hunting, be back this evening, and it wasnt like him, even his voice was different.
But Id be so sleepy, and not wanting to wake the kids, and he was so good and responsible, it was no call
of mine to go asking Why? and Where? and all like that.
So it happened that way maybe three times or four. Hed come back late, and worn out, and pretty
near cross for one so sweet-tempered not wanting to talk about it. I figured everybody got to bust out now
and then, and nagging never helped anything. But it did begin to worry me. Not so much that he went, but
that he come back so tired and strange. Even, he smelled strange. It made my hair stand up on end. I could
not endure it and said, What is that those smells on you? All over you! And he said, I dont know, real
short, and made like he was sleeping. But he went down when he thought I wasnt noticing, and washed
and washed himself. But those smells stayed in his hair, and in our bed, for days.
And then the awful thing. I dont find it easy to tell about this. I want to cry when I have to bring it
to my mind. Our youngest, the little one, my baby, she turned from her father. Just overnight. He come in
and she got scared-looking, stiff, with her eyes wide, and then she begun to cry and try to hide behind me.
she didnt yet talk plain but she was saying over and over, Make it go away! Make it go away!
The look in his eyes, just for one moment, when he heard that. thats what I dont want ever to
remember. Thats what I cant forget. The look in his eyes looking at his own child. I said to the child,
Shame on you, whats got into you! scolding, but keeping her right up close to me at the same time,
because I was frightened too. Frightened to shaking.
He looked away then said something like. Guess she just waked up dreaming, and passed it off
that way. Or tried to. And so did I. And I got real mad with my baby when she kept on acting crazy scared
of her own dad. But she couldnt help it and I couldnt change it.
He kept away that whole day. Because he knew, I guess. It was just beginning dark of the moon.
It was hot and close inside, and dark, and wed all been asleep some while, when something woke
me up. He wasnt there beside me. I heard a little stir in the passage, when I listened. So I got up, because I
could bear it no longer. I went out into the passage, and it was light there, hard sunlight coming in from the
door. And I saw him standing just outside, in the tall grass by the entrance. His head was hanging. Presently
he sat down, like he felt weary, and looked down at his feet. I held still, inside, and watched I didnt know
what for.


And I saw what he saw. I saw the changing. In his feet, it was, first. They got long, each foot got
longer, stretching out, the toes stretching out and the foot getting long, and fleshy, and white. And no hair
on them.
The hair begun to come away all over his body. it was like his hair fried away in the sunlight and
was gone. He was white all over, then, like a worms skin. And he turned his face. it was changing while I
looked. It got flatter and flatter, the mouth flat and wide, and the teeth grinning flat and dull, and the nose
just a knob of flesh with nostril holes, and the ears gone, and the eyes gone blue blue, with white rims
around the blue staring at me out of that flat, soft, white face.
He stood up then on two legs.
I saw him, I had to see him, my own dear love, turned into the hateful one.
I couldnt move, but as I crouched there in the passage staring out into the day I was trembling and
shaking with a growl that burst out into a crazy, awful howling. A grief howl and a terror howl and a calling
howl. And the others heard it, even sleeping, and woke up.
It stared and peered, that thing my husband had turned into, and shoved its face up to the entrance
of our house. I was still bound by mortal fear, but behind me the children had waked up, and the baby was
whimpering. The mother anger come into me then, and I snarled and crept forward.
The man thing looked around. It had no gun, like the ones from the man man places do. But it
picked up a heavy fallen tree branch in its long white foot, and shoved the end of that down into our house,
at me. I snapped the end of it in my teeth and started to force my way out, because I knew the man would
kill our children if it could. But my sister was already coming. I saw her running at the man with her head
low and her mane high and her eyes yellow as the winter sun. It turned on her and raised up that branch to
hit her. But I come out of the doorway, mad with the mother anger, and the others all were coming
answering my call, the whole pack gathering, there in that blind glare and heat of the sun at noon.
The man looked round at us and yelled out loud, and brandished the branch it held. Then it broke
and ran, heading for the cleared fields and plowlands, down the mountainside. It ran, on two legs, leaping
and weaving, and we followed it.
I was last, because love still bound the anger and the fear in me. I was running when I saw them
pull it down. My sisters teeth were in its throat. I got there and it was dead. The others were drawing back
from the kill, because of the taste of the blood, and the smell. The younger ones were cowering and some
crying, and my sister rubbed her mouth against her forelegs over and over to get rid of the taste. I went up
close because I thought if the thing was dead the spell, the curse must be done, and my husband could come
back alive, or even dead, if I could only see him, my true love, in his true form, beautiful. But only the
dead man lay there white and bloody. We drew back and back from it, and turned and ran, back up into the
hills, back to the woods of the shadows and the twilight and the blessed dark.
(Ursula Le Guin The Wifes Story)
Ursula le Guin was born in Berkeley, California in 1929, daughter of
the anthropologist Alfred L. Kroeber and the writer Theodora
Kroeber, autor of Ishi in Two Worlds and two other books. Ms. Le
Guins published works include poetry stories and several novels,
including Malafrena, The Lathe of Heaven and The Left Hand of
Darkness, which was awarded the Hugo and Nebula Awards for
best science fiction novel of 1969. She is also the author of the
Earthsea fantasy books for which she received many awards.

Compare the speaking voice in this text with that in the text from the previous section. What is the
difference between these two texts from the point of view of perspective?
The text can be said to belong to the familiar register. Bring five examples from the text in this
The text presents the discourse of a wife that tells the tragic story of her husband. What is the point in
the text where the reader realizes that the discourse does not belong to an ordinary wife?
What are the elements in the text that suggest that the voice speaking does not belong to the human
community? Bring examples in this respect.



Comment upon the importance of the following in the process of transformation undergone by the
husband in the story: Its the moon fault, and the blood.
Why does the husbands transformation cause so much horror to his wife and children?
I saw him, I had to see him, my own dear love, turned into the hateful one. What does the phrase
the hateful one refer to in this particular case? Justify your answer by bringing examples from the
What are the similarities and differences between this transformation and the transformation suggested
to have taken place in Angela Carters text in the previous section?
Is there any similarity between the attitude of the community in this text and that of the community in
Angela Carters text towards the events that take place? How do they treat the characters thought to
have undergone transformations?
The wife talks about her husbands true form. What does this mean for her and how can you
comment upon the word true as used here?
The story bears much resemblance to a fairytale. What are the common points between this story and a
In what way does this story differ from the fairytale scenario?
Comment upon the distinction ordinary/strange as reflected in the text. Can you think about others
stories - in literature or cinema which bear similarities to this story?


Fill in the blanks with words/phrases from the text:



Anybody who saw him would have known there wasnt any bad in him, not_________.
He hadnt got any game at all, but he wasnt _________ about it.
He didnt take things hard, he didnt__________ and whine when things didnt go his way.
It brings the________on me to think of it.
Its something that_____ in the blood, they say.
He gets up because he cant sleep and goes out into the _________ sun.
Hed dome back late, and worn out and pretty near cross for one so_________.
She got _______ looking.
They got long, each foot gor longer, _________.
The nose was just a______of flesh with _________holes.
The man looked round at us and yelled out loud, and _______the branch it held.
I was last, because love ________ the anger and the fear in me.

NOISES THAT ANIMALS MAKE. Match the nouns in the first column with the appropriate
verbs in the second:







1. When he grazed his knee, the small child began to_______ in pain.
A. howl
B. roar
C. squeal
D. screech
2. He was already________ with laughter when she finished telling the funny story.
A. yelp
B. shriek
C. whimper
D. cackle
3. I told her to stop______ and start thinking about the future.
A. squeak
B. whine
C. whinny
D. mew
4. He immediately ______down his food, although it was very hot.
A. munch
B. gobble
C. peck
D. gurgle
5. The cat ______up the milk in the bowl I had put on the floor.
A. lick
B. slurp
C. suck
D. lap
6. Although she was ______with effort, she managed to push the heavy cart.
A. grunt
B. grumble
C. groan
D. moan
7. From behind the field, the coach kept _______orders at his team.
A. whimper
B. growl
C. bark
D. snarl
8. The pupils ______when the teacher announced that they were going to have a test.
A. bellow
B. grunt
C. howl
D. groan
9. You shall do as I say! I dont want to hear a _______out of you!
A. screech
B. wail
C. peep
D. boo
10. Shes lost her appetite. Ever since she came back from holiday, shes been _______at her food.
A. cluck
B. peck
C. nibble
D. nip
11. The angry employees were________ for better working conditions.
A. wail
B. bellow
C. bawl
D. howl
12. The children started jumping and ________ with delight when they heard they were going to the
amusement park.
A. squeal
B. chirp
C. squeak
D. whine


4*. SYNONYMY: GRIN. Translate into English by using the synonyms below:
grin, smile, leer, simper, sneer, smirk, grimace, beam

M-am sturat de rnjetele libidinoase pe care i le tot arunc btrnul din casa vecin fiicei mele.
Cred c am s am o discuie cu el n curnd.
Se strmb de cte ori se vede n oglind.
Ai vzut cum strlucea de fericire mama lui Paul n ziua n care fiul ei a ctigat cursa de 100 de
Nu neleg de ce trebuie s zmbeti tot timpul prostete! Ar trebui s te supraveghezi.
Abia m-am abinut s nu zmbesc cu rutate cnd s-a mpiedicat i-a czut. Aa i trebuie, dac le
tot pune piedic altora!
Cred c l durea piciorul rnit. Avea fa strmbat de durere.
Tot timpul mi zmbete batjocoritor. Nu cred c mai suport.
Fiica lor nu e dect o feti prostu i enervant.
Mi-a zmbit larg atunci cnd am felicitat-o pentru premiu.
terge-i rnjetul la de pe fa!
Nici pn n ziua de azi nu mi dau seama de ce n seara aceea Paul a zmbit tot timpul cu gura
pn la urechi. Crezi c era beat sau i btea joc de noi?
Cred c ne-a jucat din nou o fars. Avea un zmbet piicher pe fa cnd a plecat.
I-a rnjit dispreuitor i a ntrebat-o dac toate hainele ei sunt cumprate la mna a doua.

5*. POLYSEMY: STRETCH. Translate into Romanian:


Pisica sri de pe pat, strnut i se ntinse.

Dac vrei s te odihneti, trebuie s te relaxezi pe perioade de timp mai mari.
Cred c pot s te ajut s gseti nite pantofi care s se fac mai mari.
Vreau s-mi cumpr o fust dintr-un material care se ntinde.
Cred c ar trebui s faci mai multe exerciii de gramatic care s te fac s-i pui capul la
Nu e nici pe departe att de viclean pe ct i nchipui.
n faa noastr se ntindea o frumoas livad cu viini.
Nu s-a maturizat deloc. i pn n ziua de azi nu vrea mai mult de la via dect o pereche de blugi
colani de la Levis.
Prinii mei sunt i ei destul de strmtorai acum, aa c nu au cu ce s v ajute.
Haide s facem o plimbare ca s ne mai dezmorim i noi picioarele!
Toate aceste activiti au durat mai bine de treizeci de ani.
Sunt obosit. Nu vreau dect s m ntind pe canapea i s aipesc.
tiu c ai scris cteva cri bune pn acum, dar ar fi o exagerare s spui c eti unul dintre cei mai
cunoscui autori din ar.
Nu cred c pot s m ntind ca s ajung s iau vasul acela de pe raft.
Fratele meu mi pune deja rbdarea la ncercare. Toate au o limit!

6. IDIOMS: BLOOD. Fill in the blanks with the suitable idiom/word:

be after ones blood, bloodshed, make sbs blood run cold, run in sbs blood, sbs blood on your
hands, draw blood, hot-blooded, make sbs blood boil, blood is thicker than water, blood money, bad
blood, in a pool of blood, in cold blood, like getting blood out of a stone, sbs blood is up, ones own
flesh and blood
Although everyone had tried to make him understand that ___________, Evan had begun to hate
his brother Tom. They were both in love with the same woman, but she was in love with Tom, and Evan
knew that making her stop loving his brother would be_____________ . Every time he saw the two of them
together, it ___________. One night, Evan and Tom had a fight and Evan swore that if his brother was

going to marry the woman they both loved, he would ____________. Everyone who was there tried to
make him calm down, but his _________ and he wouldnt listen. Tom got very upset about it, since he
knew his brother was _________. He told everyone that violence ___________ in his brothers ________
and that, once Evan had got it into his head to hurt him, he would keep his word. The following night,
Toms dead body was found lying __________. The sight of it was enough to ________everyones
____________. Since they all knew that there was___________ between Tom and Evan, they assumed that
Tom had been killed by his brother. Evan was arrested in the morning, but he kept saying that although he
had __________ his brothers_______ a few days before, he had understood that he would never be able to
really hurt __________________. No one listened and even his own mother believed that Evan had Toms
________. However, that very day the police apprehended a stranger who confessed that he had murdered
several people _________ .He said that Toms brother was among them and that he had been paid
_________ by someone who wanted Tom dead. It later turned out that someone else was responsible for
Toms death and Evan was released, but he left the town, saying that he couldnt bear to live in a place
where people thought him capable of __________.
If you take a look at the examples below, you will notice that not all of them are made up of past tense
forms with a narrative value, as we would expect. Since the examples are taken from the text above, which
is practically a narration, our main guess would be that the author employs past tenses to tell her story. And
yet, compare the last two examples with, say, example (2). While examples (3) and (4) contain a succession
of events expressed by means of past tense structures, the temporal forms in (2) are not meant to express
sequence, but to describe repetition in the past:
(1) When I first met him he was still living with his mother.
(2) He didnt take things hard, he didnt grouch and whine when things didnt go his way.
(3) But he went down when he thought I wasnt noticing, and washed and washed himself.
(4) We drew back and back from it, and turned and ran, back up into the hills
In fact, this is the main semantic distinction that characterizes Simple Past in English: while this tense
normally expresses a past action at a past moment (defined by a definite past adverbial), like in (5), or a
narrative sequence, like in (3) and (4), it can equally convey the idea of past habit, like in (2) or (6):
(5) She went home (at 5).
(6) She often went home.
Narrative Past
Bill struck his baby brother
and got punished for it.

Habitual Past
Bill often struck his baby brother
and got punished for it.

Of these two main values of Simple Past, the more basic is the narrative one, simply because with the
habit value a frequency adverbial is necessary (when the verb is eventive). Only when the verb is
expressed by a state can one do without a frequency adverbial. Compare the examples below. The sentence
under (7) expresses a past action (no definite time adverbial is necessary for this meaning to be clear, as is
demonstrated by placing this adverbial between brackets). The sentence under (8) is made up of a state
verb, which conveys a meaning of generality to this sentence. The sentence under (9) expresses a repeated
past action only when the frequency adverbial is present:
(7) He struck his baby brother (on Monday).
(8) He was a bad brother. (= He had the general property of being a bad brother.)
(9) He often struck his baby brother.
The fact that Simple Past can also express past repetition/habit poses problems for Romanian learners of
English. They tend to associate this meaning with Past Continuous.

Nota bene!
Past Continuous is very infrequently used with a habitual meaning!
Due to the fact that in Romanian, the Imperfect expresses both an action unfurling at a moment in the past
(Maria mnca un mr) and past habit (Maria cnta la vioar i tia s cnte i la pian), Romanian students
have the impression that this situation is valid for the English Past Continuous as well. Things could never
be further from the truth.
The Romanian Imperfect is not equivalent with Past Continuous:
Maria mnca un mr. = Mary was eating an apple.
Maria cnta la vioar i tia s cnte i la pian. = Mary played the violin
and could play the piano, too.
Exercise*: Translate the following into English, paying attention to the table above:
n port, corbii nu mai soseau; oraul devenise foarte avar, pungile rmneau nnodate de mai multe
ori la gur, iar noi, dimpotriv, cu gurile cscate, murind de foame, vnznd ca s mncm, i mai cu seam
ca s pltim; ne mergea ru, pentru c la fiecare rait ne descopereau, pentru fiecare copilrie ne fceau o
mie de mizerii i nu era picaro care s nu se fi dat la noi, unul pentru c era don Cutare, altul n numele lui
don Cutaric Nevast-mea umbla nfricoata i foarte plictisit de atta socreal, pentru c, nvat
venic s aib toata libertatea din partea mea, se vedea acum robit, nemaifiind stpn pe viaa ei; dac
una vorbea, cealalt urla, din fiecare nar fceau un armsar, i iscau atta trboi, nct, ca s nu iau
partea nici uneia, mi luam pelerina, de cum vedeam c se apropie furtuna, i ieeam de-a fuga n strad,
lsndu-le s se pruiasc n voie.
Pe nevast-mea o necjea grozav faptul c nu-i luam partea, prndu-i-se c, pe drept sau pe
nedrept, trebuia s inem ntotdeauna cu ai notri i c de avea sau n-avea dreptate, datoria mea era s fiu
mpotriva mamei, cu toate c nu s-ar fi cuvenit. Ajunse s m urasc, i s nu m mai poata vedea n ochi
pna ntr-atta, nct, gsind prilejul n persoana unui anume capitan de galer n Neapole, ancorat n port,
schimb dragostea mea pe a lui i, adunnd toi banii i toate giuvaerurile din aur i argint pe care le aveam,
nl pnzele i fugi n Italia, fr ca de atunci s mai am vreo tire despre ea. Auzisem spunndu-se c era
cu adevrat nebun cel care umbla s-i caute nevasta odat ce-l lasase, i c soul trebuia s ntind punte de
argint pe unde s-i fug dumanul din cas. Socoteam c-mi va merge bine singur, dect ntr-o tovrie
proast, cci dei era adevrat c eu singur i ngduisem cte toate, trind din asta, ncepusem s nu mai
pot rbda s ma in oricine de ru. Era puterea viciului, care m-a facut totdeauna supus tuturor josniciilor;
i fiind obinuit s rabd afronturi nc de copil i de tnr, cu att mai mult mi se pareau uor de ndurat
fiind om n toat firea. Nevast-mea plecnd, mi fcu un serviciu, pentru c, nemaifiind silit s-o rabd, m
eliberam de pcatele zilnice; n-o alungasem eu, plecase de bunvoie, iar s o urmez era cu neputin, pentru
c multe mi s-ar fi putut ntmpla dac m-a fi ntors n Italia. Rmsei aadar cu maic-mea, i ncepurm
s vindem mobilele care ne mai rmseser ca s avem ce mnca; dar cum ne mai rmseser mai multe
zile dect mobile, nu dup multa vreme nevoia ncepu s ne dea pinteni. (Mateo Aleman Viaa lui
Guzman de Alfarache)
Apart from this important distinction that should be acknowledged about the values of Simple Past, there
are other tinges of meaning we would like to focus on. The table below attempts to offer a brief revision of
the various uses of Past Simple and Continuous. We have placed these tenses in opposition, just as we have
done in the case of Present Simple and Continuous (see Unit One, Section Two, C, for a reminder). As you
will notice, the simple values parallel the continuous ones. More often than not, a difference in meaning is
imposed by the aspectual dimension of these forms, rather than by the temporal sense embedded in them.
Our table is by no means exhaustive but has the merit of enabling the student to memorize the basic
differences of these tenses more easily:


Past event at a definite point

(main value)

Temporary use of past

continuous (main value)

E.g. Bill went to the opera


E.g. Bill was listening to Pavarotti (at

that point).

Future value (only in time

and condition adverbial
E.g. Bill explained to her that he
would give her the money as soon
as she arrived.

Habitual (obligatorily
combined with a frequency
adverbial or a context that
disambiguates this meaning)

Future value (personal


E.g. They were meeting at five in

front of the Opera House.

E.g. Whenever they met, they

quarreled. He often cursed his

Emotional present continuous

(used instead of a past simple
structure for stylistic reasons to
show emotion in the tone of the
E.g. He was always bringing her
presents! He was always saying the
wrong thing!

Narrative past (a sequence of

events in the past)

Frame past continuous (goes

hand in hand with Narrative past,
offering a setting for the past

E.g. Yesterday,
I bumped into John. He saw me and
started telling me about his sick
I heard a noise behind. It was just a
barking dog.

as I was walking down the street,

Attitudinal (polite) past

E.g. I hoped youd give me a hand

with this heavy suitcase.

While he was talking to me,

Attitudinal (polite) past

continuous (even more polite
than its simple counterpart)
E.g. I was wondering whether you
could help me.

1. Translate into English:
a) Am dat drumul la geamantane lng perete i m-am uitat n pmnt. Unde eram? Parc mai intrasem o
dat n odaia asta. Nu, nu acum patru zile, ci mult mai demult, dar nu tiam precis cu ce ocazie, i m-am
aezat n pat i mi-am luat capul n mini s-mi aduc aminte. nainte ns i-am aruncat ei o privire, s vd
dac mi d ea mai uor cheia ntrebrii. Dimpotriv, ea era ultima de la care puteam afla ceva n acest sens
i atunci m-am ntins cu faa n sus i mi-am pus braele peste ochi. Bun metod folosea doamna Sorana,
fiindc n-a trecut mult i am ncept s vd n ntunericul de sub pleoape. Eram n muni, de Crciun, cu
inginerul Dam i cu putiul lui, un biat de vreo paisprezece ani, toi trei pe schiuri, eu nvam. n faa
noastr se ntindea lunga vale, plin de zpad, dar mrginit i de brazi i inginerul mi spunea:Fii atent,
Cline, c n-ai multe posibiliti, treci nti pe-o prtie mic i nva nti s cazi, fiindc dac i dai drumul
aiurea pe prtia cea mare, poi s-i rupi gtul. (Marin Preda Marele singuratic)
b) Un om care moare, nu moare ntr-un teritoriu al morii, adic s plece dintre noi ntr-o lume de comar i
acolo s se chinuie i s-i dea duhul. El moare ntre noi, pe soare sau ntr-o ncpere n care mai sunt i
alii, i care se uit n acest timp la el cu ochi vii. E adevrat c se strmb sau d ochii peste cap, nainte de

a scoate un ipt final dar poate, ochii, sa-i in i imobili, i ngrozit de simirea lui s nu fac nici o
micare, paralizat de suflul cel rece
Un astfel de om vzu Simina cnd intr n ncperea bufetului, n care petreceau de obicei
oamenii lui Niculae. Fumul de igri era gros i nu putu, din primele clipe, s-i dea seama unde era i dac
era acolo prietenul ei. Era o linite stoars, ca printre naufragiai Cei aezai pe scaune la mese se uitau la
chipul acelui om care, prin ochii si holbai, suporta cu o spaim linitita o povar: ducea n spinare un om
care nclicase pe el i l clrea de colo pn colo prin ncpere. Vedei, spunea privirea lui nfricoat,
nimeni nu e stpn pe propria lui soart, iar eu sunt omul care sunt aa cum gndii voi despre mine c
sunt i fac ceea ce gndii c trebuie s fac
Simina rmase nemicat la intrare. Niculae sttea la mas singur, cu un pahar mic in fa, chiar
lng tejghea, jumtate ntors cu spatele la u i la ceea ce se petrecea n ncpere. i n-o vzu imediat n
acele clipe. Dar apoi se intoarse de tot si se uita si el, ca si ceilalti, mut, la spectacolul care se petrecea sub
ochii lui. Cel clrit era domnul Anghel. Venise s-i cear socoteal lui Damian Ghoerghe. Intrase n bufet
i i se adresase cu o blndee parca ireal:
- De ce, b, mi-ai violat nevasta?
Se vedea, pentru cine l cunotea bine, c el nu mai putea de-aici nainte, pn la sfritul zilelor
sale, s cread c fapta nu avusese loc, cnd din nimic tiase liliacul din spatele casei. Dar acum? Cine mai
putea s-l asigure c fapta nu se comisese? i mai ales cine ar putea s-i spun n fa, dac s-a comis, c sa comis? Ai fi zis, dup expresia teribil din privirea lui bulbucat, c ntrebarea va fi nsoit de o sritur
de fiar ntrtat. Dar nu se ntmpl nimic. Catastrofa se pare c l lsase pe domnul Anghel incredul, i el
nu venise, dup cum se parea, aici, s-i cear socoteal, ci mntuire, sa-i spun adic Damian Gheorghe el
singur cu gura lui c nimic nu s-a ntmplat, c a stat toata dup-amiaza aici la bufet, cu martori, uite, s
spun i ei, sunt aici de fa Nu e aa, Stane, nu e aa, Vasile? Uite, bufetiera, tovaraa Mimi, care nu
minte niciodat i nu ine cu nimeni, femeie cu carte, a fost funcionara la birouri, dar a fcut, trziu, un
copil cu electricianul ei i s-a trecut la bufet, unde ctig mai bine. S spun ea, n-a stat el, Damian
Gheorghe, tot timpul, cum st acuma cu cumnat-sau, barcagiul, la masa aceea i au but bere?!
Damian Gheorghe ns tcea i se uita la el cu o expresie de stupoare pe chipul su cu nasul lung ca o
sabie, Ce vrea sta de la mine? parc spunea. i apoi l ntreb:
- Ce vreai, b, de la mine?
- De ce mi-ai violat nevasta? repet domnul Anghel.
ntrebri, rspunsuri Cine i-o fi nvat pe oameni s le pun, s le dea?.S nu-l omori pe sta?
Damian Gheorghe prea totui de ast dat ngduitor. Se ridic de la mas i deodat i sri domnului
Anghel n spinare. Dar nu-i fcu nimic. ncepu s huleasca: ha,ha! i s-i dea domnului Anghel, care era
voinic, pinteni. Apoi Damian Gheorghe se liniti. Dar nu se ddu jos de pe alele gelosului, a crui privire,
ntre timp, se bulbucase.
Niculae se ridic, i ocoli pe cei doi cum ai ocoli un copac, i o scoase pe Simina afar.
- Ce drgu eti tu, i spuse, nu m ateptam s m caui, taman m pregteam s viu eu dup tine
- De ce l lsai? zise ea indignat.
- N-are rost s te amesteci n distraciile lor, rspunse Niculae patern, ca i cnd cei pe care i lsase la
bufet ar fi fost fiii si, care se distrau n felul acela cam brutal.
- Asta numeti tu distracie?
- Asta da, de obicei Damian Gheorghe apuc omul de flci, i deschide gura ca la cai, i dac nu e prin
preajm un perete, atunci spre un copac l mpinge i i zdrngne de el trtcua.
- S-ar prea c i pe tine te distreaz un astfel de spectacol.
(Marin Preda Intrusul)
c)* - Da-ncotro, frate Sisoe? ntreb Habacuc.
Dar Sisoe i luase toiagul la subsoar i se ndeprta grbit, fr s mai priveasc ndrt.
Dup plecarea lui Sisoe, cei doi tovari rmai pe loc ncepur s dea semne de nelinite.Trgeau cu
urechea, ridicau mereu capul i se uitau mprejur, fr pricin.
n jurul lor era ns linite i pace.() Pe crarea din cealalt margine, trecur mai trziu ase cei
mbrcai n catifele, trgnd dup ei un crucior de argint, n care dormea un nger sugaci, cu pumniorii la
gur. i de sub tufiurile din stnga, ieir o clip la iveal, n soare, dou pisici verzi, poleite cu aur.
Dar sfinii erau obinuii cu asemenea artri paradisiace, ntr-un loc singuratic ca acela.
- Oare ce s-o fi ntmplat? ntreb Pafnutie, n sfrit, ridicndu-se deodat n picioare.
Zrise printr-o sprtur de frunzi pe sfinii Mochie i Farnachie trecnd n goan, unul dup altul, cu
pletele n vnt. Habacuc se ridic de asemenea, i privi n urma lor. Din partea cealalt rsri i sfntul
Pafnutie cel gros, dnd din mini i strignd ctre ei de departe:

Auzit-ai vestea, frailor?Sisoe se pogoar pe pmnt!

Cei doi rmaser cu gurile cscate:
- Cine i-a spus? De unde tii?
- Tot raiul tie i vorbete, gfi Pafnutie.
- Nu se poate.
- Ba, nc, se poateC s-a nfiat naintea Domnului Dumnezeu i att s-a rugat c s-a nduplecat Cel
preamilostiv i i-a dat slobozenie s se pogoare ntre oameniba cic i-ar fi dat i putere s fac minuni
pe pmnt! urm Pintilie privindu-i speriat.
- Mare-i minunea Ta, Doamne! Cuvnt pe gnduri Pafnutie.
- Iac, pun rmag cu oricine c numai pozne o s fac, aduga iute Habacuc.
- ncalte, s-i fi dat pe cineva dintre noi s-l cluzeasc, vorbi ncet Pafnutie, dnd la iveala dintele ntreg.
C pe pmnt sunt multe ruti i ispite
- Sunt mai nti felurite mncri grase, care de care mai srat i mai piperat, zise Habacuc, lingndu-i
- Toate cu carne! ntri Pafnutie scrbit.
- Este i rachiu, adug Habacuc, privindu-i int.
i ceilali doi nghiir n sec fr voie, ca i cum ar fi simit aidoma n fundul gtlejului arsura buturii
- Sunt i muieri de cele viigemu Pintilie cel rocovan, cu dinii strni, uitndu-se crunt la un vrf de
buruian din faa lui. i ctetrei se cutremurar la auzul acelui cuvnt de ruine i se uitar unul la altul
spimntai. (George Toprceanu Minunile Sfntului Sisoe)
2. Fill in with the correct verb forms:
a) Bill (insist) on (show) the writer the first chapter of the novel he recently (begin). Lesser (ask) him not to
just yet, but Bill (say) it (help) him. (Know) if he (start) off right. He (say) this (be) a brand-new book,
although there (be) some scenes from the other novel, brought from Mississippi to Harlem, where most of the
action (take) place. Bill (ask) Lesser (read) the chapter in his presence. He (sit) in Harrys armchair wiping his
glasses and (look) at a newspaper, as the writer, chain-smoking, and (read) on the sofa. Once Harry (glance)
up and (see) Bill sweating, profusely. He (read) quickly, thinking he (lie) if he didnt like the chapter.
But he (not have to). The novel tentatively called The Book of the Black, (begin) in Herbert Smiths
childhood. He (be) about five in the opening scene, and nine at the end of the chapter; but in truth he (be) an
old man. In the opening scene, one day the boy (drift) out of his neighbourhood and (cannot) find his way
home. Nobody (speak) to him except an old white woman who (see) him through her groundfloor window,
sitting on the ker.
Who (be) you, little boy? What (be) your name?
The boy (will) not say.
In the afternoon this old smelling white woman (come out) of the house and (take) the boy by the hand to
the police station.
b) I might have languished alone for the rest of the week, if Elsie (not find out) where I (be) and started
visiting me. My mother (cannot come) till the weekend, I knew that, because she (wait ) for the plumber to
check her fittings.
a) I was lying in bed one night, (think) about the glory of the Lord, when it (strike) me that people (fight)
for too long. A new and wonderful miracle (have to) happen soon, or else we were doomed.
b) Mary asked me if I (want) to stay overnight because her mother (leave) and she didnt like (be) on her
own. I answered I (ring) my parents to ask for permission.
c) I remembered something I (see) Mrs. White do on that occasion. I remembered (see) her flip through a
book, then (put) it back on the shelf. Then I (hope) she (not see) me.
d) When I (look) out over the town , nothing (change): every place I (knew), every street I (walk) on was
still there. People (go) about their business as always.
e) When I finally went home that day, my mother (watch) television. She never (speak) of what (happen)
and I (not remind) her, either.
f) It was morning when Bill (creep) home. He had a plan to go straight up to school, hoping no one
(notice) him coming and going that way. But his plan (go) wrong because his elder sister (spy) on him
for several weeks and was determined (find out) what he (do) lately.

g) When she (reenter) the room, the men (gather) around a small radio, (listen) to a news broadcast. It
was the first time she (see) any of them in casual clothing: they seemed (shed) all formality.
h) The men invited her to play cards. They (play) with great seriousness. Through the first few hands,
Joanna (lose) steadily. But as she began to remember more about the game, her luck (change). Soon
she (win) consistently.
i) The men (arrange) the chairs, (make) a place for her at the card table. She (not play) poker since
college. For a brief period of time it (be) the fashion in her class and she was sure she (remember) the
game in no time.
j) He promised her he (come) back as soon as he (find) what he (look for) since that tragedy. But she had
problems (believe) him.
m) Sir Perceval (be) in the woods for many days now. His armour is dull, his horse tired. The last food he
(eat) was a bowl of milk, given to him by a woman. Other knights (be) this way, he can see their tracks and
their despair. His only hope is he (find) the treasure before them.
1. POINT OF VIEW: Rewrite the story in the text from the husbands point of view.
2. USE NEW WORDS: Write a short text of your own using the following phrases/words: blood brother, to
sweat blood, drop of blood, blood lust, red-blooded, blue-blooded, bloodcurdling, bloody, blood thirsty.

by Our Court Staff Spinocchio
The heir to the Throne was
sensationally introduced to his future wicked
stepmother yesterday over tea and crumpets in
the Royal Palace.
Prince Snow Wills, who is known for
his striking good looks (inherited from his late
mother, the Queen of Hearts) was understood at
first to be reluctant to meet the evil Camilla.
However Camilla, an older woman who
is constantly told by her Daily Mirror that she is
the unfairest in the land, reportedly got on
famously with the young prince.
Contrary to expectations, the wicked
future queen did not offer the handsome Prince a
poisoned apple, nor attempt to brush his hair
with a deadly comb. Nor did she send him out
into Highgrove Park to be murdered by the
Royal Huntsman.
Instead the two discussed the relative
merits of the Spice Maidens (a popular
troubadour ensemble) and the All Saints (a
similar minstrel troupe).
Camilla then offered Wills a Rothmans,
and he invited her to a secret party for his father,
Prince Charming-the-Press.

A Royal spokesman concluded: It

looks like a fairytale ending. Everyone is going
to live happily ever after.
(from Private Eye,
Friday, July 24, 1998)

Mid-winter invincible, immaculate. The Count and his wife go riding, he on a grey mare and she on a
black one, she wrapped in the glittering pelts of black foxes, wearing high, black, shining boots with scarlet
heels, and spurs. Fresh snow is falling on snow already fallen; when it ceases, the whole world is white. I
wish I had a girl as white as snow, says the Count. They ride on. They come to a hole in the snow; this
hole is filled with blood. He says: I wish I had a girl as red as blood. So they ride on again; here is a raven,
perched on a bare bough. I wish I had a girl as black as that birds feather.
As soon as he completed her description, there she stood, beside the road, white skin, red mouth,
black hair and stark naked; she was the child of his desire and the Countess hated her; the Count lifted her
up and sat her in front of him on his saddle but the Countess had only one thought: how shall I be rid of
The Countess dropped her glove in the snow and told the girl to get down to look for it; she meant
to gallop off and leave her there but the Count said: Ill buy you new gloves. At that, the furs sprang off
the Countesss shoulders and twined round the naked girl. Then the Countess threw her diamond brooch
through the ice of a frozen pond: Dive in and fetch it for me, she said: Is she a fish, to swim in such cold
weather? Then her boots leapt off the Countesss feet to the girls legs. Now the Countess was bare as a
bone and the girl furred and booted; the Count felt sorry for his wife. They came to a bush of roses, all in
flower. Pick me one, said the Countess to the girl. I cant deny you that, said the Count.
So the girl picks a rose, pricks her finger on the thorn; bleeds; screams; falls.
Weeping, the Count got off his horse, unfastened his breeches and made love to the girl. The
Countess reined in her stamping mare and watched him narrowly; he was soon finished.
Then the girl began to melt. Soon there was nothing left of her but a feather a bird might have
dropped; a bloodstain, like the trace of a foxs kill on the snow; and the rose she had pulled off the bush.
Now the Countess had all her clothes on again. With her long hand, she stroked her furs. The Count picked
up the rose, bowed and handed it to his wife; when she touched it, she dropped it.
It bites! she said.
(Angela Carter The Snow Child, slightly adapted)
Highgrove Park - Highgrove is the country home of The Prince of
Wales, in Gloucestershire
Camilla - The Duchess of Cornwall (Camilla Rosemary
Mountbatten-Windsor, formerly Parker Bowles, ne Shand) is a
member of the British Royal Family. She is the second wife of
Charles, Prince of Wales.

Explain the underlined phrases.

Identify the cultural references in the first text.
Can you perceive any shade of irony in the texts above? Motivate your answer.
The texts above are built on a common system of reference. Identify this system and comment on
differences in the manner in which the authors approach it.
There is another famous Camilla-like character in the recent history of Great Britain. Choose between:
a) Lady Godiva b) Wally Simpson c) Lady Diana. Motivate your answer.
Read the text below. What are the common points and differences it has with the first text above?

Prince Charles to marry Camilla

Prince Charles will marry his long-term partner Camilla Parker Bowles on 8 April, Clarence House says.
Mrs Parker Bowles will take the title HRH Duchess of Cornwall after the civil ceremony at Windsor Castle.
When the Prince of Wales, 56, becomes king, 57-year-old Camilla will not be known as Queen Camilla but
as the Princess Consort, Clarence House added.

Princes William and Harry said they are "very happy" and wish the couple "all the luck in the future".
Charles said he and his wife-to-be are "absolutely delighted".
The move will end years of speculation on a relationship which has spanned the decades since they first
met in 1970.The wedding will be a civil ceremony, which will be followed by a service of prayer and
dedication in St George's Chapel at which the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Rowan Williams, will preside.
"The Duke of Edinburgh and I are very happy that the Prince of Wales and Mrs Parker Bowles are to
marry," said the Queen, in a statement issued on her behalf by Buckingham Palace.
Charles was married to Diana, Princess of Wales, who died in a car crash in Paris in 1997.
The princess famously referred to Mrs Parker Bowles as one of the contributing factors in the breakdown of
her marriage to Charles.
The couple, who had two sons - princes William and Harry - had divorced when Diana died.
A spokeswoman for Princess Diana's brother, Earl Spencer, said he would not be making any comment on
the wedding announcement.
(from the BBC news, February 2005)

Choose the right word:

Surely you know who the father is, dont you? Its not as if its a case of _______ conception.
She often decided to play on the ___________ of the moment.
If you go further, you will see a house ________ on a cliff right above the sea.
Dont go to see him, Im afraid youll have the shock of your life: hes gone ________ raving mad.
A dark ivy plant _______ around the pole.
Through his telescope he could see millions of stars that were invisible to the _______ eye.
Lifeboat technology has advanced by ________ and bounds.
The room in which he was put had the _______ minimum of furniture.
The symptoms of this disease include chapped lips and a __________ tongue.
Her conscience ________ her as she told her mother that unpardonable lie.
Hes been a _______ in the side of the party leadership for years.
One bullet struck his car, _______ missing him.
Its no bed of _________ teaching secondary school.
The village was quite prosperous and yet many of the neighbouring farms were ________ with debts.
The glamour and _________ of London was not for him although he liked to be surrounded by lively
Far from being independent, the government and media work hand in ________ .
The dollar ________ against the yen in Tokyo today.
She was the kind of woman one should avoid at all costs: butter wouldnt ________ in her mouth.

2. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate adjective in order to make up a simile:
As _______ as snow
As _______ as thieves
As _______ as mustard
As _______ as a house
As _______ as a daisy
As _______ as a button
As _______ as a berry
As _______ as a bell
As _______ as a cucumber
As _______ as gold
As _______ as a whistle
As _______ as a bone
As _______ as ditchwater
As _______ as nails
As _______ as rain
As _______ as a fiddle
3. SYNONYMY: bare, naked, nude
a) Fill in the blanks with the appropriate synonym:
1. We all went to a beach where ______ sunbathing is allowed.
2. If you go around with _______ shoulders in this heat youll get them burnt.
3. Do you really want me to believe that youve never seen your wife in the ______?
4. He didnt want to lay his heart _____ in front of her.
5. When I opened the door, he was standing there, stark ________, in front of the mirror.
6. Flashers like to _______ themselves in front of unsuspecting passers-by.
7. In the _______ drawings of himself he looks vulnerable and unkempt.
8. When he looked at her, there was _________ desire shining in his eyes.
b) Translate into Romanian:
1. You go inside now! Youve got nothing on, youll catch your death! 2. When the Romans saw the Sabine
ladies in the altogether by the riverside, they jumped to kidnap them. 3. Have you seen the movie The Full
Monty? 4. Oops, he doesnt have a stitch on! 5. Old Mr. Jones used to go to church buck naked, bowler
and cane on the side. 6. Make yourself decent before he comes in. 7. The lady was taking her breakfast in
the buff. 8. He went out of the bathroom as naked as the day he was born.
When the Count in our story says I wish I had a girl as white as snow! he expresses a wish that may be
somehow achieved in the future. And, sure enough, not much later, the snow child appears in front of his
covetous eyes. Yet, there is something that often puzzles us, learners of English, in the kind of sentence our
character uses: whenever we express wishes, we dont expect to use past tenses in order to formulate
them. Well, it shouldnt be so surprising for students to find out that in fact had in our example is no past
tense, but a subjunctive form. Consider the examples below and their translation in Romanian:
(1) I wish I had a dollar (I might get one, after all).
A vrea s am un dolar.
(2) I wish I had listened to him (so why didnt I?).
A vrea s-l fi ascultat.
The underlined structures are in fact subjunctive forms, present and past respectively. The Romanian
translation shows you that the present subjunctive form roughly corresponds to a present conjunctive one
in Romanian, while the past form matches a perfect conjunctive one. In the first case, the possibility that
the wish will be fulfilled exists, whereas in the second case, there is no way this wish can be fulfilled any
Identifying the Structure
Students find certain aspects related to this mood very puzzling. The most puzzling one is the fact that the
forms of the Subjunctive are not easily identified. For the Subjunctive does not have a face of its own, or at
least not one you would recognize so easily. Take, for instance, the sentences above, which contain
subjunctive forms that could be mistaken for Past or Past Perfect structures. So, how can we tell when we
are dealing with a subjunctive form?

Answer: there are three ways in which a subjunctive form can be identified:
a) by looking at the context in which it appears: for instance, in the case of (1) the main verb wish should
warn you that a subjunctive form is required to complete it
b) by looking at the meaning of the structure: if it has a hypothetical meaning, it probably is a
c) by translating it: if it can be translated through a conjunctive/conditional form in Romanian, then it is
likely to be a subjunctive (the other option is conditional, but the Conditional is easily identified in
The Subjunctive vs. the Indicative
Since we are dealing with a mood that is nothing like the Indicative, let us look at the features that make
this mood stand out. Consider the table below. Discuss it with your teacher:


2 tenses (present and perfect)



16 tenses
hypothetical, counterfactual

! The sequence of tenses operates only within the Indicative. There are no sequence
of tenses phenomena between the Indicative and other moods !
Indirect Speech instances
DS: Anne: I wish I had more money.
(Present Subjunctive)
IS: Anne told Bill she wished she had
more money. (Present Subjunctive)
DS: Anne: If you gave me your book, I
would lend you my bike. (Present
Subjunctive, Present Conditional)
IS: Anne told Bill she would lend him
her bike if he gave her his book.
(Present Conditional, Present

DS: Anne: I want to go home. (Present Simple)

IS: Anne told Bill she wanted to go home.
(Past Simple)

This table shows you that the difference of meaning and form that lies at the basis of these two moods
makes it impossible for the sequence of tenses to operate across the boundaries of the Indicative. This fact
is checked by transforming direct speech instances containing the Subjunctive into indirect speech ones.
Normally, in this situation the main clause report verb, which is a Past tense form, should trigger sequence
of tenses phenomena. As you have already seen, this does not happen in the case of the Subjunctive. If it
did, the meaning of the indirect speech sentence would be significantly altered.
The Synthetic/Analytic Opposition
Another reason for which the Subjunctive is difficult to learn and even tougher to teach is the fact that,
while it doesnt exhibit more than two tenses, it can have more types. The best known distinction is that
between what grammarians call the synthetic Subjunctive and the analytic one. If we are keen on
understanding the Subjunctive, we should first take a few minutes to see what these terms mean. This
shouldnt be so difficult if we were aware of the fact that the synthetic/analytic opposition is related to a

grammatical phenomenon that is by no means restricted to the Subjunctive. Indeed, English has pairs of
synthetic and analytic forms in other areas, too. Consider the table below:
(fusion between main item and the
grammatical information)

(grammatical information is carried
by a separate lexical item)

Subjunctive: I wish I went to the


Subjunctive: I wish it would rain.

Comparative: bigger/est than him

Comparative: more interesting than


Genitive: Susans, fathers car

Genitive: the complete works of


Types of Subjunctive
We have finally reached to the most important part of our discussion: what Subjunctive forms we can
identify, how many types there are and where we can find them. Consider the tables below, which will
supply the required information. The first table will make a distinction between the two main types of
Subjunctive that we can speak of, i.e. the Synthetic and the Analytic ones. The Synthetic type can be further
split into two subtypes, the so called old Subjunctive (or as Quirk used to put it, the formulaic
subjunctive, thus named because it is mainly used in stock phrases) and the new Subjunctive, which is in
fact the most frequently used one:

Present: play
E.g. Long live the
Id rather play
chess than stay
here. (I might)
Perfect*: have
E.g. Id rather
have played chess
with Susie when
she visited us
(why didnt I?)



Present: played
I wish I played chess
with you. (I might.)

Perfect: had played

I wish I had played
chess with you (why
didnt I?)

Present: should/could/may/might play

E.g. Its odd that they should play chess so
well when they are so young.

Perfect*: should/could/may/might have

E.g. Its odd that they should have played
chess so well last week.

! The star (*) indicates that the form is infrequently used in English.

The tables we are proposing below deal with the various contexts that require the presence of the
subjunctive types presented above. Students are advised to memorize these contexts thoroughly:


In independent sentences:
Long live the Queen. Come what
may, So be it, Grammar be hanged,
Damn him, Far be it from me
In subordinate clauses:
after would rather (the same
subject for main and subordinate
Id rather tell you about it./Id rather
have told you about it.
after had better
Youd better tell her about it./ Youd
better have told her about it*.
after verbs of command, wish:
It is important that he behave himself.

Independent sentences:
Oh, had I wings!
If only I had known!
Subordinate clauses:
after if **and any other item containing
if (if only, suppose, supposing, what
if, as if/though, even if/though, say, as
long as, unless):
If Bill got married, he would be miserable./
If Bill had got married, he would have been
after wish/ its time/would rather
I would rather you went there/ I would rather
you had gone there. (here the subject of the
main clause is not the same as the subject of
the subordinate).

! The star (*) indicates that the perfect form is infrequently used in English.
** All these elements can also be followed by Present simple (but with a different shade of
E.g. If you go there, I will be very disappointed. / He behaves as if he loves her.

