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Adjectives of Quality - These adjectives are used to describe the nature of a noun. They give an idea about the characteristics of
the noun by answering the question what kind.

- Honest, Kind, Large, Bulky, Beautiful, Ugly etc.


- New Delhi is a large city with many historical monuments.
- Sheila is a beautiful woman.

Adjectives of Quantity - These adjectives help to show the amount or the approximate amount of the noun or pronoun. These
adjectives do not provide exact numbers; rather they tell us the amount of the noun in relative or whole terms.
All, Half, Many, Few, Little, No, Enough, Great etc.
- They have finished most of the rice.
- Many people came to visit the fair.

Adjectives of Number - These adjectives are used to show the number of nouns and their place in an order. There are three
different sections within adjectives of number; they are Definite Numeral Adjective - Those which clearly denote an exact number of nouns or the order of the noun.
One, Two, Twenty, Thirty-Three etc. also known as Cardinals.
First, Second, Third, Seventh etc. also known as Ordinals.
Indefinite Numeral Adjective - Those adjectives that do not give an exact numerical amount but just give a general idea of the amount.

Some, Many, Few, Any, Several, All etc.


E.g.: There were many people present at the meeting.
Distributive Numeral Adjective -Those adjectives that are used to refer to individual nouns within the whole amount.
Either, Neither, Each, Another, Other etc.
E.g: Taxes have to be paid by every employed citizen.

Demonstrative Adjectives - These adjectives are used to point out or indicate a particular noun or pronoun using the adjectives
- This, That, These and Those.
- That bag belongs to Neil.
- Try using this paintbrush in art class.
- I really like those shoes.
- These flowers are lovely.

Interrogative Adjectives - These adjectives are used to ask questions about nouns or in relation to nouns, they are
-Where, What, Which and Whose.
Where did he say he was going?
- What assignment did I miss out on?
- Which is your favorite author?
- Whose pen is this?

In some instances, we find that we need to use more than one adjective to describe a noun in a satisfactory manner. In these cases, commas are
used to separate the adjectives but some series of adjectives do not require a comma. Therefore, we need to know the difference between
Coordinate and Non-coordinate Adjectives Coordinate Adjectives - Are those words which can be re-arranged in the series easily and are still grammatically sound. This kind of series
makes use of commas. This series can also insert and between them and still be correct.
- She was a kind, generous, loving human being.
- She was a generous, loving, kind human being.
- She was a loving, kind and generous human being.

Here we can see that all three sentences are grammatically correct. In this case, the adjectives only need to be separated by commas.
Non-coordinate Adjectives - These are those adjectives which cannot be rearranged in the series. These do not use commas to separate the
adjectives. Also, this kind of series do not make sense if we insert and between them.
She has two energetic playful dogs.
She has playful two energetic dogs.
She has energetic and playful and two dogs.
Here we see that only the first sentence makes sense and is grammatically correct. The second and third ones are incorrect. Hence, the sentence
uses non-coordinate adjectives and does not need commas.
There are certain rules regarding the placement of different kinds of adjectives in a sentence. The general order followed is -

Determiners These are the various articles (the, a, an), demonstratives (this, that, these, those), possessives (my, mine, your,
yours, -s), quantifiers (all, many etc.), numerals (one, twenty, thirty-seven etc.) and distributives (each, every, neither, either)

Observations/Quantity and Opinion - Then come the adjectives that give a quantity (also known as post-determiners) and
subjective opinion to the noun, telling how much and how was the noun.
Few, Most, One, Three/ Beautiful, Ugly, Difficult etc.
.- The beautiful house.

Size - The position after Observations is for the adjectives that tell about the size of the noun, they can be used for an object as well
as living thing.
Huge, Little, Bulky, Thin, Vast, Tiny, Lean etc
- The beautiful little house.

Age -Then is the turn of the Adjectives that tell about the age of a noun either by itself or in relation to another noun.
Young, Old, Teenage, Mature, Recent, Bygone etc.
- The beautiful little old house.

Shape - Next are the adjectives that tell about the shape or appearance of the noun.
Circular, Crooked, Triangular, Oval, Wavy, Straights etc.
- The beautiful little old square house.

Colour - After that are the adjectives that tell the shade and hue of a noun.
Pastel, Red, Blue, Metallic, Colourless, Translucent etc.
- The beautiful square blue coloured house.

