Sunteți pe pagina 1din 11

Ielts preparation by australian network

COMPANY GROWTH
Today were going to talk about businesses, and different ways to discuss economic information.
Were going to listen to an interview with the head of a large clothing company. Then were going to look
at how he describes the success of his company. Heres Derek ONeill.
Well, we've said before that we've had consistent growth over the last four to five years. We've delivered
EPS growth in excess of 20% over the last three years. You know, growing earnings at 25, 30, 35% forever
becomes impossible. I think we end up owning US GDP in about 2023 with 25% growth.
We've registered that 15 per cent is our plan and we think that's a good target.
We're very happy with our level of sales. We grew sales in the US in girls wear at 50 per cent and we think
that's a fantastic performance, so we'll stand by those numbers.
We've had solid momentum in that market for four or five years and we expect that momentums going to
continue.

Elektronic crime
It is a new frontier, and there are old, traditional forms of crime being committed electronically, and
via computers and the internet, but there are also new crime types emerging. Electronic crime really does
cross over a whole range of different crime types. You can imagine stalking offences that may be facilitated
via email, harassment, threatening emails, small-scale fraud offences, right up through to large-scale
frauds committed via the internet. oK, so lets have a closer look at that clip. Were going to focus on
vocabulary building, and word groups, but first, listen again to this sentence. See if you can hear the
keyword, the main subject of the sentence.

OCTOPUSES
Today were going to talk about how to describe the appearance or character of animals and people.
Heres the clip. Listen to some descriptions of a very strange octopus. You couldnt get an animal thats sort
of more different or more alien to us.
Theyve got such a weird shape. Theyve got eight arms coming off their mouth. When they walk around
its like theyre running round on super lips. Theyve got a head in the middle of their body. Theyve got a
doughnut shaped brain. Theyve got three hearts, blue blood and jet propulsion, and theyve got a bag on
the back that they stick all the body bits in.
So octopuses have weird forms, and they have lots of really unusual behaviours as well, like high speeds
and camouflaging. I think the reason that octopuses have ended up having such weird forms, and all these
different sorts of behaviours is because they are a really good meal. They have no bones, no armour, no
poisons and no spines. Theyre popular prey, so they have to be very fast and clever at squeezing through
tiny holes, and really good at hiding from animals that want to eat them.so having to get away from their
predators in the sea has made them evolve into amazing creatures.

Ielts preparation by australian network

RISING DOLLAR
Today were going to be making comparisons, and looking at some tricky prepositions of time.But
first, lets listen to an academic talking about the Australian economy and the Australian dollar. See if you
can hear him use some comparative adjectives.It couldnt have come at a worse time, in the sense that
with business investment weakening, and with the housing market, at least in activity terms, having
turned, thats where the timing is unfortunate for us.The stronger the value of the Australian dollar and
the longer it stays strong, the weaker our economic activity will be next year.
I think growth in 2004 will be comparatively weak. My own prediction is that throughout the year growth
will be around about 2 per cent.Being around the Reserve Bank's board table at this time I think would not
be a comfortable place to be. The bank is probably in a bigger dilemma over what to do with interest rates
with monetary policy than at any time that I can remember.
Dr Ian Harper is discussing the value of the Australian dollar, and the growth of the Australian economy,
including interest rates.He describes all these factors by comparing information. Listen to him talk about
the value of the dollar.The stronger the value of the Australian dollar and the longer it stays strong, the
weaker our economic activity will be next year.The stronger the value of the dollar, and the longer it stays
strong, the weaker our economic activity.

SALINITY
Today were going to see an animation about a process called salinity, thats where land becomes
damaged by too much salt.Well be looking at language you can use to describe processes, including
transition signals. Listen for how the process of salinity is described here.One of the main causes of salinity
is waterlogging. First, land is cleared for crops to grow. Now, instead of trees pumping the water out of the
ground, and keeping the salt stored, whatever water the crops dont use percolates down into the soil.
Gradually, over a number of years, the earth gets wetter and wetter, and eventually it waterlogs.
Then, the water table starts to rise to the surface. As it rises, it dissolves the tonnes of salt stored in the
soil.Once the water table comes to within two metres of the surface, it begins to evaporate. Lastly, the sun
extracts the moisture from the ground, leaving the salt concentrated on the surface.
The first casualties of this dramatic land change, and the dry land salinity that it causes, are ecosystems.