Exercise: Finish the following sentences without changing the meaning of the sentence printed before
1. He regrets not seeing that movie. / He wishes...
2. Why did you answer so rudely? / Id rather you...
3. I would like you to go there and apologize. / I wish
4. How could you tell such a thing to your boss? / Id rather you...
5. Why did you strike that man, were you out of your mind? / I wish...
6. I wish I hadnt laid the table before they arrived. / Id rather...
7. She complained that she had to work so hard. / I wish....
8. Why did she have to lie there and say nothing in her defense? / If only...
9. You shouldnt have made that mistake! / Id rather....
10. I am so embarrassed at the thought of meeting him again! / Suppose...
11. Why did you have to insult him? / Youd better...
12. He wont like it if you lie to him! / Hed rather...
13. It would have been better not to meet her at all. / Id better...
14. Why did you beat him? / Id rather you...
15. I wish you told them the truth. / Theyd better...
16. Why didnt you inform me earlier? / Id rather...
17. Please, be on time. / You had....
18. I thought you would flee when he attacked you! / I wish you...
19. What a pity she didnt wear her new dress at the party! / Shed rather...
20. You should not have informed them about it. / Theyd rather not...
Now let us look at the possible contexts in which the analytic subjunctive can appear. Unlike the synthetic
subjunctive, the analytic one is now used mainly in its present form:


Independent sentences

Subordinate clauses

May you live long and have a

beautiful life.
May he be happy for as long as he

after verbs of command, wish:

Dan insisted that she should date him.
after copula + evaluative adjectives:
It is advisable/ important/good that he
should meet his teacher soon.
after purpose/sequence introductory
items: so that, so that, in order
that, lest*, for fear that, in case
I hid the secret from him for fear/in case
he might want to use it against her.
after concessive introductory
items**: no matter, how/whatever,
as etc.:
Now matter how much he might know
about her, she still wont listen to him.
Smart as he may be, he still cant read.
Try as I might, I couldnt uncork the

* this introductory item is obsolete, no longer used

** all these items can also be followed by an indicative form, with a slightly different
meaning (the speaker assumes that the action of the subordinate is accomplished)
Compare: Smart as he is, I still dont like him. vs. Smart as he may be, I still dont like
him. (In the first case, I assume he is indeed smart).

1. Translate into English, paying attention to the grammar problems discussed in this section:
Cnd se lumin de ziu, Anton se scul i se apropie de cellalt pat, unde dormea Vasilic. (...)
- Cine e mic i prost i cu bube n cap? ntreb Anton, zmbind.
- Ce e, tat? zise biatul flegmatic i csc amarnic, i-i ntoarse lui taic-su spatele.
- Cnd i-oi da eu ie cteva la spate, i-art eu, Vasilic, cum devine cazul.
- Pi sigur! zise biatul i deodat sri drept n picioare i se arcui n aer ca o pisic, agndu-se de
gtul lui Anton.
- Hai i ajut-i maic-tii s fac pine, zise el.
- Cum?! strig Vasilic. Mncm pine?
Sri jos, ncepu s opie ntr-un picior, o zbughi afar i nu mai ncet s strige: Mncm pine!
Mncm pine!
Anton se mbrc i se duse la Blosu. Nu mbtrnise prea mult Blosu, se mai ngrase, devenise
mai tcut i chiar mai impuntor. Vzndu-l, Anton i spuse c, dac Blosu s-ar mbrca n haine de
maior, nu i-ar sta de loc ru n ele, cu privirea lui nepenit i rece i cu expresia aceea comun tuturor
oamenilor obinuii s comande.
Foarte binevoitor, Blosu i explic lui Anton c, n chestiunea cu vaca, l-a prt cineva, c el n-are
absolut nici o vin, oamenii aceia din comisie aveau la ei o list fcut dup informaiile cine tie cui.
- S-o lsm moart! spuse Anton cu gndurile n alt parte. Am venit pentru altceva.
- tiu, spuse Blosu, trebuie s-i dau nite bani. Antoane, tu s nu crezi c aa i pe dincolo,
continu el, poi s mai ntrebi i pe alii i ntreab-o i pe muierea ta, i ai s vezi c-o s-i spun
cum i-am spus eu. (...)
Anton se ridic.
- Nu beai o uic? Ia o uic, Antoane, mi pare bine c ai scpat sntos... Ia pune, f, dou uici, se
adres el nepoatei care sttea la tejghea, pune dou uici din sticla aia de jos... Dac vorbeai cu

mine, te desconcentrai mai repede, continu el, ciocnind paharul cu al lui Anton, avnd n vedere
c ai pmnt puin i familie fr ajutor, rog s binevoii a-mi acorda un concediu de trei luni, si
concediul la l aranjam eu la cercul teritorial cu cine tiu eu. Ei, dar nu-i nimic, bine c a trecut i
asta, s ne apucm acuma i s muncim i s ne vedem de treab. Mai pune, f, din sticla aia...
Ciocnir iar i bur. Anton sttea mai departe pe scunel i Blosu se plimba ncet, de sus n jos, cu
pai rari i neovitori.
- Vaca aia, las c-o s-i cumperi tu alta, relu el, mergnd cu minile la spate i uitndu-se cu
privirea lui rece afar pe drum. B, Ilie, ia vino ncoace! strig el, vznd pe cineva.
Cel strigat se abtu din drum i trecu pragul crciumii. Era un om subirel i nalt, puin adus din
spinare, cu obrajii trai, de vreo treizeci i opt de ani.
- S trii! Spuse el cu o umilin ciudat, inert, care parc nu ajuta la nimic.
- Vezi c mine diminea se duce alde Bltoi la pdure, ia-l pe frate-tu, Stancu, i ducei-v i voi
cu alde Bltoi, zise Blosu, uitndu-se pe deasupra omului din faa sa.
- Alde Bltoi tie? ntreb omul, ca s zic ceva.
- tie, am vorbit cu el. Vezi c fierstraiele le-a luat el, tiai cu grij, c mai mi-a rupt alde Ilie Nica
un fierstru. V pun de-l pltii!
- S trii, spuse omul cu aceeai umilin zadarnic n glas i i duse mna la plrie.
Privirea i rtci fr nsufleire peste rafturile de sticle i o clip asupra necunoscutului care sttea pe
scunel. l recunoscu. A, noroc, Antoane, bine-ai venit!! murmur el absent i-i strnse mna lui Anton. S
trii! repet apoi i iei lsnd n urma lui ceva ciudat, parc umbra sa, care, ca orice umbr, poi s calci
pe ea fr grij i, dac te supr cu ceva, s miti pe cel care o are ncolo sau ncoace, dup cum i
Anton se ridic de pe scunel.
- Bun ziua, domnule Blosu, am plecat, spuse el.
- S fii sntos, zise Blosu, cu glasul su dinainte. Dup ce te mai odihneti, treci zilele astea pe la
mine, Antoane. Am ceva s vorbesc cu tine.
Anton nu rspunse.
n aceeai zi, la mas, n timp ce rupea pinea, zmbind senin i blnd, el i spuse Vochiii c a primit
iar ordin de concentrare i c trebuie s plece. Ea se fcu galben la fa i rmase mut, cu privirea
speriat, rtcit. El o liniti i i explic: nu era de ru, era de bine, pleca n misiune special. N-avea s
stea mult; s n-aib nici o grij, nici una, s stea linitit la casa ei i s-i vad de treab. Cnd o s se
ntoarc? Pi, trebuie s plece chiar mine diminea, sau... ei, bine, o s mai stea i mine, dar poimine
trebuie s fie plecat.
Voichia i scria c se roag la Dumnezeu s-l apere de glon i l ateapt s se ntoarc oricum ar fi, numai
viu s se ntoarc. C ea e sntoas i biatul la fel, i c Hum e primar i a pus-o pe list cu trei pogoane
de pmnt din moia Popa. Ce bine ar fi s se ntoarc el acas, i ajunge ct rzboi a fcut, barem s-i scrie
mai des, s tie c e sntos i triete.
Ca soldat, de asemenea, Nang nu se simea ispitit s se gndeasc prea struitor i s rein amnunit
ntmplrile al cror erou era. Dac ar fi fcut-o, poate c i-ar fi dat seama c era de mult timpul s moar
i el n lupt cum muriser alii lng el i cum omorse el nsui cu mna lui pe foarte muli. Dimpotriv
ns, n ciuda numeroaselor lupte la care luase parte n aceti opt ani de zile de cnd era soldat i de cnd
inea rzboiul, Nang avea sentimentul, pe care nu i-l ascundea, c nu prea fcuse mare lucru i c nu
ajunsese niciodat s dea acestui inamic o lovitur ca lumea.
Dar nici asupra acestora, dup cum nici asupra altor ntmplri, el nu avea nici timpul i nici obiceiul s
rumege. n orele cnd era silit s atepte sau s stea la pn, dac trebuia s atepte dormea, iar dac trebuia
s stea la pnd, nva pe dinafar tot ceea ce i cdea sub ochi: un drum, un grup de copaci, un ru, poziia
unui sat se nscriau n memoria lui ca pe o hart. i cum nici o hart nu e niciodat att de minuioas nct
s indice absolut totul, Nang ncepu cu timpul s fac parte dintre acele cadre care erau deseori ferite de
comandament n ncierrile prea obinuite n care puteau s moar i s fie n schimb folosite n aciuni
speciale, mult mai primejdioase, dar n care ansa de reuit nu putea fi ncercat dect de ele.

Se ridc deodat n capul oaselor. Sttu nemicat ctva timp. Hm! S m duc eu s-i iau tutun lui! Ei, nu!
Asta nu se poate! Ei, las, gndi. Tu, Voicule, i tu, Bdrcea, vrei s conducei voi gospodria? Nu! Dac
e vorba pe-aa, mai bine s nu se fac. Ai fost tari i mari pn acuma, ai vrea s fii i d-aci nainte i nu
vrei s v purtai altfel! Ei, nu! Asta nu se mai poate!
l ls s trag singur jgheabul de tre, jgheab mare, cu care s-ar fi opintit chiar i un om voinic.
Da, e greu, vezi s nu-i ias maele! S fie ceva de mncare n jgheab, cum te-ai mai repezi, n-ar
mai fi aa de greu!
- E pentru tine, tre, vin ncoa i mnnc cu vacile, rspunse Ilie i n aceast clip simise o
groaz adnc, apstoare, care i tia rsuflarea.
Sandu Enache se dduse jos de pe prisp i se apropiase de el, rnjind. (...)
- Ce-ai spus tu, m? ntrebase, bucurndu-se vizibil c Ilie nu se putuse stpni i i rspunsese la
batjocur. Tat, auzi ce zice sta, m? Cic s mnnc tre din troaca vitelor! (...)
- D-i m, d-i, Sandule! D n el, s se nvee cum s vorbeasc, strigase cineva dinuntru, fratele
lui Sandu. Stai, ine-l acolo, s-i mai dau i eu!

i spuse c afacerea pe care voia s-o fac cu ea nu era lipsit de primejdie, dei era o afacere cinstit: c
tatl lui l-a sftuit mai mult chiar, i-a dat ordinul sever s nu-i ascund nici ei i nici unui al treilea
(fiindc, dup cum are s se vad, va fi vorba i de un al treilea) c pentru ca afacerea s reueasc din plin
e nevoie ca toi cei implicai n ea s tie dinainte ce-i ateapt i abia dup aceea, dup ce se vor gndi i
vor cntri totul n linite, s rspund dac se angajeaz sau nu. Asupra faptului ct e de cinstit afacerea,
s nu existe nici o ndoial: cnd va afla despre ce e vorba, nici n-o s se mai discute pe aceast tem, nu
asta era problema. Care era ns problema? Problema cea mai grea era gsirea acestui al treilea...
(Marin Preda Nuvele)
Unele lucruri sunt sortite s rmn venic netiute, nu-i de ajuns s vrei s le ptrunzi, trebuie s te
vrea i ele; uneori se ntmpl s nu afli singurul adevr pe care ar fi trebuit s-l cunoti, ca rostul vieii tale
s fie altul.
S fi tiut de pild Ion Constantinescu istoria adevrat a morii tatlui su. Cum lucra tata odinioar cu
Gheorghe la un atelier mecanic.
Cum s-a mbtat Gheorghe, omul care trage azi s moar i l-a lovit pe tatl lor cu o rang n cap.
Cum erau ei mici i au rmas fr tat.
Cum s-a fcut o anchet i nimeni n-a spus un cuvnt despre Gheorghe, ca s fie accident de munc i
s primeasc maic-sa pensie, ca s-i ridice copiii i s-l ie pe el, Ion, la coal.
Cum a stat Gheorghe n sat, tiindu-i tot satul fapta.
Cum a fcut el cincizeci de ani de nchisoare la rani, fr s poat pleca nicieri. Cum l-au pzit cu
toii s-i ispeasc vina acolo.
Cum a ajuns el, Ion, om mare, fr s cunoasc nimic din toate acestea.
Cum a trit el, satul, cu taina aceasta, ca s ajung Ion om vestit.
Cum au tcut ei, ca Ion s nu duc povara unui secret att de ngrozitor.
Cum a fost viaa lui ca lacrima i cum a fost a lor.
Cum Gheorghe e n pat de un an de zile i nu poate s moar, dac nu-i iertat de nevasta celui ucis, de
mama lor.
Cum umbl sora cea btrn a lui Gheorghe s-i roage pe fraii lui s o nduplece pe mama.
Cum se poate tri o via i viaa s aib un rost.
Cum preul vieii a fost ntotdeauna altul dect acela pe care l-a cunoscut el.
Cum toate sunt numai cum sunt i pururea altfel.
(Tudor Octavian Istoria unui obiect ciudat)
9. L-a tras cu greu de la fundul sacului, ca i cum l-ar fi ridicat, istovit, de urechi sau de labele mari, din
fa. N-avea puterea s-l in n brae, s ni-l arate. L-a lsat s lunece din minile ei scheletice, jos, peste
gura sacului, unde prea nc mai gros, ndesat.

Nu putea fi, bineineles, dect pentru tata; dei era parc prea frumos, sau poate tocmai pentru c ar fi
ispitit, din prima clip, pe oricine s i-l ia, pur i simplu, chiar dac nu-i fusese destinat. Lumina cu toate
culorile, ca i cum vrjitorul ce avea s ne salveze, voia s ne arate ce e n stare. Noaptea sufla n jurul
nostru doar fum, frig, ntuneric, nu auzeam dect detunturi, urlete, ltratul paznicilor, ciorile i broatele
-uitasem demult astfel de scnteieri. (Norman Manea - Puloverul)
2*. Subjunctive and Modals. Translate into English, paying attention to the underlined structures:
a) Altdat, s fi stat ea aa zile ntregi, fr s ias, i s-ar fi prut c i cade casa n cap.
b) Da nu mai zicea ca s n-o amrasc, tie ea ce trebuie s zic i ce nu n lume.
c) Merge printre scaune, cltinndu-se, greioaie. E plin de gropi aici, s nu alunece, doamne ferete, s nui rup ceva, uite-un scaun gol lng fereastr!
Se duce repede-repede, i se-aeaz. A pornit-o cu stngu azi, mcar de-ar fi Ivona acas...
d) Frumos brbat, da ce ndrcit trebe s fi fost, se vedea dup cum i juca ochii n cap...
e) Ceva m-a ntrit n acei ani, cnd nici nu tiu s fi plns, ca s nu m vad lumea. Trebuia s fiu
sntoas i s am putere s nu m gndesc la tot ce mi s-a ntmplat, trebuia s nu m plng i s nu-mi
amintesc tot ce pierdusem, pentru c fata mea i copilul acesta nevinovat erau singuri pe lume...
f) Doar mirarea mai struie n ea n timp ce se mic prin hall cu pai nerbdtori (...). Cum de este posibil
ca nimic s nu mai rmn dintr-un om i urma minii lui s o ai att de vie sub ochi ca i cnd i-ar fi
scris acum o or, dou? Ca i cnd ar mai putea s se ntoarc...
g) i era att de urt i arta att de prost n oglind... simea c i nasul trebuie s i se fi umflat i s i se fi
nroit, dar n clipa aceasta nu-i mai psa.
h) i Niki, el, n fond att de sensibil, cu flair-ul lui, nu se poate s nu fi intuit ceva! Sau chiar s-i fi ajuns
la urechi... dar nu s-a manifestat niciodat. Nimeni nu i-ar putea reproa c s-ar fi abtut de la conduita
cuvenit: din partea lui, niciodat Muti n-a auzit o vorb rea.
i) i ea bineneles, l ncuraja, sigur, i spunea, este foarte normal s te apuci, la talentul tu, la cunoaterea
ta de oameni... pentru c, odat ieii la pensie, oamenii se deprim, chiar firea li se schimb, ncep a avea
gnduri negre, brbaii mai ales. ns,de lsat nu trebuie s te lai; dup o via ntreag n care ai fost
tracasat, mcar acum s poi i tu s respiri. i, n genere, trebuie s te nvei s iei din fiecare lucru doar
avantajele. Iat, ct de greu i este fr Tudor oh, ct de greu! se consoleaz spunndu-i c avantajele
sunt mari. S-a putut vedea de ce este n stare singur: c este n stare s-i fac o situaie, un rost, pentru c
nici acolo nu este att de uor cum cred unii i alii! Dar cel puin nu va mai rspunde dect pentru vinile
lui. Dar cel puin tie c este liber. Cel puin cltorete. Cel puin are ceea ce aici nici dup o via n-ar fi
reuit. Dar cel puin...
j) Trim asemenea vremuri, spunea Muti, nct orict te-ai simi de nevinovat, nu se poate s nu-i fie
fric... aa c n-avem dect s rbdm i s ateptm... (Gabriela Adameteanu Diminea pierdut)
1. SPOOF: Write a spoof inspired by the Grimms fairytale, Snow White and the Seven Dwarves.
2. INTERVIEW: Pretend you are a reporter interviewing Prince Charles. Write an interview for a tabloid

What happened next you will have heard: how we were brought before one who seemed to be the
ruler of our captors or rescuers; how he likewise spoke no words but gestured us to sit and help ourselves to
a feast of exotic victuals laid out in his banquet hall. Kasim and the others had no difficulty in
understanding this invitation and responding to it; they gorged and gulped, thanking the king and praising
Allah between bites and swallows. But though I aped the motions of eating like the others, in fact I hung

back once again, out of my ongoing despair and resentment as well as from hard-learned caution. You
might ask, since I cared so little now for my life, why did I not swallow recklessly with the others? I will
tell you presently. The answer is that, first, I had no appetite, and second, if I had lost my taste for life, I
was not however altogether indifferent to the manner of my death, and something in the smell of that feast
put me in mind of the ogres den. []
Meal by meal, as my fellows swilled like hogs at the trough, they came to speak likewise, their
noble though mercantile Arabic transformed into a language of oinks and slurps, farts and belches, as their
bodies swelled marvelously, like sausages that were about to burst their casings. It was not long before they
were turned out of the kings hall and into his pasture, where under the silent wardenship of their keepers
[] they rooted on all fours as contentedly as the livestock they had become. I slipped out with them on
hands and knees, swallowed up by the herd, and hid among the hummocks to watch the first brace of them
be butchered. Kasim, as befit his rank among us, was gutted and roasted for the kings table. The chief of
the merchants after myself, who by now was the fattest of the lot, the wordless herdsmen made dinner of in
their fashion, raw, while his doomed companions imperturbably grazed on.
That spectacle was to cure me at last of my resentment and, oddly, of my despair, as well as of any
appetite for meat for years thereafter. My appetite for life, however, returned. Inasmuch as my former
fellows were beyond rescue, I made shift now to rescue myself, and in doing so regained myself as well.
Without difficulty I slipped into the bush, away from those mouths that were no more than maws. Feeding
myself at last (on herbs and greens) and talking myself back to life, in a mere six days I made my way to
that islands other side. There, on the seventh day, I came upon a people whose civilized work was growing
pepper; who never ventured to that islands barbarous other side; who themselves wore clothing over their
skin and wonder of wonders! spoke not only a language but my language. At the sound of it I wept for
joy and, swallowing my customary caution, ran calling to them through the pepper plants and rejoined the
human race.
Oh, my friends, what medicine it is to tell our stories! I who had eaten so little but taken in so
much now disgorged to the pepper farmers the tale of my shipwreck and my companions fate, and though
that fragment was but the recentest installment of my history, the telling of it made me whole. My old self
again, scarred but ready, when the pepperfolk spoke of their king on a neighboring island, I said, Of
course, of course: let us be off to Island Two, Voyage Four. I shall apply to be your kings registrar of
cargoes, and we shall see what we shall see.
My new associates were not in fact disposed to take an unscheduled trip to their kings island, this
being the peak of pepper season. Moreover, they doubted that any registrar of cargoes was going to be ever
needed in their land, as they were a self-sufficient people who neither imported nor exported anything.
Even their pepper was for domestic consumption only. A less seasoned castaway might have despaired at
this news: without interisland commerce, how was I to get home? But I doubted that the pepper people had
learned their Arabic directly from Allah himself and guessed therefore that their isolation was less than
total. Besides, if they were only half as insular as they claimed, they were bound to be ignorant of many a
thing taken for granted by us more traveled folk, and in this I saw opportunity. Indeed, what persuaded
them at last to make an inconvenient ferry trip for which I had no money to pay them was their bafflement
at my talk of import and export, which they hoped that their king or his viziers would understand as they
did not. What did they do, I asked them, with their surplus of pepper, of which in good years there was
bound to be a store? What else, they said, but throw it into the salt sea, as custom decreed? For otherwise
there would be no need to plant next years crop, and they would have nothing to do with their time and
skill. Could they not trade that surplus, I asked them, for silks from Al Sin or ivories from Zanj? Of those
things, they replied, we clearly have no need; otherwise we would know what they are.
(John Barth The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor, slightly adapted)

John Barth (born May 27, 1930) is an American novelist and shortstory writer, known for the postmodernist and metafictive quality
of his work. Among his works of fiction, we mention the novel
The Floating Opera and the collection of short stories Lost in the
Funhouse. He is also known for the notable critical essay "The
Literature of Exhaustion" (first printed in the Atlantic, 1967).

The Arabian Nights

The Book of One Thousand and One Nights, also known as The book of a Thousand Nights and a Night,
1001 Arabian Nights, or simply the Arabian Nights, is a piece of medieval Middle-Eastern literature in the
style of a frame tale. The tales vary widely; they include historical tales, love stories, tragedies, comedies,
poems, burlesques and Muslim religious legends. Some of the famous stories Shahrazad spins in many
western translations are Aladdin's Lamp, Sindbad the Sailor, and the tale of Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves

The text is taken from The Story of Somebody the Sailor. Who does Somebody the Sailor stand for?
What other well-known episode in universal literature is similar to the story of the transformation of
the main characters companions into pigs?
3. Why does the main character refuse to take part in the feast?
4. In what way is language presented here as the mark of civilization?
5. How can you comment upon the following: Inasmuch as my former fellows were beyond rescue, I
made shift now to rescue myself, and in doing so regained myself as well?
6. Comment upon the opposition savagery/ civilisation as presented in the text.
7. In what way does the telling of stories rescue the main character? Can you think about any other
cases in which telling stories can make one whole again?
8. How does the main character persuade his hosts to take him on the desired ferry trip?
9. The text can be divided into two parts. Identify them.
10. Can greed be seen as a key word in connection to this fragment? Comment upon this notion referring
to both parts of the text.
1. Fill in the blanks with words and phrases from the text:
1. The pepper this people harvested was for _________ only.
2. The tale I told them was the most recent ________ of my history.
3. When I heard them speaking my language I wept _____ joy and ran to ______ the human race.
4. I watched the first ______ of them be butchered.
5. My mates bodies swelled marvelously, like sausages about to burst their _______.
6. Although I _______ the motions of eating like the others, I hung back and waited.
7. Kasim, as _______ his rank among us, was ______ and roasted for the kings table.
8. It was not long before they were _______ of the kings hall and into his pasture, where they rooted on
________ as contentedly as the livestock they had become.
9. That spectacle was to cure me of any appetite for meat for years ________.
10. The chief of the merchants was eaten raw, while his _______ companions imperturbably grazed on.
11. These people were bound to be ignorant _____ many a thing taken for granted by us.
12. Feeding myself on greens and herbs in _______ six days I made my way to the islands other side.
2. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word/phrase from the list below:

Vegetarian, vegan, health food, junk food, intemperate, eating disorder, addiction, chocoholic, gluttony, to
work up an appetite, to hold/stomach food, not to agree with somebody, to upset ones stomach, exotic
victuals, churn, to forage.

Ive told you time and again: stop cooking mushroom stews, you know mushrooms _________.
After eating inordinately at lunch, his stomach _______ with nausea all afternoon.
I dont eat meat, but I like eggs and milk. That makes me a ________ not a _________.
He likes to imbibe and I think his ________ habits will take him to the grave too early.
Temperance is the enemy of ________.
Im into ________ so you wont hold it against me if I refuse buying ________ from places like KFC
or Burger King.
7. Hes been very sick: he hasnt been able to _________ solid food for days.
8. Your chocolate ________ makes you a ________ , Im afraid. How many chocobars did you have
9. The banquet hall sported many _________, fit for the table of a king.
10. She wakes up in the middle of the night and goes to raid the fridge. She definitely has an _________.
11. In some cultures, it is the womens task to go _________ for food and fuel.
12. Go have a basket game with your father, to _________ before dinner.
3. Translate into Romanian, paying attention to the verbs of eating:
1. The children will eat themselves sick on chocolate if I let them. 2. The river was eating away at the bank.
3. Whats eating you, are you upset? 4. Paying for that new carpet has eaten into my savings. 5. The baby
cant feed itself yet. 6. The cows were feeding on hay in the barn. 7. The lake is fed by several small
streams. 8. Go gather some wood to feed the fire. 9. Hatred feeds on envy. 10. She lives on a diet of fruit
and milk. 11. Im afraid youve bitten off more than you can chew, my dear. 12. She swallowed hard, and
turned to face her accuser. 13. Hearing this, he swallowed his anger and carried on. 14. He told me I
wouldnt pass the test but Im determined to make him swallow his words. 15. I cant taste, Ive got a bad
cold. 16. There was a lot of hard work to do before we tasted success. 17. He bored us to death, mouthing
the usual platitudes about the need for more compassion. 18. Before she started talking, she gulped down a
cup of tea. 19. She gulped nervously, as if the question bothered her. 20. In response to his rudeness, she
gulped back her tears and tried to smile. 21. You have to decide whether you want to stay with us for lower
pay or move to greener pastures. Ill give you till tomorrow to chew it over.
4*. Translate into English, choosing the right item from the list of related words:
a) consume, consumption, consummate, consummation
b) gorge yourself on, disgorge, engorged, gorgeous
1. n momentul excitrii, esuturile primesc o cantitate mare de snge. 2. Experii au analizat carnea i au
declarat c nu poate fi consumat. 3. Dac vei continua s te ndopi cu bunti, o s ai o via foarte scurt.
4. Din privirea sa se putea citi c este mistuit de o pasiune inexplicabil. 5. Dup ce l-au btut pe spate, a
reuit s regurgiteze un os mare de pete care-i bloca traheea. 6. O mulime imens de oameni se revrsa
din sala de teatru. 7. Cstoria nu a fost consumat, astfel c putei cere s fie anulat. 8. Uit-te ct de bine
poate s arate la prima or! 9. ntr-un minut, cabana de lemn fu nghiit de flcri. 10. Maina aceasta nu
consum mult.
5*. Translate making use of the right word from the list below:
Pig, swill, trough, slurp, maw, snout, male chauvinistic pig, grunt, squeal, oink, swine, sow, piggy back
ride, piggybank, pigsty, hog.
1. O s m mrit cu tine la patele cailor. 2. Fermierul a turnat lturi n troac i a chemat purceii s se
ospteze. 3. Eti un porc ovin i un neruinat. Nu mai vreau s am de-a face cu tine. 4. Purcelul guia ca
din gur de arpe, iar scroafa venea dup el cu grohieli amenintoare. 5. Casa asta este o cocin de porci,
nu mai suport s locuiesc aici cu voi. 6. Pune-i monezile n puculi i du-te s te joci. 7. n fiecare zi, Jim
se scula i l atepta pe tatl lui s vin s-l care n crc pn la buctrie. 8. Uit-te la nasul lui, parc-i un
rt de porc. 9. Gurile lor seamn cu nite boturi nestule. 10. Nu mai clefi cnd mnnci, eti dezgusttor.
11. Iar ii ziarul numai pentru tine! Aa faci i cu telecomanda!

This section attempts to revise on the methods English employs in order to express the idea of futurity.
Consider the following examples taken from the text above. You will notice that not all the forms used
there are part of the future tenses of the Indicative, although all of them express future actions:

What happened next you will have heard. (Future Perfect)

I will tell you presently. (Future Simple)
Their bodies swelled marvelously, like sausages that were about to burst their casings.
That spectacle was to cure me at last of my resentment.
I shall apply to be your kings registrar of cargoes, and we shall see what we shall see. (Future
(6) They doubted that any registrar of cargoes was going to be ever needed in their land.
(7) How was I to get home?
(8) They hoped that their king or his viziers would understand. (Future in the Past)
(9) In good years there was bound to be a store of pepper.
(10) There would be no need to plant next years crop, and they would have nothing to do with their time
and skill. (Future in the Past)
The examples above are differently underlined. We thus made a distinction between the phrases in bold
letters, which are all future tense forms of the Indicative Mood, and the phrases in italics, which are part of
a larger list of phrases that express futurity in English. Let us discuss each of these two important classes of
The Future Tenses (the Indicative)
Consider the table below, which groups all the Indicative tenses in a systematic way, function of the
present/past temporal distinction that English commonly employs:
Present time sphere


She goes to
school every day





I will tell you

about it.


By noon we will
all have done our


This time tomorrow

we will be eating
lunch in the best


I will have been

playing the piano
for ten hours by


Sally went to
school yesterday.


She has been

writing a letter for
an hour.



She is eating an

I have written a

Past time sphere


(He realized) she

had already

Future in
the past


they would tell
her the secret
very soon.


(He realized) that

by noon they
would have told
her the secret.


Sally was eating an



(He realized) she

had been sitting
there for two hours.


(He realized) that

the next day they
would be playing
the piano in front of
a hundred guests.


(He realized) that by

noon they would
have been playing
the piano for ten

A quick look at this table will reveal a very interesting thing: there are a lot of future tenses in the
verbal system of English. And yet, many as they are, they are not as frequently used as one would
expect. This may be due to the fact that the auxiliary will can also have a modal meaning and more

often than not this meaning prevails. Fact is, it is quite often that a student has trouble guessing
whether a form such as, for instance, would + bare infinitive is a future tense form, a conditional form
or a modal form. This is actually one of the most frequent mistakes that learners make when they start
studying English:
The uses of would
Future in the Past: He said the policeman would help them.
Conditional: He would buy a car if he had money.
Modal: a) volition: He asked his wife to tell him the secret, but she
wouldnt./ My ancestors would have their
portraits painted by Romney.
b) probability: When they were in their early twenties, they
would often go to the funfair.

Another fact that baffles Romanian learners is the meaning of Future Continuous and Future Perfect in
English. This is because:


Romanian does not have morphology for the continuous aspectual feature and makes use of the same
tense form for both the simple and the continuous situations:
E.g. This time tomorrow, Mary will be eating an apple. /I will eat an apple.
Mine pe vremea asta, Maria va mnca un mr / Voi mnca un mr.

b) The Romanian counterpart of Future Perfect (i.e. Viitor anterior, e.g. va fi venit) is no longer part of the
spoken language and is quite infrequent even in the written language. Instead, Romanian chooses to
make use of Perfect Compus forms:
E.g. He will have already painted the fence by the time she arrives.
Pn s vin ea, el a i vruit gardul /a terminat de vruit gardul.
Exercise: Translate into English, making use of Future Continuous / Perfect, wherever necessary:
1. Mine pe la ora cinci, n timp ce voi o s dormii tun, noi o s ne plimbm cu barca n Cimigiu. 2. Pn
s prinzi tu de veste, ea l-a i pclit. 3. Bill adoarme nainte s pun soia lui cina pe mas. 4. Mine pe
vremea asta, o s o gseti pe nevast-ta citind de trei ore la roman. 5. Bill nici nu apuc s intre n cas, c
sora lui i deschide radio. 6. Mine o s stm n cas toat ziua, ne poi vizita oricnd. 7. Nu voi avea mine
nevoie de main, aa c poi s o iei tu. 8. Luna viitoare se mplinesc zece ani de cnd Bill e cstorit cu
Susan. 9. Peste o sptmn se fac trei ani de cnd Bill d lecii de tango pe bani grei. 10. Dac m caui
mine la birou, n-ai s dai de mine: voi fi acas, n cad, cu un roman bun poliist i un martini lng mine.
11. Cnd mi-a spus c sunt trei ani de cnd n-a mai vorbit cu fratele lui, nu mi-a venit s-l cred. 12. Susan la avertizat pe Bill c n-o s fie acas, ci se va plimba n parc toat ziua urmtoare. 13. I-a explicat
poliistului c a doua zi, la ora dousprezece, se fcea exact o sptmn de cnd soia lui fugise de acas.
14. Ea i termin de curat buctria pn s soseasc el acas. 15. De ce m ntrebi cum o s-mi petrec
sptmna viitoare? tii bine c voi face curenie n toat casa. 16. tii unde s m gseti: voi sta la
familia Jones pn la sfritul lunii.

The table with the Indicative tenses is a good instrument to use when formulating time and condition
adverbial clauses. As we already know, English has an important rule to follow:
The future auxiliary is banned from time/condition
adverbial clauses:
If you *will give me the money, Ill tell you the secret.
When you *will go there, tell him to phone.

The correct way to formulate such adverbial clauses, is to make use of the other tenses of the indicative that
are symmetrical to the future tense form you would have normally liked to use. For instance, in the case of
the Simple Future, the symmetrical tense form of the same temporal sphere is the Simple Present. It is this
tense form that will replace the Simple Future:
(11) a. If you give me the money, Ill tell you the secret.
b. When you go there, tell him to phone.
Consider the following table that gives you elaborate advice on this problem:
Expressing Futurity in Time / Condition Adverbial Clauses
Present time sphere
Past time sphere

Future Simple turns into

Present Simple
E.g. If you go there, tell him to
Future Perfect turns into
Present Perfect
E.g. By the time he has done his
homework, she will have written her

Future in the Past turns into

Past Simple
E.g. He told her to ask him to phone if
she went there.
Future Perfect in the Past turns
Past Perfect
E.g. He knew that she would have
written her letter by the time he had
done his homework.

Nota bene!
The will/would auxiliary can be used in adverbial subordinates (that express time or condition) only when
it has a modal meaning:
(12) a. I will marry her if she will have me. (volition will)
b. If you will spend your money on horse-racing, how do you expect me to trust you?
(13) Whenever she would visit her mother, she would bring her flowers. (habit will)
Exercise: Translate the following sentences, paying attention not to use the future auxiliary in the
subordinates expressing condition or time:
1. Te rog, spune-i lui Bill c nu-i voi dezvlui secretul pn nu va promite c n-o s i fac soiei lui nici un
ru. 2. De-abia dup ce te vei hotr s spui unde ai fost noaptea trecut vom putea discuta cinstit despre
planurile tale de facultate. 3. Dac vei pleca de acas nainte de a deveni major, nu am s-i mai dau bani de
buzunar. 4. Dac continui s te ncpnezi s arunci pachetul cu mncare pe care i-l pun, nu am s m
mai obosesc s i dau nici unul. 5. De cte ori mergea acas n vacan, prinii l ntrebau cum st cu
notele. 6. Maria i-a promis solemn c se va mbrca n alb la petrecerea de absolvire, ns doar dac va
primi bani s-i cumpere rochia potrivit. 7. N-a trecut mult i a neles c pn se va ntoarce el napoi
acas, va trebui s rezolve problema cheltuielilor suplimentare. 8. Nu a vrut s recunoasc faptul c va
trebui s renune la coal de ndat ce se va ntoarce soul ei din strintate.
Other Means of Expressing Futurity
Due to the modal meaning of the auxiliary will, English chooses to make little use of Future Simple (as
you know, the shall form is already quite rare) and prefers to employ other expressions to express futurity,
such as be going to, or even other tense forms, such as Present Continuous. Consider the table below,
which groups all the alternative expressions with a future meaning:

Alternate Devices for Expressing Futurity

Present Time Sphere
Past Time Sphere

Present Simple (scheduled

E.g. The train leaves at 4 p.m

Present Continuous (personal

arrangement, plan)
E.g. Were meeting at 5.

Be going to (intention,
imminent event)
E.g. Im going to marry her.
I think Im going to faint.

Be about to (immediate future

E.g. Look, the train is about to

Be to (inevitable,
predetermined event)
E.g. They are to arrive at noon.

Be bound to, be sure to, be due

E.g. An accident is bound to
happen if youre not careful.

No alternate past variant

Past Continuous (personal

arrangement, plan)
E.g. They said they were meeting at 5.
Be going to (intention, imminent
E.g. He said that he was going to marry
He realized that he was going to faint.
Be about to (immediate future
E.g. He warned her that the train was
about to leave.
Be to (inevitable, predetermined
E.g. He explained to her that the
Richardsons were to arrive at noon.

Be bound to. be sure to, be due to

E.g. He told her that an accident was

bound to happen if she was not careful.

1.Use the most logical form of the verb in brackets:
1. Louis opened his mouth with no idea of what he (say), and what came out (be) a joke he (hear) the week
before at the corner market down the road, something about a tailor who (buy) a parrot whose only line was
Pretty Polly likes you! He (hope) that his interlocutor (welcome) his poor attempt to lighten up the
2. Mrs. Dandridge wanted to know about the accident, and Louis (sketch) it in for her, (give) her less than
she probably (read) in the Daily News the following day. He didnt like (do) this it made him feel like a
gossip but she would accept no money for babysitting, and he (be) grateful to her for the evening he and
his wife (share) at the theatre.
3. The friends and relatives were already supposed (sign) the book with their names and addresses. Louis
never (have) the slightest idea what the purpose of this mad custom might be, and he (not ask). He
supposed when the funeral (be) over, he and Rachel (get) to keep the book. Yet he doubted they ever (use)
4.Louis Creed came (believe) that the last really happy day of his life was March 24th, 1984. The terrible
things that (be) to come were still six weeks in the future but he supposed that even if none of those terrible
things (happen), he (remember) that day for ever. Days which (seem) really good were so rare that they
were really worth (remember).
5.This was the funeral party and, while it (be) quiet, it was not quite subdued. After a few beers only the
night before he (swear) he never (touch) the stuff again, but in the cold afternoon light the previous evening
(seem) impossibly long ago Louis thought (pass) on a few little funerary anecdotes his uncle Carl (tell)

6. Tell me, do you remember what we were going to discuss at tomorrows meeting? Well, Susan,
according to the agenda, there were five items of discussion. First, Mary said she (bring) the results of the
survey. We (decide) whether we wished to proceed with the developments. Did she say what (happen) if
the results were negative? No, that (be) up to the committee. So what else did you say (be covered) in
the meeting? The Annual Dinner Dance. They (cancel) through lack of support. Arthur (propose) a disco
instead, but I dont think it (go through). Oh, a shame.
2. Correct the mistakes:
1.The doctor assured her he will return tomorrow.
2. I dont know if I ever go to the dentists again. If I will, I will kill him for what he did to me last time.
3. I will never forget to see you for the first time.
4. I dont invest in this company. It is about to go bust.
5. He told me he wont return before five.
6. God, the door is locked and it doesnt want to open.
7. Ok, tomorrow I go straight to her and tell her the bad news. Lets hope she doesnt throw a fit.
8. I think I am to throw up, the dinner hasnt agreed with me.
9. I dont know if it wont rain, maybe well be spared this time.
10. Look, she drowns! Do something.

Translate into English, paying attention to the grammar problem discussed above:

Pleca luni i venea vineri. Pleca plngnd, de parc ar fi fost pentru ultima oar. Data viitoare nu se va mai
ndura s ne lase singuri ntr-o sptmn se pot ntmpla multe. Sau la sfritul zilelor de absen se va
produce minunea, nu va mai fi necesar s plece, s ne desprim. Se va deschide, adic, dintr-o dat, cerul,
ne vom trezi cu toii intr-un tren de vagoane adevrate, nu cum fusese cel din care ne descrcaser n
pustietatea asta, la captul pmntului, ca pe nite vite aduse la tiere. Un tren nclzit, luminat, cu bnci
moi mtui blnde i politicoase vor servi fiecruia, la alegere, orice mncruri i-ar dori, cum se
cuvenea unor cltori ntori de pe lumea cealalt. Sau pn vineri, cnd ea trebuia s se ntoarc, se va fi
prbuit, n sfrit, nghiindu-ne, mntuindu-ne, cerul acesta nesfrit, de cenu, n care tot ateptam,
speriai, s intrm odat, s se termine cu toate.
(Norman Manea Pulovrul)
a. Lucru nou! Se nconjur popa cu ppuoi. i rdea inima cnd gndea cum se va face de frumoas treaba,
cnd jur-mprejur ppuoiul va crete i acoperi spinii din gard care ncepeau a nu-i plcea printelui. Dar
tot vorba veche: un ncaz nate pe cellalt.
(I. Slavici Nuvele)
b. nainte de Rusalii ns se pornir nite ploi, care preau c nu vor mai nceta.
- Nu tiu, zu, eu ce voi face, zise popa. Parc m-oi lsa cu trgul pn dup Rusalii. Mi-e groaz s plec pe
ploaia asta. Dac n-o sta ploaia pn joi, apoi eu unul nu m duc.
(I. Slavici Nuvele)
c. N-a crezut Simina niciodat c Iorgovan o va lua de nevast, cel puin aa zicea, c nu crede; acum ns,
cnd l vedea pe printele ei att de ngrijat, ea ncepu a se teme c tot o va lua Iorgovan, i ar fi voit s-i
arate btrnului c n-ar fi o nenorocire pentru dnsul i nici pentru dnsa.
(I. Slavici Nuvele)
d. Mereu se ntreba, oare ce face mama n vremea asta?
(B.t. Delavrancea Nuvele)
e. Cum are s-l mai iubeasc i ce mndr are s fie cu el n brae, se gndea ea. i cnd o fi necjit, la el
are s se uite i are s-i treac, i cnd o podidi-o plnsul de dorul lui Radu al ei, luat la oaste, cu el are s se
(B.t. Delavrancea Nuvele)
f. Drgan Cprarul ctigase rmagul cu Ion, c va veni de hac Sultnichii. Cum o s-i rsuceasc
mustaa de grozav printre tineret.
(B.t. Delavrancea Nuvele)
g. Rmi la mine ast noapte i i-oi da vrun ajutor Mare-i Dumnezeu! ns mai rabd i tu, fiul meu, c
mult ai avut de rbdat i puin mai ai. Pn acum i-a fost mai greu, iar de acum nainte tot aa are s-i fie,
pn ce-i iei din slujba spnului, de la care ai s tragi multe ncazuri, dar ai s scapi din toate cu capul
teafr pentru c norocul te ajut.
(Ion Creang Harap alb)
h. Druiete-mi viaa, Psril, c te-oi drui i eu cu mil i cu daruri mprteti, aa s trieti!
i. Hai, intr n cas cu ndrzneal, c am s fiu i eu p-acolo. i cum i intra, sti puin i te uit la fete; i
care-i vedea-o c se apr cu nframa, s tii c asta este fata mpratului.
(Ion Creang Harap alb)

a. Dezbinrile dintre voi primejduiesc securitatea unui stat pe care l doresc puternic i la adpost de
uneltirile voastre. Numai aa va putea ine piept nvlitorilor de afar i propi. Blestemata asta de avere
nu v d pace, nu v aduce fericirea, cci, la drept vorbind, o asemenea sete nici nu poate fi ostoit. De ce
ai mai mult, de aia vrei s ai mai mult. V voi mbucti averile, cu sila de va trebui (i s tii c v pot
sili), dac nu v vei nvoi. Nu doresc pentru mine dect dregtoria de strjuitor al legii i cea de cpetenie a
otirii. Nici c m sinchisesc de celelalte. in s triesc, rege fiind, tot att de modest ca i pn acum,
nedeosebindu-m cu nimic de oamenii de rnd. Voi ti s m port astfel nct toi s asculte de lege i s m
asculte, fr s se team de mine, astfel ca s se spun n afara zidurilor cetii: Attica este crmuit nu de
un despot, ci de un guvern popular; cci fiecare cetean al acestui stat va avea drepturi egale n Sfat, fr
s se in seama de-i de vi aleas ori ba. Dac nu m vei urma de bunvoie, voi ti, v-am spus-o, a v sili.
Voi pune s se drme micile voastre Tribunale, aa ca s nu mai rmn piatr peste piatr, precum i
slile n care v ntrunii n consilii regionale, i voi chema s se adune la poalele Acropolei pe toi cei din
care nc de pe acum se plmdete Atena. i acest nume, Atena, jur n faa zeilor care m ocrotesc, va fi
slvit de urmaii notri i de urmaii urmailor notri. nchin oraul meu zeiei Palas. i acum plecai, dar s
tii c ce am spus spus rmne.
b. Odihnete-te. Ndjduiesc c vei asista, spre sear, la serbarea dat n cinstea sosirii voastre. Apoi te
vom duce, cinstite Tezeu, la Cnosos. Vei dormi ntr-un iatac din palat i mine vei lua parte la cin; va fi o
mas simpl, o mas de familie unde te vei simi n largul tu. Doamna i domniele vor fi ncntate s
asculte primele tale isprvi. Acum ele se duc s se gteasc pentru serbare. Ne vom revedea i vei fi
aezat, tu i tovarii ti, chiar sub loja regal, cci am inut seama de faptul c eti prin i rangul tu va
cinsti i tovarii de care nu vreau s te deosebesc n vzul tuturor.
(Andre Gide Tezeu)
a) Vezi c i se urse de cnd tot atepta s crape soacr-sa, i nu mai putea s s-abin. Ce-o fi fost i n
capul lui? C-o s crape i Ivona, i-o s scape el d-amndou, i-o s rmn farfuza stpn i pe cas i pe
bijuterii i pe banii de la cec ai babii?
b) Cnd o s se dea jos din tramvai, o s se-opreasc n drum, la pia: o s-i ia de la grtar trei mititei, doi
o s-i mnnce ea, unu-l duce la omu ei, lighioana btrn, c i-o fi cteodat i lui poft, sracu... sracu
omu ei, ursuz, mut, ru de clan cum e, da stau mpreun de patruj-nou de ani? Stau. i-o s-i duc i lui
un mic de la pia, cnd o ajunge.
c) El se lsa ncet, la loc, n pat, gemnd uor i ntindea mna tremurnd dup cordon: avea s intre
Maria, avea s dea la o parte draperiile grele, avea s deschid larg ferestrele i, cu ochii nchii, avea s
soarb, respirnd rar, n piept, aerul viu al dimineii de iunie.
d) Altceva ar fi vrut s spun, de fapt, ceva ce fetia nelesese: c Yvonne i va pta rochia de organdi, i
c are s se aeze n dreptul grilajului s o vad Ionica, fata dasclului, c i ea are la urechi urechi cercei
de ciree. ntr-adevr, dac Muti va pleca ntr-o vizit, dac Mademoiselle Lizette se va duce la modist,
dac madam Ana are s adoarm cu croetul n mn, Yvonne o s se poat aeza n dreptul grilajului s
vad cum se joac toi copiii de pe maidan...
(Gabriela Adameteanu Diminea pierdut)
Acum, cnd citii cuvintele astea, cuvinte spuse de fapt pentru o femeie, dar potrivindu-se la fel de
bine i pentru mine, sunt mort. Mort i ngropat i uitat de mult vreme, de atunci, de cnd, ntr-o zi oarecare
din vara anului 1848, Mamona cel Tnr m va omor. i acum nu fac dect s stau cu pmntul peste mine
i, putrezind ncet i venic, s m gndesc i s vorbesc i s tiu c vorbele i gndurile mele sunt ale
altuia, ale celui care, cu voia dumneavoastr i trebuind, nu-i aa?, s-l numim n vreun fel, l vom numi
Autor. A putea s-l numesc i altfel, dar nefiind vreo cinste deosebit n vreun nume sau vreo diferen, i
voi spune aa. Acesta pe care l-am numit, Autorul, i-a nchipuit viaa mea, a avut cheful i rbdarea s-i
nchipuie cum ar putea fi o via, a cuiva, i momindu-l, ntinzndu-i pe tav faptele, l-am atras spre mine,
am reuit s fac asta, eu, cel mort de mai bine de o sut de ani, l-am prins ntr-o capcan n care poi s te
simi o vreme liber i fericit i mndru de cotrobiala pe care ai nceput-o.
O s rdei, dar eu sunt de fapt Autorul, eu, Tache Vladescu, nscut n anul 1800 i mort peste
patruzeci i opt de ani, ucis imediat dup revoluie de Mamona cel Tnr. i acum nu fac dect s stau cu
pmntul peste mine, batjocoritor ca orice mort, i n timp ce oasele mele se albesc, s atept s se albeasc
att de mult, nct s-i capete strlucirea fireasc i glbuie a celor mori dintotdeauna. i tot ateptnd, s
m bucur c, ntr-o zi, un oarecare venit cine tie de unde, din ce Galilee,un Autor, va ncerca s fac din

oasele mele descrnate un om viu i vorbind i ticind. El este deasupra mea, prin ceurile amintirilor mele
ca vreo pasre cercettoare i harnic. Nu tie c sunt nepstor i c, dac m prefac altfel, nu este dect
din cauza plictiselii ce m cuprinde uneori. A putea s-i rd n nas i, prsindu-l, s m ntorc n
ateptarea ce nu se va sfiri, n lenea i plictisul acestei ateptri pe care o trec nepstor i fr vreun gnd
anume. Nu o fac totui, chiar dac aceast putere e n minile mele, iar slbiciunea n minile lui. Fiindc
aa cum eu sunt mort, iar el este viu, eu sunt personaj, iar el este Autor, toate astea ar putea fi i invers. Pot
crede aa cu att mai mult cu ct nu m oprete nimeni s-o fac.
(tefan Agopian Tache de catifea)
a)A bgat de seam i m-a ntrebat numaidect:
- i-e fric ntr-adevr?
n clipa asta am simit c voi dezerta pentru trei zile, orice s-ar ntmpla cu mine, ca s viu prin surprindere
s vd ce face. I-am rspuns c nu tiu, c nu m-am gndit la asta. Adevrul e ns c m gndisem. De
multe ori imaginam cte o btlie i m vedeam conducndu-mi plutonul cu o bravur att de extraordinar,
nct toi efii mei s se entuziasmeze. De pild, s merg n picioare pe tot cmpul, cu oameni culcai. S
pot fi vzut de departe cu binoclul, iar acas, peste cteva zile, toat lumea s fie uimit de isprvile mele,
s am un fel de legend, iar nevast-mea s protesteze uor i orgolios, cnd toat lumea i va vorbi despre
purtarea mea n rzboi.
- A, nu-l tii? E un nebun i jumtate I-am spus s se astmpere, c nu vreau s m lase vduv.
i totui, cnd visam noaptea c iau parte la lupte, eram ca paralizat de groaz.
b)Fac, cu o plictiseal indiferent, planul rzbunrii. La ora zece m voi ascunde pe o uli vecin, de unde
pot supraveghea intrarea i ieirea din cas. Dac ea pleac de acas, o voi urmri pn la locuina lui. Dac
vine el la ea, voi bate nti, iar dac nu mi se va deschide imediat, voi sparge ua i pe urm ce va fi voi
vedea. Dac pn la miezul nopii nu va fi nici una, nici alta, voi merge acas i trebuie s-o gsesc culcat,
cci mi-a spus c se culc devreme i deci minciuna e un indiciu de vinovie. nseamn, nu-I aa? c e la
amant. Dar cum s gsesc locuina lui? M-am gndit s trimit pe cineva s afle adresa, mi dau seama ns
c e o copilrie. De altfel, am certitudinea c el va veni la ea. Btaia n u a coanei Atena, reamintit, mi se
pare acum suspect, aa ca un soi de exces de zel cu neles.
c)Trebuie ca, pn nu prind ele de veste, oamenii dinainte s se strecoare unul cte unul n spatele lor, s se
adune acolo pe companii i pe urm s porneasc atacul Dac se poate, s treac apa chiar, pe tcute, i
numai n urm s deschid focul.
Planul mi se pare irealizabil. De altfel tiam c pe tot frontul de treizeci de kilometri, Oltul va fi trecut la
noapte de ntreaga divizie. Un regiment care a fcut o ncercare cu dou zile nainte a fost ns respins, tim
i asta, cu pierderi.
Cei care au plecat n fa ni se par plecai n noapte, pe lumea cealalt. Ce pipie, ce vd, ce simt acum n
clipele astea? Dup vreun ceas abia, auzim un semn de via i semnul de via e o ntie rpial pripit
de focuri, care sfie noaptea, pe drumuri nalte ctre stele. ncepe un hu metalic, asurzitor, de mitraliere
care macin, tocnd band dup band, ca un nai, ltrnd viu de tot, sperios, ca un motor de motociclet.
Nu tim ce e nainte, cu toate c e lun i eu caut mereu s mi nchipui ce vd n faa lor ochii celor de
acolo. M simt prea subire, dar parc mnuile pe care le-am pus de la nceput in de cald. Sabia am dat-o
la crua de bagaje, iar arm nu port, ca s pot fi mai uor i pentru c simt c, de aproape, nu voi putea
ucide niciodat.
(Camil Petrescu Ultima noapte de dragoste, ntia noapte de rzboi)
a) Dar ne ntmpin chelnerul care i cunotea preferinele i ne spuse c masa va fi imediat liber, clienii
au cerut plata. Da, dar pltind mai ceruser bere, pe care se vedea c n-aveau de gnd s-o bea repede. Ion
ncepu s i injure n timp ce chelnerul ne sftuia s ne aezm undeva i ndat ce aceia vor pleca, ne
putem muta acolo.
b) Totui, spusei brusc ndrjit, eu voi protesta. Dac ai s-o faci, rspunse atunci Ion Micu foarte grav,
m vei lipsi pe mine de posibilitatea de a te apra cnd vei fi tu nsui ameninat. De ce ai fi eu nsumi
ameninat? spusei deodat sumbru. Dac vor dori s nu mai fie cultur, continuai indignat i totodat
nepstor de soarta mea, m voi duce s predau copiilor abecedarul, unde cred c nu voi fi silit s le
vorbesc despre cele dou lagre i nimeni nu m va putea mpiedica s realizez ceea ce chemarea mea m
va ndemna s realizez."
c) Totui, dup un timp, m ntreb iari: Va s zic, nu vrei s pleci! Bineneles c nu, rspunsei. i
scutete-m de prostia asta! Bine, zise ea linitit, atunci o s plec eu. N-ai dect!, Sper c n-o s stai

mai departe n casa mea, n-o s vrei, zise ea cu ironie, ca Petric, s i-o fac cadou. Sa te nzestrez. Nu,
ndat ce pleci, plec i eu. i nu te hazarda n ironii pe presupunerea unei asemnri a mea cu Petric,
fiindc te poi trezi c n-o s fac joc de ironii cu tine, ci cu totul altceva, chiar dac te crezi intangibil
fiindc eti nsrcinat.
(Marin Preda Cel mai iubit dintre pmnteni)

FRAME STORIES. A bunch of travellers are telling stories to pass their time. Describe one of the
characters and imagine a story for him/her. (200 lines)
POINT OF VIEW. Imagine you are one of Sindbads companions in one of his journeys. Rewrite one
of his adventures from your point of view.


entirely devoted to the subject The Female Body. Knowing how well you have written on this topic
this capacious topic- letter from the Michigan Quarterly Review
I agree, its a hot topic. But only one? Look around, theres a wide range. Take my own for instance.
I get up in the morning. My topic feels like hell. I sprinkle it with water, brush parts of it, rub it with
towels, powder it, add lubricant. I dump in the fuel and away goes my topic, my topical topic, my
controversial topic, my limping topic, my nearsighted topic, my topic with back problems, my badly
behaved topic, my vulgar topic, my outrageous topic, my ageing topic, my topic that is out of question and
anyway still cant spell, in its oversized coat and worn winter boots, scuttling along the sidewalk as if it
were flesh and blood, hunting for whats out there, an avocado, an alderman, an adjective, hungry as ever.
The basic Female Body comes with the following accessories: garter-belt, panty-girdle, crinoline,
camisole, bustle, brassiere, stomacher, chemise, virgin zone, spike heels, nose-ring, veil, kid gloves, fishnet
stockings, fichu, bandeau () barrettes, bangles, beads, lorgnette, feather boa, basic black, compact, Lycra
stretch one-piece with modesty panel, designer peignoir, flannel nightie, lace teddy, bed, head.
The Female Body is made of transparent plastic and lights up when you plug it in, You press a button
and illuminate to different systems. The Circulatory System is red, for the heart and the arteries, purple for
the veins; the Respiratory System is blue, the Lymphatic System is yellow, the Digestive System is green,
with liver and kidneys in aqua. The nerves are done in orange and the brain is pink. The skeleton, as you
might expect, is white.
The Reproductive System is optional, and can be removed. It comes with or without a miniature
embryo. Parental Judgement can thereby be exercised. We do not wish to frighten or offend.
He said, I wont have one of those things in the house. It gives a young girl a false notion of beauty, not
to mention anatomy. If a real woman was built like that she'd fall on her face.
She said, If we dont let her have one like all the other girls shell feel singled out. Itll become an issue.
Shell long for one. Repression breeds sublimation. You know that.
He said, Its not just the pointy plastic tits, its the wardrobes. The wardrobes and the stupid male doll,
whats his name, the one with the underwear glued on.
She said, Better to get it over with when shes young. He said, All right but dont let me see it.
She came whizzing down the stairs, thrown like a dart. She was stark naked. Her hair had been chopped
off, her head was turned back to front, she was missing some toes and shed been tattooed all over her body
with purple ink, in a scroll-work design. She hit the potted azalea, trembled there for a moment like a
botched angel, and fell.
He said, I guess were safe.
The Female Body has many uses. Its been used as a door-knocker, a bottle-opener, as a clock with a
ticking belly, as something to hold up lampshades, as a nutcracker, just squeeze the brass legs together and
out comes your nut. It bears torches, lifts victorious wreaths, grows copper wings and raises aloft a ring of
neon stars; whole buildings rest on its marble heads.

It sells cars, beer, shaving lotion, cigarettes, hard liquor; it sells diet plans and diamonds, and desire in
tiny crystal bottles. Is this the face that launched a thousand products? You bet it is, but dont get any funny
big ideas, honey, that smile is a dime a dozen.
It does not merely sell, it is sold. Money flows into this country or that country, flies in, practically
crawls in, suitful after suitful, lured by all those hairless pre-teen legs. Listen, you want to reduce the
national debt, dont you? Arent you patriotic? Thats the spirit. Thats my girl.
Shes a natural resource, a renewable one luckily, because those things wear out so quickly. They dont
make em like they used them. Shoddy goods.
One and one equals another one. Pleasure in the female is not a requirement. Pair-bonding is stronger in
geese. Were not talking about love, were talking about biology. Thats how we all got here, daughter.
Snails do it differently. Theyre hermaphrodites, and work in threes.
Each female body contains a female brain. Handy. Makes things work. Stick pins in it and you get
amazing results. Old popular songs. Short circuits. Bad dreams.
Anyway: each of these brains has two halves. Theyre joined together by a thick cord: neural pathways
flow from one to the other, sparkles of electric information washing to and fro. Like light on waves. Like a
conversation. How does a woman know? She listens. She listens in.
The male brain, now, thats a different matter. Only a thin connection. Space over here, time over there,
music and arithmetic in their own sealed compartments. The right brain doesnt know what the left brain is
doing. Good for aiming through, for hitting the target when you pull the trigger. Whats the target? Whos
the target? Who cares? What matters is hitting it. Thats the male brain for you. Objective.
This is why men are so sad, why they feel so cut off, why they think of themselves as orphans cast adrift,
footloose and stringless in the deep void. What void? She says What are you talking about? The void of the
Universe, he says, and she says Oh and looks out the window and tries to get a handle on it, but its no use,
theres too much going on, too many rustlings in the leaves, too many voices, so she says, Would you like a
cheese sandwich, a piece of cake, a cup of tea? And he grinds his teeth because she doesnt understand, and
wanders off, not just alone, but Alone, lost in the dark, lost in the skull, searching for the other half, the
twin who could complete him.
Then it comes to him: hes lost the Female Body! Look, it shines in the gloom, far ahead, a vision of
wholeness, ripeness, like a giant melon, like an apple, like a metaphor for breast in a bad sex novel; it
shines like a balloon, like a foggy noon, a watery moon, shimmering in its egg of light.
Catch it. Put in a pumpkin, in a high tower, in a compound, in a chamber, in a house, in a room. Quick,
stick a leash on it, a lock, a chain, some pain, settle it down, so it can never get away from you again.
(Margaret Atwood The Female Body)
Margaret Atwood (b. 1939)- Canadian novelist and poet. She has
published more than thirty books of fiction, poetry, critical essays.
Her novels include The Handmaids Tale and The Blind Assassin.
She is the recipient of many literary awards and honours.
Paraphrase the underlined words/phrases.
Comment upon the title of the above text. How can you interpret the authors choice of talking about the
female body instead of the female mind for example?

Paragraph 1
Margaret Atwood has agreed to write on the topic of the female body.
a. Choose adequate synonyms for the word topic.
b. Looking at paragraph 1, try to characterize the way in which the author presents the female body. Find
key words/phrases in this characterization.
c. What is the relation between the image of the female body that the author creates in this paragraph
and the term topic that is used here as a synonym for the female body?
d. What does the author mean by the phrase hot topic. Do you think that the male body also
represents a hot topic? Motivate your answer.
Paragraph 2
The Female Body is described as possessing a number of accessories.
Why do you think the author chooses this particular group of accessories?
Which of these accessories are still worn by/ still characterize women nowadays and in what
Try to name a group of similar accessories that accompany the male body.
Paragraph 3
The author claims that the Female Body is made of plastic and it lights up when plugged in.
a. Is this image consistent with the image from the first paragraph? What similarities/differences are there
between the two?
b. Why does the author choose to present the different systems in the female body in a detailed
manner? Why do you think each system is associated a different colour?
Paragraph 4
a. In what context does the conversation in paragraph 4 occur and what does it refer to?
b. Which of the two speakers do you agree with?
c. How can you comment upon the remark I guess were safe?
Paragraph 5
The author underlines that the Female Body has many uses.
Examine the different uses of the Female Body. How can you comment upon them? Can you think
of similar uses for the Male Body?
What does the author mean by It does not merely sell, it is sold. when referring to the Female
Why does the author claim that the Female Body is a renewable resource?
Paragraph 6
Comment upon the following: Pleasure in the female is not a requirement. Does this echo the authors
own thoughts?
Paragraph 7
a. What is the difference between the female brain and the male brain in the authors opinion? Do you agree
with her point of view?
b. What have men lost in the authors opinion and how do they try to compensate for that loss? Do you
think this is an accurate description for the attitude of men towards women?

a. Exemplify instances of familiar language in the text.

b. Exemplify instances of formal language in the text.
c. How can you comment upon the interplay between familiar language and formal language in the text?
Stereotyped expressions
Investigate the use of the following sentences in the text:
a. Repression breeds sublimation.
b. Pleasure in female is not a requirement.
c. Were not talking about love, were talking about biology.
d. Is this the face that launched a thousand products?
e. Would you like a cheese sandwich, apiece of cake, a cup of tea?
From Greek: dissimulation. A form of expression by which the writer intends his meaning to be
understood differently and less favourably in contrast to his overt statement (cf. Bloomsbury Guide to
English Literature)
Taking the above definition as a point of reference, investigate the use of irony in Margaret Atwoods text.
1*. POLYSEMY: FLESH. Translate into Romanian, paying attention to the uses of above word:
1. Romanul tu s-ar putea mbunti dac ai da mai mult substan personajelor. 2. Nu mi-a fi imaginat
ca propria mea fiic s m trateze aa: e carne din carnea mea! 3. tii foarte bine c biserica era foarte aspr
n trecut cu preoii care se dedau plcerilor carnale. 4. Nu-mi place cum arat - are buzele prea crnoase
pentru gustul meu. 5. De cte ori s-i mai spun? Vedetele arat mult mai prost n realitate dect pe ecran. 6.
Omul sta este pur i simplu dezgusttor. Mi se ncrnceneaz carnea pe mine cnd ma gndesc la ce-a
fcut. 7. Ai mai mncat vreodat un asemenea fruct? Smburii au o form asa de ciudat i coaja e foarte
groas, ns miezul este absolut delicios. 8. Dac ai pielea aa de sensibil, n-ar trebui s stai att de mult la
2*. POLYSEMY: PLUG. Translate into Romanian, paying attention to the uses of the above word:
1. Este att de neglijent! ntotdeauna uit s scoat dopul dup ce face baie i toat apa murdar rmne n
cad. 2.Te descurci minunat! D-i nainte i-o s vezi ce rezultate bune o s ai! 2. Televizorul nu merge
pentru c ai uitat pur i simplu s-l bagi n priz. 3. tii c se gndete s opreasc finanarea proiectului
pentru c nu i se mai pare profitabil? 4. Cred i eu c e fericit: a aprut la televizor i aa a reuit foarte
uor s fac reclam pe gratis restaurantului. 5. Ce situaie nenorocit! Fiul lor e n com de mai bine de
zece ani i acum se gndesc dac s-l deconecteze de la aparatele care-l in n via. 6. Am s te rog s
astupi crptura din zid. Bineneles c e ridicol, dar, din cauza ei, am tot timpul sentimentul c ma
urmrete cineva.
3*. SYNONYMY: SHIMMER. Translate into Romanian making use of the following synonyms:
shine, glitter, sparkle, glisten, gleam, glow, twinkle, blaze, flash, flicker, glint, glimmer, beam
1. Sunt sigur c s-a fcut bine, pur i simplu strlucea de sntate cnd am vzut-o. 2. Nu tot ce strlucete
e aur. 3. Muncise din greu s sparg lemne toat dimineaa i faa i lucea de sudoare. 4. Ochii i luceau de
fericire. 5. Apa strlucea sub razele lunii. 6. i-am spus c trebuie s lustruieti pantofii stpnului n
fiecare zi! 7. Focul care lumina n vatr ddea ncperii un aer de linite i pace. 8. i face iluzii. Ateapt
s se mrite cu un un bogta ntr-o main lucitoare n loc s se mulumeasc cu un om cinstit i iubitor. 9.
De ce mi semnalizeaz mereu oferul din faa mea? Crezi c ar trebui s opresc? 10. n sufletul ei mai
struia o umbr de speran c lucrurile aveau s se termine cu bine pn la urm. 11. Aveau o servitoare
foarte harnic. De fiecare dat cnd se ntorceau, podelele sclipeau de curenie. 12. Nu este deloc frumos,
dar s-a ndrgostit de el cnd la vzut zmbindu-i larg.. 13. A reuit s se ntoarc acas, ghidndu-se dup

luminiele satului care sclipeau n deprtare. 14. I-au lucit ochii cnd a vzut banii. 15 Acesta este primul
meci de fotbal care se transmite n regiunea aceasta ndeprtat. 16. Nu m mir ca a avut succes. Are
farmec i o inteligen scliptioare.17. A strlucit de fericire cnd i s-a spus ca fiica ei este cea mai bun
elev din coal.
a) Translate into English:
Scobitura tlpii, papile gustative, om cu strungrea, dini ieii n afar, crcnat, saiu, urechi clpuge,
nas acvilin/coroiat/ crn/ borcnat/ ltre, chiop de un picior, chior de un ochi, musta pe oal, pleoape
czute, obraji scoflcii, ochi cufundai n orbite, sni lsai, burt gogonat, cerul gurii, fluierul piciorului,
rotula, guat, degetul mic, arttor, ochi injectai/ midgdalai, pistrui.
b) Fill in with the missing word:
The __________ of your foot; the __________of your nose; the __________of your hand/neck, the _____
of your arm, the _________of your tongue/ nose, the ___________ of your palm/ of bread; the
_________of your eye, the __________ of your palm, the _________of your back, the ___________ of
your neck/ belly/ hip; the _________ of your belly/ breasts; the __________ of your legs, the
__________of your neck; the __________ of your hair; the _________ of your head; the _________ of
your forehead
a. Look at the following compound nouns in the text. Find appropriate Romanian translations for them.
b. Make a list of the compound nouns in paragraph 2 (e.g. panty-girdle). Find Romanian translations for
each of them.
c. Can you think of any difference between the compounds in paragraph 5 and the compounds in paragraph
The compound nouns in paragraph 5 are based on an object- predicate relation:
door- knocker- to knock on the door
bottle- opener- to open bottles
nut- cracker- to crack nuts
1. The predicate- term in the compound has been turned into a verbal noun through suffixation by - er
(bird-watcher), -ing (bird-watching)
2. The predicate-object order is reversed inside the compound:
3. The first term of the compound is a noun that disallows number inflection,
* nuts- cracker, *bottles-opener. Although the meaning of the first noun is plural, its form is uninflected.
Nota bene!
Although, in general, the relation between the two nouns is that between a predicate and its object, there are
some exceptions to the rule.
We exemplify contexts where the first noun can be an adverbial:

home schooling- to school at home

street fighter- to fight in the street
sleepwalker- to walk in ones sleep
1. Translate the following nouns into Romanian:
pair-bonding, coal-mining, window dresser, sight-seeing, fortune-seeking, coffee-grinder, snow-blower,
glass-cutter, sky-scraper, garbage-disposal, blood-grouping, tax gatherer, city planning, wigmaker, childminder, team teaching, woolgathering, tongue lashing, vampire slayer, holiday-maker
2. Here are some movie titles based on compounds. Translate them into Romanian, trying to guess
what kind of movies these might be:
Blade Runner, The Sin Eater, Hellraiser, Ladykillers, The Homecoming, The Song Catcher, Dreamcatcher,
Ghostbusters, The Body Snatchers, The Horse Whisperer, Dragonslayer, The Deer Hunter
3. Fill in the blanks with the compounds below:
draft dodger
gold digger
1. Carrie is one of those people who spends hours looking at shoes although she knows she cant afford
them. She is a ..
2. You are such a
. You married him because you knew his father is filthy rich.
3. She only buys paperbacks where heroines fall passionately in love with ruggedly handsome men they
vainly try to resist. She is reading one now - a.. where a wicked Highlander woos a reluctant lass.
4. Many people called him a.., because he was the only boy in the neighbourhood that didnt go to war.
He kept explaining to everyone that he was a conscientious objector.
5. I hate it when they make such movies. Why is it that someone always has to die or miraculously
recover in a? I honestly prefer
one of those .. like Terminator.
6. I loved the book, but I didnt enjoy the. ending. I didnt like it that the main character should be
left in a difficult situation.
7. I suppose that Ive become what youd call a, since I stay at home with the children and my husband
is the only the family.
8. Id never go to a What can cards or a crystal ball tell you about your future?
9. Stop playing the ! I know you think that your friend is the right woman for him, but I think he has
other ideas.
4. Translate into Romanian using compound nouns:

La Amsterdam am vzut originalul tabloului Mnctorii de Cartofi al lui Van Gogh. E unul din
tablourile mele favorite alturi de Dantelreasa lui Vermeer.


I-am mprumutat vecinului maina mea de tuns iarba i nici pn azi nu mi-a adus-o napoi. Eu i-am
cerut o singur data plugul de curaat zpada i nu a vrut s mi-l dea, pentru c, chipurile, aparine
3. Nu tiu ce face acum. Cred c a renunat la slujba pe care o avea aici i acum culege cpuni pentru
civa gologani.
4. A cumprat vinul sta de la un vinicultor bun pe care l cunoate i a aflat i o gramad de poveti
interesante n legtura cu facerea vinului.
5. Filmul de asear nu a fost cine tie ce un western leinat despre un vntor de recompense.
6. N-a fost de loc neleapt. A luat de so un vntor de zestre care i-a tocat toat averea.
7. Piesa premiata va fi pusa in scena de regizorul acela celebru de la Paris.
8. mi dai, te rog, deschiztorul de conserve? E chiar acolo, ntre olivier i toctorul de carne.
9. Un cetean care respect legea n-ar trebui s rspndeasc asemenea minciuni!
10. Cine s-o mai neleag? Merge la biseric n mod constant i urte jocurile de noroc, dar s-a cstorit
cu un om care bea numai trie, fumeaz droguri i pariaz pe cai la curse.
11. Anul trecut satul a fost ameninat de un tigru care se hrnea cu carne de om pn cnd unul dintre
vntorii de tigri ai regiunii a reuit s-l mpute.
12. Legea din aceasta ar nu-i pedepsete ndeajuns pe cei care molesteaz copiii i i maltrateaz
5*. Translate into English:
Cnd intrarm in curte, murdari i pe neateptate, ne izbi o forfot neobinuit: printele, n cmae alb,
descheiat adnc pe pieptul firav i lptiu, taia lemne: inea securea cu amndou minile, cu grij, parc
era de sticl, i strngea vrful limbii cu dinii i brbua i lucea de sudoare; Margareta, aezat pe treptele
buctriei, mcina mac, strngea rnia ntre genunchi, rochia i se ridicase mult, i strluceau pn sus
picioarele albe i tari, se vedea chilotul roz; avea buzele roii, umede i-i pusese prul pe moae; de
departe prea c se aezaser fluturi pe capul ei, se ncleiaser i muriser acolo.
Domnul doctor Bunu fugea ncoace i ncolo, puin beat ca de obicei, cu cravata sucit i musta de
foc: voia s prind o gin, ortniile ggiau ca turbate, parc rdeau de felul cum da el cu piciorul dup
ea, ca dup mingie; doamna doctori, mare, moale, cu prul vopsit n rou, pisa nuci ntr-un mojar greu;
domnul notar Meliu, mbrcat n smoking (era singura hain pe care o mai avea, de d-i doamne) se
nvrtea printre ei, mic, pricjit; i privea cu ochelarii lui de sticl groas ct degetul, parc vroia s-i
recunoasca de fiecare dat; iar nevast-sa, doamna Clara, cu care eu m culcam n fiecare noapte, nalt,
puin adus de spate, cu snii gri i tari i pielea ca cafeaua cu lapte, muca dintr-o mucat i zmbea stins,
ascultnd chemrile care urcau din trupul ei frecat cu spun i piper. (Titus Popovici- Moartea lui Ipu)
1. REWRITING. Choose one of the following fairytales: Rapunzel, Bluebeard, Beauty and the
Beast. Rewrite it from the point of view of the imprisoned heroine or from the point of view of the
character that imprisons them.
a. In paragraph 5 the female body has been depicted as a commercial product. Imagine an
advertisement in the paper that promotes this product.
b. Imagine a similar advertisement for the male body.


I joined Charlie on a business trip to California some months ago. One evening we met before dinner at
a Los Angeles law office. High atop the penthouse office overlooking Beverly Hills, the lawyer told us
about his partner who had passed away six years before. He was the most amazing and unforgettable
person I ever knew, he said. He was only fifty-nine when he died. Just before his heart attack, he shared
some personal thoughts about life with me. He told me several times, As you grow older youll find that
the one thing to treasure most in life is loyalty, and the worst and hardest thing to accept is ingratitude.
The greatest attribute loyalty. The worst ingratitude. As I pondered the counselors last words I
realized they were, to a degree, opposites. Ingratitude is almost the antithesis of loyalty. This prominent
California lawyer must have been burned more than once. The very statement implied that the cruel act of
ingratitude had hurt him to the core.
Underdone or Overkill
Husbands, too, feel that deep hurt. One remarked to me, Maybe its the age were living in, but
everybody seems to me so unappreciative. And my wife heads the pack. Theres just no joy in giving,
mainly because she is so ungrateful. An ungrateful wife is no joy to her husband, yet so many wives are
guilty of gross ingratitude. They have forgotten those simple words, Thank you, and all the actions and
emotions those words connote.
If your husband came home tonight and met you at the door with a box of candy or a bouquet of roses,
what would be your first reaction suspicion or warmth? I think many wives might not express
appreciation but would, instead, react in one of the following ways:
1. Shed say, Now where have you been?
Translation: Youve been up to something and Im suspicious! Instantly her husband reads these
vibrations. To him, shes the judge and hes suddenly on the stand. He feels guilty and condemned even if
he came home with a clear conscience.
2. Or shed say, Well, its about time!
Translation: Ive deserved this for months. My efforts have been overlooked. Youre long overdue. Her
husband has now witnessed a transformation before his very eyes. His wife has become a creditor, and hes
actually owed her the flowers for months. Instead of being a donor, hes been made a debtor.
3. Another might say, Is this a rewrap or did the funeral home close early?
Translation: The price of your gift is in direct proportion to your love for me. Id really love you for a
biggie; but I cant get carried away over these flowers. The shell-shocked husband now sees his wife as
the cashier, and hes the cheapskate who sheepishly paid for the smaller item in the store.
4. Finally, she might say, feebly, Candy, how nice.
Translation: Just what I dont need! You know Im on a diet, dumb-dumb! The husband now looks at
Miss Insatiability in utter frustration. Everything he tries is a failure. He blew it again. Hes incapable of
fulfilling her desires.
More often than not a wife will react in one of these ways, all of which are examples of ingratitude.
Occasionally, however, a wife will go overboard in the opposite direction and say, with teeth showing, Oh,
dahling, I just love it! But inside, she says to herself, Smile, anyway.
Miss Overkill never fools anyone especially her husband. Hes seen the same fixed grin on a thousand
other occasions. Her reaction is always the same, regardless of the motivation. Its merely ingratitude in a
different disguise. Inside he feels unworthy of a true response from his wife.
Attitude of Gratitude
Stop a moment and check your gratitude meter. Are you guilty of that heinous act of ingratitude? Are
you appreciative of the basics your husband knocks himself out to provide? Not just the birthday and
Christmas specials, but money for the groceries, doctor bills and pillowcases?
Appreciation involves two parts internal and external. First of all, a wife cannot be grateful if shes
grasping for her rights. If she feels she has the right to be taken out to dinner once a week, she will not
express sincere gratitude. Only if she yields this right to her Creator is she able to fully appreciate dinner
out, since it is then a privilege, an unforgettable experience.
Secondly, appreciation from within must be communicated outwardly, by words, attitude, or action, or
by all three. This is easy since a heart of gratitude must express itself. A thankful person cannot keep quiet.

Dont let your rights keep you from being grateful. Thank your husband for all those little things in
life and hell begin to give you those extras youve always wanted. Thank him for supporting the family. If
youre a working wife, he especially needs your reassurance and appreciation, since his masculinity may be
threatened by your paycheck.
Last Christmas, I watched as a husband shopped at a perfume counter. He told the saleslady, Just hand
me one of those gift packages. It doesnt matter what I buy for my wife as long as its expensive. Shell
bring it back anyway.
Then he smiled and said, Now Id like to pick out another gift. This is for my secretary. I love to see
her reaction. He spent twenty minutes choosing the right one for her!
When a man gives his wife a present, his only reward is seeing how pleased he is. In one case, a
husband gave his wife a bracelet, but it wasnt to her choosing. She took away his joy by constantly
complaining about it. Finally she exchanged it for one she liked. Her husband hasnt bought her any gifts
since, and why should he?
If youre not really crazy over a gift, be careful. If at all possible, try to use it. Express your
appreciation for taking his time from his busy day. If you dont actually like the gift, dont be insincere and
say you do. But you can still tell him how thoughtful he is for thinking of you, and be sure to thank him for
the surprise.
Charlie told me about the morning he drove our three-year-old, Michelle, to her grandmothers house.
As he dropped her off, Michelle kissed him good-bye and tenderly whispered, Thank you, Daddy.
Charlie felt like a king all day. Childlike appreciation lifts the heart. Daddies need that too!
The perfect balance between ingratitude and overkill is an attitude of gratitude. A sincere Thank you,
honey, by words and actions will satisfy any husband, whether it be for a mink stole or a bag of popcorn.
That biblical admonition, It is more blessed to give than to receive is so true. Dont keep your husband
from being blessed!
I received a postcard recently from an alumna who had generously used the four As to accept,
admire, adapt and appreciate her husband. The card read:
The Total Woman is in heaven a beautiful suite overlooking the
Atlantic Ocean in the heart of San Juan new, gorgeous luggage in
my closet, with the sweetest guy in the world as my companion.
That course is powerful stuff! Nothings too good for my honey!
Bob says. Those four As are the keys to making my man come
(excerpts from The Total Woman by Marabel Morgan)
1. Take a close look at the language and type of argumentation used in the text above and try to
approximately identify the decade in which this guide was written (the 50s, 70s, 90s, etc.) Try to support
your decision with evidence from the text.
2. a) Consider the following essay on women. Can you relate the point made in this essay about womens
language to the language used by Marabel Morgan in the text above? Is womens language different from
mens? Can you find evidence in Marabel Morgans discourse?
b)* Translate the essay in English, paying attention to the style, vocabulary used in it:
Despre femei
Dac eternul masculin, n termeni ideali, const n ceea ce a numi geniul druirii i explic odat
Zacharias Lichter unui tnr care fcea declaraii misogine eternul feminin l-a identifica geniului
receptivitii. Numai aa mi explic, de pild, un fapt destul de curios la prima vedere: sentimentul deplinei
nelegeri, al unei nelegeri stimulatoare, care-mi d aripi i m face s planez n spaii din ce n ce mai
pure, l am rareori cu brbaii dect cu femeile, chiar i cele mai simple. Mi s-a ntmplat s vorbesc ore
ntregi, n limbajul meu complicat i rebarbativ (fr a face nici cea mai mic concesie, fr a cobor, sftos

i ipocrit, la un nivel mai cotidian sau mai familiar), - cu cte o femeie de serviciu sau cu cte o ranc
aproape analfabet venit s vnd zarzavaturi n pia, i dincolo de reacia imediat, dincolo de micile
uimiri speriate sau de chicotelile nbuite simeam tot timpul bucuria unei comunicri dintre cele mai
fecunde i geniul meu iradia cu o for rareori atins.
Desigur, aceast nelegere, aceast comunicare-molipsire se realiza pe un plan metaverbal. Cuvintele nu
mai nsemnau nimic, devenind purttoarele unei energii inefabile, cu totul strin de semnificaia lor:
prezena ngerilor struia deasupr-le. Pierzndu-i orice individualitate semantic, ele nu mai erau dect
nite simple vehicule ale unei realiti care se refuz semnului. Prin extraordinara lor receptivitate, femeile
pot depi cu uurin convenionalismul tipic masculin (prejudecata comunicrii exclusiv n limitele
codificate ale limbajului), participnd direct, prin intuiie, la micrile eseniale ale spiritului, la fluxurile
i refluxurile lui, pe care vorbirea le poate transmite, dar fr s le semnifice. Brbaii care se plng c nu
pot fi nelei de femei, misoginii de toate felurile, i cer femeii s se integreze n sistemul lor de convenii
i stereotipii, s le neleag n chip ct mai precis i mai mecanic limbajul explicit. Or, la majoritatea,
acest limbaj explicit n-are nici o acoperire interioar, e rece i mort.
(Matei Clinescu Viaa i opiniile lui Zacharias Lichter)

1. Find expressions in your text that would match the meaning of the following ones:
to a certain extent/ the lawyer must have been cheated more than once/ she is the worst of the lot/ he has
failed again/ very often/ a wife can exaggerate her reaction in the opposite direction/ a wife can smile
hypocritically and praise her husband/ a horrible act of ingratitude/ the wife is trying to get her rights/ the
bracelet wasnt to his wife liking/ appreciation raises ones spirits
2. Paraphrase the following:
a foxy woman/ a runaway victory/ a tightfisted fellow/ a catty sister/ a scorcher/ sizzling passion/ mousy
hair/ flagging energy/ to pare down ones expenses/ a taxi-stand/ zest for life/ a mulish expression/ in
donkeys years/ waspish remark/ a fishy situation/ a horsy face/ sheepish smile/ nicely underdone
vegetables/ saccharine smile

IDIOMS: Fill in the blanks with the appropriate animal/insect words, in order to make up a
as poor as a ..
like a . . in a china shop
as dead as a .
like a .. with a sore head
as bald as a .
like a ...on hot bricks
as slippery as an.
like a ..out of water
as busy as a
he eats like a
as meek as a
he drinks like a
as happy as a
as stubborn as a
as free as a ..
as mad as a
as strong as an
as blind as a
5*.SYNONYMY: EXAGGERATE. Translate into English, making use of some of the following
phrases: exaggerate, overkill, overstate, overstatement, to overstate your case, overemphasize, overrate,
overdo, to make too much of, blow something out of all proportion, lay it on thick, (over)dramatize,
make a thing of:
Dan spune c a vzut filmul Marea evadare de cel puin douazeci de ori, dar cred c exagereaz. / E
exagerat s spui c o s dm faliment. Avem i noi o problem, dou, asta-i tot./ Ai cam ntins coarda cu
maic-ta azi. Nu vezi c aproape ai fcut-o s-i plng de mil?/ S spui c are o voce ca a Mariei Callas

nseamn s deformezi serios adevrul./ N-am vrut dect s o speriem puin, dar ipetele ei ne fac s credem
c am cam ntins coarda cnd ne-am jucat de-a stafiile./ Ce faci atta caz pentru c a spart un pahar?/ Iar
dramatizezi. Nu poi i tu s spui exact cum a fost?/ S-ar putea s fi prezentat lucrurile deformat, dar n-am
vrut dect s o conving c am dreptate./ S-au exagerat prea mult n ultima vreme virtuile pastei de dini
Aquafresh./ Nu mai face din nar armsar! Nu eti singurul care a picat la examenul de conducere.
6*.POLYSEMY: STAND. Translate into English, trying to make use of any collocations containing
the verb/noun stand:
La intrarea n gar era un chioc unde se vindeau hamburgeri./ Kane nu a depus nc mrturie la procesul
care se judec acum./ La cuier erau atrnate o mulime de plrii, toate furate de fratele su./ Te rog
aranjeaz tu partitura pe suport/ stativ, pentru c George se pregtete s cnte./ Dac nu te grabeti, o s
nchid chiocul de ziare i s vezi c nu mai punem mna pe Evenimentul Zilei./ Am reuit s fac rost de
un loc n partea de sus a stadionului./ Prea multe tarabe stric privelitea oferit de frumoasele noastre
strzi./ Rezistena lor a durat o lun ncheiat./ A luat n sfrit poziie fa de problema aceea important./
Trupa de actori a poposit cte o noapte n fiecare ora din regiune./ N-ar fi ru dac toat lumea i-ar apra
ferm punctul de vedere. / S-a dus i i-a ocupat poziia lng aspirator i maina de splat: de-acum ncolo
avea s fie un so model, nu un fotoliu cu papuci i ziar.
Compare the first paragraph of the text above to the next ones. While the first paragraph contains a story, a
narrative piece of text, making use of past tenses that move narration forward, the next paragraphs use
present tenses which help the writer to formulate generalizations related to conjugal life.
Now consider the following Present Perfect instances taken from these paragraphs:
(1) Now where have you been?
(2) Youve been up to something and Im suspicious!
(3) Ive deserved this for months. My efforts have been overlooked.
(4) Her husband has now witnessed a transformation before his very eyes. His wife has become a creditor
and hes actually owed her the flowers for months. Instead of being a donor, hes been made a debtor.
(5) Hes seen the same fixed grin on a thousand other occasions.
(6) Hell begin to give you those extras youve always wanted.
(7) Her husband hasnt bought her any gifts since, and why should he?
All of these instances of Present Perfect have something in common: they make a link to speech time. In
other words, none of these sentences conveys information on something which strictly happened in the past
and has no connection to the moment of speaking. The tense used in these cases clearly indicates that the
information contained in them has relevance for the present moment. This is why we have underlined the
time adverbials that are combined with the temporal forms: if you take a close look at these adverbials, you
will see that all of them make a link between a past moment and speech time.
One conclusion that we can safely draw so far is that Present Perfect is indeed a present tense, since it helps
creating a link between a past moment and speech time (now). In that, this tense form exhibits a strong
resemblance to the Romanian perfect compus, which can also create this semantic effect. But if you try to
translate the examples above, you will see that not all of them can be translated by means of perfect
compus. The misconception that the perfect compus is the equivalent of Present Perfect is one of the
reasons why Romanian learners have trouble mastering the use of this English tense.
What are the reasons why Present Perfect is considered to be a present tense? And why is this particular
tense so different from other present perfects in other languages?


Present Perfect is not used in narration (you dont tell a story by means of Present Perfect).
Consider again the first paragraph of our text and you will see that Past Tense is the one temporal form
preferred for narrating past events.

b) Present Perfect cannot be combined with past adverbials (it cannot be combined with a past adverb
like yesterday for instance). Grammarians call this phenomenon the past-adverb constraint.
How do we check that this is true? Lets take the first paragraph of our text and try to replace the Past Tense
forms by Present Perfect ones. You will clearly notice that the result is ungrammatical:
(8) *I have joined Charlie on a business trip on California some months ago. One evening we have met
before dinner at a Los Angeles law office. The lawyer has told us about his partner who had passed
away six years before
The exercise performed proves that Present Perfect cannot be used to tell a story, since the time of narration
is normally a past one. Therefore stories can only be linked to the present moment when the story-teller
makes his presence felt through paranthetical phrases such as lo and behold, as you see, etc.
Moreover, this exercise has shown us that the two interdictions discussed above under (a) and (b) are
closely interrelated: (a) is derived from (b). We do not combine a Present Perfect form with a past adverbial
and we cannot tell a story by means of Present Perfect, since this story takes place exactly during the
interval of time established by such an adverbial (e.g. some months ago, one evening).
In a manner of speaking, this is good news because once we are in possession of a list containing all the
past adverbials, we can steer clear of trouble by not combining them with Present Perfect. Below we offer a
three-column list with time adverbials initially devised by McCoard (1978). The adverbials under the first
column are not to be combined with Present Perfect:
adverbials: co-occur
with Past Tense
long ago
five years ago
once = formerly
the other day
those days
last night
in 1989
at lunch/ 5 oclock
after the war
no longer
at the time
when I first met her
on Monday
one evening
for three years
(closed interval of
e.g. He was married
for three years (i.e.
he is no longer

[THEN] adverbials:
co-occur with both Past
Tense and Present
long since
in the past
once = one time
in my life
just now

[-THEN] adverbials:
co-occur with Present
at present
up till now
so far
as yet
not yet
during these 5 years past
of late
since the war/ 1989
before now

when = whenever

e.g. I never saw a purple

I have never seen a
purple cow.
- both examples are

for three years (now)

e.g. He has been married
for three years. (i.e. he is
still married)


Students need to be extra-careful about the manner in which they make use of since phrases. Consider the
rules in the table below:


Present Perfect

Past Tense (the verb phrase in the

subordinate is an event, anterior to the
verb phrase in the main clause)
since I first met her.
Present Perfect (the verb phrase in the
subordinate is a state, simultaneous to
the verb phrase in the main clause)
since I have known her.

e.g. I have admired her

Present Perfect
e.g. I have admired her

If you translate these examples in Romanian, you will notice that Romanian also establishes a difference
between the two sentences. The first since clause is translated by means of perfect compus, whereas the
second since clause is translated by means of the prezent. This is evidence to the fact that the verb phrases
in the second example are interpreted as expressing a relation of simultaneity. Compare:
O admir de cnd ne-am cunoscut. / O admir de cnd o tiu.
Make sure you use the correct tense form in combination with since.
1. Fill in the blanks,, using the correct tense form:
1. Last time we went to the movies, we (meet) Susans brother.
2. As soon as they told us the news, we (rush) home to tell mother about it.
3. So far, my husband and I (be interested) in our sons progress.
4. How long (be) it since you started this business?
5. Ever since we (be) together, people (gossip) about us.
6. Ever since we (get married), people (gossip) about us.
7. For some time now, I (wonder) whether to resign.
8. When (you visit) Paris for the first time?
9. (you ever) listened to this music?
10. He (be) a colonel for more than ten years, but now hes retired.
11. They have been playing this game for two months and (fight) for as long a time.

Finish each sentence in such a way that it means exactly the same as the sentence above it:
1. We started this business two years ago. / We have.
2. They appointed her chairman in 1998./ She has..
3. Mary learned to play chess when she was five. / She has..
4. How long have you been smoking?/ When..
5. He stopped smoking five years ago. / He hasnt..
6. I have been skating since the age of ten./ I learned.
7. I havent been to Bucharest for ten years./ The last time..
8. We havent eaten caviar in ages. / Its ..
9. I havent seen her for two years now./ It
10. When did you get this job? / How long

So far, one thing has been made clear: thorough knowledge of the adverbial contexts where Present Perfect
can occur may help us use this tense correctly. This generalization has one shortcoming though: there are
cases, as shown in the first example offered from our text, where there is no time adverbial that might
indicate which tense form to use. Consider these examples again:

(9) Now where have you been?

