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II B.TECH -II Semester (ECE)

AY-2013-2014

Prepared by

Assistant professor

Lab Asst

: R.Srinivas Pillai

(Approved by AICTE, New Delhi & Affiliated JNTU, Hyderabad)

Dundigal, Quthbullapur (M), Hyderabad 43

(Approved by AICTE, New Delhi & Affiliated JNTU, Hyderabad)

Dundigal, Quthbullapur (M), Hyderabad 43

II YEAR. B.Tech. ECE- II SEM

L

0

T/P/D C

-/3/- 2

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS (12 Experiments to be done)

A) Design and simulation in simulation Laboratory using simulation software.

(Any 6 Experiments)

1. Common Emitter Amplifier.

2. Common source Amplifier

3. Two stages RC coupled Amplifier.

4. Current shunt and Voltage series Feed-back Amplifier.

5. Cascode Amplifier.

6. Wien Bridge Oscillator using Transistors.

7. RC Phase shift Oscillator using Transistor.

8. Class A Power Amplifier (Transformer Less)

9. Class B Power Amplifier.

10. Common Base (BJT)/ Common Gate (JFET) Amplifier.

B) Testing in Hardware laboratory (6 Experiments).

A) Any Three circuits Simulated in Simulation Laboratory.

B) Any three of the following.

1. Class A Power Amplifier. With Transformer Load.

2. Class c power Amplifier.

3. Single tuned Amplifier.

4. Hartley & Collpitts oscillator.

5. Darlington pair.

6. MOS Amplifier.

Equipments required for Laboratories:

1. For software simulation of Electronic circuits

i)

Computer Systems with latest specifications

ii)

Connected in LAN (Optional)

iii)

Operating system (Windows XP)

iv)

Simulations software (Multisim/TINAPRO) Package

2. For Hardware simulation of Electronic Circuits

i)

RPS

ii)

CROs

iii)

Functions Generators

iv)

Multimeters

v)

Components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

The following experiments are simulated in simulation laboratory using

Multisim software and also tested in the EDC/ECA Hardware lab using

discrete components.

2. Common Base Amplifier

3. Common Source Amplifier.

4. Common Gate Amplifier.

5.

7. RC Phase Shift Oscillator using Transistors.

8. Hartley oscillator.

9. Collpitt's oscillator

10. Single Tuned Amplifier

11. Darlington Pair Amplifier.

12. Class A Power Amplifier.

13. Cascoded Amplifier

14. Class B Complementary Symmetry Power Amplifier

15. MOSFET Amplifier

COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER (Software)

PRELAB:

1.

2.

3.

4.

Identify all the formulae you will need in this Lab.

Study the procedure of using Multisim tool (Schematic & Circuit File).

In this lab you will use decibels, or dB. This is a dimensionless ratio, in logarithmic

form.

Calculate the following:

a. The gain in dB of an amplifier with a gain of 10,000.

b. The gain in dB of an amplifier with a gain of 0.1.

c. The voltage ratio that corresponds to 3 dB.

OBJECTIVE:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

To simulate the Common Emitter amplifier in Multisim and study the transient

and frequency response.

Obtain the frequency response characteristics of CE amplifier by hardware

implementation.

To determine the phase relationship between the input and output voltages by

performing the transient analysis.

To determine the maximum gain, 3dB gain, lower and upper cutoff frequencies

and bandwidth of CE amplifier by performing the AC analysis.

Determine the effects of input signal frequency on capacitor coupled common

emitter amplifiers

SOFTWARE TOOL:

Multisim

APPARATUS:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Function generator

CRO

Transistor (BC 107 or 2N2222)

Resistors (5K,47 K,2 K, ,1 K)

Resistor (10 K)

Capacitors (10 F, 1 F)

Bread Board

Connecting wires

1 No.

1 no.

1 No.

1 No.

1 No. each

2 Nos.

1,2 No. each

1 No.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

VCC

12 V

R1

47k

RC

10k

C2

RS

C1

1k

1F

Vin

0.02 Vpk

1kHz

0

Q2

R2

5k

1F

RL

10k

2N2222A

RE

2k

CE

10F

THEORY:

The practical circuit of CE amplifier is shown in the figure. It consists of different circuit

components. The functions of these components are as follows:

1. Biasing Circuit: The resistances R1, R2 and RE form the voltage divider biasing circuit

for the CE amplifier. It sets the proper operating point for the CE amplifier.