DVT
If youve been on a flight recently, you will have heard about the danger of sitting still for a long time
in an aeroplane, apart from the danger of boredom that is!The danger is from a condition called deep vein
thrombosis, or DVT.Today on Study English well listen to a doctor talk about DVT, then were going to
look at how to talk about things that might happen in the future.Deep vein thrombosis is where a clot
forms in the calf veins and occasionally in the veins ofthe leg, sometimes in the veins of the pelvis,
and this is a great concern because the clot may dislodge, travelling with the flow of blood into the right
side of the heart and from there into the lung. When were travelling on long haul flights, several things
happen. First of all, were stationery. Were not moving our legs, so theres no physiological compression of
the calf muscles. Blood tends to sit in the veins and may clot.
2

Ielts preparation by australian network

Number two, the environment is dry. We dehydrate, we may drink some alcohol. We dehydrate even
further. Alcohols a diuretic agent, and it results in us actually drying out, and that makes the blood a little
bit thicker and stickier, and these factors lead to clotting.Sometimes, in perhaps particularly the economy
section of an aeroplane, we may be a little bit cramped and our leg may be slightly compressed on the
seat. This could further prevent blood flow back to the heart and trap blood in the leg, where clotting may
occur.

ADHD
Today were going to talk about acronyms, abbreviations and names, and then well do a bit of
vocabulary building as well.The boy in todays clip is about to have a test to see whether he has Attention
Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD.While youre watching, listen for some other abbreviations.
How do you know if your child does have ADHD? An EEG brain scan helps answer that, say the Swinburne
researchers. Jacques Duff is a psychologist and one of Richards PhD students. A computer programme will
compare Xaviers brain scan with a database of scans of ADHD sufferers. If he does have the condition, the
ADHD diagnosis will be automatically triggered. Xavier was having a test to see if he has ADHD. ADHD is
an abbreviation. An abbreviation is the short form of a phrase or a word. We often abbreviate phrases
using the first letter of each word. Notice that you use capitals letters for these types of abbreviations.
ADHD stands for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. ADHD is much quicker and easier to say,
and to write.You might recognise some of these common abbreviations:
UFO stands for Unidentified Flying Object.
ASAP means As Soon As Possible.Other common abbreviations are:
PC, Personal Computer, TV for Television,

ENVIRO-LOO
Today we have an environmental theme on Study English, but its an environmental story with a
difference. We find out about a new toilet system that has been developed to save the local environment
in a Tasmanian park. Were going to be looking at how to talk about processes, so listen carefully to David
Holman talk about his new environmentally friendly toilet.
The liquid waste comes from the toilet behind me. Theres a containment vessel for the solids. From the
bottom of the solids you drain off the liquid and it comes down here down this pipe. OK. The pipe tips into
this tipping bucket arrangement, and what this does is it fills up to a point, and then it suddenly tips and
that will measure each time it tips. So we can calculate the amount of liquid effluent thats gone in.
As that fills up, you can see the towelling material here will come in contact with the effluent, the air is
drawn in through these holes and will actually direct the air in onto the surface of the water, through the
wick and out through the top. OK, so David was talking about how his toilet, the Enviro-Loo, works.
He was describing a process. Today were going to look at the type of language youll need to describe
processes.Well listen to David again. This time, listen out for the types of verbs he uses.

Ielts preparation by australian network

SEA FLOOR
Today on Study English were looking at adjectives. How do you use them, how do you order them,
and how do you use them to compare and describe things? First, lets listen to some descriptions about the
world under the sea, in the Gulf of Carpentaria, off the north coast of Australia. Its quite an amazing place.
We know more about the surface of the moon or the surface of Mars, than we do about the sea floor. The
sea floor remains the last unexplored frontier. This is because it's covered by this impenetrable ocean layer
that we can't see through. The only way we can see the sea floor is using sonar.
The largest reef they mapped is about 10 or so kilometres across. It's an oval-shaped feature, so it
covers around 100 square kilometres. Because of the fact that they are submerged in 30m or so of water,
the reefs are very hard to see. No one had realised that the Gulf contained reefs just like the Great Barrier
Reef. Being able to describe things properly is an important communication skill. You need adjectives for
descriptions. They usually come before the nouns they are describing.
The red car.But when you want to accurately describe something, you often need to use more than one
adjective in a row.
What if the car is big, red, and made of plastic? We call it the big, red, plastic car.Notice that the
adjectives are usually separated by commas. But why dont we call it the red, plastic, big car?
How do you know which order to put the adjectives in?