(10) Youve been up to something and Im suspicious!
(11) Her husband has now witnessed a transformation before his very eyes.
It appears that there are contexts where Present Perfect does not co-occur with any time adverbial listed in
the table above. This means that this tense form is required by the overall meaning of its context. In order to
be able to use Present Perfect correctly, we will therefore need to know more about the possible values this
tense might acquire within a context. Below we offer the traditional approach to the values of Present
As you will see by reading the information offered in the table below, the uses of Present Perfect can be
roughly divided into three. This division was first made by Zaandvort in 1957 and most studies in the
literature have been using it since. Thus, according to this distinction, we can speak about a Present
Perfect of Result, a Continuative Present Perfect and an Experiential Present Perfect. The value that
Romanian learners find most difficult to grasp is that known under the name of the Experiential Present
Perfect (e.g. I have met this man before). This is due to the fact that the semantic distinction between this
particular value and the basic value of Past Tense is rather difficult to trace. Consequently, Romanian
learners of English mistake this value of Present Perfect for the basic value of Past Tense.
The students are advised to learn by heart the examples offered for each value of Present Perfect.


The event presented has visible results at the moment of speaking:
e.g. Ive broken my glasses (I cant read)./ I have turned on the heat (it will
warm up). / Hes been shot! (He is dead)
This use also includes the so-called Hot News Present Perfect (an instance
of Present Perfect by means of which some piece of recent news is stated. The
news is then reported with the help of past tense forms):
e.g. President Jones has been assassinated. He was killed last night in the
presidential residence. The assassin was arrested soon after the incident.
The event started in the past but continues up to the moment of speaking:
e.g. Hes been sleeping for two hours./ Ive known him all my life./ It has been
snowing since noon./ Ever since the house has been occupied the poltergeist
have been acting up.
Modes of occurrence: a) continuous continuative
e.g. I have been sitting in all day.
b) discontinuous continuative
e.g. He has been building the house for the last five
years. (i.e. on and off)
The Present Perfect of experience lays emphasis on the occurrence of some
past experience for a person/ group of persons. No mention is made of the
time when this experience took place.
e.g. I have definitely met him before. / They have seen The Silence of the
Lambs. / My mother has never met my boyfriend.
If the definite time when the experience occurred is mentioned, the speaker
shifts from Present Perfect to Past Tense:
e.g. A: Have you been to Edinburgh?
B: Yes, I have.
A: When did you go?
B: Oh, last April, thats when I did.
A: And did you visit many places while you were there?
B: Yes, I went to Hollyrood Palace.
Modes of occurrence: a) general experiential
e.g. He has never liked heavy metal./ A: Have you ever
in your life seen anyone so entirely delightful? B: Only
when Ive looked in the mirror.
b) limited experiential
e.g. Have you had a letter to type today?/ She has
already had three proposals this morning.

1. Consider the following instances of Present Perfect. Try to identify the values of Present Perfect
used in each of these sentences:
1. I have loved him all my life. 2. Where have I seen him before? 3. For all that youve suffered I beg
your pardon most humbly. 4. I hope I have made enough tuna salad. 5. I have fixed the fuse, so there
wont be any more light problems. 6. I have fixed the fuse at least twice these days. 7. She has cooked a
lavish meal for the newly weds. 8. The steak has been cooking for an hour. 9. She has never cooked a
meal like that before. 10. I have called her my dear auntie since I was a little boy.

Try to explain the difference in meaning between the following pairs of sentences:
1. Sorry about the mess, I have been painting the house. / I have painted two rooms since lunchtime.


Who has slept in my bed? / Whos been sleeping in my bed?

My parents have lived here ever since they got married./ We have been living here for six days.
I have used the corkscrew to make holes in this skin./ Ive been using the corkscrew to make holes
in this skin.
Everybody has worked bloody hard this morning./ Everybody has been working bloody hard this


Choose the correct verb form:

a) P. is an Ulster Catholic who started out as a medical student and then (run) away to the Gate Theatre
in Dublin. I first (see) him as the Playboy and (covet) his talents at once. For a while we (work) together.
But, as I always (have) to terrorize him to get on the stage sober, we (take) leave of each other. Since he
(part) professional company with me some years ago, he (play) the fat charming television villain. He
knows what I think of his career. But we remain friends; and this in spite of the fact that I (steal) his wife.
He (marry) again, and (be) happily married for some years now. Recently there (be) talk of a film made
after his life, but nothing (come) of it so far.
The green bike scheme, providing free, recycled bikes to anyone who (need) transport between certain
points in the city, (be) now is in its third month, and (hail, Passive) as a key weapon in the war against
crime by Cambridge police and councilors. A 10% drop in bicycle thefts across the city in November
(credit, Passive) to the scheme. The big drop (praise, Passive) by police as it (allow) them to concentrate
their resources on more serious crimes. According to one officer, There (be) a definite drop in the number
of bike thefts since the scheme (start). This (be) welcome as it frees up our time. a councilor (add), The
scheme (intend, Passive) not just to recycle bikes but also (reduce) bike crime, and it (be) a tremendous
success. He (hope) that the scheme (expand, Passive) to other areas of the city and beyond. He (note) that
other councils (already, show) great interest in it.
4. Read the letter below and take a look at the manner in which Present Perfect is employed in order
to convey information about the person writing the letter. Translate the text in Romanian:
Charles, how are you getting on? We are all consumed with curiosity. No one admits to having been
invited. But dont you miss us terribly? Perhaps you have sneaked back to live secretly in your new
flat, not answering the phone and going out at night? Someone said your house was on a lonely wavewashed promontory but that cant be true. I see you in a cosy marine bungalow on the sea front. After
all, how could you live without your liquidizer? I couldnt bear it if you had really changed your life.
That is something which I have always wanted to do but never could and never will. I shall die with
my boots off, the bastard I have ever been. I have been drinking for a week after returning from hell,
alias Belfast. Civilization is terrible, but dont imagine that you can ever escape it, Charles. I want to
know what you are doing. And dont imagine that you can ever hide from me, I am your shadow. I
think I shall come down and see you at Whitsun. (Someone dared me to and you know I cant resist
dares.) Various people would send their love if they knew I was writing, but of course it isnt love its
insolent curiosity. Few are worthy of you, Charles. Is the undersigned one? Time will show. Shall I
come and bring my swimming trunks? I havent swum since our epic days in Santa Monica. Another
theory is that you are not in England at all but gone to Spain with a girl. To disprove which you must
write. Your shadow salutes you,
(excerpt from The Sea, The Sea by Iris Murdoch)
5. Translate into English, paying attention to Present Perfect and Past Tense:
1. Cnd m-am trezit, era iar noapte i am ieit din lad i mi-am fcut nevoile ntr-un col al prvliei.
Eram n colul la cnd a venit Saul. A venit att de ncet, nct nu l-am auzit dect dup ce a ciocnit n
- Snt aici! am spus.
- Ce faci acolo?a spus. Pe urm a spus: A! i: Cnd termini, vino s vorbim.
- Am terminat!am spus i m-am apropiat de el.
- Mai stau puin i plec de tot! a spus. Ce faci, te-ai hotrt?
Nu vin cu tine!
- Bine, faci cum vrei!


Mi-e sete! am spus.

A, da, nu m-am gndit la asta! O s-i aduc ap. Ar fi mai bine ns s pleci cu mine.
Nu plec! O s vin mama i atunci o s plec. Pn atunci o s stau n lad.
I-au prins pe ia! Vreau s spun c l-a prins pe unu i acum atrn n spnzurtoarea oraului.
Dup ce l-au ngropat pe btrn, ei s-au ntors acas i au nceput s vorbeasc. i tot vorbind, una din
femei a zis:
Nu m ateptm ca tata s moar.
De ce? a ntrebat cineva, nu tiu care o fi fost la.
E simplu, a spus femeia, una din fiicele btrnului. Tot timpul a lipsit cte ceva din mncare i m
gndeam c btrnul
Nu, n-a fost el! a spus altcineva i s-a aternut tcerea peste ei.
O vreme au tcut, apoi unul a avut curaj s zic tare ceea ce gndeau de fapt toi.
Biatul la nseamn c era aici n cas de la nceput! i tiu i locul unde ar putea fi.
Sluga l privea temtoare, nu tia cum s spun. Tache se gndea la altceva, zmbea unui gnd, cnd
sluga spuse:
Stpna e bolnav!
Cum adic bolnav? ntreb.
Aa! spuse cellalt. A czut jos deodat i s-a fcut galben ca o gutuie.
Unde e acum? ntreb Tache indiferent.
n odaia dumneaei. O ngrijete Maria.
Bine, i ce vrei de la mine? ntreb morocnos.
M-am gndit s v spui, ca s tii! spuse omul prostit, apoi ceru voie s plece.
Tache l opri cu un gest.
Ai fost duminic la biseric? ntreb.
nchise cartea i se uit ntr-o parte.
Am fost, boierule, spuse cellalt, c aa ne-ai dat porunc!
i cnd a zis popa n predic pilda cu Tnrul cel bogat din Sfnta Scriptur, tu ce-ai gndit?
Nu m-am gndit la nimic, boierule!
Mini, te-ai gndit! Dar nu vrei s spui!
Se aez pe marginea patului, i puse faa n palme i ncepu s plng.
Ce e? ntreb Tache ntr-o vreme.
Nimic! spuse ea. Tocmai plngeam!
Da, plngeam.
Cred c am but prea mult lichior! spuse el.
A venit popa! spuse ea.
Bine a fcut! Am nevoie de el.
M duc s m spl! spuse ea.
Trimite, te rog, pe cineva cu un pahar de ap.
Rmas singur, se scul buimac n picioare i i netezi hainele cu mna. Veni feciorul cu o tav, i pe ea
era un pahar cu ap aburit. Bu cu poft. Spuse:
Adu-mi o caraf plin! i s se aeze masa! De cnd a venit popa?
De un ceas, boierule!
l gsi pe pop rsfoind o carte.
Ce faci, printe? O s chiorti pe ntunericul sta!
Ai dreptate! spuse popa. Unde ai fost pn acum?
Cred c am dormit! spuse Tache.
Aha! spuse popa. Dar nainte s dormi, ai but!
De ce crezi asta? spuse Tache.
Pi miroi a anason!
Miros? se mir Tache. A, da, anason, sigur c da, am but lichior de anason. Nu tiu ce m-a gsit.
Se aez. Veni feciorul cu apa.
Srut mna, printe! spuse feciorul.
Tache se gndi o clip, apoi spuse:
Du-te la buctrie i spune c am poruncit s se pregteasc ceva de post pentru printe.
Nu, nu, spuse popa. in post negru.

Feciorul plec.
Uitasem! spuse Tache. Noi nici n-am mncat nc!
Ce face Flora? ntreb popa.
E bine, ce s fac. Din cauza ei te-am chemat. Vreau s m nsori.
Cnd? ntreb popa.
Oricnd, i acum! spuse Tache.
Mine diminea! Venii la biseric!
Bine, o s venim! i mai e ceva, spuse Tache. Ai auzit, a venit Bleanu de la Paris.
Da, tiu! spuse popa.
Se zvonete despre o revoluie! spuse Tache.
O fi! spuse popa, i privirea lui czu mohort undeva peste Tache.
O s fie, n-avea nici o grij! Nu se ntorcea Bleanu altfel. Da n-o s fac el revoluia. Altii au s-o
- Cine? ntreb popa.
- mi pui o ntrebare ciudat, printe! cine a vorbit duminica trecut n biseric despre revoluie i avere?
Popa se scrpin gnditor n cretetul capului:
- Eu am vorbit! spuse apoi cu o voce obosit.
- Ai vorbit, nu-i aa? frumos i ade, rscoli oamenii, asta faci!
- i ce dac-i rscol? spuse popa.
- Treaba ta, printe, faci ce vrei, spuse mpciuitor Tache. Ai vorbit de revoluie, ce-ai aflat, de fapt?
- Pi n-am aflat nimic! fcu popa. Tcu o vreme. Zise apoi: Uite, eu, care va s zic, sunt pop. Da aa
pop cum sunt, am fcut revoluia cu Tudor. i ce dac am fcut-o? stau i m ntreb cteodat. n
sfrit, cnd am fost la revoluie, am cunoscut muli oameni, i buni i ri, i greci i romni i srbi, de
toate felurile am cunoscut.
5. Plecnd, Tache o cuprinse pe Flora de dup umerii subiri i ea se fcu mic sub mna lui, i clcnd
uor, ajunser n odaia unde era aternut masa. Mncar n tcere, doar din cnd n cnd se auzea un
clinchet de pahare sau de tacmuri.
- O s fie revoluie! spuse Tache spre sfrit.
- Azi pe la amiaz mi-a fost ru, spuse Flora.
- tiu! spuse Tache.
- tii, da nu tii de ce mi-a fost ru!
- Ba da, tiu i asta! atepi un copil!
- De unde poi s tii asta?
- Nu trebuia s m gndesc prea mult ca s-o tiu.
- i nu te bucuri? ntreb ea.
- Nici nu m bucur, nici nu sunt trist.
Ea se posomor parc sub lumina ce-i acoperea blnd faa. Feciorul le aduse cafele.
- Nu, spuse Tache, o s le bem cu printele. L-am lsat destul singur.
Sluga se nclin i lu tava. Rmai singuri, Tache spuse sculndu-se.
- Am vorbit cu printele, mine diminea m nsoar cu tine.
- Mulumesc! spuse ea.
- Nu ai de ce s-mi mulumeti, spuse el.
(Stefan Agopian - Tache de catifea)
6. Sevastia, femeia de serviciu, care nu e nici pe departe proast, mi-a relatat ieri cteva observaii de-ale
lui Gentile ce denot c m antipatizeaz. A zis, printre altele, c oi fi scris eu trei cri, trgnd din
amintirile i cunotinele mele de altdat, dar c el unul poate s-i pun gtul jos c nu mai sunt n stare
de o pagin n plus.
Stau acum i m gndesc la rutile lui de mai bine de-o or i nu-mi pot aduna gndurile. N-am scris de
dou sptmni nici mcar o pagin.
Au venit la el civa prieteni, iat, fereastra e puternic luminat. l srbtoresc. A scos ieri primul volum
i Sevastia, creia i-a citit, susine c are acolo nite povestiri care-i fac prul mciuc, formidabile. Ea a
i plns. El i-a spus c manuscrisul, citit de Vladimir Streinu, a fost considerat de acesta ca un eveniment n
peisajul literaturii actuale. Aprecierile astea mi fac grea. Ce poate cunoate el, dac aria n care se
nvrtete se rezum la un cerc de prieteni de chef? ()

Mi-am pus ordine n toate hrtiile. De mine voi relua nuvela pe care-am ntrerupt-o acum opt luni. N-a
vrea s cad n pcatul de-a lua tot ce spune el i relateaz Sevastia drept adevrat. Poate c am czut n
unele prejudeci. Va trebui s mai meditez. Oricum, nu face s i ntorc spatele.
l atept n dreptul ferestrei. Dac va iei, i voi face cu mna, aa cum, dintr-o prietenie fr mari
sperane, mi fcuse el. Doarme ca un porc. A chefuit azi-noapte pn trziu sau a scris. ()
Ceasul arat unsprezece. N-am scris azi nici un rnd. Singurtatea asta m exaspereaz. ncerc s-mi pun
n ordine unele proiecte, dar gndul nu-mi st la aa ceva. Fereastra lui se d la o parte. Soarele i bate
puternic n ochi. Lampa de pe mas e nc aprins. nseamn c a lucrat pn acum cu storurile trase, c
nc n-a observat sosirea dimineii. ()
i fac semn, pe mutete, cu palma strns adus la gur i cu capul aplecat pe spate. S neleag c am
but. Ridic degetul n semn de mustrare. Sevastia iese pe poart de la el i-mi aduce o foaie de hrtie.
(Mircea Horia Simionescu excerpts from Ingeniosul bine temperat, slightly adapted)
7. Trebuie s m cunosc. Trebuie s tiu odat sigur cine sunt i ce vreau. Am amnat mereu lucrul acesta
pentru c mi-era team. Mi-era team c nu voi izbuti s-mi luminez sufletul, sau ca lumina ce va aluneca
asupr-i s nu m ndurereze. Eu mi-am nchipuit anumite lucruri despre mine nsumi. Ce se va ntmpla
dac acestea nu exist aievea? Dac ele nu au fost dect o prere? Ceva mai mult. Eu am cutat s m
supun acestor trsturi pe care le-am socotit pri din sufletul meu. Mi le-am impus i mi le-am nsuit. Ce
se va ntmpla cu ele, dac voi ti c nu sunt dect nite vestminte mbrcate n sil? Voi putea oare s le
prsesc fr s m copleeasc golurile sufletului meu?
Am hotrt de multe ori s m analizez pn la capt, ca s ptrund ct mai adnc i calm n suflet. Dar
n-am izbutit. Niciodat nu m-am putut concentra. N-am putut gndi despre mine nsumi. De cte ori
ncercam s m analizez m trezeam ntr-un ntuneric desvrit. De unde s ncep s m caut? Unde a
putea s fiu eu nsumi?
(Mircea Eliade Romanul adolescentului miop)
8. Trec ani de zile fr s te gndeti la nimic altceva dect la lucruri obinuite. Dragostea i se pare o
ocupaie pentru cei care se mir ce s mai fac cu timpul i, deodat, echilibrul vieii obinuite se sfarm.
Cunotinele despre lucrurile nconjurtoare capt alt neles. Nu mai recunoti realitatea n care ai trit.
Uneori, ncepe totul de la un lucru de nimic. Un rs de femeie te tulbur ntr-o sear. Ai mai auzit o mulime
de femei rznd i asta te-a lasat indiferent. Ai mai vzut i ali ochi. Da, dar sunt altfel ai auzit vorbind i
alte femei, dar ceea ce spune aceasta i se pare foarte nsemnat. Nu poate fi nimic mai frumos i mai bine
spus dect aa. ntre oameni se es adesea legturi nevzute, mai durabile dect lanurile. Lupi, vrei s crezi
c i se pare numai, c te neli, i iat, de cte ori o vezi, ncepe s-i bat inima ca-n tineree, parc n-ai mai
cunoscut alte femei. i cine este fata asta cu ochi oblici, cu mers neauzit? Cum s-i spui c i pare ru c n-o
mai vezi, c de la venirea doctorului nu mai ai curaj s atepi ora antrenamentului ei, c pleci mai
devreme cu o jumtate de ceas, ca i cnd i-ar fi team s nu i se ntmple un lucru foarte neplcut. Poate i
ea gndete la fel, poate s-a jucat numai de-a atletismul, ca s-i rd de tine, c te vede att de prost, de
nendrzne. Poi s comanzi acestor brbai de peste 25 de ani, s-i obligi s fac ce vrei tu, fr s
crcneasc, ai reuit s-l nvingi i pe acest director, ai trecut prin via btndu-te penru cea mai mic
fericire, ai smuls bucuriile una cte una, ai trit i prost i bine, mai mult prost dect bine, rzboiul te-a facut
i mai tcut, mai posomort, dar ai nceput s tii mai multe lucruri, s nelegi cu uurin ceea ce altdat nai fi priceput dect foarte greu. i-acum? Acum, fugi s nu dai cu ochii de ochii nelinitii ai Chirei, s nu-i
mai auzi glasul n care se amestec i puin batjocur, dar i sinceritate.
Fr aceast lips de-o lun i jumtate a doctorului, poate nu s-ar fi ntmplat nimic, viaa ta ar fi
trecut linitit mai departe. Erau i n orelul acesta cteva femei la care te-ai fi gndit, dar aveai lucruri mai
importante de fcut. i-a plcut din ce n ce mai mult s lupi cu oamenii din jurul tu. Ei nu te nelegeau.
I-ai silit s te priceap, dar asta nu avea nici o importan. Un lucru nu-i merge la inim pn nu l-ai dus la
capt. i deodat toata indiferena ta s-a sfrmat. Arena ubred, pe care un vnt mai mare ar lua-o pe sus,
i se pare mai frumoas, e un loc nepreuit, unde te bucuri i suferi, oraul nghesuit, plin de praf, cu oameni
tcui, amestecai, nu i se mai pare un ora oarecare. De el te vor lega amintiri, pentru c nu se poate s uii
serile pline de vnt, cerul palid i nalt, fata creia i simi respiraia alturi, bucuria victoriilor att de grele,
obinute aici, pe bucata de pmnt plin de iarb.
Ai nceput s fii distrat, s nu mai bagi de seam c unii i trag chiulul la antrenamente, c i lai prea
mult s fac ce vor pe aceti tineri neasculttori. Cnd l vezi pe cellalt, pe doctorul, ntorci privirile n
alt parte. i-a fost fric s nu fi aflat de undeva c ai stat cteva seri cu Chira i s banuiasc, foarte firesc
de altfel, c-l dumneti, l-ai lasat s joace n locul unuia mai bun dect el acum.
(Eugen Barbu Unsprezece)


BLURB. Consider the blurb (the cover text) for the guide-book you have read from. Try to write a
blurb for a guide book of your own choosing:
The Total Woman by Marabel Morgan
How to make your marriage come alive! The runaway best seller thats
working miracles for marriage!
I do believe it is possible, says Marabel Morgan, for almost any wife to have
her husband absolutely adore her in just a few weeks time. She can revive
romance, reestablish communication, break down barriers, and put sizzle back
into her marriage. It really is up to her. She has the power.
Here is the daily program she developed to restore zest to her own flagging
marriage. Its fun. Its challenging. And its guaranteed to work.
Start today to have a more exhilarating life with the man in your life!


YOUR OWN GUIDE. In two pages try to write a chapter from a guide for married men. Dont forget
to make use of eye-catching phrases that will help you to buttonhole the reader.

Mr Pontellier had forgotten the bonbons and peanuts for the boys. Notwithstanding he loved them
very much, and went into the adjoining room where they slept to take a look at them and make sure that
they were resting comfortably. The result of his investigation was far from satisfactory. He turned and
shifted the youngsters about in bed. One of them began to kick and talk about a basket full of crabs.
Mr Pontellier returned to his wife with the information that Raoul had a high fever and needed
looking after. Then he lit a cigar and went and sat near the open door to smoke it.
Mrs Pontellier was quite sure Raoul had no fever. He had gone to bed perfectly well, she said, and
nothing had ailed him all day. Mr Pontellier was too well acquainted with fever symptoms to be mistaken.
He assured her the child was consuming at the moment in the next room.
He reproached his wife with her inattention, her habitual neglect of the children. If it was not a
mothers place to look after the children, whose on earth was it? He himself had his hands full with his
brokerage business. He could not be in two places at once; making a living for his family on the street, and
staying at home to see that no harm befell them. He talked in a monotonous, insistent way.
Mrs Pontellier sprang out of bed and went into the next room. She soon came back and sat on the edge of the
bed, leaning her head down on the pillow. She said nothing, and refused to answer her husband when he
questioned her. When his cigar was smoked out he went to bed, and in half a minute he was fast asleep.
Mrs Pontellier was by that time thoroughly awake. She began to cry a little and wiped her eyes on
the sleeve of her peignoir. Blowing out a candle, which her husband had left burning, she slipped her bare
feet into a pair of satin mules at the foot of the bed and went out on the porch, where she sat down in the
wicker chair and began to rock gently two and fro.
It was then past midnight. The cottages were all dark. A single faint light gleamed out from the
hallway of the house. There was no sound abroad except the hooting of an old owl in the top of a wateroak, and the everlasting voice of the sea, that was not uplifted at that soft hour. It broke like a mournful
lullaby upon the night.

The tears came so fast to Mrs Pontelleiers eyes that the damp sleeve of her peignoir no longer
served to dry them . She was holding the back of her chair with one hand; her loose sleeve had slipped
almost to the shoulder of her uplifted arm and she went on crying there, not caring any longer to dry her
face, her eyes, her arms. She could not have told why she was crying. Such experiences as the foregoing
were not uncommon in her married life. They seemed never before to have weighed much against the
abundance of her husbands kindness and a uniform devotion which had come to be tacit and selfunderstood .
An undescribable oppression, which seemed to generate in some unfamiliar part of her
consciousness, filled her whole being with a vague anguish. It was like a shadow, like mist passing across
her souls summer day. She did not sit there inwardly upbraiding her husband, lamenting at Fate, which had
directed her footsteps to the path which they had taken. She was just having a good cry all to herself. The
mosquitoes made merry over her, biting her firm, round arms and nipping at her bare insteps.
(Kate Chopin The Awakening)
Kate Chopin Katherine O'Flaherty (February 8, 1850 August 20, 1904),
known by her married name Kate Chopin, was an American author of short
stories and novels. She wrote The Awakening, among other works.


Paraphrase the underlined words/phrases

Answer to the following questions.

Topic: The Division of Roles in the Married Couple


Comment upon the following phrases: the result of his investigation was far from satisfactory/ Raoul
needed looking after. What do they tell us about Mr Pontelliers position in the married couple?
Comment upon the relevance of the arguments brought by the two parents to support their view on their childs
Why does Mr Pontellier say that he cant be in two places at once?

Topic: Oppression/Freedom

How can you interpret Mrs Pontelliers refusal to answer?

Why do you think that Mrs Pontellier could not have told why she was crying.
Comment upon the opposition fate/ mood in the last paragraph.
Why can oppression be considered a keyword in the fragment?

Topic: STYLE - Authorial stance/ Point of view

8. How can you describe the tone of the author in the introductory paragraphs?
9.Comment upon the notion of point of view in the text.
1. IDIOMS. Choose the appropriate idiom to complete the following sentences:

in the first place, in sbs place, to take the place of sb/sthg, to take second place (to sb/sth), to fall into
place, all over the place, to be going places, it is not sbs place (to do sth), out of place, to put sb in their
place, to be no place for sb, in place

The music had already started and the guests were invited to......for the next dance
He was rude to everyone at the party, but eventually someone......
.I sincerely regret what I did and I wish Id never got involved ......
The detective was at first puzzled by the case, but everything suddenly......,when he saw the murder
5. The room is very untidy because hes left his clothes spread.........
6. He has become a workaholic and Im sad to say that family his job.
7. The room was full of smartly dressed people and this made Helen, who was wearing a rather shabby
dress, feel quite......
8. Maybe tell you, sir, but I think you ought to visit a doctor soon.
9. Although shes just come to work for us, I can see shes very capable and I expect she........soon
10. Ill never remarry, because no one canmy wifes........
11. The mirror is going to fall, because theres nothing to hold it....
12. Ive tried to put myself...., but I still cant understand how he was capable of such a thing.
2*. POLYSEMY: SHIFT. Translate into English:

Nu pot s spun c-mi place s lucrez n tura de noapte, dar n-am de ales. Cei care lucreaz n timpul
zilei sunt avantajai.
2. Iari am vzut o reclam la un nou detergent, despre care se spunea c ar scoate toate petele. L-am
cumprat, dar nu mi se pare c e cu mult mai bun dect cel vechi.
3. Copilul avea febr i ncepuse deja s se zvrcoleasc n pat.
4. Toate aceste evenimente vor conduce de fapt la trecerea de la tipul acesta de sistem economic ctre
unul destul de diferit.
5. Guvernul nu va mai putea s deturneze mult timp atenia presei de la problemele recente din politica
6. Am observat o schimbare importanta n atitudinea fa de mediul nconjurtor din ultimii ani. Oamenii
au devenit mult mai responsabili.
7. Cnd am nvat s conduc, mi-a fost destul de greu s schimb vitezele.
8. i-au alungat mama btrn din cas n toiul nopii pe gerul acela, iar srmana femeie nu avea pe ea
dect o cma subire!
9. Colegii s-au purtat foarte urat cu Paul, ncercnd s-l fac pe el rspunztor pentru toate greelile pe
care le fcuser.
10. Haide sa ncercm s mutam mesele, ca s avem mai mult spaiu.
3*. POLYSEMY: SOFT. Translate into English:
1. Pn acum tatl lui a fost prea blnd cu el, dar cred ca pe viitor o sa se poarte mai sever.
2. i-a gasit o slujb destul de uoar la o bibliotec unde nu prea vine nimeni i poate s stea linitit s
citeasc sau s viseze cu ochii deschii.
3. Prefer localurile unde se pune muzic n surdin, nu locurile unde muzica este att de tare nct i
sparge urechile.
4. Pisica edea tolnit la gura sobei, cu botul ngropat n blana mtsoas.
5. Imi place cum se mbrac, pentru c se ferete de culorile iptoare. ntotdeauna poart nuane discrete.
6. Cldura se mai domolise i un vnticel uor ncepuse s sufle deasupra cmpiei.
7. Am pornit-o la drum pe pant domoal a dealului, spernd c nu o s dm de zone abrupte.
8. Nu ar trebui s m supr pe el, pentru c dei pare un om foarte aspru, are inim bun i n-ar face ru
9. A ales o cale prea uoar i o s se loveasc n mod sigur mai trziu de greutile pe care a vrut acum
s le evite.
10. Altdat Tom era un om suplu i musculos, dar acum s-a cam buhit din cauza lipsei de micare i a

11. Este chiar prost, dac crede c poate s-i pcleasc prietenii att de ru!
12. Se vede c muncete din greu acum. nainte avea minile foarte moi, dar acum pielea i s-a nsprit
foarte mult.
13. Afacerea a beneficiat de noile msuri de spijin financiar i astfel s-a putut face un mprumut cu
dobnd mai mic.
14. A avut ntodeauna o slbicune pentru fratele ei mai mic.
4. SYNONYMY:WET. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the list below:
damp, soaked, sodden, moist, waterlogged, soggy, clammy, muggy, dank , sticky

The room was cold and unfriendly and there was a .....patch on the ceiling
There is nothing worse than a stale and .....sandwich at lunch time.
I cant understand how you can feel so comfortable when the weather is ......... !Its so hot and wet that
I simply cant breathe.
4. If you start using the cream, skin will feel ...... and smooth even ten hours after application.
5. The child had been eating honey and his fingers were already .......
6. I cant stand being touched by Jean, her hands are always so.......
7. .........lawns are often due to the formation of a sticky, glue like layer of soil near the surface.
8. He was extremely tired and his shirt was already .....through with sweat.
9. That room smells awful; it reminds me of a ........cellar
10. It had been raining and the shirt she had forgotten on the clothes line was completely ......
Look at the following excerpts from the text. Both are instances of indirect speech, since both are used to
report the words of a character in an indirect manner.
(1)a. Mrs Pontellier was quite sure Raoul had no fever.
(2)a. He had gone to bed perfectly well, she said, and nothing had ailed him all day. Mr Pontellier was too
well acquainted with fever symptoms to be mistaken.
If we were to transpose the excerpts into direct discourse (the main characters utters the words in a direct
manner, as if upon a stage), the following forms would be possible:
(1)b. Raoul has no fever, Im sure!Mrs Pontellier said.
(2)b. He has gone to bed perfectly well and nothing has ailed him all day!, she said
Im to well acquainted with the symptoms of fever to be mistaken! Mr Pontellier said.
If we look again at excerpts (1)a and (2)a, we notice a slight distinction between the two. While in (1)a, the
subject of the main sentence (Mrs Pontellier) is also the speaker who utters the words that are reported,
in (2)a, the subject of the main sentence (he) is not the speaker who utters the words that are reported
(Mrs Pontellier, she) Also, if we look more closely we can see that in (2)a, the speaker is the subject of a
paranthetical sentence she said.
The distinction that we have underlined indicates that, while (1)a is an instance of indirect or reported
speech, (2)a is an instance of a different form of speech, that is called free indirect speech.

In order to see what free indirect speech is, we may have to revise the distinction between direct speech
and indirect speech.



I want to meet this girl, (he said.)

paranthetical sentence
- Direct/ oral discourse:
- Point of reference :THE PRESENT
- Speech situation: I, here, now

He said
he wanted to meet me that girl;.
Main sentence
Subordinate sentence
- Subordination: the speaker/the author reports the
words or the thoughts of another speaker: He said....
Point of reference: THE PAST (indicated by the tense
of the main verb)

- Graphically, direct speech is always marked by
inverted commas in English
In direct speech, besides assertive sentences, one
can have other sentence types such as direct
interrogatives and tags, exclamatives,
- All kinds of stylistic strategies are involved, such
as Inversion: Never have I seen such a man!
How old are you?
Repetition: Never, never again will I go there!
Ellipsis: Good book! (=This is a good book)
all kinds of affective markers are allowed, such
Interjections: Aha! Here you are!
Terms belonging to the familiar register


in indirect speech, there are only exclusively assertive

sentences, because the reporting verb of
communication / of thinking(to say/ to think) takes a
subordinate sentence (that clause/indirect question)
from direct speech to indirect speech, there is a
modification of the orientational categories of the
language in the following way:


Change of tenses: Because the main verb is in

The past, all the other tenses are shifted to the
past. (The shifting is necessary in English, but
Romanian is different in this respect!)

What do you know! Tim has come to see us!
The child is consuming at this moment in the
next room! he assured her
I will buy the flowers myself! Mrs Dalloway

I dont like to be here. I m going to return

home tomorrow she said
Oops, Ive spilled the milk again! she said

He said that Tim had come to see them.

He assured her the child was consuming at that
moment in the next room.

Mrs Dalloway said she would buy the flowers

Change of personal, reflexive, possessive

pronouns, of expressions of time and space,
She said that she didnt like to be there and that she
was going to return home the following day.

Lack of affective discourse markers

She exclaimed over the fact that she had spilled the
Milk again.

If I had enough money, I would buy this car!


Nota bene ! Conditionals and subjunctives which do not relate to time do

not change from direct speech to indirect speech
He said if he had enough money, he would buy that car.


1. Examine the following excerpt from the text, written in free indirect speech. In what way is free
indirect speech different from/similar to direct speech on the one hand and to indirect or reported speech on
the other?
2. Try to turn the passage into direct speech and then into indirect speech
If it was not a mothers place to look after the children, whose on earth was it? He himself had his hands
full with his brokerage business. He could not be in two places at once; making a living for his family on
the street, and staying at home to see that no harm befell them.


Free Indirect Speech is a type of indirect or reported speech, but with a difference. It can be described as a
combination between direct speech and indirect speech, as a half way between the two. As you can see, it
shares the characteristics of both:

Like Indirect Speech, Free Indirect Speech has a back-shift of tenses accompanied by a change of
personal pronouns


After all, I have seen my old friend last year, she thought.
She thought that had actually seen her old friend the previous year.
She had after all seen her old friend last year, she thought
She had after all seen her old friend the previous year, she thought.

Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
Free Indirect Speech
Free indirect Speech

Like in Direct Speech, in Free Indirect Speech, there is no subordination relation between a verb of
communication and a clause; the reporting clause can be absent or can be present as a paranthetical
comment clause


Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
Free Indirect Speech

Generally, like Direct Speech, Free Indirect Speech does not change the spatial, temporal expressions
or demonstratives. However, occasionally it is possible to change these expressions in the same
manner as in Indirect Speech.


He has gone to bed perfectly well, she said.

She said he had gone to bed perfectly well.
He had gone to bed perfectly well, she said.

Am I dreaming? Jill wondered

Jill wondered whether she was dreaming. .
Was she dreaming, Jill wondered

Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
Free Indirect Speech

The syntax of Free Indirect Speech is that of Direct Speech and the affective/character discourse
markers are kept. Thus, like in the examples below, elements such as rhetorical questions and
exclamatives are kept in Free Indirect Speech. Remember that this is not possible in Indirect Speech.


If it is not a mothers place to look after children, whose on earth is it?

Direct Speech
If it was not a mothers place to look after children, whose on earth was it? Free Indirect Speech
How fresh, how calm, the air is in the early morning!
Direct Speech
How fresh, how calmthe air was in the early morning!
Free Indirect Speech

1. Translate the following texts, paying attention to the rules of Indirect Speech:
Dup ctva timp, omul mi vorbi. Spuse c prietenul meu e un biat foarte slbatic i mai ntreb dac era
des biciuit la coal. Eram ct pe aci s-i rspund cu indignare c noi nu eram elevi ai colii de stat ca s
fim biciuii, cum zicea el, dar am tcut. Intr acum n subiectul pedepsirii aspre a bieilor. De parc iari
irezistibil atrase de vorbele rostite, gndurile lui preau s se tot roteasc ncet n jurul noului lor centru.
Spuse c bieii de felul acesta trebuie biciuii i bine biciuii! Cnd un biat e slbatic i nedisciplinat,
nimic nu-i face mai bine dect o biciuial zdravn. Degeaba l pocneti peste mn ori l iei la palme; ce-i
trebuie e o biciuial bun, s-l usture. Surprins de asemenea sentimente, fr voie mi ridicai ochii spre
dnsul. Am ntlnit privirea unei perechi de ochi de un verde nchis, care m scrutau de sub o frunte
zvcnind. Mi-am ntors iari privirile n alt direcie. Omul i continua monologul.
Dar venind iarna, ploile se inur lan, nct nimeni nu mai iesea din cas, i noi nu mai aveam cum da vreo
rait, aa c eram foarte strmtorai n privina banilor. Trecnd odat pe o strad, i vznd o cas cu faada
drpnat, ntrebai a cui era, i mi se rspunse c a unei doamne vduve; m dusei acas la ea i-i spusei
c, ntruct n-avea chiriai, s-mi dea mie permisiunea s m instalez eu, cci i voi pzi bine casa. Ea,
temndu-se s nu-mi cad zidurile n cap, mi spuse s bag bine de seam ce fceam, fiindc s-ar putea
drma pe neateptate, i apoi casa era venic bntuit de hoi; i rspunsei c puin mi pas de asta, pentru
c avea i o camer sigur sus, n care m voi putea nchide, i pentru c sracii n-au de ce s se team, nici
ce pierde, deoarece i viaa le e prea mult. mi dete ngduina cu drag inim i, n rstimp de patru zile,
casa nu mai avea nici o u i nici o clan, mcar de leac; a cincea zi m dusei n Piaa San Salvador i
pusei s se strige c aveam de vnzare, pentru cine va fi vrnd s le cumpere, patru sau cinci mii de igle.
Pe atunci nu se putea gsi o igl, orict ai fi pltit; venir la mine ntr-un suflet trei-patru zidari, i cel care
apuc s mi le cumpere, puin lipsi s nu fie tiat cu cuitele de ceilali. Le lsai la cinci maravedis bucata
i, ducndu-i la casa unde m pripisem, le artai acoperiul, spunndu-le c eu eram administratorul i c
stpna mea dorea s fac o teras n locul acoperiului. O dat cu iglele mele, le artai de asemenea i o
parte din cele ale vecinilor ce-i aveau casele zid n zid cu mine, i care urmau s fie scoase i ele; mi
ddur ase sute de reali i pe bun dreptate, cci numrul iglelor se urcase la mai mult de cinci mii, i
rmserm nelei s vin dup ele a doua zi. Cum pusei mna pe bani, alergai la stpna casei i-i spusei
c era mare pcat s consimt ca administratorul su, care-i vnduse toate uile, s-i vnd i iglele de pe
acoperi. Ea se tulbur foarte, zicnd c n-avea nici un administrator i c nu-i putea nchipui cine se
apucase s fac una ca asta. (Mateo Aleman Viaa lui Guzman de Alfarache, iscoad a vieii omeneti)
Soto mi trimise un mesager, cerndu-mi s ne mpcm i s iau parte la rscoal. i rspunsei c asta nu
era o treab la care s ne putem hotr cu atta uurin, i c s bage bine de seam, socotind totul n
amnunime, pentru c ne expuneam n chipul cel mai grav i n-aveam dreptul dect s ieim cum se cuvine
din asta, sau s ne pierdem viaa. Maurului care-mi aduse solia nu i se pru de lepdat sfatul meu, i spuse
c va duce rspunsul lui Soto i c se va ntoarce iari s-mi vorbeasc. (...) Le ddui astfel numai
rspunsuri bune i m prefcui c-a fi de partea lor, pn ce hotrr s-i aduc planul la ndeplinire dis de
diminea, n ziua Sfntului Ioan Boteztorul. Dar cum m aflai n faa stpnului, ddui pe fa tot
complotul, nct se cruci, i aproape nu-i venea s cread; prndu-i-se c spuneam toate acestea ca s scap
de caznele i munca ce-mi dduse i s capt astfel iertare. Dar cnd i spusei unde poate gsi armele i cine
i cum le pusese acolo, mulumi lui Dumnezeu c-l scpase dintr-o asemenea primejdie, fgduindu-mi o
rsplat bun. (Mateo Aleman Viaa lui Guzman de Alfarache, iscoad a vieii omeneti)

Aa c, atunci cnd sfri tovarul meu s-i vad de herghelie, i veni ctre mine, l ntrebai dac n-ar fi
cu cap s cinm. El rspunse c-mi ieise un porumbel din gur, i c aveam tot dreptul, pentru c era i
timpul, mai ales c a doua zi i pusese n gnd s se scoale cu noaptea n cap, ca s aib vreme s ajung
de diminea la Cazalla i s-i ncarce mgarii cu burdufele de vin. l ntrebarm pe hangiu dac avea ce ne
da la cin. Rspunse c da, ba nc de-o cin domneasc. (Mateo Aleman Viaa lui Guzman de Alfarache,
iscoad a vieii omeneti)
2. a) Turn the following exchanges into Direct Speech:
The count arrived, unfortunately, in time for lunch, and by the end of the meal, without really trying, he had
succeeded in alienating everybody, including the dogs. It was in its way, quite a tour de force to be able to
irritate five persons of such different character apparently without even being aware of doing so, inside two
hours of arrival. During the course of lunch, he said, having just eaten a souffl as delicate as a cloud in
which were embedded the pale pink bodies of freshly caught shrimps, that it was obvious that Mothers
chef was not French. Having discovered that Mother was the chef, he showed no embarrassment but merely
said that she would then be glad of his presence for it would enable him to give her some guidance in the
culinary arts. Leaving her speechless with rage at his audacity, he turned his attention to Larry, to whom he
vouchsafed the information that the only good writers were French. At the mention of Shakespeare, he
merely shrugged: le petit poseur, he said. To Leslie, he offered the information that anyone who was
interested in hunting must assuredly have the instincts of a criminal; in any case, it was well known that the
French produced the best guns, swords and other defensive weapons. To Margo he gave the advice that it
was a womans job to keep beautiful for man, and in particular, not to be greedy and eat too many things
that would ruin her figure. As Margo was suffering from a certain amount of puppy-fat at that time and was
on a rigid diet in consequence, this information was not at all well received. He condemned himself in my
eyes by calling the dogs village curs and compared them unfavourably to his selections of setters,
retrievers and spaniels, all French-bred, of course. Furthermore, he was puzzled why I kept so many pets,
all of which were uneatable. In France we only shoot zis kind of thing, he said. (Gerald Durrell My
Family and Other Animals)
Stuart: Anyway, Olivers a pedant. I dont know what you think, about everyone followed by their.
Probably not very much, no reason why you should. And I cant remember how it first came up, but we had
this argument. Oliver and Gillian and me. We each had a different opinion. Let me try and set down the
opposing point of view. Perhaps Ill do the minutes of the meeting, like at the bank.
Oliver said that words like everyone and someone and no one are singular pronouns and must therefore be
followed by the singular possessive pronoun, namely his.
Gillian said you couldnt make a general remark and then exclude half the human race, because fifty per
cent of the time that someone will turn out to be female. So for reasons of logic and fairness you ought to
say his or her.
Oliver said we were discussing grammar not sexual politics.
Gillian said how could we separate the two, because where did grammar come from if not from
grammarians, and almost all grammarians probably every single one of them for all she knew were
men, so what did we expect; but mainly she was talking common sense.
Oliver rolled his eyes back, lit a cigarette and said that the very phrase common sense was a contradiction
in terms and if Man at which point he pretended to be extremely embarrassed and correct himself to Manor-Woman if Man-or-Woman had relied upon common sense over the previous millennia wed all be still
living in mud huts and eating frightful food and listening to Del Shannon records.
Stuart then came up with a solution. His being either inaccurate or insulting, or quite possibly both, and his
or her being diplomatic but awfully cumbersome, the obvious answer was to say their. Stuart put forward
this compromise suggestion with full confidence and was surprised by its rejection by the rest of the
Oliver said that, for instance, the phrase someone put their head round the door sounded as if there were
two bodies and one head, like in some frightful Russian scientific experiment. He referred to the displays of
freaks which used to take place at funfairs, mentioning bearded ladies, deformed sheeps foetuses and many
similar items until called to order by the Chair (= me).