2. Input capacitor C1: This capacitor couples the signal to the transistor. It blocks any dc

component present in the signal and passes only ac signal for amplification. Because

of this, biasing conditions are maintained constant.

3. Emitter Bypass Capacitor CE: An emitter bypass capacitor CE is connected in parallel

with the emitter resistance, RE to provide a low reactance path to the amplified ac

signal. If it is not inserted, the amplified ac signal passing through RE will cause a

voltage drop across it. This will reduce the output voltage, reducing the gain of the

amplifier.

4. Output Coupling Capacitor C2: The coupling capacitor C2 couples the output of the

amplifier to the load or to the next stage of the amplifier. It blocks DC and passes only

AC part of the amplified signal.

OPERATION:

When positive half of the signal is applied, the voltage between base and emitter (V be)

is increased because it is already positive with respect to ground. So forward bias is increased

i.e., the base current is increased. Due to transistor action, the collector current I C is

increased times. When this current flows through RC the drop IC RC increases considerably.

As a consequence of this, the voltage between collector and emitter (Vce) decreases. In this

way, amplified voltage appears across RC). Therefore the positive going input signal appears

as a negative going output signal i.e., there is a phase shift of 180 between the input and

output.

PROCEDURE:

1. Open Multisim Software to design Common Emitter amplifier circuit

2. Select on New editor window and place the required component on the circuit

window.

3. Make the connections using wire and set oscillator (FG) frequency & amplitude.

4. Check the connections and the specification of components value properly.

5. Go for simulation using Run Key observe the output waveforms on CRO

6. Indicate the node names and go for AC Analysis with the output node

7. Observe the Ac Analysis and draw the magnitude response curve

8. Calculate the bandwidth of the amplifier

OBSERVATIONS/GRAPHS:

TRANSIENT RESPONSE:

FREQUENCY RESPONSE

INFERENCE:

1. From the transient analysis the phase relationship between input and output voltage

signals is ___________ degrees.

2. From the frequency response curve the following results are calculated

S. No.

Parameter

Max. Gain in dB

3dB Gain

Bandwidth

Value

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. Why the CE amplifier provides a phase reversal?

2. In the dc equivalent circuit of an amplifier, how are capacitors treated?

3. What is the effect of bypass capacitor on frequency response?

4. Define lower and upper cutoff frequencies for an amplifier.

5. State the reason for fall in gain at low and high frequencies.

6. What is meant by unity gain frequency?

7. Define Bel and Decibel.

8. What do we represent gain in decibels?

9. Why do you plot the frequency response curve on a semi-log paper?

10. Explain the function of emitter bypass capacitor CE?

EXERCISE:

1. Design CE amplifier using different transistors and resistors

(BC107, BC547, 2N2222 etc).

2. Design a PCB layout for the CE amplifier circuit

COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER (Hardware)

AIM: 1. Plot the frequency response of a BJT amplifier in common emitter configuration.

2. Calculate gain.

3. Calculate bandwidth.

COMPONENTS & EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED: S.No

1.

Device

(a) DC supply voltage

Range/Rating

12V

Qty

1

(b) BJT

BC10710F

12

(c) Capacitors

100F,220,22K,1k 1

(d) Resistors

5.6K,10k

2.

Signal generator

0.1Hz-1MHz

3.

CRO

0Hz-20MHz

4.

Connecting wires

5A

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

VCC

5V

R4

22k?

R5

1k?

C2

10F

R3

C1

10k?

10F

Q1

R1

1.0k?

BC107BP

V1

50mVpk

1kHz

0

CRO output

R6

5.6k?

R7

220?

C3

100F

PROCEDURE: 1. Connect the circuit diagram as shown in figure for common emitter amplifier.

2. Adjust input signal amplitude in the function generator and observe an amplified

voltage at the output without distortion.

3. By keeping input signal voltage, say at 50mV, vary the input signal frequency from

0 to 1MHz in steps as shown in tabular column and note the corresponding output

voltages.

VO

V

O

2

0

lo

g

.