GREENHOUSE GASES
Today we're going to talk about the environment. Global warming is caused by the presence of
greenhouses gases in the atmosphere. One of the worst greenhouses gases is carbon dioxide.
We're going to look at the language of cause and effect while we find out why these greenhouses gases are
a problem. The main problem is our use of fossil fuels. So what we've done is put the whole natural system
out of balance by digging up coal and oil that took about 200 million years to accumulate and we're
releasing it all in about 100 years. So it's put the whole system out of balance at the moment, which has
resulted in higher levels of these gases in the atmosphere.
That was Dr Roger Francey talking about the natural system. He says that the natural system is 'out of
balance'. He also talked about the causes and effects of this. Listen for the main cause of the natural
system being out of balance...The main problem is our use of fossil fuels. He says 'the main problem is our
use of fossil fuels'. So if we look at a table of cause and effect, we can say that 'the use of fossil fuels' is a
cause, and 'the natural system out of balance' is an effect.
So the natural system has been put out of balance by people digging up and burning coal and oil. This
releases gases into the atmosphere. Coal and oil are fossil fuels. So if we go back to the table of cause and
effect, we can say that 'digging up and burning coal and oil' is another cause.

Ielts preparation by australian network

GLOBAL WARMING
Today were going to look at a topic youve probably heard a lot about global warming and the
environment. First were going to look at ways of brainstorming, taking notes and developing ideas.
Watch while we play some vision that contains ideas about the causes and effects of global warming ...
While you watch, try to note down some of your ideas about what global warming is. visual clip (you can
play this from the website) OK so you saw some ideas, and perhaps took some notes, during that clip.
What were some of the ideas you saw? What has caused global warming? visual clip (you can play this
from the website) We saw gases in the air, cars, factory waste, and people cutting trees down.
So if you made those notes, youd get an idea that these were the things causing global warming.
Now lets listen to someone talk about the causes...Heat-trapping gases are building up in the atmosphere.
Heat-trapping gases are building up in the atmosphere. What else? So what is global warming? It's the
result of billions of decisions. Its caused by decisions made by individuals like driving big cars rather than
small cars. And its caused by decisions made by corporations and nations, like dumping waste into the
atmosphere. Global warming is caused by about people using big cars, and people dumping waste into the
atmosphere...OK, so youve looked at the vision, and listened to the speaker, and youve made notes about
some of the causes of global warming.
Now lets look for some of the effects... visual clip (you can play this from the website)
So after watching that, you might be thinking that global warming is having an effect on weather patterns,
and on nature.Listen to the speaker...
Nature is already responding to global warming. There have been changes in global weather patterns.
Trees are flowering earlier. Birds are laying eggs earlier. Butterflies are moving up hills.
So theres been weather changes, and changes to the ways trees, birds and butterflies behave.
So we have a list of causes, and list of effects. You might have identified those things from a text youve
read, or from listening to someone speak. This is how you can take notes.
Once youve got your notes, you need to be able to link those causes and effects in sentences.
Lets look at a couple of different ways. The first and most basic way is just making a sequence of
statements. This can sometimes be a powerful way of making a connection between things. Listen.
Heat-trapping gases are building up in the atmosphere. Trees are flowering earlier. Birds are laying eggs
earlier, and butterflies are moving up hills.

Ielts preparation by australian network

FINANCE REPORT
Today were going to listen to a finance report. Its filled with numbers and amounts, expressed in a
variety of ways. Its important to be able to understand and describe numerical data using decimals,
fractions and currencies. Listen to the days finance report. The Australian dollar, today Tuesday the 11th
of November, continues to rise against the US dollar, buying just over 70 cents, a 15 year high. Against
other currencies, however, the trend is a little different, falling against the pound, closing at 0.425, a slight
drop on yesterday, and 0.61 euros. The yen is also strengthening at 71.95, and considerably higher against
the greenback at 111.03 yen. The Dow Jones Index closed today at 9809.79, a fall of 47.18 on yesterdays
trading. The Sydney Stock Market doubled its trading yesterday with BHP Billiton trading heavily.
The latest retail figures showed that turnover grew by 3.2% in the June quarter, the fastest quarterly
growth rate for five and a half years. At the same time, unemployment fell to its lowest level in twelve and
a half years. In English, decimals are written with a point, not a comma. So we write 4.25, 6.1.
When you say the numbers after the decimal point, you say them all separately, as individual numbers.
So we have:
71.95 [seventy one point nine five]
47.18 [forty seven point one eight]
9809.79 [nine thousand eight hundred and nine point seven nine] Notice that a zero is often spoken as
oh.
Practice saying these numbers.
326.01
[three hundred and twenty six point oh one]
4.897
[four point eight nine seven]
902.308
[nine hundred and two point three oh eight]