Gillian said that in her opinion their was just as cumbersome and just as obviously diplomatic as his or
her, but why was the meeting being so squeamish about making a point anyway? Since women had for
centuries been instructed to use the masculine possessive pronoun when referring to the whole human race,
why shouldnt there be some belated corrective action, even if it did stick in a few (masculine) throats?
Stuart continued to maintain that their was best, being representative of the middle course.
The meeting adjourned sine die. (Julian Barnes Talking It Over)
3. Turn the following text into Indirect Speech:
The mans intolerable, said Larry refreshing himself with a brandy in Mothers bedroom, where we had
all retired to escape the counts company. Hes got an obsession with France; I cant think why he ever left
the place. He even thinks their telephone service is the best in the world! And hes so humourless about
everything, one would think hes a Swede.
Never mind, dear, said Mother, Its not for long now.
Im not sure I shall last the course, said Larry. So far about the only thing he hasnt claimed for France
is God.
Ah, but they probably believe in him better in France, Leslie pointed out.
Wouldnt it be wonderful if we could do something really nasty to him? said Margo wistfully.
Something really horrible.
No, Margo, said Mother firmly, weve never done anything nasty to anyone thats stayed with us I
mean, except as a joke or by accident and were not going to start. Well just have to put up with him;
after all, its only for a few more days. Itll soon pass.
Dear God! said Larry suddenly. Ive just remembered. Its the bloody christening on Monday.
I do wish you wouldnt swear so much, said Mother. Whats that got to do with him?
Can you imagine taking him to a christening? asked Larry. No, hell just have to go off somewhere on
his own.
I dont think we ought to let him go wandering off on his own, said Mother as if she were talking about a
dangerous animal. I mean he might meet one of our friends.
We all sat and thought about the problem.
Why doesnt Gerry take him somewhere? said Leslie suddenly. After all he doesnt want to come to a
boring christening.
Thats a brainwave, said Mother delightedly. The very thing! (Gerald Durrell My Family and Other
4. Translate into English, paying attention to the grammar problem discussed above:
O luam atunci napoi spre cas i, ducnd n brae minunata povar, aveam sentimentul c n realitate sunt
un om fericit i c suferina mea e o iluzie, o himer pe care ar trebui s-o alung; puteam tri astfel o mie de
ani i muri linitit. Altceva, o bucurie mai mare nu exist pe pmnt, restul e nerozie. Acas, ns, ne
ntmpina mama ei, care mi-o smulgea literalmente din brae i punea stpnire pe ea: c n-am vzut c
fetia a obosit? Ce, am de gnd s-o omor, aa cum i-am spus cnd am auzit c e nsrcinat cu ea? cred eu
c a uitat sau c o s uite vreodat aceste cuvinte? O s i le spun fetiei cnd s-o face mare, s tie i ea ce
tat a avut i ct de mult a dorit el s vie pe lume. Aveam atunci sentimentul net c ea ghicea c sunt fericit
i vroia s nu fiu i avea i puterea s-o fac. De ce? m ntrebam. Ce ru i fcusem? Totul se ntneca, nimic
nu mai avea neles i valul de singurtate urca iari n mine cu o putere parc mai mare. (Marin Preda
Cel mai iubit dintre pmnteni)
Dar abia plecat, c expediia se i opri. ncepuser ploile i Mong l anuna pe Nang, care conducea trupa
mpreun cu nc doi ofieri, c o parte din adposturile subterane din Son-Tinh se surpaser i era foarte
greu s le refac: se surpau mereu. Era singura tire neplcut pe care o trimitea, ncolo, n ceea ce privete
ordinele pe care le primise de a pregati trecerea rurilor nainte i dup atac i de a organiza cluzirea
trupei ca s se poat desprinde rapid de inamic; n cazul unei lupte inegale, totul era gata; dac se puteau
lipsi de aceste adaposturi din Son-Tinh, expediia putea s continue. Nang pufni: stuia i umblau grguni
prin cap, cum se putea lipsi de adposturile secrete? Ddu ordin de retragere i atepta nc dou zile, ct i
trebuia lui Mong s refac ascunztorile. (Marin Preda Nuvele)

Ca s pstreze secretul absolut al misiunii sale, Nang nu-i spuse acestui om n ce scop voia el cu orice pre
s creeze n acest sat o baz. i spuse c baza trebuia neaprat creat, i asta n cel mai scurt timp cu putin.
Mong rspunse c regiunea e controlat i de francezi i de marionete ale partidului naional i c ncercarea
de a crea aici o baz nseamn sacrificiu sigur: vor muri amndoi, fiindc va fi imposibil s se pstreze
secretul n timpul crerii ei i totul se va prbui. ntrebarea care se pune e urmtoarea; folosete sacrificiul
lor cuiva? Da, folosete, rspunse Nang, cu condiia ca baza s se creeze, s rmn secret i unul din
membrii ei s prseasc regiunea i s raporteze comandamentului suprem al armatei provinciale despre
existena ei. (Marin Preda Nuvele)
Cine era el? Era din Hanoi, rspunse Nang potolit. Tatl lui o cunotea mai bine, el l-a trimis s-i propun
ei o afacere... A sosit pe sear i a gsit-o bolnav, a ateptat... s-l scuze c s-a amestecat n gospodria ei,
dar putiului i era foarte foame i, cum tot n-avea ce face, hai s-i dea s mnnce! Dac a deranjat-o prea
mult i e prea trziu s mai stea de vorb, poate s plece i s vin mine diminea, mai zise Nang. (Marin
Preda Nuvele)
Iar mi se pru c n-a nregistrat rspunsul meu. Se opri s se uite la o cas i ncepu s-mi explice aproape
volubil sau aproape cu entuziasm, dar cu un entuziasm rece, cam abstract, de ce era att de frumoas casa
aceea, care era ntr-adevr frumoas, cum erau n oraul nostru la tot pasul, i de ce i-ar plcea s locuiasc
n ea i n ce camer. (O fi avnd o locuin rea?) O ntrebai. Nu, zise, stteau destul de bine, ea i cei doi
prini, dar ... aa i plceau ei n mod deosebit casele frumoase... casele care par nvluite ntr-o poezie
misterioas... casele tcute (vedei, ct de tcut e, pare uitat aici de mult!), casele lugubre... a, nu, astea
nu-i plceau... casele care aveau sus de tot o odaie izolat, ca o hulubrie... Hai s ne oprim puin, nu v
stricai programul? (Marin Preda Cel mai iubit dintre pmnteni)
Unde i zboar gndul? M ntrebam. Chiar credea c mi se preau pasionante dezvluirile ei?... amintirile
ei din copilrie... cnd fugise uite pe colo tocmai pe deal s se dea cu sniua i o prinsese rapida coborre a
serii i se rtcise n ora i ce pise acas... Ei, da, se rtcise i ce era cu asta? Bun! Si ce pise? C o
certaser... M uitam pe cer, s-mi zboare gndul, s iau martori norii, c nu pricepeam absolut deloc ce
plcere i fcea s vorbeasc singur. l nelegeam n schimb pe primul ei iubit, de ce o prsise... te
pomeneti, mi spuneam, c o fi creznd i despre mine c sunt un mutlu. Da, stai s vezi, i m apuc o
clip de mn, s stau, ca i cnd, cine tie, mi-ar fi trecut prin cap s-o iau la fug (surdea ironic la
aceast intenie a mea) ce mai pise odat cnd, nu se tie de unde, fcuser ei rost (care ei? copiii cu care
se juca!) de o sering, da, da, o sering adevrat i ea le fcea injecii n bra cu cerneal roie... stteau la
rnd cu braele suflecate i ea cu seringa n mn potrivea acul n piele i hrti! Rsete generale, rdea
fetia de atunci, rdea fata de lng mine, rdeam cu fals, dar nu rdeau i copiii? Nuuu! Cum o s rd,
plngeau! (i iar rsete generale) plngeau, sracii, dar nici unul nu fugea, hi, hi, era la injecie, cum o s
fug, toat lumea trebuia s stea la rnd, pn ntr-o zi cnd unul din ei fcu o bub la bra i se afl cine era
cu isprava, i, treci ncoace, Suzy, afurisito (a luat-o mama s-o pedepseasc, dar i s-a fcut mil i a fugit n
hol, dar a rmas tata), ei, atunci a mncat i ea btaie, a dezvelit-o la fund i jaaap....hi, hi!... Nu (pe acest
hi-hi aprea, ia uite, de ast dat prelungit, uitatul surs) nu, nu se stinsese pentru totdeauna acest surs
complice supus, stpnit i tcut al fiinei ei luntrice... Cum, nu ne srutm i noi puin? Daaa, nici vorb...
(Marin Preda Cel mai iubit dintre pmnteni)
Timp de trei, patru zile, fusese mereu suprat, dar pn la urm ieise bine i cu ntmplarea asta. Se
pomeniser ntr-o zi cu Gavril la poart. Cerea toporul, zicea c vrea s taie crcile la nite salcmi i c,
chipurile, al lui nu mai e bun.
Se mpcase i cu alde Vasile i Gheorghe. Tot aa, se opriser ntr-o sear la poart i Gherghina
auzisecuurechile ei cum l ntrebau pe Ilie ce mai face i dac mai e suprat pe ei. ilie mai era el suprat,
dar fiindc ei se opriser la poarta lui lsase suprarea la o parte.
Gherghina se ntreb din nou, cuprins de ngrijorare, dac nu cumva astzi a fost ceva mai ru ca astvar. Cu alde Vasile i Gheorghe nelege, s-or fi apucat din vreo vorb, are s se mpace ei, dar ce amestec

o fi avnd aici Ghioceoaia? S-o mai termina vreodat ambiia i dumnia ntre oameni? (Marin Preda
Ilie intr, o lu spre prisp i-i aduse aminte lui Ioni pentru ce venise. Ioni tcu cteva clipe, apoi, ca i
cnd n-ar fi auzit, l ntreb pe Ilie ce mai face, ca i cnd nu l-ar fi vzut de mult. n-avea chef de vorb i
se vedea c nu ntreba la ntmplare. Arta mereu suprat, chiar dumnos, dar nu fa de Ilie, cu Ilie nu
avea nimic. Ilie ntreb iar de bocanci, ce face, i vinde? Ioni tcu iari ctva timp, apoi rspunse c nu
prea i-ar vinde, i-l ntreb pe Ilie dac nu cumva vrea s-i cumpere el.
(...) l ntreb apoi pentru ce s-a nscris n colectiv. Fr colectiv nu st? Lui Ioni i place s se duc la arat
cnd vrea el, nu s-l mping cineva de la spate. Acum, singur, lui Ilie poate c i-o fi plcnd, dar Ioni s
tie de bine c e miere i tot nu se duce. (Marin Preda Nuvele)
nuntru, n ncperea organizaiei de baz, l chemaser pe Ilie s rspund pentru fapta lui. l ntrebar
cum s-a ntmplat, de ce a srit la la. Ilie nu nelese din spusele lor dect c ceea ce a fcut nu a fost bine,
sunt suprai pe el i c acum l trag la rspundere. Nu tiu ce s rspund, tcea i se uita la fiecare cu
privirea neclintit. Se ruga de ei s-l neleag, s nu se supere; a dat fiindc i-a pierdut stpnirea de sine;
dar c aa ceva n-o s se mai repete.
Pascu nu mai putu s rabde. Sri i-i lu aprarea luiIlie. Btu cu pumnul n mas i spuse c Ilie s fie lsat
n pace. i pierdu cumptul i de mnie i arunc apca din cap i le art celorlali capul, le art locul
unde fusese lovit cu mciuca acum trei ani... nu fcuse nimnui nimic, nu se legase de nimeni, att doar c
fusese numit director al morii de Petre Miule; i la trei zile dup naionalizare, ntr-o uli, noaptea, i-au
ieit nainte i l-au btut, i-au dat n cap cu mciucile... De ce? Ce-au avut cu el? (Marin Preda Nuvele)
Zilele treceau ncet i, rmai fr misiune, tunarii lncezeau cu toii. Anton primi n aceast vreme o
scrisoare de la nevast, lipsit de orice neles, pe care trebui s-o citeasc de mai multe ori i s mai ntrebe
i pe alii pn s-i dea de capt. i spunea c mai zilele trecute s-a ntmplat o nenorocire, c a venit
primarul cu nite ini i i-a spus c trebuie s dea vaca aia tnr, aia care era juncan cnd a plecat el a
doua oar pe front. Ea l-a ntrebat de ce s dea vaca i primarul i-a rspuns c asta e vac de Transnistria,
trebuie s-o dai la armistiiu. Degeaba s-a rugat i a plns, i-au luat vaca i au mai luat i de la alii, dar cine
a avut brbat acas a srit i le-a dat napoi, dar ea singur n-a putut s fac nimic. Dac ar putea s vie
acas mcar o zi, s-ar duce acolo i ar vorbi, c primarul aa i-a spus, c a primit i el ordin de la prefect.
C i-ar mai spune ea i altele, dar nu vrea s-i fac inim rea, dar cu vcua prea o doare i-l roag s vie...
(Marin Preda Nuvele)
i dup cteva clipe de intens luciditate, cnd credeam c o s-o pot asculta pe Matilda ore ntregi, m
trezii a doua zi pe la orele ase tot cu ea lng mine i cu o ceac de bulion de pasre n mn, zicndu-mi
c trebuie s-l nghit... ea, mi spuse, dimineaa m lsase s dorm (cic dormeam fr respiraie), dar c mi
se micau ochii n cap (i imit micarea ochilor mei, ceva holbat), se dusese la serviciu, se ntorsese,
pregtise masa. (Marin Preda Cel mai iubit dintre pmnteni)
Peste cteva zile, primarul Pravil cut ntr-ascuns pe Grigore Iuga i-i mrturisi c nu se pot gasi hoii
pentru c nici n-a fost furt. A mai cercetat cu de-amnuntul hambarul cu pricina n tovria plutonierului,
au mai mutrului pe civa oamnei care li s-au prut mai deochiai, dar degeaba. n sfrit s-a dus la Cosma
Buruian i dnsul i-a spus c ntr-adevr s-a pripit cu jalba, cci i lui i se pare c n-a fost nimic, c tocmai
se gndete s se spovedeasc boierului i nu ndrznete de team c n-are s-l ierte.
- -acu venii la dumneavoastr s v dau de tire urm primarul c suntei mai ngduitor i o s
punei o vorb bun la boierul Miron, s afle i dumnealui pentru care pricin nu i-am mplinit poruncile
cum am fi poftit i cum suntem datori...
n aceeai zi Grigore comunic vestea aceasta i tatlui su, care o ascult foarte calm, fr s arate vreo
mirare sau suprare. Mai ales se simea atins pentru c trebuia s recunoasc, chiar ocolit, n faa fiului su
c a greit. (Liviu Rebreanu Rscoala)

Nil i nchipuia c e vorba de o socoteal complicat de cifre, care inea de tiina de a fi magazioner,
tiin care dac nu era nvat, n-aveai cum pricepe ct punea Paraschiv pe bon, i nicidecum c era vorba
de hoie, nct rmase cu faa vinovat sub privirea ntrebtoare a fratelui su. Paraschiv ns crezu c el a
neles i ddu din cap cu repro, adic s pofteasc acum Nil s mai aib ndoieli n ce privete priceperea
lui Paraschiv n afaceri.
- S m vd eu la Bucureti, c nu mi-e fric mie mai spuse Paraschiv i muc vrtos dintr-un
porumb. Cu gura plin, el continu s-I explice apoi amnunit i alte secrete ale comerului.
Nil nu ddea ns nici un semn de entuziasm i nici mcar de acceptare neleas a planurilor pe care le
fcea fratele su. El continua s nu neleag ceva i Paraschiv tia care era acel ceva: n primul rnd Nil
nu nelegea pentru ce toate acestea trebuiau fcute pornind de la furtul oilor i cailor familiei. Altfel nu se
putea? Paraschiv ns obosise s-i tot explice c altfel nu se putea i nu-i explic nici acum. n al doilea
rnd Nil nu nelegea pur i simplu ce nsemna din punctul de vedere al legturii lor cu familia ceea ce
aveau ei de gnd s fac: rupeau cu ea, fugeau, n-aveau s se mai ntoarc niciodat ndrt, prseau satul
definitiv? Aici problema era ceva mai neclar i Paraschiv spuse ce gndea el.
- Dup ce ne ridicm case n Bucureti, ne nsurm, b Nil, i atunci venim colea n sat cu nevestele:
Ne-am nsurat, d-ne partea noastr de pmnt, o s-i spunem tatii i vindem pmntul i cu banii ne
deschidem prvlii. (Marin Preda Moromeii)
Btrnul ddu din umeri, se ntoarse i familia plec. Biric i Polina rmaser. i luar secerile pe
umr i pornir amndoi spre locurile lui Tudor Blosu. Pe drum, Polina i spuse din nou c nu se poate
ajunge la o nelegere cu tatl ei dac au s stea i s-l atepte pe el s se mpace. Ea l cunoate bine.
Pmntul trebuie luat cu fora. Biric i rspunse c orice lucru se poate lua cu fora cum ar fi s zicem un
cal, o cru, o vit; l iai cu fora i l duci cu tine. Dar pmntul n-ai cum s-l iai. Pentru pmnt trebuie
forme la notariat i numai atunci poi s zici c e al tu. Spunndu-i acest lucru, Biric i atrase luarea
aminte ct e ea de proast cnd i nchipuie c nu s-a gndit n toate felurile la situaia lor. Polina rspunse
c tie ea de forme, chiar mai mult dect crede el. i anume c dac te foloseti de un lucru mai muli ani i
pe urm aduci martori c atia ani lucrul acela a fost al tu, poi s-i faci forme c e al tu chiar dac la nu
vrea. Biric i descrei fruntea i spuse cu mult mirare i admiraie c zu, a dracului naie de muiere mai
este ea. Polina se fcu roie auzindu-l cum o laud i i rspunse c cu alde tat-su ea i-a luat gndul de la
omenie. Nu trebuie s se mai strice omenia pe el. Ct a fost fat mare nu i-a cumprat nici o a, nici un
petic, a umblat descul la hor; el, Biric, cunoate i el bine povestea asta. Ar trebui s neleag c
altceva nu mai e de fcut. Merser mult n tcere i el nu-i rspunse dect trziu. i atrase luarea aminte c
tatl ei l poate da n judecat. l d n judecat i iese ru. Polina l ntrerupse spunnd c asta n-are s
ndrzneasc el s-o fac. Ea s-a mritat i are dreptul la pmntul pe care l-a muncit. i dac tatl ei are s
fac proces, are s aib i ea grij s-i scoat procesul pe nas. (Marin Preda Moromeii)
1. POINT OF VIEW.Retell the events that took place in the fragment form Kate Chopins novel from Mr.
Pontelliers or from Mrs. Pontelliers point of view under the form of a first person discourse. (direct
Situation: It is the beginning of the twentieth century. A group of women has been marching
demanding their right to vote. You are a local newspaperman who is supposed to report the events for a
local newspaper.
Write a report paragraph of 100 words with the heading Marching for Votes.

Sunday 15 January

9st (excellent), alcohol units 0, cigarettes 29 (v.v. bad, esp. in two hours), calories 3879 (repulsive),
negative thoughts 942 (approx. based on av. per minute), minutes spent counting negative thoughts 127
6 p.m. Completely exhausted by entire day of date-preparation. Being a woman is worse than being a
farmer there is so much harvesting and crop spraying to be done, legs to be waxed, underarms shaved,
eyebrows plucked, feet pumiced, skin exfoliated and moisturized, spots cleansed, roots dyed, eyelashes
tinted, nails filed, cellulite massaged, stomach muscles exercised. The whole performance is so highly
tuned you only need to neglect it for a few days for the whole thing to go to seed. Sometimes I wonder
what I would be like if left to revert on nature with a full beard and handlebar moustache on each shin,
Dennis Healy eyebrows, face a graveyard of dead skin cells, spots erupting, long curly fingernails, blind as
bat and stupid runt of species as no contact lenses, flabby body flobbering around. Ugh, ugh. Is it any
wonder girls have no confidence?
7 p.m. Cannot believe this has happened. On the way to the bathoroom, to complete final farming touches,
I noticed the answephone light was flashing: Daniel.
Look, Jones. Im really sorry. I think Im going to have to give tonight a miss. Ive got a presentation at
ten in the morning and a pile of forty-five spreadsheets to get through.
Cannot believe it. Am stood up. Entire waste of whole days bloody effort and hydro-electric bodygenerated power. However, one must not live ones life through men but must complete in oneself as a
woman of substance.
9 p.m. Still, he is in top-level job. Maybe he didnt want to ruin first date with underlying work-panic.
11 p.m. Humph. He might have bloody well rung again though. Is probably out with someone thinner.
5 a.m. Whats wrong with me? Im completely alone. Hate Daniel Cleaver. Am going to have nothing more
to do with him. Am going to get weighed.
Wednesday 15 March
9st, alcohol units 5 ( disgrace: urine of Satan), cigarettes 14 (weed of Satan will give up on birthday ),
calories 1795
Humph. Have woken up v. fed up. On top of everything, only two weeks to go until birthday, when will
have to face up to the fact that another entire year has gone by, during which everyone else except me has
mutated into Smug Married, having children plop, plop, plop, left right and centre and making hundreds of
thousands of pounds and inroads into the very hub of establishment, while I career rudderless and
boyfriendless through dysfunctional relationships and professional stagnation.
Find self constantly scanning face in mirror for wrinkles and frantically reading Hello!, checking
out everyones ages in desperate search for role models (Jane Seymour is forty-two), fighting longimpacted fear that one day in your thirties you will suddenly, without warning, grow a big, fat crimplene
dress, shopping bag, tight perm and face collapsing in manner of movie special-effect, and that will be it.
Also worried about how to celebrate birthday. Size of flat and bank balance prohibits actual party.
Maybe dinner party? But then would have to spend birtday slaving and would hate all guests on arrival.
Could all go out for meal but then feel guilty asking everyone to pay, selfishly presuming to force costly
and dull evening on others merely to celebrate own birthday yet cannot afford to pay for everyone. Oh
God. What to do? Wish had not been born but immaculately burst into being in similar, though not identical
manner to Jesus, then would not have had to have birthday. Sympathize with Jesus in sense of
embarrassment he must, and perhaps should, feel over two-millenium-old social imposition of own birtday
on large areas of globe.
(from Helen Fielding - Bridget Joness Diary)

Denis Healy
Denis Winston Healey, Baron Healey, PC (born 30 August 1917), is a British Labour politician,
regarded by many as "the best Prime Minister we never had". Bridget refers to him due to his
prominent eyebrows.
Bridget Jones's Diary is a 1996 novel by Helen Fielding. It chronicles the life of Bridget Jones, a
thirtysomething single woman living in London. Surrounded by a 'surrogate family' of friends, she
tries to make sense of life and love in the 1990s. This novel evolved from Helen Fielding's columns
in The Independent and The Daily Telegraph. A sequel, Bridget Jones: The Edge of Reason, was
published in 1999. A 2001 film adaptation of the original novel was an international success, and a
second film followed in 2004

Paraphrase the underlined words and phrases.

Comment upon the effect of the short list that appearing before a diary entry. What does that tell you
about the person keeping the diary?
3. Comment upon the use of ellipsis and abbreviations in the texts. What is their effect upon the reader?
4. Identify instances of both formal language and informal language in the texts. In what way does the
author use language to convey irony?
5. In what way is the nature/culture opposition humorously used in order to present the tasks a woman
has to perform in order to put up an acceptable appearance?
6. Is Bridget a confident person in your own opinion? Motivate your answer.
7. Comment upon Bridget reaction when hearing from Daniel. How can you characterize it?
8. Who are the Smug Married and how does Bridget describe them?
9. Why is Bridget desperately searching for role-models?
10. Why do Bridget and Jesus have in common? Why is such an association humorous?
a. SEED. Translate into English:

Nu credeam c el este criminalul, dar reacia lui la vederea cadavrului, mi-a sdit ndoiala n suflet.
Buruienile astea au crescut prea mult, trebuie tiate.
mi place soiul sta de roii pentru c n-au deloc semine.
ranii priveau cu mndrie ogorul care de-abia fusese nsmnat.
Te sftuiesc s nu mai iei cu individul la pentru c mi se pare c arat cam dubios.
Este o gimnast valoroas. Nu e de mirare c s-a clasat a doua n campionatul naional.
Decanul facultii spunea c tinerii studeni sunt sperana lui pentru ziua de mine. Nici restul de
profesori i nici mcar studenii nii nu-i mprteau entuziasmul.
8. M ntristez cnd m gndesc la toate seminiile acelea care au disprut n negura timpului.
9. Casa prinilor lui Bridget s-a prginit de cnd acetia au murit.
10. Ai nevoie de capital pentru a-i ncepe o afacere.
b.PRESUME. Translate into English:

Bnuiesc c toat lumea i-a fcut deja tema, cu toate c n-am timp s-o verific pe toat.
Soul ei fusese dat disprut i se credea c este mort.
S tii c niciodat nu a ndrzni s cred c am dreptul s-i spun ce s faci.
ndrznealea efului su pe nume Daniel Cleaver a nfuriat-o ngrozitor pe Bridget.


Nu vreau s profit de buntatea lui i s-l rog s m ajute i de data asta. L-am deranjat destul.
Am s primesc aceti studeni la curs, dar trebuie s tie c un curs de limb englez veche presupune
nite cunotine minime de gramatic.
Orice acuzat se afl, desigur, sub prezumia de nevionovie, dar n cazul sta, toat lumea l-a vzut
comind acel asasinat oribil.
Este bolnav i diagnosticul prezumptiv este c ar avea diabet.
Am crezut c i-e prieten apropiat i am ncercat s m port politicos cu el.

c.FEED. Translate into English:


Spre deosebire de copilul Annei, care prea pur i simplu subnutrit, cel al lui Jim era grsu i bine
2. Las-m s bag datele n computer i am s-i spun mai trziu la ce concluzie am ajuns.
3. M-am sturat pur i simplu de atitudinea oribil a lui Daniel. Toat ziua danseaz tango cu alte
partenere i pe mine nici nu m bag n seam.
4. Mi se pare cam frig n camer i l-am rugat pe Mark s mai pun nite vreascuri pe foc.
5. Am testat noul program de studiu n general, dar ateptm i reacii din partea dasclilor din mediul
6. S tii c prejudecile se datoreaz ignoranei.
7. Papagalul meu nu mnnc morcovi, n schimb se hrnete cu semine i cu salat proaspt.
8. i-a pus toate fisele n automat, ca pn la urm s constate c acesta i le-a nghiit pe toate.
9. Pi sigur c ministrul nu a fost atent la negocieri. Nu l-a interesat dect s ajung la cina festiv ca s
se ndoape cu sarmale.
10. Cred c avem un spion infiltrat n organizaia noastr pentru cineva le-a furnizat dumanilor notri
toate informaiile de care avea nevoie.
2. IDIOMS: TUNE. Fill in the blanks with the suitable missing word/words:
E.g. Stay tuned! Gwen Stefanis latest hit is coming up next.

Although he was known to be tone-dead, this time he managed to sing ___ tune.
He who plays the piper, _____ the tune.
Shes always been __ tune___ the new investment policy.
The whole performance of the orchestra is so_____ tuned that everyone was in awe.
His guitar was___ ___ tune, so he couldnt play at the party, as he had planned to.
Is the prime minister going to_____ his tune again on the education budget?
People say that Tony Blair has been for too long _____ ____ Presidents Bush tune.

3.PHRASAL VERBS: STAND. Fill in the blanks with the suitable particles/ prepositions:

Have you any idea what G.D.P. stands___?

Would you mind standing ___ for Susan for a while? I need help with these files.
He doesn t have the guts to stand____ his mothers wishes, so I guess hell never marry a girl she
Im going to help her. I just cant stand____ when somebody is asking for my help.
She was very upset when Mark stood her ___. He never came to the restaurant where they were
supposed to have dinner.
Shes very attractive and shes always stood___ in a crowd.
I think you should stand____ ____ your boss. Hes bullying you all the time.
Mark is so lazy! He just stands_____ when everybody else is working.

Lets look at the following sentence:

(1) Sometimes I wonder what it would be like if left to revert on nature ... face a graveyard of dead skin
cells, spots erupting, long curly fingernails, flabby body flobbering around.
What do all these constuctions have in common, besides referring to a manner, attitude or posture?
If you try to provide a Romanian translation for them, it becomes clear that the construction is not
expressed in the same way as in English.
Lets try to look at them more closely:
(2) face a graveyard of dead cells (My face (subject) is a graveyard of dead cells.(predicate))
(3) spots erupting (My spots (subject) are erupting/ erupt. (predicate))
(4) flabby body flobbering around (My flabby body (subject) is flobbering around/flobbers around
All the constructions above are made up of a noun (face/spots/ body) and a construction that assigns
properties to that noun (a graveyard of dead cells/erupting/flobbering).
As you can see above, all the constructions are to be seen more or less as sentences in which the noun of
the construction plays the part of a subject and the rest plays the part of a partial predicate, where the
finite verb (is, erupt, flobbers) is missing: either completely absent like in (2) or expressed by an ing form
(what we call a non-finite form) like in (3), (4).
Let us give other examples of similar phrases describing attitude or posture:
(5) There were some little boys standing there, watching him, their mouths wide open with astonishment.
(6) He looked at me pointedly, blue eyes unwavering.
(7) Ruth walked down, wearing a dark dress, her eyes puffy and red.
(8) The two superstars signed autographs into the night, their faces beaming happily.
(9) The plumber disappeared into the hole, a pipe wretch in his hand.
(10) Many boats- their anchors buried in the sand- lay on the salty bed of the dried-up sea
(11) Its lights off and its doors closed, the mansion looked spooky in the moonlight.
(12) Their reputation as winners secured by victory, the New York Liberty charged into the semifinals.
(13) The season nearly finished, Rebecca Lobo and Sophie Witherspoon emerged as true leaders.
(14) The sun having set, they went outside to enjoy the cool breeze of evening.
As you can see, they are all made up of a noun and its modifier, that can also be seen as a subject and its
partial predicate.
a. Try to provide a Romanian translation for the above constructions. In what way does the English
translation differ from the Romanian one, from the point of view of structure?
b. What do you think the syntactic function of the above constructions is? Do they modify a particluar
element in the sentence they are integrated in?
c. Is there any distinction between the group of sentences (5) (11) and the group of sentences (12)-(14)?
d. Are there any other instances of absolute phrases in the Bridget Jones text?
The Absolute Phrase
All the constructions above are called absolute phrases.
ABSOLUTE PHRASE = NOUN (Subject) + PARTIAL PREDICATE (participle (present or past)
/adjective/ nominal constructions)
Examine again the constructions in (5)-(14). Identify the type of partial predicate in each of them.

Absolute phrases are made of nouns (or pronouns) followed by a participle or other related constructions.
Absolute phrases are reduced clauses that contain a subject and a partial predicate. Absolute phrases do not
directly connect to or modify any specific word in the rest of the sentence; instead, they modify the entire
sentence, adding information. They are always treated as parenthetical elements and are set off from the
rest of the sentence with a comma or a pair of commas (sometimes by a dash or pair of dashes). They play
the part of an adverbial clause (propoziia circumstanial). Absolute constructions such as those in (5)(11) add a focusing detail or point of focus to the idea of the main clause. Absolute phrases appear in
literary or highly formal contexts.
Nota bene!
Sometimes, the absolute construction can be also preceded by the preposition with:
(15) The homework still undone, Jeff can't go outside to play basketball.
(16) (With) the homework still undone, Jeff can't go outside to play basketball.
1. Identify and translate.
a. Identify the absolute constructions and state the nature of their partial predicate.
b. Translate the sentences into Romanian.

The old firefighter stood over the smoking ruins, his senses alert to any sign of another flare-up.
Joan looked nervous, her fears creeping up on her
The work having been done, we grabbed a cab.
His subordinates, their faces sweat-streaked and smudged with ash, leaned heavily against the
My shoes caked with mud, I waited in the anteroom.
They knew all too well how all their hard work could be undone in an instant.
The owl, its round eyes staring unblinkingly, watched for field mice.
Coach Nykesha strolled onto the court, her arms akimbo and a large silver whistle clenched between
her teeth.
Nose in the air, she walked past me.
The new recruits stood in one corner of the gym, their uniforms stiff and ill fitting, their faces
betraying their anxiety.
Head down, the bull charged straight at the matador.
Their hats burning, the clowns ran in circles.
Tom paled when he came home, his mother standing in the doorway.
Her soup flavored with hemlock, Mary sat down to her last meal.
Its feshly painted walls gleaming in the sunlight and dazzling the beholder, the factory symbolized
economic progress.
Truth be told, I dont remember meeting her.
The village was silent, its shops closed, its streets deserted.
The mature student spoke the truth, the speaking energetic, the student mature.
My chores completed for the week, I went on a walk.
Her thoughts in turmoil, she decided to consult a lawyer.
The skaters are quick-silvering around the frosty ring, the girls gliding and spinning, the boys
swooping, their arms flailing like wings.

2*. Translate into English:

1. Credei dumneavoastr c viitorul acestui neam numai dumneavoastr v provoac nopi de insomnie?
(aplauze puternice) c numai dumneavoastr v cutremurai la gndul c ceasul sfnt al realizrii
naionale ar putea s bat fr ca noi s ne gsim acolo unde trebuie s ne gsim? i fraza spus
rspicat, cu vocea larg nfiorat, cu mna dreapt ridicat, cu pumnul strns, iar cu arttorul ntins, ca





mna indicatoare de pe afie, e urmat de aclamaii i aplauze furtunoase. (Camil Petrescu Ultima
noapte de dragoste, ntia noapte de rzboi)
Achim trona n capul mesei cu gtul lui vnjos nainte, Angela cu cununa de mireas pe frunte i ajuta
mama i tatl s serveasc. Cnd n curte intr un individ balaoache cu o armonic n mn. Se
apropie de mas ducnd un deget la frunte i scoase de ndat ipete nalte de pe clapele albe i negre.
ncepu s cnte cu un antren formidabil i abia atunci pe chipurile tuturor apru o expresie parc uluit:
pi, da, aa este, e nunt, i cine-a mai pomenit nunt fr lutari? (Marin Preda Delirul)
Alerg mai departe n tcere, cu paii ei sprinteni i neovitori, i purta n micrile trupului bucuria
de a alerga n aa msur, c fr s-i dea seama distana dintre ea i lupttori se mrea pe nesimite i
numai zgomotul vreunuia care cdea n mlatin i aducea aminte c iar a luat-o prea repede. (Marin
Preda Friguri)
Am rmas deci n picioare, cu pistolul n mn, i simeam cum razele neputincioase ale soarelui se
ncpnau s-mi aprind prul.
Am pornit toi n urma carului, cu umeri bleojdii; ncet, parc umblam n genunchi. Cmpia ncepu s
tac. Se auzeau iari tunurile. Eu ineam pistolul de-a lungul coapsei. Ca s nu m rtcesc priveam
int i mergeam drept spre turnul bisericii care semna cu mi-e ruine s spun ce. (Titus Popovici
Moartea lui Ipu)
Nu l-am mai vzut de mult pe romancierul A., m adresai btrnei doamne B., n al crei salon
prsonajul era un obinuit. Dnsa mi explic pe loc, ca i cnd m-ar fi iniiat ntr-un mister, cci
deodat privi cu religiozitate spre tavanul pictat, c e plecat undeva n Normandia, unde ia note pentru
romanul la care lucreaz. Pe de o parte mi ascunsei cu greu un zmbet cci urmrind privirile
amfitrioanei mi se pru c-l vad acolo pe A. preumblndu-se cu creionul n mn printre pstoriele i
amoraii de pe plafon, pe de alta parte ns mi zisei c uneori este mai bine s notezi aa unele
evenimente chiar cnd se produc, fiindc ce le particularizeaz se evapor repede. (Radu Petrescu


DIARY. Using the strategies you examined in Bridget Joness Diary, write a page from an imaginary
diary that describes how you got stood up by your date.
MESSAGE. Imagine an e-mail message Daniel Cleaver would write in order to apologize to Bridget
and entice her to give him another chance and go out with him.



Both sisters lived in their fathers, really their mothers, Kensington house, and mixed with the
young Cambridge group, the group that stood for freedom and flannel trousers, and flannel shirts open at
the neck, and a well-bred sort of emotional anarchy, and a whispering, murmuring sort of voice, and an
ultrasensitive sort of manner. Hilda, however, suddenly married a man ten years older than herself, an elder
member of the same Cambridge group, a man with a fair amount of money, and a comfortable family job in
the government: he also wrote philosophical essays. She lived with him in a smallish house in Westminster,
and moved in that good sort of society of people in the government who are not tip-toppers, but who are, or
would be, the real intelligent power in the nation: people who know what theyre talking about, or talk as if
they did.
Connie did a mild form of war-work, and consorted with the flannel-trousers Cambridge
intransigents, who gently mocked at everything, so far. Her friend was a Clifford Chatterley, a young man
of twenty-two, who had hurried home from Bonn, where he had been studying the technicalities of coalmining. He had previously spent two years in Cambridge. Now he had become a first lieutenant in a smart
regiment, so he could mock at everything more becomingly in uniform.
Clifford Chatterley was more upper-class than Connie. Connie was well-to-do intelligentsia, but
he was aristocracy. Not the big sort, but still it. His father was a baronet, and his mother had been a
viscounts daughter.
But Clifford, while he was better bred than Connie, and more society, was in his own way more
provincial and more timid. He was at his ease in the narrow great world, that is, landed aristocracy
society, but he was shy and nervous of all that other big world which consists of the vast hordes of the
middle and lower classes, and foreigners. If the truth must be told, he was just a little bit frightened of
middle- and lower-class humanity, and of foreigners not of his own class. He was in some paralysing way,
conscious of his own defencelessness, though he had all the defence of privilege. Which is curious, but a
phenomenon of our day.
Therefore the peculiar soft assurance of a girl like Constance Reid fascinated him. She was so
much more mistress of herself in that outer world of chaos than he was master of himself.
Nevertheless he too was a rebel: rebelling even against his class. Or perhaps rebel is too strong a
word; far too strong. He was only caught in the general, popular recoil of the young against convention and
against any sort of real authority. Fathers were ridiculous: his own obstinate one supremely so. And
governments were ridiculous: our wait-and-see sort especially so. And armies were ridiculous, and old
buffers of generals altogether, the red-faced Kitchener supremely. Even the war was ridiculous, though it
did kill a lot of people.
In fact, everything was a little ridiculous, or very ridiculous: certainly everything connected with
authority, whether it were in the army or the government or the universities, was ridiculous to a degree. And
as far as the governing class made any pretensions to govern, they were ridiculous too. Sir Geoffrey,
Cliffords father, was intensely ridiculous, chopping down his trees, and weeding men out of his colliery to
shove them into the war; and himself being so safe and patriotic; but also, spending more money on his
country than hed got.
When Miss Chatterley Emma came down to London from the Midlands to do some nursing
work, she was very witty in a quiet way about Sir Geoffrey and his determined patriotism. Herbert, the
elder brother and heir, laughed outright, though it was his trees that were falling for trench props. But
Clifford only smiled a little uneasily. Everything was ridiculous, quite true. But when it came too close and
oneself became ridiculous too? At least people of a different class, like Connie, were earnest about
something. They believed in something.
(D. H. Lawrence Lady Chatterleys Lover)
Improve your vocabulary:
colliery (British English) - a coal mine together with the buildings and machinery connected
with it
buffer ( as a person) (British English old-fashioned)-an old man who isnt able to manage things

Class in British Society

Until the Second World War there were very distinct social groups in
British society. There was an upper class that included the aristocracy and
many people who lived on inherited wealth, a middle class that could be
subdivided into upper middle class and lower middle class, and a
working class that included both skilled craftsmen and unskilled industrial
workers and labourers. The divisions between the classes were reflected in
many aspects of life. Working-class children usually left school and went
out to work at the age of 14. Upper-class children were educated in private
schools and formed the majority of students at university. Pubs were
divided into public bars and saloon (or lounge) bars which were more
expensive and more comfortable. Trains had first, second and third class
carriages. Theatres had a dress circle where theatre-goers wore evening
dress, and a gallery where the seats were cheaper and evening dress was
not worn. (Oxford Advanced Learners Encyclopaedic Dictionary, 1994)
I. Paraphrase the underlined phrases.
II. Answer the following questions.

What does the word freedom, which is used in connection to the Cambridge group, refer to?
Why do you think the author uses the term good sort of society when referring to Hildas
3. Comment upon the use of the terms mock, ridiculous by the author. Do you think that the
author approves of this attitude?
4. The text is interesting from the point of view of the use of perspective. What are the perspectives
presented in the text and what are the elements in the text that help to build these perspectives?
5. In what terms does the author describe the distinction between Cliffords class and Connies class?
6. Comment upon Clifford Chatterlys awareness that he is part of the aristocracy. What is the
connection between this class awareness and his fascination for Connie Reid?
7. Why does the author say that the term rebel is too strong for a person like Clifford? What does
Cliffords rebellion consist of?
8. What is Cliffords attitude to authority? What does the general recoil of the young against
convention have to do with it?
9. In what way is Sir Geoffreys image as a figure of authority presented in the text and what are
the connotations associated with Authority in this case?
10. Comment upon the attitudes on war presented in the text.
1. Translate into English, making use of expressions from the text above:
a) Candidatul opoziiei purta o cma verzulie, deschis la gt, care-i punea tenul msliniu n valoare. b)
Tatl su, colonel n armata britanic, i explicase c singura for inteligent din aceast naiune este
reprezentat de intelectuali. c) Banii pe care i i-am dat sunt din motenirea mamei, de fapt a tatlui nostru.
d) Dac vei continua s fraternizezi cu genul acesta de oameni, te voi exclude din testament. e) Se simea
timid fa de orice fat care ncerca s i fac conversaie. f) Nu pot avea dialog cu oamenii care nu sunt din
acelai grup social ca al meu. g) Jim admira foarte tare faptul c soia sa era propriul ei stpn i i era n
acelai timp loial lui. h) Face parte din aristocraie, ceea ce n cazul ei nu este neaprat un avantaj. i) Bill
este parte din familia Jones mai mult dect nsui motenitorul acestei familii. j) Cred c cuvintele pe care
le-ai folosit sunt nite cuvinte prea dure pentru compania n care suntem. k) Mark face parte din
aristocraie, aa cum prietenul lui cel mai bun este din ptura de jos a societii.

Paraphrase the following lexical items:

a social climber/ to be an upstart/ to be a name-dropper/ to pull rank/ a socialite/ to lack in social graces/ to
speak with a posh accent/ to marry into money / to marry below yourself/ heirloom/ the family crest/ coat
of arms/ white-collar workers/ blue-collar workers/ the days of white privilege are over/ social standing/ a
titled husband/ to be of humble origins/ caste system/ move up in the world/ upwardly mobile young
woman/ a life of privilege/ blue-blooded/ to have a classless accent/ a class-conscious person/ class-feeling/
to be comfortably well-off/ to rub shoulders with / landed gentry.
3. Fill in the blanks with either classic or classical:
a) Pride and Prejudice can be easily considered a . novel. b) Everybody would like to listen to music
written by .. composers such as Mozart or Haydn. c) My friends niece has chosen . studies over more
social sciences. d) He benefited from a education. e) The way it looks, Id say it is a . case of
malnutrition. f) The treatment for this disease is a cure of antibiotics. g) Im afraid your daughter is
showing . symptomps of pneumonia.
4. Translate into Romanian:
a) In his attempt to escape ridicule, Henry found himself in an even more difficult situation. b) Her
behaviour is absolutely ludicrous. c) She was held up to ridicule for the mistakes she had made. d) You look
completely ridiculous in those jeans. e) He is ridiculously rich. f) Hes become an object of ridicule. g)
Interrupting an opera on television for a pet-food commercial is going from the sublime to the ridiculous. h)
The opposition made a laughable attempt to discredit the government. i) His constant blunders made him
the laughing-stock of the whole class.

COMPLEX VERB: LIVE. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate preposition/particle:
They both go out to work and have a nanny living _______.
Nobody is averse to living _______ the fat of the land.
If you want her good opinion youll have to live _____ ______ your own expectations in the first
4. There were no plants or pictures to give the place a lived-______ look.
5. Beaten by the worst team in the league? Theyll never live it _______!
6. Its common knowledge that she only lives ______ home-cooked vegetables, thats why shes so trim.
7. I really dont know how you managed to live ______ so much misery.
8. He was an abandoned child and had to live ______ his wits.
9. Well, whether you like it or not, youll have to live _______ it, Im afraid.
10. They got married and lived _______ happily ever after.
Consider the Past Perfect forms in the text above:
(1) A young man who had hurried home from Bonn
(2) He had been studying the technicalities of coal-mining
(3) He had previously spent two years in Cambridge
(4) Now he had become a first lieutenant
(5) His mother had been a viscounts daughter
All these forms are used by the author to establish either anteriority or a link to a past moment, namely
to the time of the story line (i.e. then). This is why grammarians often treat this tense as an extension of
Present Perfect in the Past temporal sphere. Compare the following sentences:
(6) Bill has been in the bathroom for more than an hour. (link to now)
(7) It occurred to Susan that Bill had been in the bathroom for more than an hour. (link to then, the time of
the main clause)
As you can see, the present perfect sentence is paralleled by the past perfect one. From this point of view, it
can be easily said that the two tenses are similar and that the only point that separates them is the fact

that while Present Perfect takes speech time (i.e. now) as point of reference, Past Perfect is linked to a
past moment (i.e. then). Things are however more complex than that.
At this point, the basic question we should ask ourselves is the following: is Past Perfect a perfect
Our definition of a perfect tense (see unit Three, Section Two, C) has revealed two important points:
a) the fact that a prototypical perfect excludes combination with past adverbials (i.e. the past adverb
b) the fact that a perfect is not used in narration due to its stative dimension (in other words we dont
normally build stories by means of perfect tense forms, just as we dont tell stories by using state
The question that imposes itself in this case is obvious: is Past Perfect such a tense form? As we will see,
our data demonstrate that, although there are striking similarities between the semantics of this tense and
that of Present Perfect, Past Perfect does not conform to the two points we have discussed above.
Consider the following examples:
(8) They realized they had been there since five/ morning.
(9) Susan knew John had left at five.
While in the first example our predictions are checked, and Past Perfect is rightfully combined with a [THEN] adverbial, things are different in the second sentence, where Past Perfect is combined with a past
adverb. Since both sentences are correct, the only conclusion we can draw is that Past Perfect is not subject
to the past-adverb constraint.
Consider also the following text, where Past Perfect is used by the narrator to move narration forward,
thus being the main verbal form that helps the writer build his story:
(10) On the morning when the valley, gloved in a prayer-mat, punched him on the nose, father had been
trying, absurdly, to pretend that nothing had changed. So he had risen in the bitter cold of four-fifteen,
washed himself in the prescribed fashion, dressed and put on his fathers astrakhan cap; after which he had
carried the rolled cheroot of the prayer-mat into the small lakeside garden in front of their old dark house
and unrolled it over the waiting tussock.
The ground felt deceptively soft under his feet and made him simultaneously uncertain and wary.
(Salman Rushdie Midnight Children)
A conclusion to this discussion reveals that Past Perfect is neither subject to the past-adverb constraint nor
banned in narrative contexts. Thus it can be said that this tense does not fulfill all the conditions that should
make it a perfect tense.
However, as we will see below, its perfect dimension can be perceived in the instances where this tense
can appear with the same three basic shades of meaning that Present Perfect itself has: the continuative,
the resultative and the experiential value.
Below we will discuss the values of Past Perfect from this perspective. We thus make a clear-cut distinction
between those values that parallel the present perfect ones and which make this tense a perfect, and the
crucial extra-value exhibited by Past Perfect, that of showing past anteriority which gives us reason to
consider this tense as also having a preterite dimension:
1. The Perfect Values
A noticed by Peter Fenn (1987), Past Perfect can acquire all the three values attributed to Present Perfect:
a) the Resultative Past Perfect
(11) Jimmy could not play on Saturday, as he had dislocated his shoulder.

Compare this example to a Present Perfect one and notice the similarities in meaning. The only difference
lies in the fact that the sentence under (11) does not take speech time as the reference point:
(12) Jimmy cannot play on Saturday, as he has dislocated his shoulder.
b) the Continuative Past Perfect
(13) a. Bill had been in the station for more than two hours before he realized that Susan wasnt coming
any longer.
b. I had been working at Longmans for some time before I was promoted.
A comparison between this example and a Present Perfect one reveals again strong similarities. The only
difference is the point of reference.

the Experiential Past Perfect

(14) I had watched United lose twice that season.