4. Find the voltage gain, AV V , A

V

(d

B

)

in

in

V

5. Plot AV VS frequency on a semi-log sheet.

PRECAUTIONS:

1.

TABULAR COLUMN:

Frequency (in

Output Voltage

Hz)

Gain Av=Vo/Vi

(Vo)

20

50

100

1k

10k

100k

200,500K

1M

RESULT: 1. Frequency response of BJT amplifier is plotted.

2. Gain = _______dB (maximum).

3. Bandwidth= fH--fL = _________Hz.

Input = 50mV

Gain(in dB) =20log10(Vo/Vi)

COMMON BASE AMPLIFIER (Software)

PRELAB:

1. Study the operation and working principle of CB amplifier.

2. Identify all the formulae you will need in this Lab.

3. Study the procedure of using Multisim tool (Schematic & Circuit File).

OBJECTIVE:

1. To simulate the Common Base amplifier in Multisim and study the transient

and frequency response.

2. Obtain the frequency response characteristics of CB amplifier by hardware

implementation.

3. To determine the phase relationship between the input and output voltages by

performing the transient analysis.

4. To determine the maximum gain, 3dB gain, lower and upper cutoff

frequencies and bandwidth of CB amplifier by performing the AC analysis.

5. Determine the effects of input signal frequency on common Base. amplifiers

SOFTWARE TOOL:

Multisim.

APPARATUS:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Function generator

CRO

Transistor (BC 107 or 2N2222)

Resistors (20K)

Resistor (10 K)

Capacitors (10 F,)

Bread Board

Connecting wires

1 No.

1 No.

1 No.

1 No.

1 No.

2 Nos.

2 Nos.

1 No.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

VCC

12V

VEE

12 V

RE

20k?

RC

10k?

C1

10F

C2

Q1

BC 107

10F

Vin

10mVpk

1kHz

0

RL

10k?

PART I

EXPERIMENT NO. 1

THEORY:

In Common Base Amplifier Circuit Base terminal is common to both the input and output

terminals. In this Circuit input is applied between emitter and base and the output is taken

from collector and the base. As we know, the emitter current is greater than any other

current in the transistor, being the sum of base and collector currents i.e. IE= IB+ IC In the CE

and CC amplifier configurations, the signal source was connected to the base lead of the

transistor, thus handling the least current possible. Because the input current exceeds all

other currents in the circuit, including the output current, the current gain of this amplifier

is actually less than 1 (notice how Rload is connected to the collector, thus carrying slightly

less current than the signal source). In other words, it attenuates current rather than

amplifying it. With common-emitter and common-collector amplifier configurations, the

transistor parameter most closely associated with gain was . In the common-base circuit, we

follow another basic transistor parameter: the ratio between collector current and emitter

current, which is a fraction always less than 1. This fractional value for any transistor is

called the alpha ratio, or ratio.( = IC/IE) Since it obviously can't boost signal current, it only

seems reasonable to expect it to boost signal voltage.

Operation: The

positive going Pulse of input Source increases the emitter voltage. As the

base voltage is Constant, the forward bias of emitter base junction reduces. This reduces IB,

reducing IC and hence the drop across RC since VO=VCC - IC RC, the reduction in IC results in an

increase in VO. Therefore, we can Say that positive going input produces positive going

output and similarly negative going input produces negative going output and there is no

phase shift between input and output in a common base Amplifier.

PROCEDURE:

1. Open Multisim Software to design Common Base amplifier circuit

2. Select on New editor window and place the required component on the circuit

window.

3. Make the connections using wire and set oscillator (FG) frequency & amplitude.

4. Check the connections and the specification of components value properly.

5. Go for simulation using Run Key observe the output waveforms on CRO

6. Indicate the node names and go for AC Analysis with the output node

7. Observe the Ac Analysis and draw the magnitude response curve

8. Calculate the bandwidth of the amplifier

1.

EXPECTED GRAPHS:

OBSERVATIONS / GRAPHS:

TRANSIENT RESPONSE:

FREQUENCY RESPONSE:

RESULTS:

1. From the transient analysis the phase relationship between input and output voltage

signals is ___________ degrees.