CROCODILE TOURISM,
Today well look at some words that cause a lot of confusion - the relative pronouns that, which and
who, and then well do some pronunciation practice.But first, lets listen to some people talk about a very
dangerous tourist attraction from Australias Northern Territory.
People have always been fascinated with death. Most of the mysteries that you see on television, the
films that you see, involve murder in one kind or another. Crocodiles are one of the last remaining
dinosaurs and the idea of a crocodile coming out of the water and grabbing somebody is absolutely
riveting.I read about the death of the German tourist who was taken by a crocodile. It didn't put me off
coming to the Northern Territory, quite the opposite in fact.
I think the NT is famous for its crocodiles and probably quite famous for its crocodile attacks and that
tourists who come here would like to be, or feel as though they were, involved in that danger.
Tourists want to have a story to take home and if they can say that they were in the Northern Territory
where the German tourist was taken by the croc, then it adds to their own adventure.
So he thinks people may actually be attracted to the Northern Territory because of the dangerous
crocodiles.
6

Ielts preparation by australian network

PERFECT SIESTA
Today were going to look at intonation how we use a rising or falling tone of voice to convey
meaning and well also have a quick look at how to use commas. But first, lets watch a clip about sleep.
Well see a researcher doing some tests on a subject, to see just what the benefits are of an afternoon nap.
Researchers at Flinders University say a short sleep in the mid afternoon could actually increase a workers
productivity. Each subject performed a series of tests before and after their mid afternoon sleep.
Some subjective tests of alertness, fatigue,vigour, and also some cognitive performance
tasks, some which are pencil and paper andsome that are done on the computer, and also an objective
measure of alertness, which is how long it takes someone to fall asleep. So if it takes them a long time to
fall asleep, that would suggest that theyre quite alert, and a short time to fall asleep would mean that
theyre quite sleepy.
Do you think you were asleep?
Yes, hard to tell but I think so. I think I did for a bit.
For how long?
It felt like probably a couple of minutes, I reckon.
I want you to do exactly the same thing now. I
want you to start here and want you to go as
quickly and as accurately as you can until I tell you to stop.

RECOUNTING THE PAST


Today were going to look at ways to talk about something thats happened in the past, and well also
have a look at ways to form compound and complex sentences. First, were going to listen to a woman talk
about a dramatic event in her past. Four years ago, she had a stroke a blood vessel burst in her brain.
Heres what happened to her.
A stroke is whereby the blood supply to the brain is cut off. The major signs of having had a stroke that
most people would equate with is weakness, so paralysis of an arm, leg or face. In others it can be a loss of
speech or inability to communicate. Others may have loss of vision or a combination of all those things.
I was just so physically fit and also emotionally I was on top of the world. I had a really good job at that
time, and I was getting married.
I just felt terribly nauseous and I woke up with pins and needles down one side of my leg, and then it
worked its way up towards my arm and across.
I was just immobile. I couldn't move. I couldn't walk. I was paralysed on this side of my body.
Simone is telling her story. She is giving a recount of what happened to her and how she was affected.
A recount is a story about past events, usually in the order in which they occur.

Ielts preparation by australian network

TORRES STRAIT
Today on Study English, its geography. How do we talk about places, locations and directions?
Listen to this clip about the history and geography of the Torres Strait. JOHNNY HARDING: The Torres Strait
is situated above Queensland, between the Arafura Sea and the Coral Sea, Cape York Peninsula and Papua
New Guinea. Darnley Island, also known as Erub, is the largest volcanic island in the eastern Torres Strait,
with a population of around 375. It is surrounded by some of the deepest water in the world, known as the
Darnley Deep. Though we are a seafaring people, 75% of Torres Strait Islanders today are living on the
mainland. This is because we were displaced from our island homes since colonisation.
Life for Torres Strait Islanders has been an endurance test ever since colonisation. During the Second
World War, hundreds of Torres Strait Islander men were shipped off from their homes to fight for their
country, of which they were still not citizens. Uncle Bill Sailor who has gone back to live on his land of Erub
and remembers, all too well, the war.