Compare this sentence to the one under (15) and look at how the demonstrative pronoun together with the
tense points to the different temporal sphere each sentence belongs to:
(15) I have watched United lose twice this season.
All of the examples above point to the fact that Past Perfect is very similar in meaning to Present Perfect.
This is also supported by the well-known fact that in Indirect Speech Present Perfect is shifted into Past
Perfect, as you can see in the following examples:
(16) a.Direct Speech
Ann: I have laid the table so you can come to dinner!
b. Indirect Speech
Ann told the children that she had laid the table and they could come to dinner.
However, Present Perfect is not the only tense that is shifted into a Past Perfect form in Indirect Speech. This
situation is also valid for Simple Past. Look at the example provided by Quirk (1973) in this respect:
(17) a. Direct Speech
The exhibition finished last week, explained Ann.
b. Indirect Speech
Ann explained that the exhibition had finished the preceding week.
This example demonstrates that Past Perfect has in fact two dimensions. From one point of view, and as
shown here, it parallels the semantics of Present Perfect. From another point of view, it is seen as a past
tense that expresses past anteriority. This important value of Past Perfect is the so-called pre-preterite (i.e.
anterior to past) one and it will be treated below.
2. The Pre-preterite Value
As we have already mentioned, Past Perfect is a tense that indicates anteriority to a past moment. From this
point of view, we can easily say that in certain contexts, this tense behaves more like a preterite (a past
tense) than like a perfect tense. Consider the following contexts:
(18) a. I started in the morning, having not seen Jenny again, as shed driven off the previous evening with
Toby at high speed to Oxford, leaving Charles and me to dine alone.
b. The British had denounced Germany fiercely enough while the war was on; they had insisted
without illusion that this was a struggle for existence. (from Fenn, 1987)

The fact that Past Perfect is seen as a past tense more than as a perfect one is indicated by the
presence of definite time adverbials in combination with this tense (the previous evening, while
the war was on).
The fact that Past Perfect can easily combine with this sort of adverbials is a good reason for acknowledging
the preterite-like value of this tense. A second reason is the one we have already discussed under example
(17), which shows that Past Tense is paralleled by Past Perfect in Indirect Speech. More than that,
grammarians have repeatedly drawn attention to the fact that in such contexts and when the eventuality is an
event, the rule is optional. In other words, there are contexts when Past Tense is not necessarily shifted into a
Past Perfect form. Consider the following examples:
(19)a. Ann: Yesterday I went to the market to buy eggs.
b. Ann said that she went to the market to buy eggs the day before.
c. Ann said that she had gone to the market to buy eggs the day before.
(20)a. Ann: We all saw what Bill did.
b. Ann remarked that they all saw what Bill did.
c. Ann remarked that they all had seen what Bill had done.
Notice that both the sentence under (b) and (c) are grammatical and, most important, are similar in
meaning. This means that shifting the Past Tense forms into Past Perfect forms is not obligatory. This also
means that the two tenses are very similar in meaning.
However, it is important to remember that this situation is valid only for those verbal forms that express
events. The shifting is obligatory in those cases when the verbal form used is stative. Compare:
(21) a. Bill: Lily was here.
b. Bill said that Lily was there.
c. Bill said that Lily had been there.
Unlike in the case of the examples under (19) and (20), here only the third sentence is the Indirect Speech
counterpart for the first one. The second sentence (i.e. Bill said that Lily was there) is the counterpart for:
(22) Bill: Lily is here!
Moreover, a comparison between (21b) and (21c) shows a clear difference in meaning: while in the first
case Lilys being there is simultaneous to Bills saying it, in the second case Lilys being there is anterior to
Bills remarking upon it. So the sequence relations between the main clause and its subordinate are
completely distinct in the two cases: in the first case the relation is one of simultaneity, while in the second
it is one of precedence.
Consider the following table that sums up this important distinction:
In Indirect Speech Past Perfect is interchangeable with Past Tense when the
verb is eventive:
Susan: I saw Bill yesterday.
Susan said that she saw/ had seen Bill the day before.
In Indirect Speech Past Perfect is NOT interchangeable with Past Tense when
the verb is stative:
Bill: Lily was here.
Bill said that Lily had been there.
Bill said that * Lily was there.
Last but not least, the preterite-like value of Past Perfect is demonstrated by the ability of this tense to be
used to move narration forward, to tell stories. To be more precise, Past Perfect is very frequently used in

narratives as a means for telling a story within a story. This phenomenon is also known under the name
of extended flashback (Kamp & Reyle, 1993) and appears as a sub-value of the pre-preterite one.
Consider again the example under (10) and the one under (22):
(10) On the morning when the valley, gloved in a prayer-mat, punched him on the nose, father had been
trying, absurdly, to pretend that nothing had changed. So he had risen in the bitter cold of four-fifteen,
washed himself in the prescribed fashion, dressed and put on his fathers astrakhan cap; after which he had
carried the rolled cheroot of the prayer-mat into the small lakeside garden in front of their old dark house
and unrolled it over the waiting tussock.
The ground felt deceptively soft under his feet and made him simultaneously uncertain and wary.
(Salman Rushdie Midnight Children)
(22) She was very tired. She had woken up at five, had gone shopping, had returned home and fixed
breakfast for the kids. Then she had started her other chores. Now she really needed some rest.
In these pieces of text, past tense appears as the scene-setting tense, whereas the past perfect forms under
italics are used to establish a sequence of events further in the past, i.e. a story within a story. Notice the use
of the now time adverbial that functions as a perspective-shifter and indicates that the writer tells the story
from the perspective of the main character (the now of the heroine is in fact then for the readers).
Conclusions: we have analysed the uses of Past Perfect and seen that, unlike Present Perfect, this tense
appears as also having a preterite dimension. Thus we can roughly divide the uses of this tense between
perfect values and preterite ones.
The most important argument for treating this tense as having a dual nature is due to its behaviour in
Indirect Speech, where it can replace both Present Perfect and Past Tense. This fact clearly indicates that
Past Perfect resembles both these tenses, while adding an extra-flavour of remoteness.


Romanian Mai mult ca perfect = English Past Perfect
venise = had come
Nota bene! The reverse is not valid!
had come venise


Consider again the Past Perfect forms in the excerpt from D.H. Lawrences Lady Chatterleys
Lover. Identify their value according to the information provided in this section.

2. Translate the following, paying attention to the grammar problem we discussed:

a)* Lefteric avusese o noapte de chin. Nu trecuse niciodat prin aa ceva. De cnd o cunoscuse pe Paulina,
totul se limpezise i se nfrumusease n jurul su. I se prea c lumea vedea ca el i se bucura cu el. Ba,
ceva mai mult, avea credina c att de mult l iubesc toi, nct, dac el ar fi greit cu ceva i ar fi stricat din
aezarea aceasta minunat, pe care nu o nelegea prea bine i nu tia de unde vine, ar fi srit unul sau toi
cei care l iubeau s dreag i s-l dojeneasc. Asear a crezut c, detept cum e, nelesese ce l-a apropiat
de Paulina. Pe urm ns a vzut c s-a nelat, i nu numai asupra lui, ci i asupra ei. Altfel i nchipuia el
c o s fie venirea femeii n casa lor. Dup cele dinti ovieli, ntre ce ar fi vrut el s fie i ce era, a simit
cum i se urc o mn pe piept i-l pipie nspre gt s i se nfig. i abia la loton lumin s-a fcut. Dac l-ar
fi rupt cineva n buci, n-ar fi suferit mai cumplit. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu Sfrit de veac n Bucureti)

b)Busuioc avusese dreptate. N-avea stpnirea destul putere spre a-I opri pe oameni la casele lor. Serile de
iarn ei i petrecuser timpul povestindu-i unii altora ce vzuser peste var la cmpie. Primvara i
opreau mereu pe drumei n cale, ca s afle de la dnii cum stau semnturile pe es, iar acum tiau cu toii
c anul a fost mnos i ateptau cu nerbdare s le vie vestea c spicul a nglbenit.
ndat dar ce le-a venit vestea, ei s-au pornit la vale.
i adec de ce s nu porneasc?
Pe la dnii nu era holer. Porunca stpnirii? Stpnirea nu cerea nimic de la dnii. i oprise numai
pentru c voia s le fac bine, ferindu-I de primejdie, i treaba lor era, dac voiesc sau nu s se
mprteasc de aceast binefacere.
Aa nelegea toat lumea treaba. i de aceea, cnd oamenii au nceput s plece, slujbaii satului, care
erau i ei oameni ca toat lumea, se fceau c nu tiu, nici n-aud, nici nu vd, iar dup ce drumurile s-au
umplut, I s-a trimis stpnirii rspuns, precum c n-a fost cu putin s-I opreasc pe oameni pe la casele
lor. (Ion Slavici Pdureanca)
c)Iorgovan era foarte nenorocit. Plecase cale lung i, abia plecat, se simea la sfritul cltoriei. tiuse el
c vor gsi pdureni la iria, dar c va gsi att de muli, nct s nu mai aib nevoie de a merge mai
departe, la asta nu s-a gndit. (Ion Slavici Pdureanca)
d)* Trecuser luni de zile de cnd n-o mai vzuse n gndul lui; tia numai c a vzut-o, tia cum fusese,
dar nu mai simise acreala de care i-a fost cuprins tot sufletul n timpul ct a stat dnsa la Curtici; acum,
dimpreun cu oamenii de la Pduri, i se ivi i chipul Pdurencei i simmntul de acreal, nu amrciune,
acreal, ca acreala vinului sttut de fiert i nc nelimpezit. Ct a stat dnsa la Curtici, zmbet n faa lui nu
s-a ivit, mncarea lui n-a fost mncare, i somnul lui n-a fost somn, i totui de cte ori vorbea de plecarea
ei, i venea s rcneasc i-i nfigea minile n olduri. (Ion Slavici Pdureanca)
e)Rmnnd apoi singur, el ncepu s se plimbe prin curtea mare i deart. Avea destul timp pn
diminea: putea s mearg i s se ntoarc, fr ca s tie ofron n ce treburi a umblat. ns caii erau
obosii, pgubise o dat, i ofron dormea n ua grajdului. Era o nebunie! De ce s se duc? De ce s-o
vaz? Ce avea el cu dnsa? Nimic, nimic, nimic! Era o mare nenorocire pe capul lui, Pdureanca aceea;
dar i ieise o dat primejdia n cale, i nu se mai putea feri de dnsa, l apucase o dat gndul de a se pune
clare i nu mai putea; rcoarea nopii, lumina lunii, umbrele copacilor, toate-l ademeneau. (Ion Slavici
f)O ajunsese blestemul printesc, pentru c fusese oarb i nu ascultase de sfaturile lui, pentru c l prsise
n ceasurile morii, pentru c i-a btut joc de slbiciunea omului la care inea att de mult rposatul ei tat.
edea, edea singur, se gndea la cele petrecute i cu totul altfel le vedea acum. i aducea aminte de ziua
cnd l-a vzut ntia dat pe ofron, cnd el a luat-o lng el n cru, i I-a pus cojocul s az pe el, i
aducea aminte de vorbele lui, pe care atunci nici nu le bga n seam, iar acum i le reamintea att de bine,
i cu o sete nespus. i cum a srutat-o el, cum fugea s prinz prepeliele din zbor i cum l-a lovit ea fr
mil atunci, noaptea, n faa lui Iorgovan i a tatlui ei, i ct de nenorocit era taic-su! (Ion Slavici
g)Maria tia c acuma ar trebui s zic i ea ceva s-i fac plcere i s spun c s-a dus la hor o singur
dat, de curioas, c n-o s mai mearg niciodat, dar parc i se ncletase gura, i nu mai putea s scoat o
vorb Acolo la hor, pn nu ncepea jocul, atepta ca beat pe cel despre care tia bine c n-o s mai vie
niciodat i ateptarea asta era singurul lucru care-i mai aducea aminte de el, ca i cum ar fi fost viu. (Titus
Popovici Setea)
h) Cnd era foarte bine dispus, le privea cu mil i ddea din cap. De cnd dovedise c nu-i un prpdit, ci
unul care tie s se descurce n aceste vremuri ntoarse cu dosul n sus, locuitorii uliei mari ncepuser s
se uite cu ali ochi la el. Mai ales Cloambe, care nainte vreme rdea de cum putea, i cuta prietenia, l
poftea s bea la dnsul i-i cerea poveele, cu deosebire de cnd l btuse Mitru Mo. (Titus Popovici
i)La cteva luni dupa aceea, George se schimbase cu desvrire. Fr s-i dea seama. nainte de rzboi
avea o nfiare deosebit de tnr ( care o supra uneori pe Emilia ) i ncepuse s se ngrae: acum
devenise uscat, cu faa aproape pergamentoas, foarte rigid, tcut i neprietenos, dar niciodat grosolan: un
fel de absen, de lips de interes; se silea din rsputeri s n-aib nici o personalitate, nici o preferin, s
execute ordinele, i atta tot. (Titus Popovici Setea)
3. Translate the following, paying attention to the grammar problem we discussed:
a) Frederica was agitated. She remembered her last encounter with Alexander and failed yet again to
understand her own behaviour. She had stalked him with infinite care, she had attacked him frontally,

she had thrown herself at him and teased him, and she had finally reached the point of consummation
where she was coming to dinner, in an empty house, wanting her. And what she had done was to flee to
Scarborough on the back of Wilkies motorbike. She loved Alexander. She had an intimation that it had
been important to her to have an impersonal initiation, in her own control, not overwhelming. But how
could she ever explain this to Alexander who anyway no longer wanted to understand? (A.S.Byatt
b) Daniel remembered. It had been a local cause celebre a young couple, married just in time, accused
of murdering their six-month old child. Jerry and Barbara Butt. The child had been beaten, burnt,
starved, and finally smothered. Crowds of women had howled outside the assize Court in Calverley, as
the figures of the parents were rushed in blindly muffled under blankets. In the public gallery they had
hissed and shaken with rage. A good lawyer had got Barbara Butt to plead guilty of infanticide. Jerry,
who had maintained that he was responsible for none of the sores, welts, burns on his daughters body,
who had been described as a little slow-witted by his council, had been gaoled for neglect and was now
out. His wife, Danny remembered vaguely, had been recommended for hospital treatment. (Julian
Barnes A History of the World in 10 Chapters)
4. Correct the mistakes in the following sentences:
1) The woman had seen the fire-spitting dragon after she drew her sword.
2) If you would have talked to your son more often, he would have responded to you more warmly.
3) She has been in this place for more than a year, but the place was dead. Tourists werent coming any
longer, so she has brought herself in a tomb-like place.
4) A: Had he sang that song so far?
B: No, not as far I know; he didnt even thought of it.
5) She didnt used to come here on the beach. But now she did. In the past she was so afraid of the water
that even the mere sight of the beach would turn her stomach.
6) Even though she new the truth, she had never payd no attention to it.
7) I didnt know what to think about Joe. He was a kind boy and lately he was even kinder, but still,
something was missing. Maybe he did not grow enough yet.
8) A: Had Mary posted the letter?
B: You know she had, had she?
9) If it hadnt been Mary, I wouldnt be sitting here crying.
10) Did they come to an agreement so far? Or didnt they?

Translate the following setences using Subject Auxiliary Inversion:

Nici un moment nu se gndise c faptele lui vor avea consecine tragice.
Dac ar fi tiut c nimeni n-o s mai voteze cu el, ar fi renunat la campanie.
Nici nu intrase bine n cas, ca telefonul ncepu s sune.
De-abia dac reuise s se brbiereasc i s se spele pe dini, cnd auzi bubuituri furioase n ua bii.
Rareori mai vzusem o creatur aa de nchipuit.
Numai dup ce i-am explicat de ce nu am voie s conduc maina, a acceptat s conduc el.
Daca ar fi fost preot, ar fi desfiinat toate sarbatorile pgne.
Niciodat nu mai auzise un discurs att de prost ntocmit.
Nici n-a apucat s spun c a fost concediat, c soia l-a i prsit.
Pn nu a mrturisit, nimeni n-a mai vrut s stea de vorb cu el.
Dac ar fi fost mai multe magazine de legume i fructe n cartier, n-ar mai fi trebuit s se duc tocmai
pn n Piaa Amzei, cum fusese nevoit sa faca deunzi.

6. Translate the following, identifying the underlined phrases:

1) Had she paid any heed whatsoever to my advice, she would have been the winner in this game.
2) Grandfather was so raving mad when he found out about the robbery, that he had the thief hanged in no
3) Jane had had to get her lover out of the house before her cuckold husband came in.
4) He drank the ale as if he hadnt had a drop in years.
5) You hadnt been there for a year at the time.
6) After she had had him whipped for his impudence, she cut his protests with a large sum of money.
7) Hadnt you better mortgage your house and sell the stuff at an auction?


He had no doubt been kicked by his own donkey.

Stubborn as a mule as he was, he had still been able to change his mind about the affair.
He had however been terribly surprised, not to say dumbfounded when seeing his new grandson.
He could not be mistaken, this was his flesh and blood, as he had been told.


Turn the following texts into Indirect Speech:

Wont you give me a drink, Charles?
No. Go away. I dont like people who break into my house at night and play at ghosts. Just go, will
you. I dont want to see you!
Dont you want to know why Ive come, Charles?
Youre surprised, youre curious.
I havent seen or heard of you for two years, three years, and even then I think I only met you at a
party. Now you suddenly turn up in this perfectly hateful manner. Or is it supposed to be funny? Am I
expected to be glad to see you? You arent part of my life. Just clear off, will you.
b) So it was you!
I broke the vase and the mirror, but I havent been creeping round at night, I wouldnt come here in
the pitch dark. This house is creepy.
But you did, you looked at me through the glass of that inner room.
No, I didnt. I never did. That must have been some other ghost.
You did, someone did. How did you get in?
You leave your windows open downstairs. You shouldnt, you know.
c) I gather you didnt even know Lizzie was living with Gilbert. Surprise, surprise. Everybody knew
that. If you arent interested enough to know who shes living with you arent interested enough in her
to marry her.
Im not going to marry her.
Youve said that twice. Youve always known who I was living with.
You flatter yourself.
(adapted from The Sea, the Sea by Iris Murdoch)
8. Fill in the blanks, using the correct tense form:
1. She had blood-kin under her roof again and we sat back to watch developments. At first nothing
(happen). Then we (be sure) that they were to be married. We learned that Miss Emily (be) to the
jewellers and (order) a mans toilet set in silver, with the letters H.B. on each piece. Two days later
we learned that she (buy) a complete outfit of mens clothing, including a nightshirt, and we (say):
They are married. We were really glad. We were glad because the two female cousins were even
more Grieson than Miss Emily (ever be).
2. Hartley (look) terrible. She (make up) her face with especial care and this (make) her look
particularly older.
3. I put into a plastic bag her make-up and the mottled pink stone with white bars which I (give) her,
and which she apparently (not look at) since. She (say) nothing but she (watch) me put the stone into
her bag.
4. Rosina was kneeling on one knee on top of one of the highest rocks and evidently (provide) herself
beforehand with an arsenal of missiles which she (throw) at me.
5. The bizzare violence of the incident (leave) me dazed, and I returned with a sick shock to my acute
consciousness of Hartley, who, during the whole of the episode, (not move), and seemed (not notice)
what had happened.
6. Before I (reach) the car I (realize) that I still (carry) the plastic bag containing Hartleys make-up and
the stone which I (give) her.
7. As I said this I (recall) something that Toby (say) to me in some context where I was wondering
whether James (be) straight. Toby (tell) me that James (have) a great affection for some soldier
servant in India, a Nepalese sherpa, who (die) somehow on a mountain.
8. I recalled Tituss voice saying Where your cousin (live)? And I remembered what Toby (tell) me
about the sherpa whom James (be fond of) and who (die) on the mountain, and I felt a momentary
nervous urge to ask him about the many attachments he (have) so far.

1. CLASS CONSCIOUSNESS AND POINT OF VIEW. Reread the text and imagine what Clifford
Chatterlys fathers opinion is about the war and about his sons engagement to Connie Reid. Write a
300-word monologue expressing that opinion.
2. WAR AND CLASS CONSCIOUSNESS. Based on the information in the text, imagine Cliffords
conversation to a young man belonging to the Cambridge group about the war and about class (350 words)

SCENE: A drawing room. Well furnished. At rise, BUTLER enters, places card on table, and exits.
RICHARD: [Puts down newspaper, reads card] Dinner with the Duchess. Six oclock. [Puts down card,
looks at watch] Must dress. [There is a knock at the door.] Come. [PATER enters.] Hello, Pater.
PATER: Hello, my boy.
[A moment of silence]
RICHARD: Not well?
PATER: Not well.
RICHARD: What is it?
PATER: Gambling debt.
RICHARD: Gambling debt?
PATER: Cant pay it. Broke.
RICHARD: Borrow?
PATER: Cant borrow. No credit.
PATER: One thing to do.
RICHARD: Poison.
PATER: Right. Honor of family.
RICHARD: Other way out?
PATER: Not sporting.
RICHARD: Right. Stout fellow.
PATER: Have you a bit here?
RICHARD: Poison?
PATER: Right.
[ BUTLER enters glass on tray.]
RICHARD: Here you are.
PATER: Thanks. [BUTLER exits PATER raises glass.] Give you the Duchess.
RICHARD: How jolly. [PATER drinks poison.] Does it hurt?
PATER: Rather.
RICHARD: Stiff upper lip.
PATER: Stiff upper lip.
RICHARD: Honour of family.
PATER: Honour of family. [Falls to chair.] Cheerio, my boy.
RICHARD: Cheerio, Pater. [Glances at watch] Must dress. [Starts to walk left knock at door.] Come.
[AGATHA enters.] Hello, Agatha.
AGATHA: Hello, Dick.
RICHARD: Chin up, Agatha, the Pater.
AGATHA: Passed out?
RICHARD: Passed away. Gambling debt.
AGATHA: Too bad.
[Starts to go to left.]

RICHARD: Yes, Agatha?
AGATHA: Our wedding anniversary.
AGATHA: Something to tell you.
AGATHA: Other man.
RICHARD: [Walks over to her] You?
AGATHA: Right.
RICHARD: Not faithful?
AGATHA: Not faithful.
RICHARD: Rotten business.
AGATHA: Putrid.
RICHARD: One thing to do.
AGATHA: Poison?
[BUTLER enters]
AGATHA: Got any?
[BUTLER is at her elbow, poison on tray]
RICHARD: Here you are.
AGATHA: Thanks. [Takes glass BUTLER exits raises glass] To the Duchess.
RICHARD: How jolly. Does it hurt?
AGATHA: Rather.
RICHARD: Too bad. Well, chin up.
AGATHA: Chin up.
RICHARD: Stiff upper lip. Honour of family.
AGATHA: Honour of family. Cheerio, Dick.
[She falls to floor]
RICHARD: Cheerio, Agatha. [Looks at watch] Must dress. [Starts to walk left. Knock on door.] Come.
[MATER enters]
MATER: Richard, my boy.
RICHARD: The Pater. Dead.
MATER: Right and Agatha?
RICHARD: And Agatha.
MATER: Beastly.
MATER: Chin up.
RICHARD: Chin up. Stiff upper lip.
MATER: Right. [Starts to leave] Richard.
RICHARD: Not well?
MATER: Perfectly well. Something to tell you.
RICHARD: Right. [Pause] Difficult?
MATER: Terribly difficult.
MATER: Not legitimate.
RICHARD: Not legitimate?
MATER: Not legitimate.
RICHARD: Bastard?
MATER: Quite.
RICHARD: [Reeling] Chin up.
MATER: Chin up.

RICHARD: [Blubbering] Stiff upper lip. Honour of family.

MATER: Honour of family.
RICHARD: [Stands erect.] And you?
[BUTLER enters]
MATER: One thing to do.
MATER: [Sees BUTLER at her elbow] This it?
RICHARD: Rather.
MATER: Thanks. [Raises tumbler] To the
RICHARD: Duchess.
MATER: Duchess.
[BUTLER exits]
RICHARD: Jolly. [MATER drinks poison] Does it hurt?
MATER: Hurt.
MATER: Terribly.
RICHARD: [Starts to go] Cheerio.
MATER: Not yet. [ RICHARD stops and turns.] Got an engagement?
RICHARD: Right. Dinner with the Duchess.
MATER: Sorry, didnt know.
RICHARD: Quite all right.
MATER: Must be on time. Honour of family. Cheerio, Dick. [Falls dead.]
RICHARD: Cheerio, Mater. [Glances at watch] Must dress. [Starts to go, turns when door behind him
opens. BUTLER enters with tray.] For me?
BUTLER: Right.
RICHARD: Late for dinner?
BULTER: Right.
RICHARD: [Takes tumbler. BUTLER exits.] To the Duchess. [Drinks falls to floor gasps] Neednt
(Alan Baxter - Chin Up)
The Upper Class
Class distinctions are popularly represented by stereotypes, especially in
matters of clothing, speech and region of origin. This is best seen in
caricatures of upper and lower class individuals, whether in literature or
contemporary media. Upper-class people are typically portrayed in country
clothes, since they are primarily associated with land ownership and the three
traditional aristocratic sports of hunting, shooting and fishing (sometimes
written or pronounced as huntin, shootin and fishin to represent their
characteristic speech). Other typically upper-class sports are polo and riding.
Distinctive items of upper-class wear are peaked caps for men, head-scarves
for women, and green wellington boots (green wellies) for either. Upperclass speech is portrayed as loud, drawling and affected, with much use of
nicknames and slang. The typical upper-class person is usually thought of as a
southerner, although it is perfectly possible to be Scottish and upper class.
(Oxford Advanced Learners Encyclopaedic Dictionary, 1994)
Answer the following questions:

The text presents an upper-class family. What is the authors attitude towards this family?


This fragment is characterized by the use of ellipsis (see section C). In what way does ellipsis help to
convey irony in the text?
Investigate the use of vocabulary in the text. In what way does vocabulary help to represent the
characters in the text as members?
In what way is the notion honour presented in the text? Comment upon the connection between
honour and suicide in the text.
Discuss the reasons that push the characters to commit suicide. In what way is Richards suicide
relevant from this point of view?

1. Complex verb: KNOCK.
a) Fill in the blanks:
1.Try to knock some sense _______ his head. 2. Our team was knocked ______ in the first round of the
competition. 3. They knocked ______ the Post Office and got away with 4000$. 4. Lets
knock_______work early today. 5. I can probably knock ______ a meal if you wait a few minutes. 6. Ive
seen him knock ________ ten whiskies in one evening. 7. The price was knocked _______to 3 $. 8. The
news really knocked him ________. 9. They say he knocks his wife ________. 10. Sallys been knocking
________ with Jim for five years.
b)* Translate into English:
1. A fcut o gaur in perete. 2. Nu-l mai critica att! Face i el ce poate. 3. A ncercat s mpiedice planul
acesta nc de la bun nceput. 4. E mai bun dect mine la tenis, m bate de m rupe. 5. A avut ceva ghinion
ultima vreme, trebuie s recunoatem. 6. N-a putut s le vnda nici la preul de 5$. 7. Las c-i mai tai eu
din aere. O s nvee s se poarte frumos. 8. Ua lor n-are dect sonerie, nu i ciocnel. 9. M-ai lsat cu gura
cscat, drag: cum ai reuit s realizezi aa ceva? 10. Ascult-m pe mine, rochia asta o s aib mare
succes! 11. Ridicarea preurilor va provoca efecte in lan asupra economiei.
2. Complex verb: PASS
a) Fill in the blanks:
1. She passed _______in her sleep. 2. He always passes ______ at the sight of blood. 3. I had a chance to
go to America, but I passed it ______. 4. Let us pass ________to the next subject. 5. This is a skill that
passed _______ from father to son. 6. Read the note and pass it ________. 7. I cant imagine how this place
passes __________ a five-star hotel! The service is dreadful. 8. She passed herself _______ as an
experienced actress. 9. Let us pass ________ his rude remarks in silence. 10. The meeting passed _______
b)* Translate into English:
1. Am ajuns ntr-o stare foarte proast dac nu ne mai putem cumpra nici bere. 2. i face avansuri de o luna
i nimic nc. 3. n curind se va plictisi. 4. Nu pot s pricep cum ai fcut o asemenea prostie. 5. El a zis c
Shakespeare a fost american, iar eu n-am putut s trec asta cu vederea fr s-l corectez. 6. Hai s strngem
nite bani i s-i dm soiei lui ca s cumpere medicamente. 7. A apucat judectorul s dea sentina sau nu?
8. Bine, spuse doctorul, spunei-mi acum dac avei probleme cind urinai.
3*. Polysemy: DEAD. Translate into English:
1. Cucoan, nu vezi c e mort i nu mai mic? 2. M-a sunat n toiul nopii s m mai ntrebe o dat de ce
nu vreau s nchei contractul acela. 3. Vreau s i spun c semeni foarte mult cu fratele meu. 4. Exist
material inutil in raportul tu, aa c ai face mai bine s-l scurtezi. 5. i-a jucat rolul fr s lase s i se
ntrevada nici o emoie pe fa. 6. Glonul lui a nimerit drept la int. 7. Fiul lor e un mare puturos, nu tiu
ce-o s se aleag de el dac o mai ine aa. 8. Poi s termini lucrarea la termen sau ai nevoie de ceva
ajutor? 9. Ori doarme tun, ori a leinat. M chinuiesc s l trezesc de cinci minute i nimic. 10. i mai zici
c asta a fost o idee bun, nu vezi c n-are nici o ans de reuit? 11. Cursa n-a fost ctigat de nimeni,
Johnson i Klein au ajuns amndoi la linia de sosire n acelai timp. 12. sta e un servici care n-o s-i

aduc nimic nou. 13. Crezi c noua propunere o s ne scoat din ncurctura asta groaznic? 14. E aa de
frig nct mi-au amorit degetele.
3. Polysemy: LIP. Translate into Romanian:
1. They stopped at the lip of the crater. 2. The pain in his arm was so sharp that beads of sweat formed on
his upper lip. 3. She was at a loss for words and bit her lip in vexation. 4. Yes, I thought you would say
that, Susan said curling her lip in disdain. 5. She pursed her lips and tried to whistle. 6. I wont say a word
about it, my lips are sealed! 7. Theres many a slip betwixt cup and lip. 8. He pays lip-service to feminism
but his wife still does all the housework. 9. Bill looked tight-lipped and pale. 10. The TV has a problem
with the sound. I guess well have to lip-read the news commentators. 11. Less of your lip! Dont be so
cheeky! 12. Bring me that ice cream! the little boy said, smacking his lips with gusto. 13. Loose lips sink
Consider a small excerpt from the sketch above:
(1) AGATHA: Dick.
RICHARD: Yes, Agatha?
AGATHA: Our wedding anniversary.
AGATHA: Something to tell you.
AGATHA: Other man.
The fragment chosen for discussion is made up of elliptical sentences, where linguistic material is left out.
This material can be retrieved from context, thus allowing for a re-writing of the fragment as follows:
(2) AGATHA: Dick.
RICHARD: Yes, Agatha?
AGATHA: It is our wedding anniversary.
RICHARD: All right.
AGATHA: I have something to tell you.
RICHARD: All right.
AGATHA: There is another man in my life.
We have established that the fragment under (1) heavily relies on a syntactical process of reduction, of
ellipsis. In fact, if you peruse the whole sketch, you can easily see that it is exclusively built on this device.
Read it carefully and you will notice that there is no full sentence present in this text. It is obvious that this
syntactic process was applied by the author with the specific purpose of offering the readers a sample of
exaggerated upper-class speech. The effect obtained through the abundant and exclusive use of ellipsis is
humorous. It is therefore through language and language processes that the author chooses to create an
ironical effect.
Let us look more closely at the grammatical concept we have introduced and see what types of ellipsis we
can speak of.
What Is Ellipsis?
Ellipsis is a syntactical process in which a constituent is left out:
(3) She might tell him the secret but I dont think she will [tell him the secret].
There is an important condition lying at the basis of this syntactical process. Ellipsis cannot be performed
randomly since the linguistic material that has been wiped out needs to be recoverable from the context. In
other words, you cannot delete any words you like. The material that is left out must be retrieved from the

context without difficulty. Consider for instance the following exchange, in which this condition is not
completely fulfilled. You will see that the second speaker (i.e. Hartley) makes the first one (i.e. Ben) repeat
his question so he will have more time to perform the reinterpretation process:
(4) Are you going to get a dog? said Hartley to me.
Dont think so.
Cat man, eh? said Ben.
Cat man?
Oh er no.
A bore, quarantine. Six months at least.
Try and perform a reinterpretation yourselves, recovering the missing material for this instance of text.
When Does Ellipsis Occur?
A notable characteristic of ellipsis is that it is often found in direct speech. As we know, one of the features
that define conversation is that of economy. A dialogue cannot be too elaborate, at least not as elaborate as a
description or a narration. Redundant material needs to be left out. This is where ellipsis appears. To use
Quirks (1972) observation, Ellipsis is an abbreviating device that reduces redundancy. Consider the
following sentences:
(5) a. I went to the market and I bought a punnet of strawberries.
b. I went to the market and bought a punnet of strawberries.
It is obvious that the second sentence is the one we would all choose to utter, since it is so much easier to
use. This choice will definitely contribute to the effectiveness of communication.
Situational vs. Textual Ellipsis
Most grammarians make a distinction between situational ellipsis, i.e. that kind of ellipsis that appears in a
dialogue, being dependent on the larger conversational context, and textual ellipsis, which is more
dependent on the linguistic context in which it appears. Needless to say, the kind of ellipsis we are faced
with in Chin Up is part of the first category. For more information, consider the examples in the table
Textual ellipsis
(co-text dependent)
in adverbial clauses
a) finite
While at Oxford, he took to drinking.
Im happy if you are.
Because Alice wont, Mary is dusting the furniture.
b) non-finite
Although much annoyed, he didnt retaliate.
a) Post-modification
The man coming towards me
No one in his right mind will take it.
b) Pre-modification
The rich never listen to advice.
Supplementing clause
I caught the train in time.
They mean to wound perhaps to kill.
In coordinated sentences
a) forward ellipsis (operating on the second
conjunct in the sentence)

Situational ellipsis
Missing subject
Told you so!
Need a drink, do you?
Serves you right!
Sounds fine to me.
Wont be any food left for

Missing Subject
See you later.
Good to see you.
Want some?

Missing Subject +
determiner + auxiliary
Why isnt he here? Car still
not working?

John writes poetry and Bill prose.

b) backward ellipsis (operating on the first
conjunct in the sentence)
John loves and Bill hates cigars.

Missing determiner
Fact is we dont really know
what to do.

Consider the elliptical sentences in Chin Up. Try to recover the missing material.
Try to recover the missing material in the following instances:
a) After a time, he came upstairs again, looking a little angry.
Postman? he said.
Very early! she replied.
b) Seen any seals? Mr. Arkwright asks kindly.
No, not yet.
c) Feeling better?
Yes, much.
Over now.
d) More tea?
No, thanks. Dry sherry, perhaps.
My turn.
Oh, well whatever.
e) If I cant marry you, nobody else will.
f) I expect youre very left-wing, like most of the young.
Oh no.
Interested in politics?
Party politics? No.
But some kind of politics.
g) Say when.
h) Liar.
Say that again?
You heard.
Cheeky girl.
i) Anything to eat?
Yes, please.
Bread. Were out of biscuits.
OK, anything.
We settled down to the stew.
When are you coming back to London? he asked.
I dont know.
What about Hartley?
What about her?
Any news, views?
Youve given up?
I had tea with her and Ben.
What was it like?
Polite. More wine?
Thank you.
Translate into English, paying attention to the grammar problem discussed above:
a) Nu putea s l mint pe prietenul i colegul lui. Doar l cunotea de cnd erau n liceu. b) Aceast carte
este diferit dar i asemntoare cu romanul pe care l-a scris el. c) Se uitar cu toii i admirar statuia

impuntoare din Piaa Revoluiei. d) S-a rstit la el i l-a plmuit. e) A vrea s ne uitm la tablourile din
camera aceasta sau din cealalt. f) Sora sa mnnc, respir i ascult numai Beatles. g) M intereseaz i
m ncnt crile rare. h) Unde i cum ne vom ntlni s rezolvm problema, rmne de vzut. i) Nu tiu
cine i de ce a omort-o, dar cred c e mai puin important oricum. j) I-a invitat de ziua lui pe comandant i
pe adjunct. k) Nu mi vd capul de treburi i tu vrei s m uit pe poeziile tale i s le comentez. l) A luat, a
citit i a criticat tot ce scrisese soia sa n tineree. m) Cartea aceasta este a lui Bill i a lui John. n)
Romanul de pe mas este al lui Bill i-al lui Dickens.
Translate into English, paying attention to the grammar problem discussed above:
- Treci des pe aici? Cu cine?
Deodat devin atent la ce se ntmpl pe osea. O Dacie argintie a oprit la cteva sute de metri mai jos de
casa lui Paicu i din ea a ieit un om cu o puc de vntoare pe umr. Un braconier.
- Vino repede! i ordon fetei.
Ea se execut. Privete n vale de parc s-ar uita la o vitrin de mod. i asta va trebui s-o nv.
- Azi diminea, cnd a oprit maina lng tine, domnu doctor avea o cma albastr?
- Da.
- nseamn c el e!
- Cine?
- la de-acolo, care intr acum n pdure.
- Ei, i?
- nseamn c el e braconierul cu arma.
- De unde tii?
- Pi, ce caut singur n pdure cu arma pe umr?
- Poate a plecat s m caute se miorlie ea. Poate m crede mpresurat de lupi i vine s m salveze.
Deci mintea ei st tot la cavalerul cel frumos care-i vars sngele pentru ea n lupt cu jivinele pdurii! Un
cavaler, mai muli, ce conteaz?
- Crezi c-ar face-o?
- De ce nu?
Tac. Apoi gsesc.
- Pentru c lupii nu vin la vremea asta aa aproape de sat. La mistrei se duce el, nu la lupi.
- Atunci poate c vrea s m salveze de mistrei. i mistreii sunt ri, nu-I aa?
Se alint.
- Prostii i tai eu elanul. Deocamdat un om cu arma a intrat n sectorul tatlui meu. Hai!
O iau de mn i pornim spre vale.
- Tatl tu e pdurar? zice.
- Da. Ca i al tu, nu?
- i tu vrei s te faci tot pdurar.
- Nu ca tatl tu.
- Dar ca al tu?
- Nici ca el.
Are chef de conversaie, iar eu m grbesc. Eu am chef s-l prind pe domnu doctor n flagrant delict.
Mam, ce-ar fi?
- Mama vrea s dau la medicin! se laud ea.
- i tu?
- O s ncerc la medicin.
(Mircea Nedelciu Proz scurt)
M ntorceam, n dup-amiaza inundat de cldura uscat, chinuit de foame, adncindu-m ca n
cauciuc n asfaltul ncins, privind caii obosii ai trsurilor, storurile trase pentru siest la mai toate casele,
dar era n mine o tristee uoar i plcut. Simeam c femeia aceasta era a mea n exemplar unic, aa ca
eul meu, ca mama mea, c ne ntlnisem de la nceputul lumii, peste toate devenirile, amndoi, i aveam s
pierim la fel amndoi.
Eram ca ntr-o zi imens i ntmplrile acestea mici, amnunite pn n fracii de impresie, erau
printre cele mai importante din viaa mea. Astzi cnd le scriu pe hrtie, mi dau seama, iar i iar, c tot ce

povestesc nu are importan dect pentru mine, c nici nu are sens s fie povestite. Pentru mine ns, care
nu triesc dect o singur dat n desfurarea lumii, ele au nsemnat mai mult dect rzboaiele pentru
cucerirea Chinei, dect irurile de dinastii egiptene, dect ciocnirile de atri n necuprins, cci singura
existen real e aceea a contiinei. i, n organizarea i ierarhia contiinei mele, femeia mea era mai vie i
mai real dect stelele distrugtor de uriae, al cror nume nu-l tiu.
(Camil Petrescu Ultima noapte de dragoste, ntia noapte de rzboi)

ADVERTISEMENT. Read the following advertisments paying attention to the use of ellipsis. Write a
similar one:

ATTRACTIVE, MUSCULAR tanned pathological liar (officer and gentleman) seeks sexy birds for
frivolic penfriendship to liven up otherwise dull naval deployment to Gulf. Box 3253.
MALE RECLUSE, 39, seeks female associate, 16-40, vaguely educated, for occasional trials of social
skills. Awkwardness essential. London. Box 1253.
FLING WANTED by 40-something attached male, before its too late. ME uncomplicated, adventurous.
YOU interesting, playful. All letters answered. SEast/TValley. Box 2346
BLUESTOCKING, BLONDE, 34, Oxbridge, voluptuosly styled for comfort, not speed, craves oldfashioned chap, 30ish-40-ish with taste and SAVOIR-FAIRE, for enduring FIN-DE-SIECLE wonderment;
possibly permanent commitment. Oxon/wherever. Box 2657
(from Private Eye, No. 953, Friday, 26 June, 1998)

Situation: A young man belonging to the upper class proposes marriage to his fiance, who also
comes from an upper class family. At the same time, the young mans servant proposes marriage to a
woman, who is also a servant. Write two dialogues, one for each situation, trying to capture the class
distinctions from the point of view of the language used and of the information that is relevant in each of
the conversations.

Leaving school at sixteen, the working-class man feels inadequate because he is inarticulate. He is
thought of as being bloody-minded and lazy by the middle classes because he cant express himself and to
snort Definitely, disgusting, in answer to any question put to him, is the only way he can show his
The working classes divide themselves firmly into the Rough and the Respectable. The Rough get
drunk fairly often, make a great deal of noise at night, often engage in prostitution, have public fights,
neglect their children, swear in front of women and children, and dont give a stuff about anything just
like the upper classes, in fact. The Respectables chunter over such behaviour, and in Wales sing in Male
Voice Choirs. They also look down on people on the dole, the criminal classes and the blacks, who they
refer to as soap dodgers.
Our archetypal working-class couple is Mr and Mrs DEFINITELY-DISGUSTING. They have two
children, SHARON and DIVE, and live in a council house with walls so thin you can hear the budgie
pecking its seed next door. Mr Definitely-Disgusting is your manual worker. He might be a miner in the
North, a car worker in the Midlands, or a casual labourer in the South. He married young and lived for a
while with his wifes parents. After a year or two he went back to going to the pub, football and the dogs

with the blokes. He detests his mother-in-law. But, despite his propensity to foul language, he is extremely
modest, always undressing with his back to Mrs D-D. He often does something slightly illegal, nicking a
car or knocking off a telly. He is terrified of the police, who, being lower-middle and the class just above,
reserve their special venom for him. Mrs Definitely-Disgusting wears her curlers and pinny to the local
shop and spends a lot of the day with a cigarette hanging from her bottom lip gossiping and grumbling.
The other couple you will meet are the NOUVEAU-RICHARDS, of working-class origin but have
made a colossal amount of money. Boasting and ostentation are their salient characteristics. At coffee
mornings Mrs Nouveau-Richards, who lives in lurex, asks anyone if theyve got any idea whether gold
plate will spoil in the dishwasher. She has a huge house and lots of servants, who she bullies unmercifully.
She is very rude to waiters and very pushy with her children, TRACEY-DIANE and JISON, who have
after-school coaching several hours every day. Mr Nouveau-Richards gets on the committee of every
charity ball in London. The upper classes call him by his Christian name and appreciate his salty humour,
but dont invite him to their houses. Jison goes to Stowe and Oxford and ends up a member of the Tellystocracy, who are the real powers in the land the people in communication who appear on television.
They always talk about my show.
(Jilly Cooper Class, 1981)

Consider the following class chart devised by Paul Fussell in 1983. Comment on the validity of the
surefire class indicators proposed in it. Could you come up with a similar schema for our own social

Your Living Room

Announces It

Your Favourite
Drink Proclaims It

Your Vocabulary
Shouts It

Your Car Tells


Threadbare Oriental
rugs; Dark wood
walls; Exotic, out-ofseason flowers
carpeting; Imitation
Tiffany lamps;
Britannica in wall
Linoleum floor;
Barcalounger; Fancy

Scotch on the rocks

(no soda!) in a
tumbler decorated
with sailboats

Grandfather died.
Muffy is pregnant.

Dirty old
Plymouth or

Grandma passed

Mercedes or




Meredith is

Domestic beer out of

the can

Uncle was taken

to Jesus.
Minnie is in a
family way.

Anything with
stuffed dice or
baby shoes
hanging in the

(Paul Fussell Class, 1983)


Consider the list of lexical items below. Select a) the informal words b) the formal words. List
them in the two-column table, trying to provide a definition for each item.
Propensity, on the dole, not to give a stuff on anything, labourer, nick something, pushy, bully, chunter,
inadequate, grumble, worker, bloke, articulate, salient, ostentation, archetypal.




CLIPPING AND BLENDING. Explain how the following words are formed; build contexts for
each of these words:
Telly, tellystocracy, glitteratti, pinny, hankie, undies, motel, jammies, showbiz, sitcom, pram, fridge,
shrink, sexcapade, guesstimate, autocide, chocoholic, slanguage, brunch, Oxbridge, wellies,
meritocracy, vac, amp, sissy, smog, wargasm, dawk, droid, rrhoid, veggie.
a) Fill in the blanks with one of the following synonyms: rough, coarse, gritty, scaly, prickly
1. All the hospital beds were covered with _______ cotton sheets. 2. To relieve tight, itchy or _____ skin,
add a teaspoon of fine oil to your bathwater. 3. I hate wearing woolen underclothes they feel so _____.
4. The sea is ______ today, Im afraid; were not going to be able to take a swim. 5. Her straight hair, once
dark brown, was becoming gray and ______. 6. Suddenly he fell headfirst, badly cutting his forehead on
the ______ edge of a rock. 7. A jeep is ideal for riding over _______terrain. 8. He doesnt have polished
manners, but hes kind: a ______ diamond, if ever there was one. 9. His ______ manners and jokes did not
endear him to his wife. 10. Oh, I didnt mean any disrespect. Youre a bit _____ today, arent you, to be so
easily offended? 11. Ive never liked the kind of cheap ______ bread they serve in this restaurant.
b) Translate into Romanian, trying to find equivalents for the following series of synonyms:
complain, go about, nag, grumble, moan, gripe, whinge, whine, bitch, chunter.
1. I dont know why you keep whingeing about being underpaid. You earn a lot more than I do. 2. Look,
Im sorry I kept you waiting, but theres no need to go on and on about it. 3. I got really irritated when
Christina griped about the lack of cooperation from my kids. 4. Dont be such a fusspot, that small amount
of garlic wont kill you. 5. She left her last job because her boss used to nag at her all the time. 6. I cant
understand why you lot are all moaning and groaning just because we have to get up early. 7. For heavens
sake, stop whining. Nobody has touched your precious records. 8. Youre an old misery. Ever since we
came away on holiday youve done nothing but moan. 9. Shes such a moaner to listen to her, youd think
the whole world was against her. 10. Shes always grumbling about some thing or other if its not the
weather, its her husband. 11. Theres no place in the army for people who whinge. 12. Shes always
bitching about people at work. Shes just an old grumbler, if you ask me. 13. Look at him, always
chuntering about the price of food in the shops. And you thought I was cheap!
4. Paraphrase and provide a context for the following collocations:
To be in ones teens/ a playground bully/ bully-boy tactics/ at a rough estimate/ to give somebody a peck on
the cheek/ pecking order/ the gossip column/ salt of the earth/ to feel a bit peckish/ a pusher/ dodgy.
5. POLYSEMY: TALK. Translate into Romanian:
1. He actually wasted precious hours talking round the issue. 2. Take the day off? Now youre talking! 3. I
would really like to see how hes going to talk his way out of that one! 4. Oh, come on, lets stop talking
shop for once! There are people here who arent really interested in food-processing. 5. The evening turned
to be a disaster. First he drank his way through a whole bourbon bottle and then he talked my head off for
hours. 6. Dont you dare talk back! Youre in the doghouse as it is! 7. Im really curious to see if hell
manage to talk his boss into giving him a rise. 8. We finally succeeded in talking them round to our way of
thinking. 9. Be more discreet, or youll get yourself talked about. 10. Talk about stupid! I thought hell
never stop!
Let us look again at a fragment from the text above:
(1) The working classes divide themselves firmly into the Rough and the Respectable. The Rough get
drunk fairly often, make a great deal of noise at night, often engage in prostitution, have public fights,

neglect their children, swear in front of women and children, and dont give a stuff about anything
just like the upper classes, in fact. The Respectables chunter over such behaviour, and in Wales sing in
Male Voice Choirs. They also look down on people on the dole, the criminal classes and the blacks,
who they refer to as soap dodgers.
There are two types of items we have underlined in this piece of text. First, consider the phrases in italics,
all representing simple present tense forms that are used by Jilly Cooper as an effective means of building
up a generalization. Thus the main value of Simple Present is put to good use, by way of which the idea of
present habit is impressed upon us. The second category of items we have chosen to underline are
frequency adverbials such as often, at night, always, etc. which are meant to reinforce the idea of
repetition expressed by the verbal forms.
This section tries to offer students a brief survey of the grammatical and lexical devices used by English to
convey temporal repetition, iteration. We shall try to discuss this problem by trying to make a distinction
between present and past situations.
Why is the Present-Past Distinction Necessary?
In order to answer this question we need to have a look at the following pair of sentences in the table
Sally goes to school.