2. From the frequency response curve the following results are calculated:

S. No.

1

2

3

4

5

6

Parameter

Max. Absolute Gain

Max. Gain in dB

3dB Gain

Lower Cutoff Frequency

Upper Cutoff Frequency

Bandwidth

Value

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. Suppose the source resistance of VIN is 50. Will the CB amplifier perform well in

amplifying the signal from Vin? Why?

2. Why the CB amplifier is commonly used as a current buffer?

3. What is input terminal for CB amplifier

4. What is the power gain of CB Amplifier

5. What is the nature of input impedance for CB amplifier

6. Does any phase shift occur in CB amplifier

7. What is the nature of output impedance of CB amplifier

EXERSISE: 1.Design Common base amplifier using different transistors and design value

resistors (BC107, BC547, 2N2222 etc).

2. Design a PCB layout for the CE amplifier circuit

COMMON BASE AMPLIFIER (Hardware)

AIM: 1. Plot the frequency response of a BJT amplifier in common base configuration.

2. Calculate gain.

3. Calculate bandwidth.

COMPONENTS & EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED: S.No

1.

Device

(a) DC supply voltage

Range/Rating

12V

Qty

1

(b) BJT

BC10710F

12

(c) Capacitors

100F,220,22K,1k 1

(d) Resistors

5.6K,10k

2.

Signal generator

0.1Hz-1MHz

3.

CRO

0Hz-20MHz

4.

Connecting wires

5A

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

VCC

12V

VEE

12 V

RE

20k

RC

10k

C1

10F

Vin

10mVpk

1kHz

0

C2

Q1

BC 107

10F

RL

10k

PROCEDURE: 6. Connect the circuit diagram as shown in figure for common base amplifier.

7. Adjust input signal amplitude in the function generator and observe an amplified

voltage at the output without distortion.

8. By keeping input signal voltage, say at 50mV, vary the input signal frequency from

0 to 1MHz in steps as shown in tabular column and note the corresponding output

voltages.

VO

V

O

2

0

lo

g

.

V

(d

B

)

9. Find the voltage gain, AV V , A

in

in

V

10. Plot AV VS frequency on a semi-log sheet.

PRECAUTIONS:

2.

TABULAR COLUMN:

Frequency (in

Output Voltage

Hz)

Gain Av=Vo/Vi

Input = 50mV

Gain(in dB) =20log10(Vo/Vi)

(Vo)

20

50

100

1k

10k

100k

200,500K

1M

RESULT: 3. Frequency response of BJT in CB mode amplifier is plotted.

4. Gain = _______dB (maximum).

3. Bandwidth= fH--fL = _________Hz.

COMMON SOURCE AMPLIFIER (Software)

PRELAB:

1. Study the operation and working principle of CS amplifier.

2. Identify all the formulae you will need in this Lab.

3. Study the procedure of using Multisim (Schematic & Circuit File).

OBJECTIVE:

1. To simulate the Common Source amplifier in Multisim and study the transient and frequency

response.

2. Obtain the frequency response characteristics of CS amplifier by hardware implementation.

3. To determine the phase relationship between the input and output voltages by performing

the transient analysis.

4. To determine the maximum gain, 3dB gain, lower and upper cutoff frequencies and

bandwidth of CS amplifier by performing the AC analysis.

5. Determine the effects of input signal frequency on Common Source amplifiers

SOFTWARE TOOL:

Multisim

APPARATUS:

Regulated power supply

1 No.

Function generator.

CRO.

FET (BFW 10).

1 No.

1 No.

1 No.

1.No. each

Capacitors (100 F, 10 F)

2 No. each

Breadboard.

1 No.

Connecting wires

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

VDD

15 V

RD

4.7k

Q1

R1

C1

10k

10F

Vin

50mVpk

1kHz

0

C2

10F

2N3370

Rg

2.2M

RL

1k

RS

470

PART

THEORY:

In Common Source Amplifier Circuit Source terminal is common to both the input and output

terminals. In this Circuit input is applied between Gate and Source and the output is taken from

Drain and the source. JFET amplifiers provide an excellent voltage gain with the added advantage of

high input impedance and other characteristics JFETs are often preferred over BJTs for certain types

of applications. The CS amplifier of JFET is analogous to CE amplifier of BJT.