URBAN ARCHAEOLOGY
Today were going to look at classification - how things are sorted into classes or groups. Well listen to
an archaeologist talking about artefacts, things left behind from the past, and what sorts of groups they
belong to. And well finish by doing some pronunciation practice on final s sounds.
Well, these are all artefacts from the cesspits at Casseldon Place and there's a real assortment of different
types. Some of the artefacts we've got relate to, I guess, the leisure time activity, the pastimes, people
might've had.
There are some gaming tokens. This is a lead disc with a horse figurine on it as well. It would've been
used as some sort of betting token. The dice there, the bone dice as well. There's a couple of dominoes
one's made out of bone, one, we thinks made out of slate. Some of the other pieces, we've got a lead rifle
that would've been part of a child's toy soldier set. Yeah, these bones, again, from the cesspits of
Casseldon, and quite clearly, it's been cut. These aren't natural breaks at all. These are what we refer to as
butchering marks. So we're not just learning what sort of animals were eaten at Casseldon, we're also
learning about the cuts of meat being provided, whether it's been done locally by individual house owners,
or whether they're going to a local butcher.
I think the artefacts from Casseldon Place and the other results of the archaeological process are important
because they give us a really rare insight into the way Melbourne operated in its early years.

UNDER THE SEA


Were going to look at articles today - indefinite articles a and an, and the definite article, the.
But first, lets meet an oceanographer. Shes talking about using underwater devices to predict weather
patterns. See if you can hear her using articles while she talks about monsoons.
The monsoon gets a lot of its energy from the equatorial and sub-tropical Indian Oceans. Dr Susan Wijffels,
an oceanographer from Australias CSIRO, is hoping that by measuring the state of the Indian Ocean in
those areas, scientists will be able to learn something about monsoon predictability.
Predicting the monsoon is a very difficult thing and yet it impacts on millions and millions of people, and so
we think that, if we can predict the monsoon usefully, we can make a real difference.
8

Ielts preparation by australian network

We know from El Nino that its a fully global system, so you just cant study one small part of the ocean and
solve these problems. You really need a global integrated observing system, and the Argo program is the
first real big ocean attempt to do that, and its the float technology thats allowed us to even think about
doing this.Using articles before nouns is one of the most difficult things in learning English.
You can choose between indefinite articles a and an, the definite article the, or no article at all.

VITAMIN D
Were going to listen to a scientist talking about Vitamin D and cancer. In the clip, see if you can hear
both facts and opinions being used. I believe that the public health problem for vitamin D deficiency is
quite significant. I would estimate minimum 25% of adults in the United States, Europe and probably even
in Australia are vitamin D deficient.
I mean if you think about it, over 250,000 women in the United States will develop breast cancer this year.
Something like 50,000 will die. If 25% of those breast cancers could have been averted, prevented in some
way, just by having a little exposure to sunlight, would have been really tremendous. So he was talking
about the links between vitamin D and cancer. Many Australians these days are avoiding the sun, because
they know it can cause skin cancer. But by avoiding the sun, theyre missing out on vitamin D

WATCHING BIRD
Today were going to look at the continuous tense, and then were going to practice some sentence
stress. Our clip today is of a birdwatcher named Margaret. A birdwatcher is someone who loves watching
and listening to birds.Lets start by listening to Margaret talk about watching birds.
Some people think it's a bit of a strange pleasure, but you know, it's always interesting. It's interesting to
see what they're doing. You know, we saw them sheltering under the banks as we came round and so on,
and they have to live in it, so why shouldn't we?
What I'm doing is looking to see what's outside this hide because I'm doing a sheet for the 'Bird Atlas'
of a radius of 500 metres from here to see all the species that are in it. I use my binoculars and I'm using a
telescope, and I use my ears because I was recording birds by call as I walked down the track here wrens
and little grass birds and stuff. In fact, if you do a lot of bird watching in the bush, you do a lot by call.
A day like today's not much good, but normally you do a lot by call, and the idea is to make sure you get all
the species that are here in the area that you're surveying. Margaret is talking about the time she spends
watching birds.When describing actions that happen for a continuous period of time, we need to use
a continuous tense. In English, there are several continuous tenses. Continuous tenses are formed by using
the verb to be plus the present participle, the ing form of the verb. Today were going to look at the
present and past continuous tenses. Lets begin with the present continuous tense. The present continuous
tense describes things that are in progress.