Sally went to school.

The main difference that we can spot between these two sentences is a temporal one. Obviously, the first
sentence makes use of the Simple Present, whereas the second one makes use of the Simple Past. But is this
the only distinction that we can speak of? Try and add a temporal adverbial phrase to each of these
sentences. You will see that in the case of the Simple Present sentence, the first time adverb that pops up
into your head is a frequency one such as often or every day. In the second case however, a definite time
adverb is our first option. Consider the table again:
Sally goes to school (every day).

Sally went to school (yesterday).

This test shows us that there is an important semantic difference between these two tenses: while the main
value of Present Simple is that of showing repetition at the present moment, the main meaning of Past
Simple is that of expressing the fact that one event took place in the past:


Sally goes to school (every day).

Sally went to school (yesterday).

Repeated action

Single event in the past

In other words, while Present Simples main job is to make generalizations, Past Simple is used for
particular instances. This is a crucial distinction that points to the asymmetry existing in the English
Indicative. Present and Past Simple convey different information:
Temporal : present vs. past
Aspectual: repeated vs. single

The temporal distinction is not something we wouldnt expect. It is only too normal that two different
tenses should be temporally distinct. But what about their aspectual dimension? Both are simple tenses.
Therefore we would normally expect them to behave similarly from this point of view.
How Does English Solve the Aspectual Asymmetry?
Due to the existence of this distinction, English needed a solution for expressing past habit. This gave rise
to more than one ways of expressing past repetition in the language. We will list these possibilities below:
Simple Past +
Obligatory Frequency
Habit would
Used to

Sally went to school every day.

Mary often visited her aunt.
When we were kids we would visit our aunt and
listen to her wonderful stories. Then we would go
back home and repeat them to mother.
She used to go to the opera when she was in her
I used to cook wonderful meals for Jim when we
were young.

Let us discuss each of these categories in turn:

Past Simple can convey repetition but only when combined with a frequency adverbial. Otherwise it
expresses a single event in the past. Compare:
(6) a. She played her records.
b. She played her records often/ whenever she fancied/ every day.
If there is no time adverb present to clarify the meaning of the tense form, we automatically interpret this
form as expressing one single event that took place at a point in the past.
Habit would is a frequent device in narration. It is not preferred in single sentences, but it functions very
well when repeated in a complex sentence or in a larger text:
(7) When we were kids we would visit our aunt and listen to her wonderful stories. Then we would go
back home and repeat them to mother.
An important characteristic of habit would is that it does not combine with state verbs:
(8) * She would love Jim a lot when she was younger.
If we want to reformulate this sentence correctly, we will have to resort to either Simple Past or to used to:
(9) a. She loved Jim a lot when she was younger.
b. She used to love Jim a lot when she was younger.
Habit would is the past counterpart for habit will (which is in fact our probability will, see Unit Two,
Section One, C). This modal is also used to convey the idea of present habit, but is much less frequent than
(10) a. Accidents will happen.
b. They will sit there for hours, fishing and telling jokes.

The fact that habit will/would is a modal is checked by its validity in time adverbial sentences introduced
by whenever. As you know, the presence of a future auxiliary is banned in such contexts:
(11) a. Whenever they will go fishing, they will sit there for hours, enjoying themselves.
b. Whenever they would go fishing, they would sit there for hours, enjoying themselves.
Nota bene!
Simple Past needs frequency adverbs to convey the idea of habit
Habit would does not go well with state verbs
Used to
This phrase has often been analysed as having a modal value. Unlike would, it is not restricted to
narrative contexts and is very frequently employed by speakers of English.
There is another thing that distinguishes used to from would or from Past Simple: used to does not
have a present counterpart. So, beware of such incorrect instances as those under (12):
(12) a. *Mary uses to go there quite often.
b. * They use to like her.
It is only too normal for used to to be a past-only expression. Since English has Present Simple for
expressing habit in the present, why should it need an extra form? Then, if one really needs to lay emphasis
on the idea of present iteration, they can always make use of adverbs such as usually or nominal predicates
such as be used to + ing:
(13) a. Mary goes there quite often.
b. They like her.
c. She usually lets her husband have the final word.
d. Im used to sleeping late.
Learners of English erroneously think that the nominal predicate (i.e. be used to + ing, which is quite
infrequently used in English) is the present counterpart of used to. But while the former is a copula +
adjective construction, the latter is a verb phrase. How do we check on that? Negation is a good test:
(14) a. Im used to sleeping late.
b. Im not used to sleeping late.
(15) a. She used to sleep late.
b. She didnt use to sleep late.
The fact that used to is a lexical verb, not a copula, is checked by its being combined with did. This is
not the case of be used to + ing where do-insertion is impossible. Used to functions just like your
normal English regular verb (play, smile, etc.). So take care to use the infinitive form after did:
(16) a. They didnt play well.
b. *They didnt played well.
c. They didnt use to go there.
d. *They didnt used to go there.
Both (b) and (d) are very bad sentences, because the presence of the past temporal morpheme in both the
auxiliary (did) and the lexical verb (play, use) conveys redundant temporal information.
Nota bene!
Used to is a past-only device.

Dont mistake used to for to be used to + ing.

The negation of used to is didnt use to.


Consider the text above. Try and rewrite it in the past, performing all the necessary changes to
make it coherent.
2. a. Translate the text below, paying attention to the grammar problem discussed in this section.
b. Comment upon the underlined phrases. Why is it that you can use the Present tense in a past
context? Why is it that we can use Past Simple to formulate generalizations even if there is no
frequency adverb present?
c. Can you speak of this text as being made up of two distinct parts? How do you motivate this
I passed all the other courses that I took at my university, but I could never pass botany. This was because
all botany students had to spend several hours a week in a laboratory looking through a microscope at plant
cells and I could never see through a microscope. I never once saw a cell through a microscope. This used
to enrage my instructor. He would wander around the laboratory pleased with the progress all the students
were making in drawing the involved and, so I am told, interesting structure of flower cells, until he came
to me. I would just be standing there. I cant see anything. I would say. He would begin patiently enough,
explaining how anybody can see through a microscope, but he would always end up in a fury, claiming that
I could too see through a microscope but just pretended that I couldnt. It takes away from the beauty of
flowers anyway, I used to tell him. We are not concerned with beauty in this course, he would say. We
are concerned solely with that I may call the mechanics of flowers, Well , Id say, and I would put my
eye to the microscope and see nothing at all, except now and again a nebulous milky substance a
phenomenon of maladjustment. You were supposed to see a vivid, restless clockwork of sharply defined
plant cells. I see what looks like a lot of milk, I would tell him. This, he claimed, was the result of my
not having adjusted the microscope properly, so he would readjust it for me, or rather, for himself. And I
would look again and see milk.
I finally took a deferred pass, as they call it, and waited a year and tried again. (You had to pass one of the
biological sciences or you couldnt graduate). The professor had come back from vacation brown as a
berry, bright-eyed and eager to explain cell-structure again to his classes: Well he addressed me, We
are going to see cells this time, arent we? Yes, sir , I said. Students to right of me and to left of me and
in front of me were seeing cells; whats more, they were quietly drawing pictures of them in their
notebooks; of course, I didnt see anything.
Well try it , the professor said to me, grimly, with every adjustment of the microscope known to man.
As God is my witness, Ill arrange this glass so that you see cells through it or Ill give up teaching. In
twenty- two years of botany, I He cut off abruptly for he was beginning to quiver all over, like Lionel
Barrymore, and he really wished he hold on to his temper. His scenes with me had taken a great deal out of
So we tried it with every adjustment of the microscope known to man. With only one of them did I see
anything but blackness or the familiar lacteal opacity, and that time I saw, to my pleasure and amazement, a
variegated constellation of flecks, specks and dots. These I hastily drew. The instructor, noting my activity,
came back from an adjoining desk, a smile on his lips and his eyebrows high in hope. He looked at my cell
drawing. Whats that? he demanded with a hint of squeal in his voice. Thats what I saw, I said. You
didnt, you didnt, you didnt! he screamed, loosing control of his temper. He instantly bent over and
squinted into the microscope. His head snapped up. Thats your eye! he shouted. Youve fixed the lens
so that it reflects! Youve drawn your eye! (James Thurber University Days)
3. Translate the following, paying attention to the grammar problem discussed in this section:
a) George pierdu ceasuri ntregi jupuind cinele cu ajutorul securii. Degetele i amoriser i mirosul aspru
al crnii i ntorcea stomacul pe dos. Colonelul iei afar i aduse ap din an n cteva cutii de conserve
ruginite. Petrecur aproape toat noaptea ncercnd s fiarb carnea aceea alb i aoas. Colonelul i
muca tot timpul buzele; cnd, n sfrit, mpungnd carnea cu b, socotir c e destul de moale, l scular
pe sublocotenent, cu greu, deoarece se prbuea mereu pe patul de scnduri. Apoi ncepu s nghit hlci
mari, necndu-se i sughind. Era bine, cald i George i simea membrele ca de plumb. Colonelul le

spuse c vor dormi toat ziua i spre sear vor porni spre apus. Mna i se umflase tare, o privea mereu,
cltinnd din cap. (Titus Popovici - Setea)
b)Pomponescu era obinuit s aib la mas cte un invitat cel puin. Cnd anticamera era plin, reinea pe
rnd cte unul. Acum nu mai avea de unde face alegere, i prnzul i cina erau foarte morocnoase. Madam
Pomponescu urmri cu telefonul pe cunoscui , dar acetia fie c nu raspundeau, fie c se scuzau. Numai
Smrndache veni de vreo dou ori i o data Hagienu, care nainte de a intra pe poart, privi cu atenie n
toate prile. Nu era la n halul lui Sufleel , totui avea convingerea c o relaie deschis cu Pomponescu
nu-i fr risc. (George Clinescu Scrinul negru)
c)* ntr-o crcium, un mahalagiu se mpinse n prin, imagin exclamaii inexistente din partea acestuia il lu de gt , cu intenia precis de a l sili s se nfurie i apoi s l loveasc cu un briceag. Agenii edeau la
o parte, gata de a aresta pe mahalagiul agresor, cruia i se promisese o imediat eliberare pentru caz de
legitim aprare i o substanial recompens bneasc. Din pcate, Hangerliu unea calmul cu o for
herculian, foarte bine disimulat n moliciunea gesturilor sale. Cnd individul l prinse de gt , Hangerliu
apuc mna ipochimenului i o desprinse, aruncnd-o cu atta facilitate i o comic strambatur de
comptimire, nct lumea ncepu s rd. Atins n onoarea lui de punga , individul se arunc furios la
Hangerliu. Acesta l pocni cu dosul palmei fr nici o sforare i l ls lat lng mas, dup care isprav
iei din local, nesuprat de nimeni. De atunci ns nu mai frecvent localurile suspecte i alese ca unic loc
de ntlnire Capa .
(George Clinescu Scrinul negru)
d) Hagienu se uita la copiii lui ca la ochii din cap, ncntndu-l chiar i impertinena lor, i nu prindea
necaz pe ei nici cnd ii fceau pozne ca acelea mpotriva guvernantei. N-avea ncredere, cu toate astea, n
ei, pentru c filozofia lui spunea c, prin legea naturii, copiii nltur pe btrni. (George Clinescu
Scrinul negru)
e) A fost odata o ar unde toata lumea fura. Noaptea, toi locuitorii ieeau cu peraclul i cu lanterna
mascat n mn ca s foreze casa vreunui vecin. Se ntorcea fiecare n zori ncrcat, dar i gsea casa
n felul acesta toi triau n deplin nelegere i nepgubii, pentru c unul fura de la altul, iar acesta, la
rndul lui, de la un al treilea i aa mai departe, pn se ajungea la ultimul care fura de la primul. Comerul
practicat n ara aceea echivala cu o tragere pe sfoar att pentru cel care vindea ct i pentru cel ce
cumpra. Guvernul era o congregaie de delicven n dauna supuilor, care, la rndul lor, nu aveau alt gnd
dect s pcleasca guvernul. Aa c viaa continua fr hopuri, neexistnd nici bogai nici sraci.
S-a ntmplat ns, nu se tie cum, ca n ara aceea s existe un om cinstit. n loc s ias noaptea cu sacul
i lanterna, sttea n cas, fuma i citea romane.
Hoii veneau, vedeau lumina aprins i nu mai urcau.
Treaba a mers asa o bucat de vreme, dar au fost nevoii s-i dea de neles c n-avea dect s triasc
fr s fac nimic, ns nu era cazul s-i mpiedice prin felul lui de a fi pe ceilali s o fac. Fiecare noapte
petrecut de el n cas nsemna s lai o familie fr hran n ziua urmtoare.
n faa acestor argumente, omul cinstit nu avea replic. ncepu i el s ias seara din cas i s se ntoarc
a doua zi dar nu se ducea s fure. Cinstit cum era, n-aveai ce s-i faci. Se ducea pe pod i privea apa care
curgea pe dedesubt; la ntoarcere i gsea casa jefuit.
n mai puin de o sptmn, cinstitul se trezi fr un ban, fr nimic de mncare i cu casa goal. Pn
aici, nimic grav, pentru c vina era a lui; necazul e c din cauza modului su de a proceda se deregla totul.
Pentru c el se lsa furat, fr s fure de la careva; din aceast pricin se gsea mereu cte unul care, la
ntoarcere i gsea casa neatins: casa de unde ar fi trebuit s jefuiasca el. Cert e c, dup o vreme, cei care
nu fuseser prdai erau mai bogai dect ceilali i n-au mai vrut s fure. Iar, pe de alt parte, cei ce veneau
s fure de la omul cinstit, gseau casa goal; aa ajungeau s srceasc.
ntre timp, cei ce se mbogiser au prins i ei obiceiul s se duc pe pod s vad cum curge apa pe
dedesubt. Ceea ce a accentuat dereglarea, pentru c au fost mult mai muli cei care s-au mbogit i muli
alii care au srcit. Bogaii i-au dat ns seama c, mergnd noaptea pe pod, dup o vreme aveau s
srceasc. Ce s-au gndit? S pltim nite sraci care s fure n contul nostru. Au fost ncheiate
contracte, au fost stabilite salariile, procentele: firete, tot hoi erau i ncercau s se trag pe sfoar unii pe
alii. Dar, aa cum se ntmpl de obicei, bogaii deveneau tot mai bogai, iar sracii tot mai sraci.
Existau bogai att de bogai nct nu mai aveau nevoie s fure sau s pun pe alii s fure ca s rmn n
continuare bogai. Dar dac nu mai prdau, srceau, pentru c nevoiaii furau de la ei. Atunci i-au pltit pe
cei mai sraci dintre sraci ca s-i apere averea de ceilali sraci. Aa au ajuns s instituie poliia i s
ridice nchisori.

n felul acesta, la numai civa ani de la ntmplarea cu omul cinstit, nu se mai vorbea de mers la furat i
de a fi furat, ci numai de bogai i sraci; n ciuda acestui fapt, continuau s fie cu toii nite hoi.
Cinstit nu fusese dect omul nostru, care a murit curnd, de foame. (Italo Calvino O lume de hoi)

Consider the following fragment representing a description of a famous city and its inhabitants.
What are the grammatical devices the author uses to make generalizations? Does the type of the
text (i.e. description) dictate the authors choice in point of tense forms, syntax, etc.?
I love the night. In Venice, a long time ago, when we had our own calendar and stayed aloof from the
world, we began the days at night. What use was the sun to us when our trade and our secrets and our
diplomacy depended on darkness? In the dark you are in disguise and this is the city of disguises. In those
days (I cannot place them in time because time is to do with daylight), in those days when the sun went
down we opened our doors and slid along the eely waters with a hooded light in our prow. All our boats
were black then and left no mark on the water where they sat. We were dealing in perfume and silk.
Emeralds and diamonds. Affairs of the state. We didnt build our bridges simply to avoid walking on water.
Nothing so obvious. A bridge is a meeting place. A neutral place. A casual place. Enemies will choose to
meet on a bridge and end their quarrel in that void. One will cross the other side. The other will not return.
For lovers, a bridge is a possibility, a metaphor of their chances. And for the traffic in whispered goods,
where else but a bridge in the night?
We are a philosophical people, conversant with the nature of greed and desire, holding hands with the
Devil and God. We would not wish to let go of either. This living bridge is tempting to all and you may lose
your soul or find it here. (Jeanette Winterson The Passion)
1. FORMAL STYLE. Read the following advertisement for a job. Write a letter of application for the job.
Local doctor seeks nurse in training to work as Saturday assistant. Training will be provided. The
successful applicant will be bright and quick to learn, possibly with an interest in working full-time. An
ability to deal with the public is required. No experience necessary. Good rates of pay.
Apply in writing to Pamela Forster, M.D., 17 High Street
Tips: Do not use a conversational, chatty style. Try to choose words and expressions that are formal,
but not too archaic. Keep your style simple and informative, do not use very long and elaborate
sentences or give too many details. Do not state why you need the job, but try to present relevant
information about yourself.

CONVERSATION AND STYLE. Write a conversation between Mr. and Mrs. Nouveau Richards or
Mr. and Mrs. Definitely Disgusting. Try to think about the words and expressions that these persons
would use today in a conversation.

Glastonbury Festival

Whatever happened to the counterculture?
IF YOU are planning to go to Glastonbury, Britains biggest pop festival, this weekend, you had
better go prepared. You will need your unique, personalised ticket and a bank statement, drivers licence or
debit card to prove your identity. Anyone with no tickets and hippy ideas about free love and free music will
have a 12-foot-tall, four-mile-long perimeter fence to scale. There will also be spot checks for cars without
tickets within a 15-mile radius and patrolling guards in Land Rovers. With this kind of security Michael
Eavis, who runs the event, might consider offering to host the next G8 summit.

How different from 1970, when the first Glastonbury Fayre attracted about 1,500 curious revellers
to a single field for a laid-back weekend of folk and blues. Admission was one pound ($2,40), and that
included free milk. The next year entry was free. Todays tickets cost ten times as much in real terms and
must be ordered online or by phone. The emphasis is now on security, safety and making sure that the
115,000 people who have paid are the only ones allowed in.
So does all this dilute the freewheeling spirit that made the festival so popular in the first place?
Official advice is to bring those twin symbols of modern capitalism a credit card and a mobile phone. The
high ticket prices seem likely to prevent some of the more colourful elements from turning up. Reflecting
on the kind of people who attend the modern event, one Glastonbury regular said: The ticket price and the
method of buying, plus the huge fence, creates a Glastonbury that reflects the rich/poor divide in the rest of
the society, rather than being the anti-establishment, free, fun, inclusive summer outing it once was.
There is a family-oriented camping ground for parents with young children, sensible advice on
noise levels and reminders not to drink to excess. Even the ablutions are upwardly mobile: The showers
seem to get busier and more high-tech every year. You dont see many soap-dodgers or smelly teenagers.
And hardly and Scousers.
To be fair to Mr Eavis, the local council, which gives him his entertainment licence, demands the
security measures. The festival was cancelled on public safety grounds in 2001 after an estimated 200,000
people had turned up the year before nearly 100,000 more than the council had allowed. The safetyconscious, child-friendly festival has become a fixture in polite society more middle class than Middle
(The Economist, June26th, 2004)

In sociology, counterculture is a term used to describe a cultural group
whose values and norms are at odds with those of the social mainstream, a
cultural equivalent of a political opposition. In casual practice, the term
came to prominence in the general press as it was used to refer to the
youth rebellion that swept North America and Western Europe in the
1960s and early 1970s. During the particular countercultural development
of the mid 1960s to mid 1970s, new cultural forms that were perceived as
opposed to the old emerged, including the pop music of the Beatles,
which rapidly evolved to shape and reflect the youth culture's emphasis
on change and experimentation. Underground newspapers sprang up in
most cities and college towns, serving to define and communicate the
range of phenomena that defined the counterculture: radical political
opposition to "the establishment," colorful experimental (and often
explicity drug-influenced) approaches to art, music and cinema, and
uninhibited indulgence in sex and drugs as a symbol of freedom. The
most visible radical element of this counterculture were the hippies, some
of whom formed communes to live as far outside of the established
system as possible.

Read the text carefully and explain the phrase personalised ticket.
Correlate the personalised ticket, bank statement, drivers licence, debit card with the class references
made at the end of the article.
Comment on the relevance of the title (Papers, please) with respect to the point the article tries to
How do you explain the contrast established between security and freedom, child-friendliness and
Comment upon the phrase more colourful elements that the author uses in the text. Find other
words/phrases in the text that refer to such colourful elements. Is colour relevant in any way in this


Why does the author choose the word ablutions in correlation to the attribute upwardly mobile?
Explain the meaning of soap-dodgers, smelly teenagers and Scousers. Are these terms class
8. What does the author mean by polite society?
9. Comment on the ironical tinge in the comparison more middle class than Middle Earth. Is there any
literary reference that you can identify? Is this reference relevant for the topic of this article?
10. The last paragraph begins with the phrase to be fair to Mr Eavis. Comment on the use of the adjective
fair in this context. Correlate it to the authors point of view.
1. Fill in the blanks with words and phrases from the text above:
1. There is sensible advice on noise levels and reminders not to drink ___________.
2. The safety-_______, child-_______ festival has become a fixture in polite society.
3. Todays tickets cost ten times _______ much.
4. Anyone with no tickets will have a 12-_______, four-_________ perimeter fence to scale.
5. The first festival attracted curious __________ to a single field for a _________ weekend of folk and
6. So does all this dilute the _________ spirit of the festival?
CONVERSION. Consider the following instances of conversion in the text:
one Glastonbury regular said
The ticket price and the method of buying creates a Glastonbury that reflects the rich/poor divide.
Translate the following. Comment on how the underlined items were formed:
1. I like a quiet read after supper. 2. Lets go for a spin. 3. Hes such a bore and a cheat. 4. She was having
a good cry. 5. He had several goes at the coconut shy. 6. Hes always on the go. 7. The water is off the boil.
8. They showed nothing but repeats on TV last night. 9. A visit to the Louvre is a must for every tourist in
Paris. 10. He elbowed his way through the crowd. 11. He is always aping his superiors. 12. Our cat has
kittened. 13. Misfortune dogged his steps. 14. His hair was beginning to grey. 15. Dont idle away your
time. 16. He pooh-poohed my warning. 17. You must take the rough with the smooth. 18. The long and
the short of it is that he hates his work. 19. Men are such sillies. 20. Jacks a dear. 21. She was carrying a
crate of empties. 22. She has become an undesirable. 23. She chose the blue silk for the ball. 24. Toms in
the pink of health. 25. Im not at my brightest when I wake up in the morning. 26. Thats a biggie! 27.
Hes one of the baddies.
Supply the preposition/particle that is missing:
a. If you want to play .fire, play .. him. He passes .the most dangerous bachelor
in this town.
b. The idea is related .what she was saying. Compared my own idea, hers is the
clearer .the two.
c. I have lost everything, exceptthe back. Come to think . it, hes not a
bad player at all, a priest. Im not so good playing poker myself.
d. If it hadnt been ..mother, I would have been .big trouble. As it is, I am very
grateful .. her timely intervention.
e. Get .my head, Im so busy cooking right now!
f. Dont be rude..her, shes your best friend. Stop laughing ..her in such a manner!
g. Are you angry .. me? You said you were mad .. me and I could see you were black
h. She did this ..fear and I couldnt stop her making a fool .herself.
i. You shouldnt feel envious or jealous ..other people, no matter how eager .. praise
you might be.
j. Apart what I, I left everything husband so I could find it
when I get back..the trip.


Alec took advantage .Tesss innocence. He had runher and tempted her
gifts until she had given .. to his demands.
l. ..that story, I think that wed better put it us for good. We should try to make .
and look for another place to live
m. Huck went a lot of pain and suffering, but ..end he was rewarded. ..the same
time, his friend Tom got a lot of experience their adventures.
n. her admirers, she has a marked preference .John. He really know how to talk her
.doing what he wants.
o. He bowed..her and said he would see her because she should not walk alone at
p. You cannot approve..his bad manners! He can never be depended .. to behave himself,
but ..least you can put him ..his place.
It would not be possible .the short space available a general history to enter..detail of
the varying fortunes of these states during the early period. The history of these centuries is an intricate
record.war and intrigue, which is chiefly interest in the occasional light thrown .feudal
customs and social conditions. Here all that will be attempted is .give a survey to the old Chinese
feudal age, when the old order still held intact, though fast verging decay.
The Son of Heaven wastheory the supreme lord of the land. When his vassals came court,
which they were supposed to dofrequent intervals, they were bounda strict ceremonial
which laid emphasis their inferior degree.
4*. COMPLEX VERB: TURN. Translate into English, using the verb turn + particle:
1. Nu pot s neleg cum ai putut s te ntorci mpotriva propriilor ti prini. 2. Dup cum s-a dovedit mai
apoi, n-a mai fost nevoie s explic de ce nu i cumprasem cadou. 3. Nici n-are sens s i mai bai capul cu
ce s te mbraci. N-ai s o ntreci pe Susan, tii bine c e mereu bine mbrcat. 4. L-a ntors din drum
pentru c oseaua era blocat. 5. Pi ar cam fi timpul s m duc la culcare. 6. i m-a btut atta la cap c
nu am mai avut chef de nimic! 7. Ia uite, iar mi-a ntors vntul umbrela pe dos! 8. Dup ce a rmas
nsrcinat, prinii au dat-o afar din cas fr s le mai pese de ea. 9. Compania noastr scoate cel putin
150 de milioane pe an. 10. Autoritile de la vam l-au predat pe infractor poliitilor. 11. Nu tiu la cine a
putea apela pentru o mn de ajutor. 12. Pn la urm s-a dovedit c nu minise deloc i toat lumea a fost
jenat de ntorstura evenimentelor.
Consider the following examples extracted from the text above. We have chosen to underline those
elements that are responsible for the presence of gerundial structures in the respective sentences:

The high ticket prices seem likely to prevent some of the more colourful elements from turning up.
Michael Eavis, who runs the event, might consider offering to host the next G8 summit.
The emphasis is now on security, safety and making sure that
The ticket price and the method of buying creates a Glastonbury that reflects the rich/poor divide.

As you have noticed from the examples offered here, there are two main classes of items that require
the presence of gerunds. One important grammatical category that takes gerunds as its complements is that
of prepositions (see examples 3 and 4). The other class is represented by a special kind of verbs (examples
1 and 2).
What is the difference between these two classes? While in the case of prepositions the elements that
they combine with are predictable (either nouns or gerunds), in the case of verbs, things are not as easily
predicted. This is so because we expect verbs to be followed by infinitives or that clauses and because
most verbs behave according to our expectations. However, there are a few notable exceptions. This means
that while we do not necessarily need to memorize any kind of combinations between prepositions and ing

forms we definitely need to learn by heart and remember those verbs that normally combine with gerundial
structures (or with prepositions and gerundial structures, for that matter). We offer this list below:
1. Verb + Gerund (Direct Object)
a)avoid, adore, bear, chance (risk), contemplate, dread, dislike, detest, drop,
end up, enjoy, escape, evade, feign, finish, give up, hate, keep, leave off, love,
miss, postpone, put off, play, practise, risk, resume, renounce, shirk, cant
resist, help, stand, grudge
b)condemn, consider (think over), justify, ensure, include, entail, necessitate,
encourage, defer, delay, excuse, pardon, defend, detest, support, sanction,
oppose, criticize, favour
c)* resent, regret, grasp, perceive, repent, deplore, ignore, care (about), bear
in mind, mind, reveal, discover, disclose
d)* admit, emphasise, explain, mention, announce, point out, verify, mean,
acknowledge, certify, testify, doubt, deny, imagine, imply, etc.
* these classes have alternative that complements:
E.g. She regretted writing the letter.
She regretted that she had written the letter.

2. Verb/Adjective + Gerund (Prepositional Object)

a)about: care, hesitate, hurry, see, talk, dispute, brag; careful, anxious,
annoyed, particular, positive, scrupulous, glad, sorry, happy, excited, right,
wrong, etc.
E.g. He was diffident about telling her the truth.
b)against: rule, exclaim, murmur, fight, vote; be dead against
E.g. He exclaimed against her being married off.
c)at: blush, delight, laugh, rejoice, stare; angry, astonished, embarrassed,
impatient, surprised, stunned.
E.g. She was transported at hearing the news.
d)for: answer, vote, care, prepare; prepared, ready, responsible, fit, qualified,
E.g. Ill answer for him being there in time.
e)from: abstain, arise, come, emerge, result, desist, discourage, escape,
refrain, shrink, forbear, prevent, etc.
E.g. She cant abstain from eating chocolate.
f)in: believe, consist, join, assist, fail, end, persist, succeed, delight, take
delight/pleasure/pride etc.; absorbed, deep, instrumental, right, etc.
E.g. I took pleasure in repeating the poem over and over again.
g)of: admit, approve, complain, despair, think; aware, shy, jealous, envious,
sure, weary, worthy, etc.
E.g. His answer was indicative of his wanting to take revenge.
h)on: decide, vote, depend, insist, fix, pride oneself on; bent, keen, set, intent,
resolved, etc.
E.g. She was keen on wrecking his world.
i) to: admit, address, take to, confine oneself, consent, confess, resort, object,
vouch, look forward, be used to, stoop to; committed, confined, opposed,
equal, superior, averse, party
E.g. She wasnt averse to him joining in for a card game.
j) with: put up, dispense, content, busy oneself; content, pleased, satisfied,
E.g. She is content with sitting there for hours.

I would
love/hate to go
to that party.

I regret to say
that you are

Nota bene!
There are cases in which deverbal nouns (i.e. those nouns derived from the verbs we have mentioned)
retain the ability of combining with a preposition and a gerund:
E.g. His objection to sleeping there was dismissed out of hand.
1. Fill in the blanks with the right preposition:
1. Mrs. Touchett was right _______ guessing that Isabel disapproved _______ visiting them.
2. She had indeed spent some days _______ analysing them, and had succeeded _______ separating the
pleasant part of this idea _______ Lord Warburtons making love to her from the painful.
3. He was a man who for the greater part of a lifetime has abstained without effort _______ making
himself disagreable to his friends.
4. The idea _______ her managing Lord Warburton failed to correspond to any vision of happiness that
she had hitherto entertained, or was now capable _______ entertaining.
5. Mrs. Touchett did not figure in the list, and this was an obstacle the less ________ Isabels finding her
uncle alone.
6. She was far ______ understanding the contradictions among her new impressions.
7. Such incongruities were not a help _______ answering Mr. Goodwoods letter, and Isabel determined
to leave it awhile unanswered. If he had determined to persecute her, he must take the consequences;
foremost among which was his being left to perceive that she did not approve ______ his coming to
Gandecourt. She was already liable to the incursions of one suitor at this place, and though it might be
pleasant to be appreciated in opposite quarters, Isabel had a personal shrinking _______ entertaining
two lovers at once, even in a case where the entertainment should consist _______ dismissing them.
8. She took no pleasure _______ recalling Lord Warburtons magnanimous disappointment.
9. Fact is there is a good deal of temerity _____ my undertaking to amuse a person like you.
10. Our heroine had always passed for a person of resources and had taken a certain pride _______ being
11. I neednt be afraid _______ becoming too pliable; it is my fault that I am not pliable enough.
12. That is the supreme good fortune: to be in a better position ______ appreciating people than they are
______ appreciating you.
13. Of painting she was devotedly fond, and made no more ______ taking a sketch than ______ pulling off
her gloves.
14. For Isabels benefit she threw a great deal of light upon the customs of the country and the character of
the people, who after all, as she was fond _______ saying, were the finest people in the world.
15. These signs of intimacy multiplied as the days elapsed, and there was none of which Isabel was more
sensible than of her companions preference ________ making Miss Archer herself a topic.
16. She had not congratulated this young lady on her accession of fortune and begged to be excused
_______ doing so. If Mr. Touchett had consulted me ________ leaving you the money, she frankly
said, I would have said to him, Never!
17. Your newly acquired thousands will shut you up more to the society of a few selfish heartless people,
who will be interested ______ keeping up these illusions.
18. Ralph Touchett had praised his cousin _______ being morally inflammable; that is, ______ being
quick to take a hint that was meant as good advice. His advice had perhaps helped the matter; at any
rate before she left San Remo she had grown used _______ feeling rich.
19. The Countess found the time ripe _______ saying something discordant.
20. If you mean that I am not so clever as he, you must not think I shall suffer ______ your saying it.
21. There is nothing in life to prevent her ______ marrying Osmond, if she only looks at him in a certain
way. That is all very well; no one approves more than I _______ ones pleasing ones self.
22. An Italian nobleman had perhaps given her some excuse ______ attempting to quench the
consciousness of her neglect.
23. It was a long time since one had heard anything about her, and there could be no better proof ______
her having renounced the error of her ways than her desire to become a member of Mrs. Touchetts
circle. Isabel could contribute nothing to this interesting dispute, not even a patient attention; she
contented herself ________ having given a friendly welcome to the Countess Gemini, who, whatever
her defects, had at least the merit of being Mr. Osmonds sister.


Translate into English the following sentences, by making use of gerundial clauses:
Nu pot sa nu m gndesc c n-ai avut dreptate s i donezi tot salariul pentru campania electoral.
Pn la urm, chit c-i place s te uii la telenovele, va trebui s ncerci s te uii i la alte genuri de
filme dac vrei s treci drept un om cult.
Are tendina s spun adevrul chiar i atunci cnd e sigur c va da cu bta n balt.
Nu mai am de gnd s tolerez ascultatul de muzic la ore trzii, s fie clar.
mi pare sincer ru c n-ai reuit s o convingi i sugerez abordarea unui alt plan.
Nu era deloc mpotriva unei partide de poker dac sorii i erau prielnici.
Mi-aduc bine aminte c acum o lun spuneai c abia atepi s-o vezi.
Dl. Jones a avut un rol decisiv n acordarea premiului nti candidatei noastre.
A sfrit prin a-i mrturisi c n-are nici o vin pentru nenorocirea care s-a petrecut n casa lor.
Nu tiu de ce continui s insiti s mi dau demisia. n ultima vreme m-am strduit s muncesc mai
Te-ai luat de butur? Sau mi se pare mie? Uite n ce hal eti: te clatini pe picioare i i se mpleticete
limba n gur!
Nu mai pot s amn ruperea contractului, altfel risc s am i mai multe neplceri.
N-am de gnd s m cobor pn ntr-acolo nct s-i spun ce cred despre el. Da, e pislog i idiot, dar
are i prile lui bune.
Cred c ar fi bine s te limitezi la a-i face meseria n loc s obiectezi la avansarea colegului tu.
Nu suport s-l aud vorbind urt, dei tiu c-i face o plcere nebun s i mpung pe alii.
Dac ai de gnd s recurgi la trimiterea unei scrisori anonime ca s i distrugi reputaia, eu mi iau
mna de pe tine.
tii bine c mai bine moare dect s te vad chiulind. Mai bine i faci temele i te duci mine la
Nu vezi c se ncpneaz s termine proiectul n ciuda lipsei de bani i materiale? Rdem noi de ce
face, dar s-ar putea s ne dea cu tifla pn la urm.
Se mndrete c este cel mai detept om din grupul lui, dei nevast-sa nu ar fi chiar de aceeai prere.
Contez pe el s rezolve problema pentru c tiu c e o treab care merit fcut cum trebuie.


INFORMAL LETTER. Imagine you are a middle class teenager attending the Woodstock festival.
Write a letter to your best friend telling him your impressions about it.
REPORT. Imagine you are a reporter that has to cover the Glanstonbury festival. Write a piece about it
for The Sun or any other tabloid of your choice.


Democracy Stirs in the Middle East
Americas detractors are having to admit that its often clodhopping policies may be starting to work.
It has been an extraordinary hopeful few weeks in the habitually dank and depressing politics of the
Middle East. In the wake of an unprecedented general election in Iraq and an admirably genuine
presidential one in Palestine, tens of thousands of Lebanese people, from a kaleidoscope of religious
groups, have been marching together on the streets of their capital, Beirut, calling for democracy and the
removal of their anti-democratic occupiers, the Syrians. Syrias government is plainly nonplussed by the
outburst of people power and may even risk losing its clammy grip back home. No less astonishingly,
Egypts ruling autocrat, Hosni Mubarak, after some 24 years in unfettered control, suddenly felt obliged to
announce that he would allow the opposition, albeit a satanised version of it, to put up a candidate (or
more) against him when he faces re-election later this year. No less strikingly, modest but notable steps
towards democracy have recently been taken in the heart of Arab despotism, Saudi Arabia, where multicandidate (though non-party) elections for local government took place last month. The Saudi foreign
minister this week promised that next time round, yes, even women would be able to vote and run for
So is it an unstoppable roll that will lead to peace and democracy across the region? Absolutely not at
any rate, not yet. The Middle East is still a dangerous mess. The despots are not becoming democrats
overnight, and the Americans know it is risky to promote ideas that threaten the regimes of some of their
closest yet far from democratic allies in the wider region, such as Pakistan, Egypt, Jordan and Saudi Arabia.
Despite the apparent vindication of Americas pro-democracy policy, Mr Bush must still tread warily:
it is for Arabs to democratise, not for Americans-despite the example of Iraq-to impose their ideas by force.
Yet Arab rulers must realise, as many of them now seem reluctantly ready to do, that they cannot remain
deaf to the democracy call. With more and more of their people watching their Lebanese, Palestinian and
Iraqi brothers on the street and at the polling station, the era of despotic stagnation is steadily drawing to an
(from The Economist, March 5th 11th 2005)

I. Paraphrase:
in the wake of the elections, unprecedented elections, outburst of violence, to lose ones grip, no less
strikingly, to run for office, unfettered economic activity.
II. Answer the following questions:

The text describes the policies of the United States as clodhopping. Given the meaning of the
word clodhopper that has been provided above, what does that signify in the context? To what
aspect of American policies could the term refer?
The Middle East policies are described as dank and depressing. Argue for or against the use of
such a term according to the previous knowledge that you have of the topic.
Why does the author of the article think that it is admirable that people from a kaleidoscope of
religious groups have marched together?
What does the use of the phrase clammy grip suggest about the attitude of the Syrian
What is the authors attitude concerning the elections in Egypt? Is the image he conveys a
favourable one?
Why would it be astonishing that women should be allowed to vote in Saudi Arabia?
Why does the author think that these events will not lead to peace and democracy in the region?
The author speaks about an apparent vindication of Americas pro-democracy policy. Why does
he describe this vindication as only apparent?

I. Improve your vocabulary:
1. clodhoppers a pair of heavy strong shoes
2. British English informal an awkward person that lacks finesse
albeit (formal)
adds information that reduces the force or importance of the things one has said
synonym: although
She finally accepted the proposal, albeit with some reluctance.
II. Exercises:
1*. POLYSEMY: MESS. Translate the following sentences using the noun and verb mess together
with the phrasal verbs that contain it.

Cine a fcut mizerie n camera mea?

Soldaii trebuiau s se prezinte a doua zi la popota ofierilor.
mi pare ru c a trebuit s m vezi plngnd. Cred c art absolut groaznic.
Copilul tu e o pacoste. Nu poate s ias afar fr s-i murdreasc hainele.
Tom e puin cam tulburat dup cele ce s-au ntmplat azi.
Nu tiu dac drumul ctre Uniunea European al acestei ri va fi uor. Economia este nc ntr-o
stare dezastruoas.
Dac te pui cu mine, o s-i par ru!
Am rspuns bine la examen, dar cred c am cam dat-o n bar cu ultima ntrebare.
Nu te mai prosti i d-mi aparatul de fotografiat cu care vd c te tot joci ca s m enervezi!

10. M-am sturat pur i simplu ca de fiecare dat cnd greete Bill s trebuiasc s dreg eu lucrurile
n urma lui.
11. i place pur i simplu s repare mainile vechi ale prietenilor si pe gratis.
12. Paul i-a prsit soia pentru c a prins-o fcndu-i de cap cu alt brbat.
13. mi cer scuze, dar n apartamentul sta este dezordine.
14. Este jenant, dar trebuie s-i spun c pisoiul tu iar i-a fcut nevoile pe covor.
2. IDIOMS: GRIP. Fill in the blanks with one suitable idiom:
loosen ones grip, get a grip, get a grip on sth, keep a grip on sth, be in the grip of sth, come to grips with

The country was ...... of famine when they left and many people died from hunger.
Shes a good teacher, but I never really...... with the course shes been teaching.
The dictator had........ almost half of the continent for over fifty years.
For Gods sake......! Youre overreacting!
Syrias government will have to ......the Lebanese regions.
If you dont.....reality, youll end up in a mental hospital.

3*. POLYSEMY: ROLL. Translate using either the noun or the verb roll, including the phrasal verbs
that contain it:

Sticla s-a rostogolit pe podea la picioarele lui.

Dei i curgeau lacrimile pe obraz, femeia a reuit s-i nbue durerea i s vorbeasc despre
nenorocirile care i se ntmplaser.
Cred c ar trebui s lum cu noi trei filme n vacan, pentru c vor fi multe poze de fcut.
nchide, te rog, fereastra! Doar tii c nu-mi place s merg cu maina cu ferestrele deschise.
Nu-i mai da ochii peste cap de cte ori te superi pe mine, pentru c nu-mi pas oricum de prerea
Nu e bine s stai tot timpul pe burt. ntoarce-te pe partea cealalt!
Banii au nceput s curg de ndat ce au preluat afacerea aceea falimentar de la noii proprietari.
De la castel se auzea tot timpul un rpit de tobe.
ncercarea guvernului de-a reduce preurile era menit s rectige ncrederea populaiei nainte
de alegeri.
Nu era gras, ns ave a colaci de grsime pe burt, care-i ddeau o nfiare neplcut.
i place mncarea oriental i se nnebunete dup rulourile cu ou care se servesc la restaurantul
chinezesc din col.
Sincer s spun mi s-a fcut grea din pricina ruliului vasului cu care mergeam.
Jocul are i o regul destul de simpl: cine d cu zarul un ase de prima dat, are voie s-i mute
pionul de dou ori.
De-abia cnd profesorul a strigat catalogul au observat ceilali c Tim nu era acolo.
Tom i privi prietenul cum i potrivea o igar i se gndi c e mai ieftin s-i faci igrile aa
dect s dai zilnic bani pe cte un pachet de igri.
Spltoreasa umbla tot timpul cu mnecile suflecate.
Vrei s fac hrtia asta sul sau mai degrab preferi s-o mpturesc?
Bill privea cum crua se ndeprta ncet de cas.
Ca s faci aluatul pentru prjitura asta, i trebuie neaprat un sucitor.
Mama lui Tom a fost mndr s vad numele fiului ei pe lista de onoare cu cei mai viteji ostai
care luptaser n acel rzboi.

4. SEMANTIC FIELDS: TO BELONG OR NOT TO BELONG. Here are some words related to the
status of people or of things in the countries of this world. Fill in the blanks with the suitable words:
foreign, foreigner, alien, naturalized, multinational, native, stranger, abroad, overseas, domestic, local,
expatriate, immigrant, refugee


Many illegal.........were given citizenship and the right to vote under the new law.
A lot of people are now working....., since they cant find work in their own country.
There are a lot of in Canada.
Although he was born in Syria, now hes a ......British citizen.
The University will be happy to receive both British and.....students.
She was very miserable at first in that country, since both the people and the environment were her.
The UN is a.....force that plays a vital part in the peace-keeping process.
Hes been living in London for a the last couple of years, although hes a.......of Yorkshire.
I think that the natives of this region speak a.....dialect that has several interesting features.
The..........minister promised that Romanians wont need visas in order to travel abroad.
The minister promised that he was going to be active in both foreign and......policy.
The country had long been harbouring many political......, which had protested against the
oppressive regime of their own country.
You can come to our house any time you like. Dont be a...... !
They immediately knew him for a ..... because of the heavily accented English he spoke.