PROCEDURE:

1. Open Multisim Software to design FET common source amplifier circuit

2. Select on New editor window and place the required component CS amplifier on the circuit

window.

3. Make the connections using wire and check the connections and oscillator.

4. Go for simulation and using Run Key observe the output waveforms on CRO

5. Indicate the node names and go for AC Analysis with the output node

6. Observe the Transient response , Ac Analysis and draw the magnitude response curve

7. Calculate the bandwidth of the amplifier

Expected Graphs:

OBSERVATIONS / GRAPHS:

TRANSIENT RESPONSE:

FREQUENCY RESPONSE

INFERENCE:

1. From the transient analysis the phase relationship between input and output voltage

signals is ___________ degrees.

2. From the frequency response curve the following results are calculated:

S. No.

Parameter

Max. Gain in dB

3dB Gain

Bandwidth

Value

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. What is Miller effect on common source amplifier?

2. What is the purpose of source resistor and gate resistor?

3. What is swamping resistor

4. What is the purpose of swamping resistor in common source amplifier

5. FET is a liner or non-linear device. And justify your answer

6. What is square law and give an example for a square law device

EXERCISE:

1. Design Common Source amplifier using different FET transistors and

design values

2. Design a PCB layout for the common source amplifier.

COMMON SOURCE AMPLIFIER (Hardware)

AIM: 1. Plot the frequency response of a FET amplifier in common source mode .

2. Calculate gain.

3. Calculate bandwidth.

COMPONENTS & EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED: -

S.No

Device

Range/Rating

QTY

1.

(b) FET

12V

BFW 11/2N4392

1

1

(c) Capacitors

10F

100F

100,470

4.7K,8.2k

(d) Resistors

2.

Signal generator

0.1Hz-1MHz

3.

CRO

0Hz-20MHz

4.

Connecting wires

5A

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

VDD

12V

R4

4.7k

C1

Q1

10F

C2

R2

1k

50mVrms

1kHz

0

R1

1.0k

BFW10

10F

V1

R5

1M

R3

470

C3

100F

2. Adjust input signal amplitude 50mV, 1 KHz in the function generator and

observe an amplified voltage at the output without distortion.

3. By keeping input signal voltage, say at 50mV; vary the input signal frequency

from 10 to 1MHz in steps as shown in tabular column and note the corresponding

output voltages.

PRECAUTIONS:

TABULAR COLUMN:

Frequency (in Hz)

Input = 50mV

Output Voltage (Vo)

Gain Av=Vo/Vi

10

50

100

1K

10k

50K,100K

200k,500K

1M

RESULT: 1. Frequency response of FET Common source amplifier is plotted.

2. Gain = _______dB (maximum).

3. Bandwidth= fH--fL = _________Hz.

EXPECTED GRAPH:

COMMON GATE AMPLIFIER (Software)

AIM: 1. Plot the frequency response of a FET amplifier in common gate mode.

2. Calculate gain.

3. Calculate bandwidth.

COMPONENTS & EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED: -

S.No

Device

Range/Rating

QTY

1.

(b) FET

(c) Capacitors

(d) Resistors

12V

BFW 11/2N4392

1F

1K,10k,1.5K

1

1

2

1

2.

3.

4.

Signal generator

CRO

Connecting wires

0.1Hz-1MHz

0Hz-20MHz

5A

1

1

4

CIRCUITDIAGRAM:

VDD

12V

R3

1.5k

C1

Q1

XSC1

1F

C2

Ext Trig

+

1F

BFW10

XFG1

R1

1k

R2

10k

_

B

A

+

(FET) amplifier topologies, typically used as a current buffer or voltage amplifier. In this

circuit the source terminal of the transistor serves as the input, the drain is the output and

the gate is connected to ground, or "common," hence its name. The analogous bipolar

junction transistor circuit is the common-base amplifier. his configuration is used less often

than the common source or source follower. It is useful in, for example, CMOS RF receivers,

especially when operating near the frequency limitations of the FETs; it is desirable because

of the ease of impedance matching and potentially has lower noise

PROCEDURE:

1. Open Multisim Software to design FET common source amplifier circuit

2. Select on New editor window and place the required component CS amplifier on the

circuit window.