Ielts preparation by australian network

WATER AND AGEING


Today on Study English, were going to look at some of the features of formal, written English.
In our clip, well hear from a man who believes that drinking water is the key to being healthy and living a
long time. Hes going to talk about how he came to his conclusion, and how he tried to get some support
for his project. How does nature do it? What keeps body cells going and how can we improve on that
process so that we eliminate disease altogether and we live a long and healthy life? I dont think death and
disease is inevitable.
We stumbled on the fact that they werent actually getting rid of carbon dioxide out of their bodies,
they were neutralising the carbon dioxide in their bodies, and we found out it was from the water they
were drinking. When we looked at these animals and saw what they were doing, it was exactly as wed
hypothesised and that was a great feeling. A real feeling of elation.
I tried and I tried and I tried to be conventional in that sense. I went to one hundred people. I wrote one
thousand letters. I spoke to the Australian Academy of Science. I spoke to the American Academy of
Science. I spoke to hospitals. I spoke to professors of medicine, because I wanted to do work
independently. I couldnt get anywhere, so I had to do it other ways.
This is a food substance, this is something thats been drunk for thousands of years. This is probably
where the mythology of the fountain of youth came from. There would have been natural springs
somewhere bubbling out magnesium bicarbonate at an alkaline pH value. And people that drank these
springs lived longer. But I want everybody to have the opportunity to live a long and healthy life, and thats
been my lifes work, and were getting somewhere, were getting somewhere. One of the most important
areas for students to master is the difference between informal spoken language and formal written
English, including academic language

WEATHER REPORT
Today were going to listen to a weather report. Were going to listen for numbers, and practise
saying and spelling them. Listen to the weather in Sydney. Good morning. It looks like being another
glorious summer day in Sydney. Temperatures will range from a minimum of 16C in Richmond and 17C in
the city, with maximum temperatures reaching the high 20s, with 29 in Richmond and 27 in the city by
early afternoon. This summer promises to be the warmest since 1987. The average minimum for this time
of year is 15C and the average maximum is 22C.
Humidity will be high again today, ranging from 80-90% across the metropolitan area, and possibly for
the next 5 or 6 days. Sunrise will be at 5.45 am and the sun will set at 7.43 pm. The next full moon will be
on December 9th. For those interested in fishing and surfing, windy conditions will prevail all day with
winds gusting from the southeast from 10-15 knots, then easing to 10-11 knots by late afternoon. Swells
along all Sydney beaches will range from 1 1.5 metres.

10

Ielts preparation by australian network

COPYRIGHT
Today were going to talk about simple present tense, definitions and technical vocabulary, all the
things you need to know and use to write a report. First, well listen to someone talking about copyright
the rights people have to their own work. Its structured like a simple information report.
Copyright's a passion of mine. Copyright is the exclusive bundle of rights, which is awarded to the author or
a creator of work, to entitle them to market it, to get economic reward for their creative endeavour and to
entitle them to say when, how and on what conditions their work may be used.
Once I put my book on the internet anybody can access it at the push of a button, or click of a mouse.
Anybody can download it, copy it and transmit it without my knowledge, without my consent a hundred
times over to every country in the world without me knowing. There is a misconception about work, which
is submitted to the internet, and it's that if you've given it to the internet, it's gone to a public domain,
therefore anyone can use it as they will, when they will, and that is a very seriously ill- founded
misconception. The fact that you submit work to the internet does not affect your legal rights in relation to
that work.

CARBON CYCLE
Today, were going to look at cycles, at phrasal verbs, and then well finish with a bit of punctuation.
But now, heres a man who is a microbiologist and a mushroom grower. Hes talking about mushrooms,
and the part they play in the carbon cycle. They occur naturally in the forests as wood degrading fungi.
That's their job. When trees die, they grow on the tree. They break down the lignin and the cellulose,
which is the most resistant form of carbon, and they break it down, produce mushrooms and, in turn, you
end up with organic matter going back into the soil, and so the carbon cycle in the forest goes on.
The speaker, Noel Arrold, is talking about how mushrooms grow naturally.They are an important
part of the carbon cycle, but what is a cycle? A cycle is a process that is repeated over and over. It goes
around and around. He says and so the carbon cycle in the forest goes on.By saying the cycle goes on he
is telling us that this process happens again and again. At the end of the description, you need to signal
that the process goes back to the beginning again.We can say: The process goes on.

11