Origin - Next are the adjectives that show the different geographical locations associated with a noun.
Southern, Northern, Lunar, Mexican, French etc.
- The beautiful blue coloured Mexican house.

Material - Next are the adjectives that talk about the raw material or texture of the objects or the behaviour of the living nouns.
Wooden, Plastic, Steely, Metallic, Cottony etc.
- The beautiful Mexican limestone house.

Qualifier Lastly, the qualifier or the grammatical modifier comes, which is an additional word or phrase provided to change the
meaning of the noun in a sentence.
Pink + eye, Royal + treatment, Hot + fudge etc.
- The beautiful Mexican limestone doll house.

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h, although historically they were classed together with the nouns. Certain words that were traditionally considered to be adjectives, including the,this,my, etc., are today

ribe nouns." Adjective phrases are formed by an adjective and any modifiers of complements including adverbs and prepositional phrases. Adjectives and adjective phrases perform four grammat

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n action or situation that was started and finished in the past. Most past tense verbs end in -ed. The irregular verbs have special past tense forms

tion verb, the subject performs the action denoted by the verb.

tch." Also, "The bomb could explode if you jiggle that switch." The conditional is marked by the words might, could, and would. Frequently, a phrase in the conditi
bjectis doingthe verb's action.
imaginary situation). It is harder to explain the subjunctive. Five hundred years ago, English had a highly developed subjunctive mood.

nge the normal word order of many active sentences (those with adirect object) so that the subject is no longeractive, but is, instead, beingacted uponby the ve
e subject-verb relationship has changed.

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She went shopping.


I go running every morning.
He lay looking up at the clouds.
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VERB FORMS
USAGE
EXAMPLE
PAST PARTICPLE
Participles are words formed fromverbswhich can be used asadjectives.
There are two types of participles:
The Verb

the chief idea in the verb phrase. The other verbs are there only to help it.The main verb is always the last verb in the phrase. Often its form changes, as in the last two examples, in which
e form of the main verb almost always changes.)
b, which is placed in front of a main verb, helps it to express different ideas. There are only a small number of helping verbs. They are divided into two types: primary an

Primary - There are threeprimary helping verbs:be,doandhave. Note that these verbs have diferent forms:be, am, is, are, was, were, been, being
do, does, did
have, has, had

Modal -

There are 10 principal modal verbs:can, couldshall, shouldwill, wouldmay, might

must
ought [+to+ main verb]

VERB FORMS
USAGE
EXAMPLE
PRESENT PARTICPLE
THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE AFTER VERBS OF MOVEMENT & POSITION

This construction is particularly useful with the verbto go.

ronouns
ed to begin a question:who, whom, which, what, whoever, whomever, whichever, andwhatever. Example: Who will you bring to the party?

nouns
of pronoun, and that is thereflexive pronoun. These are the ones that end in self or "selves." They are object pronouns that we use when the subject and

VERB
I Linking verb
Alinking verbis a verb thatlinks (connects) the subject of the sentence to information about that subject.Linking verbs do not describe ac
- Action verb
Anaction verbis a verb that describes an action, likerun,jump,kick,eat,break,cry,smile,orthink.

s
t to any particular nouns, but refer to things or people in general. Some of them are: few, everyone, all, some, anything,andnobody. Example: Everyo
connect a clause or phrase to a noun or pronoun. These are: who, whom, which, whoever, whomever, whichever, andthat. Example: The driver wh
.yourdictionary.com/parts-of-speech/pronouns/types-of-pronouns.html#JDJyqXcYofGxocX4.99

emphasize a noun or pronoun. These are:myself, himself, herself, themselves, itself, yourself, yourselves, and ourselves. Example: He
ns
pronouns:these, those, this, that,andsuch. They focus attention on the nouns that are replacing. Examples: Such was his understan

JOHN LLOYD A . SANTOS


10 CUREI
RAMMAR

OOKLET

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nouns are used to refer to general things rather than specific examples. Common nouns are not normally capitalized unless they are used as part of a proper name or ar

uns are types of nouns that take the place of nouns when referring to people, places or things. The personal pronouns in English areI, you, he, she, it, andt

yourdictionary.com/parts-of-speech/nouns/Types-of-Nouns.html#PakSdywRQyO1BXyW.99