3. Make the connections using wire and check the connections and oscillator.

4. Go for simulation and using Run Key observe the output waveforms on CRO

5. Indicate the node names and go for AC Analysis with the output node

6. Observe the Transient response , Ac Analysis and draw the magnitude response

curve

7. Calculate the bandwidth of the amplifier

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

COMMON GATE AMPLIFIER (Hardware)

AIM: 1. Plot the frequency response of a FET amplifier in common gate mode .

2. Calculate gain.

3. Calculate bandwidth.

COMPONENTS & EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED: -

S.No

Device

Range/Rating

QTY

1.

(b) FET

(c) Capacitors

(d) Resistors

12V

BFW 11/2N4392

1F

1K,10k,1.5K

1

1

2

1

2.

3.

4.

Signal generator

CRO

Connecting wires

0.1Hz-1MHz

0Hz-20MHz

5A

1

1

4

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

VDD

12V

R3

1.5k

C1

Q1

1F

BFW10

R2

10k

C2

1F

XFG1

R1

1k

CRO

2. Adjust input signal amplitude 50mV, 1 KHz in the function generator and

observe an amplified voltage at the output without distortion.

3. By keeping input signal voltage, say at 50mV; vary the input signal frequency

from 10 to 1MHz in steps as shown in tabular column and note the corresponding

output voltages.

PRECAUTIONS:

TABULAR COLUMN:

Frequency (in Hz)

Input = 50mV

Output Voltage (Vo)

Gain Av=Vo/Vi

10

50

100

1K

10k

50K,100K

200k,500K

1M

RESULT: 1. Frequency response of FET Common source amplifier is plotted.

2. Gain = _______dB (maximum).

3. Bandwidth= fH--fL = _________Hz.

EXPECTED GRAPH:

VOLTAGE SHUNT FEED BACK AMPLIFIER (Software)

PRELAB:

1. Study the concept of feedback in amplifiers.

2. Study the characteristics of current shunt feedback amplifier.

3. Identify all the formulae you will need in this Lab.

4. Analyze the circuit using Multisim

OBJECTIVE:

1. To simulate the Current Shunt Feedback Amplifier in Multisim and study the

transient and frequency response.

2. To determine the maximum gain, 3dB gain, lower and upper cutoff frequencies and

bandwidth of Current Shunt Feedback Amplifier by performing the AC analysis.

3. To determine the effect of feedback on gain and bandwidth and compare with

Multisim results.

APPARATUS:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Transistor 2n2222(2)

Resistors 500, 47K (2), 10K (3), 5K (2), 2K (2).

Capacitors 1u (4).

RPS 12V.

CRO.

Breadboard.

Connecting wires and Probes.

SOFTWARE TOOL:

Multisim

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

VDD

12V

Rc1

R1

10k

R3

47k

RS

500

47k

C2

Rc2

10k

1.0uF

C1

1.0uF

Q2

Q1

1.0uF

C4

0.01mV

1kHz

0Deg

1.0uF

R2

5k

Re1

2k

10

2N2222A

2N2222A

Vs

C3

R5

RL

10k

4.7k

R4

5k

Re2

2k

THEORY:

Feedback plays a very important role in electronic circuits and the basic parameters,

such as input impedance, output impedance, current and voltage gain and bandwidth, may

be altered considerably by the use of feedback for a given amplifier.

A portion of the output signal is taken from the output of the amplifier and is

combined with the normal input signal and thereby the feedback is accomplished.

There are two types of feedback. They are i) Positive feedback and ii) Negative

feedback. Negative feedback helps to increase the bandwidth, decrease gain, distortion, and

noise, modify input and output resistances as desired.

A current shunt feedback amplifier circuit is illustrated in the figure. It is called a

series-derived, shunt-fed feedback. The shunt connection at the input reduces the input

resistance and the series connection at the output increases the output resistance. This is a

true current amplifier.

PROCEDURE:

1. Open Multisim Software to design Voltage shunt feedback amplifier circuit

2. Select on New editor window and place the required component on the circuit

window.

