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English project

Topic-1
Adverbs
Adverb-An adverb adds meaning to a
verb, an adjective or another adverb.
Types of adverbs1-Adverbs of quality.
2-Adverbs of place.
3- Adverbs of time.
4-Adverbs of frequency.
5- Adverbs of reason.
6-adverbs of affirmation or reason.
7-Adverbs of degree.
8-Adverbs of focus.
9-Adverbs of interrogation.
10- Relative adverbs.
Adverbs od quality-

Adverbs of quality elaborate the


manner in which an action is done.
Example-he walks slowly.
Adverbs of placeAdverbs of place tell us where the
action takes place.
Example-They came inside.
Adverbs of timeAdverbs of time tell us where the
action takes place.
Example- Rohan come at 8O clock.
Adverbs of frequencyAdverbs of frequency give the
information about how often the
action takes place.
Example- he travels very often.
Adverbs of reason-

Adverbs of reason bring in a logical


connection between two prepositions
in a sentence.
Example- I think , therefore I am.
Adverbs of confirmation or negartionAn action is negated by an adverb of
negation, or confirmed by an adverb
of affirmation.
Example- I do not think he is
intelligent.
Adverbs of degreeAdverbs of degree describe the extent
or intensity of the action.
Example-She was too sleepy to walk.
Adverbs of focusAdverbs of focus indicate what is
being communicated in the particular
sentence is limited to the part , that is
in focus.

Example- She was angry at me just for


telling the truth.
Adverbs of interrogationAdverbs of interogation ask questions.
Example- when should we start for the
party.

Degrees of comparison123-

Positive degree
Comparative degree
Superlative degree

Positive degreeThe adverbs in positive degree are


adverbs in basic forms where no
comparison is made.
Example- Tina dances gracefully.
Comparative degreeThe adverb in comparative degree
compares two verbs adjectives or
adverbs.
Adverbs with three or mare syllables
have more added ton them in
comparartive degree.
Example- Tina dances more gracefully
than ayesha.

Grace / ful / ly=3 syllables.


Superlative degreeSuperlative degree is the highest
degree of comparison where more
than two verbs , adjectives , or
adverbs are compared.
Example- John walks the fastest in
the whole discrict.
Fast-1 syllable.
Tina dances most gracefully.
Grace / ful / ly = 3 syllables.
Position of adverbsAdverbs can be put in the beginning,
middle or at the end of a sentence.

Topic-2
Prepositions
PrepositionsWords placed before nouns or
pronouns that show their position or
condition in relation with the other
words in the sentence re called
prepositions.
Example- clothes in the cupboard.
Types of prepositions
1-prepositions of position.
2-prepositions of direction.
3-Prepositions of time.
Prepositions of positionIn,on,under,above,besides,
across,opposite,

against,inside,outside,around,
by,between.
Preposition of direction
At,to,up,down,towards,
Foreword,backward,upward,downward
.
Preposition of time
In, at,on
by,to,for,before,after,between,
During,since,till ago.
Example-1-do you live at raj nagar?
2-He threw a stone at the thief.
3-Meet me at the station at 6 pm
Group prepositions
A combination of two or more words
that act as a preposition in a sentence
are called group prepositions.

Example-I missed my train because of


a traffic jam.

Topic-3
Conjunctions
ConjunctionsConjunctions are words that are used
to join words , phrases , clauses , and
sentences.
If , when , because , and , but ,
therefore , which , however , with.
Example-1-Susan saw a bird which
had blue wings.
2- Although the car is old , it still runs
well.
Types of conjunctions
1-coordinating conjunctions
2-correlative conjunctions
3-subordinating conjunctions
4-

Complex conjunctions
Coordinating conjunctions-

A coordinating conjunction is a word


that join two clauses of equal
importance.
Example- She was verty tired but she
cooked dinner for everyone.
Correlative conjunctionsCorrelative conjunctions are used in
pairs in order to show the relationship
betweenthe ideas mentioned in the
sentence.
Correlative conjunction of additionCorrelative conjunction of addition are
used to connect two nouns or noun
phrases o form the compound subject
in a sentence.
Example- Both aman and anshika are
good students.
Correlative conjunction of choice-

Correlative conjunction of choice are


used to join two independent clauses.
Example-Either you complete the task
or leave the office.
Subordinating conjunctionSubordinating conjunctions joins a
subordinate clause to a main clause.
Example- He knew what he is doing.
Topic-4
Phrase
PhrasePhrase have some meaning but do not
make complete sense.
Example-1-straight ahead.
2-left from the big banyan tree.
3- over the hill.
4-Right from tea stall.
5-Behind broken chimney.

One more exampleA blind man visited a friend for dinner.


Types of phrases1-Noun Phrase
2-Adjective phrase
3- verb phrase
4-Adverbial phrase
5-prepositional phrase
Noun phraseKey word is a noun.
If an adjective is placed before a noun
in a phrase the phrase is a noun
phrase.
Example-He is a famous chess player.
Adjective phrase-

An adjective phrase does not contain


any noun.
She has a very friendly nature.
Verb pheaseKey word is a verb.
Example-I am making a paper
airplane.
2-My mother is looking for her lost
purse.
Adverbial phraseKey word is an adverb.
Example-He solved the problem very
easily.
2-The guests arrived quite
unexpectedly.
Prepositional phrase
Key word is a preposition
Example-He accidently sat on a cake.

2- The police found a bomb under the


car.

Topic-5
Clause
ClausesAny combination of word that contain
a subject, a predicate and a finite
verb.
Example-A big monkey ran away with
all your cloth.
Main clauseMakes complete sense by itself.
Main clause
Example- You also run away before I
come out.
Subordinate clauseDoes not make complete sense
without the main clause.
It depend on the main clause to make
complete sense.

Example-You also run away before I


come out.
Types of subordinate clause1-Noun clause
2-Adjective clause
3-Adverbial clause
Noun clausePerforms the function of a noun.
Example-I will reward whoever bring
back my large dog.
Adjective clausePerforms the function of an adjective.
Example- I got an pple that have a big
worm in it.
Adverbial clause-

An adverb clause may modify some


verb , adverb or adjective in the main
clause.
Example-I like to read because it is so
enjoyable
2- The flight arrived its scheduled
time.

Topic 6
Using relative clause1-Relative clauses come after subjects
of main clause.
2-When we use a relative clause to
describe the subject of the main
clause, we insert the relative clause
after the subject and before the finite
verb of the main clause.
3-The finite verb of the main clause
must agree with its subject.
Example-The thieves who stole our car
were arrested the next day.
Made by Nihal Uddin of class 8th A