(1) Americas detractors are having to admit that its often clodhopping policies may be starting to work.
(They are forced to admit it.)
(2) Yet Arab rulers must realise, as many of them now seem reluctantly ready to do, that they cannot remain
deaf to the democracy call. (They are forced to realise.)
As you can see, both sentences given above express obligation. In sentence one obligation is expressed by
using the modal equivalent have to, while in sentence (2), the modal verb must is used.
i. Preliminaries
Compare both sentences.
1. What is the formal distinction between a modal verb and a modal equivalent?
2. Give examples of other modal verbs and modal equivalents.
3. What are the properties that distinguish modal verbs from other verbs?
4. What are the properties that distinguish modal verbs (which can be seen as a subcategory of auxiliary
verbs) from the auxiliary verbs be, have, will?
a.How different are the forms of a modal verb from the forms of a modal equivalent?
Modal verbs lack agreement forms in the indicative present, IIId person singular
*musts versus has to
Modal verbs combine only with bare infinitive forms
* Sue must to go. versus Sue has to go.
b.Look at the following examples. What other distinctions between the forms of must and have to
do they illustrate?
a. Must I go to the party?
No, you mustnt.
b. Do I have to go the party?
No, you dont have to.

ii. Modals are defective

The distinction from the point of view of form between must, which is a modal verb, and its equivalent
have to, can be seen if we try to replace the progressive form of have to in sentence 1, by a form of must.
This would be impossible, since must is a defective verb, which means that it lacks certain verbal forms, as
the following examples show:
Modal verbs lack infinitive forms and progressive forms
* to must versus to have to
*Hes musting to reconsider it.
versus Hes having to reconsider it.
Certain modal verbs do not have past forms
* Sue musted go. versus She had to go.
Modal verbs do not combine with the auxiliary will in order to express the future
* She will must do that. versus She will have to do that
iii. But if modals lack certain forms, then what do they use instead?
Modal equivalents are verbal forms that are equivalent in meaning to modal verbs and possess, as
underlined above, all the forms that modals lack.
Instead of must one uses have to, for the progressive, for the past and for the future, as shown in the
examples above.
i. Meanings: Obligation and Probability
We have seen that must and have to are equivalent in meaning, in spite of their difference in form. The
question that follows is, naturally, whether must and have to are completely equivalent in meaning. In
order to answer it, we will have to take a look at the meanings of both must and have to.
Both must and have to have the meanings of obligation and probability.
a. Obligation
1. You must work harder, if you want to pass the exam. (It is compulsory that you should work harder)
2. You have to work harder, if you want to pass the exam. (It is compulsory that you should work harder)
Other modals as well express obligation such as should, need or ought to. A more extensive description of
these modals in their obligation value is offered in the sections below.
b. Probability
3. Bill must be in his office. I saw his car outside. (Bill is probably in the office)
4. Bill has to be in the office. I saw his car outside. (Bill is probably in the office)
Probability is also expressed by the modals should, ought to and infrequently by need.
5. Bill should be in his office.
6. Bill ought to be in his office.
7. I need look very changed, if you dont recognize me. (I probably look changes).
ii. How can we distinguish between obligation and probability?
Generally, from the point of view of meaning, the context in which must/have to are placed can tell you
when to expect probability or obligation. The context can also help us from the point of view of form:

1. Bill must talk to Susan.

2. Bill must be talking to Susan.
3. Bill must have talked to Susan.

obligation ( Bill hasnt talked to Susan yet)

probability (Bill is in the process of talking to Susan)
probability (Bill has already talked to Susan)

As we can see, the meaning of obligation or probability depends on the form of the verb with which the
modal combines. If the verb is in the present infinitive, then here the meaning is that of obligation, since, in
this context, the present infinitive indicates that this action hasnt taken place yet, and the modal underlines
that it is obligatory. If the verb is in the perfect or progressive infinitive, the meaning is that of probability,
since these infinitives indicate either that this action has probably happened or that it is in course of
4. Bill had to open the door.
5. Bill must have opened the door.

obligation (not probability)

probability (not obligation)

As you can see in the examples above, both actions express the past, but the one in which the past form of
have to is used expresses obligation and the one in which must combines with the perfect infinitive
expresses probability. Thus, for probability, past reference is established due to the use of the perfect
infinitive, while for obligation, a past form of the main verb (in this case an equivalent of must) is used.
Generalization: In its obligation meaning, must can combine only with the
present infinitive. In its probability meaning, must combines with the perfect
infinitive, the present infinitive for state verbs (be, have etc.) and with the
progressive infinitive (for non-state verbs).
6. Bill must open the door.
7. Bill must have opened the door.
8. This door must be open.


We can see from the sentences given above that, while in its obligation meaning, the modal must combines
with an animate subject (Bill) in its probability meaning the modal combines with both an animate subject
(Bill) and an inanimate subject (the door). This is only natural, since you can establish obligations only for
human beings, and probabilities both for both beings and objects.
Nota bene!
The things we have discussed above are true not only for must, but for all modals in their probability and
possibility meanings:
9. John can speak English.
10. John can/could be speaking English right now.
11. John could have spoken English at the party.
12. John can see the moon.
13. The moon can be seen at night.


Generalization: In their possibility/probability meanings, modals combine with the

perfect infinitive, the present infinitive for state verbs (be, have etc.) and with the
progressive infinitive (for non-state verbs). They also combine with both animate
and inanimate subjects. In their other meanings (ability, permission, obligation,
volition), modals combine only with the present infinitive and with animate
Exercise: Translate the following sentences:

1. Trebuie s m duc la coal i s predau doar lucruri plicticoase. Cine a inventat sistemul sta trebuie s
fi fost nebun. 2. S nu aprinzi lumina cnd vii acas. Lumea mai i doarme! 3. Poi s n-aprinzi lumina n
cmar, lumina de pe hol e suficient. 4. Probabil c e n birou i fumeaz, dei I-am spus c n-ar trebui. 5.
De ce vrei neaprat s mergi la concertul cu Ramstein? Trebuie s fii nebun! 6. Nu tiu ce-i cu el. Crezi c
s-o fi suprat c nu l-am menionat cnd mi-am inut discursul? 7. N-a trebuit s mai pltesc i ultima rat
pentru c banca m-a psuit. 8. Dei decanul facultii este mpotriva grevei, va trebui s ncercm s fim
solidari cu colegii notri din toat ara.
i. What is the source of authority?
Compare the two following examples:
14. You must pay your rent two weeks in advance.
15. You have to pay a deposit in order to rent the room.
As you can see, there is slight distinction in meaning between the two, concerning the source of obligation.
In the first sentence, it is clear that the source of authority is the speaker who is uttering the statement. So,
in this case, it may be the landlady who is speaking. In the second case, the statement may be uttered by
someone in an accommodation agency, stating the conditions under which you may rent the room. From
this point of view, one could say that must refers to internal obligation, namely that the source of
obligation is the speaker. Have to refers to external obligation, namely the source of obligation is not the
speaker, but someone/something remote. Also, one could say that must is more particular (it refers to the
particular obligation of paying the rent) and that have to is more general (it refers to rules, general
conditions). This distinction can be noticed in the sentences below:
16. I must go to work on Saturday. (Bill goes to work because he himself feels this is necessary.
Going to work on Saturday may be an exceptional occurrence.)
17. I have to go to work every Saturday. (Bill goes to work because an authority, his boss for
example, tells him to. So, in general, Bill goes to work on Saturday)
Nota bene!
Have to is used to suggest that the source of obligation is not the speaker, but some other source of
authority. This distinction doesnt necessarily mean that must and have to exclude each other. A speaker
can use both must and have to in the same context with a slight distinction of meaning. Sometimes, this
distinction is not even very marked by the context, as must can be sometimes used to express strong
obligation given by an authority that is external to the speaker, for example custom or law. The sentences
below have almost precisely the same meaning, one possible difference being that in 18 the speaker is more
involved in the statement:
18. Women must cover their head in church. (The custom says so and the speaker emphasizes the
importance of this custom. Maybe he himself believes the custom is right)
19. Women have to cover their head in church. (The custom says so and the speaker knows it, but he
is less emphatical about it.)
ii. Obligation as expressed by other modals
If we look at the examples below, we can see that obligation can be also expressed by should and ought to.
As we can see below, the obligation expressed by these two modals is weaker than that expressed by must.
Sentence 20 underlines that Mary very much wants and needs Bills presence to the party. Sentence 21 also
expresses the same strong obligation: in this case, one possible additional interpretation being that Bill
hasnt shown himself very willing to come and that Mary wants to emphasise that Bill will have no choice
but come, since, for example, all their other friends are coming. Sentence 22 doesnt express strong

obligation but advice: Mary suggests to Bill to go to the party because she thinks it will be good for him.
Sentence 23 is more emphatic than 22. It also expresses advice, but it is somewhat stronger: Mary suggests
that it is Bills duty to go to Susans party, since he upset her by not going to one of her previous parties.
Mary says to Bill:
20. You must come to my party. (I wont have the party unless you come!)
21. You have to come to my party. (I wont take no for an answer. Everyone you know is invited!)
22. You should go to Susans party. (You will have fun if you go.)
23. You ought to go to Susans party. (She was upset you didnt show up last time.)
iii. Prohibition or lack of obligation?
24. You mustnt talk to strangers in the street!
(It is compulsory for you not to talk to strangers. So, even if you may want to talk to strangers,
25. You dont have to talk to strangers, if you dont want to. lack of obligation
(It is not compulsory for you to talk to strangers. So, dont talk to strangers if you dont want to)
If you look at the examples above, it becomes only too clear that there is a marked difference in meaning
between them, also suggested by the fact that the exclamation mark is used only in the first sentence.
Sentence 24 is negative obligation or prohibition. For example, 24 can be uttered by a mother who wants to
forbid her child to talk to strangers. 25 expresses lack of obligation. For example, a mother is telling her
bashful son that it is all right if he wants to talk to the people at the party theyre at.
In the same way, we can look at the other modals expressing obligation.
26. You shouldnt talk to strangers. It would be better if you didnt.
(It is advisable not to talk to strangers.)
27. You oughtnt to talk to strangers. It isnt proper.
(It is advisable not to talk to strangers.)

negative advice
negative advice

28. You neednt talk to strangers. There are other people here that you can talk to. lack of obligation
(It is not compulsory that you should talk to strangers.)
The modal expressions must, have to, should, ought to, need are
all similar in meaning. They all have both an obligation
meaning and a probability meaning.
1. Translate into English:
1.n vremea asta cei trei bine credincioi stteau la o parte de piatra unde-i lsase sfntul lor, cu minile pe
genunchi i cu ochii holbai n gol. Nici gnd nu se vedea pe chipurile lor ncremenite; traiul cel bun, fr
griji i fr nevoi, le tocise pesemne simurile i le adormise mintea pe vecie. Dar pn s ajung n starea
asta fericit, nu mai ncape vorb c trebuie s fi cunoscut i ei toate schimbrile de toane prin care trec de
obicei binecredincioii, ci intr n mpria de sus.
2.nelese la urm c, nu de mult vreme, trebuie s fi trecut prin partea locului o turm de mioare.
Ori poate, niscai capre..., cuget el, ncruntat. Cci de pe acele semne mrunte, se cunoate bine numai
atta, c nu putea fi vorba de vaci...
(G.Toprceanu Minunile sfntului Sisoe)
3.Or, asta era prima edin de acest fel la care lua parte. nti c nu trebuia s-mi dezvlui gndirea intim
i s afirm c am fost somat s in acea conferin. Al doilea, nu trebuie s spun eu despre mine c m-am
compromis acceptnd.

4.Btrnul zimbru, afabil, ddea din cap nelept, c nu e bine, zicea el, s ne sfiem ntre noi, obtea
scriitoriceasc trebuie s rmn unit...
5.El avea, desigur, main i ofer. Foarte bine, dar ar fi trebuit totui s se ocupe puin i de autobuzele
noastre, gndii eu pe drum, cnd simii c sunt obosit i c mi-e foame... n-o s pot s merg pe jos de pild
la iarn, i atunci...
6. Spune-i chestia asta din partea mea. Pe urm afl i tu un lucru care poate ar fi trebuit s fie primul lucru
pe care trebuia s-l afli, dei eu tiu c filosofii sunt curioi i tiu totul despre lume, altfel de ce dracu s-ar
mai luda c sunt filosofi?...
7.Dom profesor, v-o spun, orice fiin uman dac trebuie s moar, trebuie s-o lsm s moar, indiferent
c e copil, adolescent sau adult.
(Marin Preda Cel mai iubit dintre pmnteni)
8.Egor ncepu s se frmnte. Trebuie s m hotrsc acum, repede, i spunea el nfiorat. Trebuie s m
hotrsc ca s-i mntui pe toi...
9. Ar fi trebuit s reziste, s-i spun necontenit c ea e moart, iar el e viu.
10. Se plimba iari cu pai largi, ritmici. Trebuie s m trezesc o dat, i spuse el. Dac dorm cu
adevrat, atunci nu se poate s nu m trezesc.
11. O s v dau pe toi afar, c nu suntei buni de nimic. Va s zic eu trebuie s m ocup i de fleacurile
astea... c n-am altceva de fcut?
(Mircea Eliade Nuvele)
12.E peste puterile mele. Trebuie s-i scriu Trebuie s-i vorbesc Pn mine sear trebuie s se
ntmple ceva, pentru c mi se rup zvoarele minii De trei luni ndur o suferin care ntrece puterea de
rezisten a nervilor mei, depete tot ce e capacitate de ndurare i rbdare
13.Emy, sunt nelinitit Lenua mi spune c e a treia zi cnd n-ai cobort din pat Trebuie s faci s te
vad un doctor neaprat. E ngrozitor Trei zile am lipsit i eu, i trebuia la ntoarcere s mi se ntmple
ceva. Vin mine cu un doctor prieten s te vd.
14.N-am putut iei din cas azi Sunt rcit i ploaia asta rece care nu mai sfrete m descompune
Scara casei e ud i murdar Trotoarele sunt sparte Unde lipsesc lespezile sunt ochiuri de ap Unde
e puin loc, trebuie s fie rsturnat o roab de lemne, butoaie goale sau crmizi E cu neputin s mergi
pe jos n voia ta lsndu-te gnditor
15.S nu fiu chiar bogat, Emy, a vrea numai puinul luminos pe care l-am gsit la un confrate la RmniculSrat, ast-iarn cnd m-a invitat pentru dou zile la el. () i tiu c e imposibil, Emy Numai dac nu
cumva voi fi numit suplinitor ntr-un orel de provincie Vream s nu-i spun dar gndul m roade
Trebuie s-l spun cu un ceas mai devreme Am vorbit cu Pillat, nepotul Brtienilor, i mi-a promis c m
va recomanda doctorului Angelescu.
(Camil Petrescu Patul lui Procust)
16.tiu: nu sunt un biat frumos, dar am aptesprezece ani. i n ceasurile cnd ochii mi alunec de pe
carte, iar voina mi slabete, m gndesc mult la aceti aptesprezece ani.
De multe ori izbndesc. Lucrez pn noaptea i adorm fericit c m-am nvins pe mine. Adorm surznd.
Alteori, ns, nu izbutesc s m apr. Sunt copleit i pornesc pe strzi.
i toate acestea m ntristeaz. Trebuie s lupt mereu, trebuie s m apar mpotriva sufletului meu pe care
nu-l cunsc i care mi se dezvaluie la rstimpuri, contradictoriu. Niciodat nu mi-am gsit sufletul acelai. n
fiecare zi, altul. Iar eu trebuie s lupt ca s duc mai departe ceea ce ncepusem cu o lun, cu o sptmn,
cu o zi mai nainte.
17. Trebuie s m cunosc. Trebuie s tiu odat sigur cine sunt i ce vreau. Am amnat mereu lucrul
acesta pentru c mi-era team. Mi-era team c nu voi izbuti s-mi luminez sufletul, sau ca lumina ce va
aluneca asupr-i sa nu m ndurereze. Eu mi-am nchipuit anumite lucruri despre mine nsumi. Ce se va
ntmpla dac acestea nu exist aievea? Dac ele nu au fost dect o prere? (Mircea Eliade Romanul
adolescentului miop)
18. Hai, m, Paraschive, noroc, spuse muierea lui Paraschiv cu glasul ei mieros, punnd mna pe pahar
i nu mai fi suprat pe tefan, c nu i-a fcut nimic, mi, Paraschive
i l lu de gt i rse de el i de posceala lui. Paraschiv tresri:
- Eu suprat pe tefan? De unde o mai scosei i pe-asta?
- El, m, Paraschive, ar trebui s fie suparat pe tine i nu tu! i uite c el nu e!
- De ce s fie el suprat pe mine? bodogni Paraschiv. C ce? C l-am ndemnat s vie la noi la Ateliere?
Mai bine fcea!
(Marin Preda Delirul)
19. - Copilul trebuie sa inteleaga de la inceput ca viata omului numai atunci e pretioasa cind urmareste un
ideal! Sfirsi Bologa patetic. Datoria noastra parinteasca de-abia acum incepe! Trebuie sa ne dam toate
silintele ca sa facem din odorul nostru un om si un caracter! (Liviu Rebreanu Pdurea spnzurailor)
20.-tii ceva, l rugai pe Temrau, las-m s urc tablourile astea n pod. M scot din mini

-Pi tocmai de-aia le-am pus acolo, mi rspunse. Le-a fcut un vr de-al meu, elev ntr-a asea, pe care
anul trecut, cnd suplineam catedra de limba romn, l-am lsat corijent. M uit la ele i mi-aduc aminte de
mou-meu cum rcnea la mine cnd am fost acas, n vacan; Te-am inut pe palme, nepoate, te-am
legnat, i tu, tu mi trnteti copilul! Numai tu s fii mare! Numai tu s tii ce-i bunul! Tablourile astea
mi in treaz gndul c anul acesta, cnd suplinesc catera de istorie, trebuie s-mi notez vrul numai cu
zece cu elogii. Dar mai e una, drag Cernat, pe care e bine s-o tii, nu-i greu deloc s-nnebuneti, cnd stai
i mucegieti ntre patru perei. F bine i mai d cu nasul pe-afar, c-altfel repede te scrnteti aici.
Toamna, la noi, nu te poi plnge de plictiseal. E anotimpul cel mai bogat : se culeg viile, se schimb
directorii i ncep certurile pentru dirigenii i ore suplimentare
(Fanu Neagu Cantonul prsit)
1. REPORT: Watch a news report on TV and write an article based on the news you found out.
2. FOR OR AGAINST: Argue for or against the following: Attack is the best defence.

The ghost that got into our house on the night of November 17, 1915, raised such a hullabaloo of
misunderstanding that I am sorry I didnt just let it keep on walking, and go to bed. Its advent caused my
mother to throw a shoe through a window of the house next door and ended up with my grandfather
shooting a patrolman. I am sorry, therefore, as I have said, that I ever paid any attention to the footsteps.
They began about a quarter past one oclock in the morning, a rhythmic, quick-cadenced walking
around the dining-room table. My mother was asleep in one room upstairs, my brother Herman in another;
grandfather was in the attic, in the old walnut bed which, as you will remember, once fell on my father. I
had just stepped out of the bathtub and was busily rubbing myself with a towel when I heard the steps.
They were the steps of a man walking rapidly around the dining-room table downstairs. The light from the
bathroom shone down the back steps, which dropped directly into the dining-room; I couldnt see the table.
The steps kept going round and round the table; at regular intervals a board creaked, when it was trod upon.
I supposed at first that it was my father or my brother Roy, who had gone to Indianapolis but were expected
home at any time. It did not enter my mind until later that it was a ghost.
After the walking had gone on for perhaps three minutes, I tiptoed to Hermans room. Pssst! I
hissed, in the dark, shaking him. Awp, he said, in the low, hopeless tone of a despondent beagle he
always half suspected that something would get him in the night. I told him who I was. Theres
something downstairs! I said. He got up and followed me to the head of the back staircase. We listened
together. There was no sound. The steps had ceased. Herman looked at me in some alarm: I had only the
bath towel around my waist. He wanted to go back to bed, but I gripped his arm. Theres something down
there! I said. Instantly the steps began again, circled the dining-room table like a man running, and started
up the stairs toward us, heavily, two at a time. The light still shone palely down the stairs; we saw nothing
coming; we only heard the steps. Herman rushed to his room and slammed the door. I slammed shut the
door at the stairs top and held my knee against it. After a long minute, I slowly opened it again. There was
nothing there. There was no sound. None of us ever heard the ghost again.
The slamming of the doors had aroused mother: she peered out of her room. What on earth are
you boys doing? she demanded. Herman ventured out of his room. Nothing, he said, gruffly, but he was,
in color, a light green. What was all that running around downstairs? said mother. So she had heard the
steps, too! We just looked at her. Burglars! she shouted, intuitively. I tried to quiet her by starting lightly
Come on, Herman, I said.
Ill stay with mother, he said. Shes all excited.
I stepped back onto the landing.
Dont either of you go a step, said mother. Well call the police. Since the phone was
downstairs, I didnt see how we were going to call the police nor did I want the police but mother made
one of her quick incomparable decisions. She flung up a window of her bedroom which faced the bedroom

windows of the house of a neighbor, picked up a shoe, and whammed it through a pane of glass across the
narrow space that separated the two houses. Glass tinkled into the bedroom occupied by a retired engraver
named Bodwell and his wife. bodwell had been for some years in rather a bad way and was subject to mild
attacks. Most everybody we knew or lived near had some kind of attacks.
It was now about two oclock of a moonless night; clouds hung black and low. Bodwell was at the
window in a minute, shouting, frothing a little, shaking his fist. Well sell the house and go back to Peoria,
we could hear Mrs. Bodwell saying. It was some time before mother got through to Bodwell. Burglars!
she shouted. Burglars in the house! Herman and I hadnt dared to tell her that it was not burglars but
ghosts, for she was even more afraid of ghosts than of burglars. Bodwell at first thought that she meant
there were burglars in his house, but finally he quieted down and called the police for us over an extension
phone by his bed. After he had disappeared from the window, mother suddenly made as if to throw another
shoe, not because there was further need of it but, as she later explained, because the thrill of heaving a
shoe through a window glass had enormously taken her fancy. I prevented her.
The police were on hand in a commendably short time: a Ford sedan full of them, two on
motorcycles, and a patrol wagon with about eight in it and a few reporters. They began banging at our front
door. Flashlights shot streaks of gleam up and down the walls, across the yard, down the walk between our
house and Bodwells. Open up! cried a hoarse voice. Were men from Headquarters! I wanted to go
down and let them in, since there they were, but mother wouldnt hear of it. You havent a stitch on, she
pointed out. Youd catch your death. I wound the towel around me again. Finally the cops put their
shoulders to our big heavy front door with its thick beveled glass and broke it in: I could hear a rending of
wood and a splash of glass on the floor of the hall. Their lights played all over the living-room and
crisscrossed nervously in the dining-room, stabbed into hallways, shot up the front stairs and finally up the
back. They caught me standing in my towel at the top. A heavy policeman bounded up the stairs. Who are
you? he demanded. I live here, I said. Well, whattsa matta, ya hot? he asked. It was, as a matter of fact,
cold; I went to my room and pulled on some trousers. On my way out, a cop stuck a gun into my ribs.
Whatta you doin here? he demanded. I live here, I said.
The officer in charge reported to mother. No sign of nobody, lady, he said. Musta got away
whattd he look like? There were two or three of them, mother said, whooping and carrying on and
slamming doors. Funny, said the cop. All ya windows and doors was locked on the inside tight as a tick.
Downstairs, we could hear the tromping of the other police. Police were all over the place; doors
were yanked open, drawers were yanked open, windows were shot up and pulled down, furniture fell with
dull thumps. A half-dozen policemen emerged out of the darkness of the front hallway upstairs. They began
to ransack the floor: pulled beds away from walls, tore clothes off hooks in the closets, pulled suitcases and
boxes off shelves. One of them found an old zither that Roy had won in a pool tournament. Looky here,
Joe, he said, strumming it with a big paw. The cop named Joe took it and turned it over. What is it? he
asked me. Its an old zither our guinea pig used to sleep on, I said. It was true that a pet guinea pig we
once had would never sleep anywhere except on the zither, but I should never have said so. Joe and the
other cop looked at me a long time. They put the zither back on a shelf.
No sign o nuthin, said the cop who had first spoken to mother. This guy, he explained to the
others, jerking a thumb at me, was nekked. The lady seems historical. They all nodded, but said nothing;
just looked at me. In the small silence we all heard a creaking in the attic. Grandfather was turning in bed.
Whats at? snapped Joe. Five or six cops sprang for the attic door before I could intervene or explain. I
realized that it would be bad if they burst in on grandfather unannounced, or even announced. He was
going through a phase in which he believed that General Meades men, under steady hammering by
Stonewall Jackson, were beginning to retreat and even desert.
When I got to the attic, things were pretty confused. Grandfather had evidently jumped to the
conclusion that the police were deserters from Meades army, trying to hide away in his attic. He bounded
out of bed wearing a long flannel nightgown over long woolen underwear, a nightcap, and a leather jacket
around his chest. The cops must have realized at once that the indignant white-haired old man belonged in
the house, but they had no chance to say so. Back, ye cowardly dogs! roared grandfather. Back t the
lines, ye goddam lily-livered cattle! With that, he fetched the officer who found the zither a flat-handed
smack alongside his head that sent him sprawling. The others beat a retreat, but not fast enough;
grandfather grabbed Zithers gun from its holster and let fly. The report seemed to crack the rafters; smoke
filled the attic. A cop cursed and shot his hand to his shoulder. Somehow, we all finally got downstairs
again and locked the door against the old gentleman. He fired once or twice more in the darkness and then

went back to bed. That was grandfather, I explained to Joe, out of breath. He thinks youre deserters.
Ill say he does, said Joe.
The cops were reluctant to leave without getting their hands on somebody besides grandfather; the
night had been distinctly a defeat for them. Furthermore, they obviously didnt like the layout; something
looked and I can see their viewpoint phony. They began to poke into things again. A reporter, a thinfaced, wispy man, came up to me. I had put on one of mothers blouses, not being able to find anything
else. The reporter looked at me with mingled suspicion and interest. Just what the hell is the real lowdown
here, Bud? he asked. I decided to be frank with him. We had ghosts, I said. He gazed at me a long time as
if I were a slot machine into which he had, without results, dropped a nickel. Then he walked away. The
cops followed him, the one grandfather shot holding his now-bandaged arm, cursing and blaspheming. Im
gonna get my gun back from that old bird, said the zither-cop. Yeh, said Joe. You and who else? I told
them I would bring it to the station house the next day.
What was the matter with that policeman? mother asked, after they had gone. Grandfather shot
him, I said. What for? she demanded. I told her he was a deserter. Of all things! said mother. He was
such a nice-looking young man.
Grandfather was fresh as a daisy and full of jokes at breakfast next morning. We thought at first he
had forgotten all about what had happened, but he hadnt. Over his third cup of coffee, he glared at Herman
and me. What was the idea of all them cops tarryhootin round the house last night? he demanded. He had
us there.
(James Thurber The Night the Ghost Got In)

Why isnt the ghosts presence in the house explained? Comment upon the interplay between
supernatural forces and human forces in the text.
What strategies does the author use in order to create humour in the text?
Is the narrators belief in ghosts consistent with his attitude towards the whole event?
Why does the mother believe that the house has been visited by burglars? Comment upon her attitude.
How is the police presented? What stylistic devices does the author use in order to present the police?
How can you qualify the grandfathers attitude?
Comment upon the final sentence of the text: He had us there.
James Thurber (1894-1961) was a U.S. humorist and cartoonist.
Thurber was best known for his contributions (both cartoons and
short stories) to The New Yorker. "The Dog Who Bit People", The
Night the Ghost Got In and "The Night the Bed Fell on My
Father" are among his best short stories; they can be found in My
Life and Hard Times. Also notable, and often anthologized, are
"The Secret Life of Walter Mitty", "The Catbird Seat," "The
Greatest Man in the World" and "If Grant Had Been Drinking at
Appomatox", which can be found in The Thurber Carnival.
The American Civil War - the war in the U.S. between the North and
the South, 1861-1865
Secession the withdrawal from the Union of 11 Southern States in the
period of 1860-1861, which brought on the Civil War
Stonewall Jackson nickname of Thomas Jonathan Jackson (18241863), Confederate general in the U.S. Civil War
General Meade George Gordon Meade (1815-1872), Union general
in the U.S. Civil War

1. Fill in the blanks with expressions from the text above:
1. I saw nothing, said Herman, but he was _________ a light green.
2. Grandfather was _________ and full of jokes next morning.
3. Bodwell was _______ to mild attacks.
4. Its burglars! she shouted ________.
5. You have not _________. Youd catch your death.
6. Mother _______ a shoe through a pane of glass.
7. The smack grandfather gave the cop sent the latter _______.
8. Mother ________ to throw another shoe because this had enormously _________.
9. A cop _______ a gun into my ribs.
10. The police realized that the indignant white-haired old man _______ the house.

SYNONYMY: noise, hullabaloo, ruckus, commotion, hubbub, din, pandemonium, racket, rumpus,
clamor. Translate into English:
1. Ce-i trboiul sta? Facei linite, v rog! 2. N-am putut s nchid un ochi din cauza glgiei care venea
de la bar. 3. Vacarmul de pe strad ajunsese la paroxism. 4. Dac ziarele n-ar fi fcut atta caz, n-ar fi primit
o pedeaps att de aspr. 5. Nu mai suport glgia pe care o fac cnd se ncaier. 6. Zgomotul de voci din
sufragerie l nnebunea pe John. 7. Iar vocifereaz: mereu trebuie s urle dup ceva. 8. Mult zgomot pentru
3. POLYSEMY: TOP. Paraphrase:
a) the top of a carrot b) the top of a tree c) pyjama top/bottoms d) on top of the world e) to top and tail fruit
f) She topped this years polls. g) to say something off the top of your head h) top secret i) not to have
much up top j) the top of a jar k) the top of a field l) the top of a page m) topless tourists n) He topped his
own speech with one on wife-battering.
a) Fill in the gaps with the suitable particle (and preposition, where necessary):
1. Shes very gregarious and seems to get _______ everyone. 2. I promised to go food shopping for them
and now I cant get ________ it. 3. Was it because they pleaded guilty that they _________ a fine, instead
of a jail sentence? Or was it because the judge had been __________? 4. Theres no point in having good
ideas if you dont get them _______ in writing. 5. What have the children been getting _______ while Ive
been away? 6. If you want to get ______ in politics, you have to have the right connections and get ______
the people who matter. 7. Im sorry to get _______ the subject of politics, I know its a sore point with you.
8. I know how to handle him, so leave it to me Ill be able to get ________ with him. 9. I havent done
the work yet and I dont know when Ill get ______ it. 10. I have to be at work early tomorrow, can you get
me _____ at 5.30?
b) Translate into Romanian:
1. I think he is getting above himself a bit in applying for the directors position. 2. He had so many
troubles that he decided to get away from it all. 3. In three days time our holiday will be over and well
have to get back to the grindstone. 4. Its time George stopped all this theorizing and got down to brass
tacks. 5. He got himself into a fix when he borrowed so much money and he couldnt pay it back. 6. After
twenty years of teaching he feels that he has got into a rut and he is unable to do anything creative any
more. 7. If John gets wind of our plans to go to Scotland for a holiday, hell want to come with us. 8. When
Jim gets on his feet in the House of Commons, theres no knowing when he will sit down again. 9. He has
been so angry the whole morning. He must have got out of bed on the wrong side. 10. Its no use asking
your grandfather for a loan. You cant get blood out of a stone. 11. Im determined to get to the bottom of
the whole business. 12. You can often get to the heart of somebodys unhappiness by letting him talk. 13.
His only wish is to get to the top of the ladder no matter what means he might use.

SYNONYMY: search, scour, comb, ransack, raid, go through, turn somewhere upside down/inside
out, rummage, fish about/around, feel about/around, fumble about/around, frisk.
a) Fill in the blanks with the appropriate synonym:
1. Police and volunteers are ______ the countryside in the hope of finding the missing boy. 2. Have you
______the house thoroughly? 3. I _____ the house ______ looking for my wedding ring and eventually

found it in a vase. 4. Customs officials ______ his luggage but found nothing illegal. 5. Hes been ______
in his pocket for ages for his ticket. 6. Immigration officials together with sixty police officers _____ an
illegal gambling den in Dalston, East London. 7. All the passengers were _______ before being allowed to
board the plane. 8. The phone rang and, half-asleep, Winston _______ to find the receiver. 9. He spent half
an hour ______ the newspaper for any mention of the fire. 11. Joanne began to ________ in the big box for
something to wear to the fancy-dress party.
b) Translate into Romanian:
1. Mr. Wainwright went through the insurance policy with a fine tooth-comb and confirmed there were no
hidden loopholes. 2. She gave us false information deliberately in order to send us on a wild goose chase. 3.
Troops are carrying out house-to-house searches in an attempt to find illegal arms caches. 4. Shes always
on the lookout for a good bargain. 5. He seemed determined to leave no stone unturned in his search for the
perfect formula. 6. This is tremendous news! Weve been after this gang for nearly five years. 7. On
arriving at the prison, each prisoner is subjected to a thorough body-search. 8. I always knew they would
hunt me down in the end. 9. The team divided into four search parties and kept in close contact using
This section focuses on a discussion on negation in English. Let us start this discussion by taking a close
look at some of the instances of negative sentences offered by our text. Consider the list of examples below
from this particular perspective. Notice that not all these sentences are full negations, even if the adverb not
might be present in them:
(1) I am sorry I didnt just let the ghost keep on walking, and go to bed.
(2) I couldnt see the table.
(3) It did not enter my mind until later that it was a ghost.
(4) There was no sound
(5) None of us ever heard the ghost again.
(6) I could see nothing.
(7) The others beat a retreat, but not fast enough.
(8) I didnt see how we were going to call the police nor did I want the police
(9) Herman and I hadnt dared to tell her that it was not burglars but ghosts
(10) You havent a stitch on.
(11) No sign of nobody, lady.
(12) Mother suddenly made as if to throw another shoe, not because there was further need of it but because
the thrill of heaving a shoe through a window glass had enormously taken her fancy.
(13) They obviously didnt like the layout.
Local negation / full negation
Compare for instance a sentence like (4) to a sentence like (7). Both of them contain a negation, but only
one of them is fully negated. How do we know which is which? By checking whether the negative word
influences the overall meaning of the sentence that contains it. From this point of view, it is rather obvious
that the sentence under (4) is the one containing a full negation, whereas the sentence under (7) contains a
local negation, as is indicated by the presence of the comma. Moreover, the meaning of (7) is basically
A very good test that would help you decide which sentence is fully negated and which is not is by adding a
tag question to the respective sentence. As you know, the polarity of the tag question must be different
from that of the main clause. Consequently, if the tag is positive, it means that the main clause is fully
(4) There was no sound, was there?
There was no sound, * wasnt there?
(7) The others beat a retreat, didnt they?

Of the two sentences above, only (4) is negative, as is clearly shown by the negative tag attached to it.
Exercise: Try and check all the examples we have listed at the beginning of this section (i.e. examples
1-13) by using the tag-question test. See whether they contain full or local instances of negation.
Negative polarity items
Now let us look at the sentence under (10):
(10) You havent a stitch on.
What is it that is so special about this sentence? It is the fact that this sentence cannot normally have an
affirmative counterpart:
(11) * You have a stitch on.
This fact shows us that there are instances of certain words or phrases that are grammatical only when
placed in a negative context. Consider also a sentence like:
(14) She hasnt come yet.
As you know, an affirmative counterpart is impossible:
(15) * She has come yet.
Both (10) and (14) have the same property in common. They contain a word/phrase which is grammatical
only in a negative context. These words/phrases are conveniently named negative polarity items. There is
a difference between (10) and (14) though: while (10) cannot be converted into an affirmative sentence,
(14) can be turned into one, provided some changes are performed:
(16) She has already come.
The fact that these sentences do not behave completely similarly gives us reason to believe that some of
these negative polarity items have an affirmative pair. Consider the table below, where we enlarge upon
this distinction:
Negative polarity
Not to have a stitch
Not to lift a finger
Not to bat an eyelid
Not to leave a stone
Not to budge
Not to move a
Not to say a word
Not to give a damn
Not to have the
faintest idea
Not to move an inch
Not to make head or
tail of something
Not to know an iota
Not to touch a drop
Not to sleep a wink,

Negative polarity items with an

affirmative counterpart
Any vs. some (I havent any
money. / I have some money.)
At all vs. somehow/ somewhat (I
dont like him at all. / I somehow
like him.)
Yet vs. already (I havent seen him
yet. / I have already seen him.)
Any more vs. still (I dont love you
any more. / I still love you)
Either vs. too (I dont like it,
either. / I like it, too.)
Hardly ever vs. most of the times (
I hardly ever eat caviar. / I eat
caviar most of the times.)
Until vs. before (He didnt arrive
until 5. / He arrived before 5.)
Much vs. A lot (I dont love you
much./ I love you a lot.)

polarity items
Would rather
Had better

Students are advised to learn by heart the pairs of negative/affirmative polarity items.
Exercise: Try to change the polarity of the following sentences. Comment on them:
1. I wouldnt marry you, Mr. Jones, even if my life depended on it.
2. He isnt all that smart.
3. I wouldnt touch it with a bargepole.
4. She is by far the most delightful story-teller Ive ever met.
5. I cannot possibly tell you how many thoughts cross my mind.
6. He cannot hold a candle to his elder brother.
7. There wasnt a living soul on the beach.
8. Why do you think Margaret chose that man as her guardian? I havent the foggiest, old boy.
9. You dont have a chance in hell to win that competition.
10. Theres no place like home.
11. Hes nothing like his father: he doesnt gamble or drink.
12. You might as well admit it: youre hopelessly in love with her.
13. She couldnt help laughing when she saw Jim slipping on a banana skin.
14. Try as I might, I couldnt make both ends meet.
15. I dont like him one bit.
Double negation
As you know, English is very different from Romanian with respect to the way in which it builds its
negative sentences. Unlike Romanian, formal and written English does not allow double negation (or
negative concord). Compare:
(17) N-am vzut nimic.
(18) I havent seen anything. / I saw nothing.
(19) *I havent seen nothing.
How do we then account for a sentence like the one under (11)?
(11) No sign of nobody, lady.
This sentence contains an instance of negative concord, or double negation. This should indicate to us that
the character who utters it is not a very educated person, since the language he speaks is not Standard
1*. Translate into English, paying attention to the grammar problem discussed above:
1. i nimic nu mai rmase din acel pr dect praf i cenu; iar frate-su ncremeni de mirare, netiind ce
sunt toate acestea.
2. i scpnd i d-aceast pacoste, nclecar i plecar la drum, repede ca vntul; cnd, ce s vezi
dumneata? Unde nu se luase dup dnii scorpia de mum a zmeoaicelor cu o falc n cer i cu alta n
pmnt ca s nghit pe Greuceanu i mai multe nu; i avea de ce s fie ctrnit i amrt: cci nu
mai avea nici so, nici fete, nici gineri.
3. Aci, cum desclecar, Greuceanu se nchise n furite. Pe urma lor iac i zmeoaica. De-i ajungea, i
prpdea! Nici oscior nu mai rmnea din ei. Acum ns n-avea ce le mai face.
4. mpratului ns nu-i prea plcu zorul ce da sfetnicul pentru nunt i mai trgi lucrurile. Nu trecu
ns mult i iat c sosete i Greuceanu i, nfindu-se la mpratul, acesta nu tia ntre care s
aleag. Credea c aceasta s fie Greuceanu, dar nu-i putrea da seama de cum paloul lui Greuceanu
se afl n mna sfetnicului. Atunci bg de seam i Greuceanul c-i lipsete paloul i tocmai acum i
veni n minte pentru ce nu vzuse el stana de piatr dect dup ce-i gsise cuiul de la osie i se
ntorcea la cru cu dnsul. Pricepu el c nu-i lucru curat.


A fost odat un mprat i o mprteas. Amndoi erau oameni de treab i frumoi. Ei se iubeau,
nevoie mare! Dar erau tot mhnii i amri c nu fceau copii. Toate leacurile ce luase mprteasa
de pe la vraci i vrjitoare nu-i folosiser ntru nimic.
6. Pn aci, cntase el nu cntase; dar dup asta i puse i el puterile i zicea din fluier nite doine de te
adormea. Vznd ddaca c fetei i plcea prea mult s asculte la fluier, nu zise nimnui nimic, dar se
feri de a mai veni cu fata pe acolo.
7. i aa, aide, aide, merse pn nser i se puse a odihni. Cnd, ce s vezi dumneata? Unde venea o
ceat de fii de mprai i de boieri mari, mbrcai numai n fir i pe nite armsari ce mncau foc. Se
prea c nu-i mai ncape locul. El, biet, se dete mai la o parte. Mai vzuse el cai buni, nelai i
nfrnai frumos; mai vzuse i fii tineri de boieri mbrcai cu haine scumpe, auzise c unii dintr-nii
sunt limbui, dezmierdai, lutori n rs i nfumurai, de nu le ajunge cineva cu strmurarea la nas, dar
ca acetia, ba, ba, ba!
8. Cnd se scular boierii i vzur attea fiare arse, nu le venea a crede ochilor. Se duser s-i ia armele
de unde le agaser, dar, ia-le de unde nu-s.
9. Cnd auzir boierii de una ca asta, se temur s nu le fi jucat iari vrun renghi i de unde s nu fie
aa se scular, i cnd vzur cum i-a pclit ciobnaul, se luar cu minile de pr.
10. ndat i feciorul de boier i scoase cuitaul, i tie nasul, i ncepu a roni i el, creznd c asta
trebuie s fie ceva. Nu-i veni lui s creaz c o asemenea fapt n-o s nsemneze vreo izbnd la
norocul pe care ndjduia s puie mna. l durea de durut; dar rbda n piele ca un drac, pn o vedea
cum o s-o scoat la cale.
11. Umblau oamenii de colo pn colo i cumprau mereu la ou, dar la el nici unul nu venea. Se mira
cum de nu-l ntreab i pe dnsul nimenea de oul lui.
12. Cnd se detept din zpceala lui, pipi pungile s vaz, nu e vrun vis; apoi vru s alerge dup
negutor s-l ntrebe de n-a fcut vro greeal. Dar ia pe negutor de unde nu e. El i cutase de
drum, vesel c cumprase aa ou.
13. A doua zi, se scul de diminea, se gti i plec la munc. Nu tiu ns cum fcu el, nu tiu cum drese,
c se pomeni iari n pdure. Nici el nu tia cum venise acolo; tia numai c el la munc plecase.
14. Oriicum, dascle, tot nu-mi vine s fac una ca asta, ca s nu se amrasc brbatu-meu.
- Atta trecere n-am i eu la dumneata? mai zise dasclul. Asta mi dovedete c nu m iubeti. mi
pare ru c am ndrgit cu atta foc pe o nesimitoare. Eu pentru dragostea ta a fi dat prin foc i prin
ap, ca s-i fac voile, i tu pentru mine atta lucru s nu faci. S tii dar c de azi ncolo n-ai s m
mai vezi; m duc s m nec.
15. Pe locul hotrt se adunase, ns pn a nu se face ziu, atta lume, ct frunz i iarb, de nu se mai
putea mica; i btrnul cu copiii abia gsir i ei un colior la o parte de unde s se poat uita i ei. Napucar s se aeze bine i auzir un sunet de fluier.
16. Dac vzu i vzu c scpare nu este, se ls i el dup sfatul mai-marilor mpriei. Dete condurul
rposatei mprtese i doi trimii ai Sfatului mprtesc rzbtu ri i ceti, cutnd la cine s-ar
potrivi condurul. Nu trecu mult i se ntoarser precum se duser, fr nici o isprav. Pasmite
condurul nu se potrivi la nici o fat de mprat, la nici o cucoan, la nici o jupneas, la nici o ranc,
i chiar la nici o roab. mpratul nu mai putea de bucurie la aceast ntmplare.
17. Se ceru i ginreasa, n ziua aceea. Dar buctreasa nu mai voia s-i dea drumul. Abia, abia, dup
multe rugciuni, i cu fgduina de a nu se mai cere niciodat, se nduplec buctreasa s-i dea voie.
18. Czu la grea boal. Pasmite prinsese lipici; se aduser toi vracii, toate babele i toi cititorii n stele;
rmaser ns ruinai, cci n-avur ce-i face. Atunci fiul mpratului spuse m-sii c pn n-or gsi pe
fata la care se va potrivi inelul ce-i dete el, nu se va face bine.
19. Tat-su a fost vntor, i nc o dat vntor. Nu era ziulic lsat de la Dumnezeu n care el s se
duc la vntoare i s se ntoarc cu minile goale. Avea mare noroc la vnat.
20. Boierule, rspunse i sracul umilit i cu lacrmile n ochi ct pumnul. Boierule, n-am ce zice,
omoar-m, spnzur-m, n-am ce face dac a dat pcatul peste mine. aa este, cum zice bogtaul
meu vecin. i fiindc lui Dumnezeu i place dreptul, drept s-i spui ce e drept: am spat o groap, i o
groap mare, ca s ncap bordeiul pe toi ai mei, dar nici c m-am gndit ca s-i aduc pagub. i nici
n-a fost n sufletul meu cugetul de mndrie, cci n-aveam pe ce m mndri, cnd mi-am ales loc lng
dumnealui. Acum lumineze-v Dumnezeu, boierule, i judecai dup dreptate.
(Petre Ispirescu Basme)
21. Nici acum, timp de un ceas, ct omul din mlatin urmri atent ntoarcerea acas a acestei familii, nu se
zri nici prin apropiere i nici prin curte umbra unui brbat sau mcar a unui btrn. Unui lupttor nu numai

atenia lui ncordat i semnele exterioare vizibile i semnaleaz prezena inamicului, ci l ajut i mirosul
su pe ci mai ascunse, pe care el nu se bizuie n ntregime, dar nici nu le dispreuiete. Nang nvase s
afle msura potrivit i n anumite mprejurri sfida pericolul, iar n altele era de o prudena exagerat. n
cazul de fa avu acest sentiment c nu-l pndete nici o primejdie; nti, devenise limpede faptul c nu mai
exista la acest punct de trecere peste ru nici un bac i c n general circulaia era ntrerupt total pe aceast
arter. Ct privete viaa acestei familii, izolate de sat, avea s vad la cderea nopii ce era cu ea i n ce
msura i putea fi de folos.
(Marin Preda Friguri)
2. Give the negative counterpart of the following sentences:
1. She has had some problems lately.
2. They thought about Susan every day.
3. She must have made another mistake.
4. They had to meet her very early.
5. Everybody likes and respects Susan.
6. He will arrive here before 6.
7. She is still very shy of her teacher.
8. Mary has already arrived.
9. She must be somewhere in the house.
10. She must pay that fine.
11. All of them are angry with John.
12. Both Susan and Mary are good students.
13. Both of them like jazz.
14. Each of us will tell John a joke.
15. Many people came to visit Susan.
16. There is something wrong with John.
17. She has always disobeyed her parents.
18. They almost always take the wrong turn.
19. They are all behaving abominably.
20. They have a lot of money.
1. POINT OF VIEW. Pretend you are the ghost in James Thurbers house. Retell the story from the
ghosts point of view.
2. GHOST STORY. Taking as a point of reference the conventional ghost stories that you undoubtedly
read or seen on TV, imagine your own ghost story.