3. Make the connections using wire and check the connections and oscillator.

4. Go for simulation and using Run Key observe the output waveforms on CRO

5. Indicate the node names and go for AC Analysis with the output node

6. Observe the Ac Analysis for with feedback and without feedback separately and draw the

magnitude response curve

7. Calculate the bandwidth of the amplifier

OBSERVATIONS/GRAPHS:

TRANSIENT RESPONSE:

FREQUENCY RESPONSE:

INFERENCE:

1. From the frequency response curve the following results are calculated:

2. From the AC response, it is observed that, ______________________________

S. No.

Parameter

Max. Gain in dB

3dB Gain

Value

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. State the merits and demerits of negative feedback in amplifiers.

2. If the bypass capacitor CE in an RC coupled amplifier becomes accidentally open

circuited, what happens to the gain of the amplifier? Explain.

3. When will a negative feedback amplifier circuit be unstable?

4. What is the parameter which does not change with feedback?

5. What type of feedback has been used in an emitter follower circuit?

EXERCISE: 1.Design voltage shunt feedback amplifier using FET and different values

2. Design a PCB layout for Voltage shunt feedback amplifier.

VOLTAGE SHUNT FEED BACK AMPLIFIER (Hardware)

AIM: 1. To study the voltage gain, frequency response, and Bandwidth of a Voltage shunt feedback amplifier with and without feedback.

COMPONENTS & EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED: -

S.No

Device

Range/Rating

QTY

1.

12V

(b) BJT

(c) Capacitors

BC 107,546

10F

1

2

100F

(d) Resistors

33K,5.6k,2.2k,1k, 1

4.7K,1.8k,10k

2.

Signal generator

0.1Hz-1MHz

3.

CRO

0Hz-20MHz

4.

Connecting wires

5A

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

VCC

12V

R3

33k?

C1

R2

4.7k?

XSC1

10F

R6

10k?

XFG1

R5

C4

1k?

10F

C3

CRO

Q1

10F

Ext Trig

+

_

B

A

+

B

BC107BP

R8

2.2k?

R4

5.6k?

R1

1.8k?

C5

100F

C6

0.001F

PROCEDURE: 1. Connect the circuit diagram as shown in figure. Adjust input signal amplitude

50mV, 1 KHz in the function generator and observe an amplified voltage at the output

without distortion.

2. By keeping input signal voltage, constant 50mV, vary the input signal frequency from

1 to 1MHz in steps as shown in tabular column and note the corresponding output

voltages. By keeping feed- back terminals open and calculate the Bandwidth from the graph.

3. Connect the Feedback short A and B terminal and now vary the input signal frequency

from 1 to 1MHz in steps as shown in tabular column and note the corresponding

output voltage

4. Calculate the Bandwidth with feed- back from the plot of graph.

PRECAUTIONS:

1. Avoid loose connections and give proper input Voltage

TABULAR COLUMN:

Frequency (in Hz)

Input = 50mV

Output Voltage (Vo)

Gain Av=Vo/Vi

20

40

80

100

1K

10k

50k,100K

1M

RESULT: - With feed-back, gain decreases and band width increases

1. Frequency response of amplifier is plotted.

3 Gain = _______dB (maximum).with Feed-back.

4. Bandwidth= fH--fL = _________Hz. without Feed-back.

5. Bandwidth= fH--fL = _________Hz. with Feed-back.

EXPECTED GRAPH:

TWO STAGE RC COUPLED AMPLIFIER (Software)

PRELAB:

1.Study the purpose of using multistage amplifiers.

2. Learn the different types of coupling methods.

3. Study the effect of cascading on Bandwidth.

4. Identify all the formulae you will need in this Lab.

5. Study the procedure of using Multisim tool (Schematic & Circuit File).

OBJECTIVE:

1. To simulate the Two Stage RC Coupled Amplifier in Multisim and study the

transient and frequency response.

2. To determine the phase relationship between the input and output voltages by

performing the transient analysis.

3. To determine the maximum gain, 3dB gain, lower and upper cutoff frequencies and

bandwidth of Two Stage RC Coupled Amplifier by performing the AC analysis.

4. To determine the effect of cascading on gain and bandwidth.

SOFTWARE TOOL:

Multisim

APPARATUS:

Regulated power supply

1 No.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

1 No.

1 No.

2 No.

2 No. each

4 Nos.

2,3No. each

1 No.

Function generator

CRO

Transistor (BC 107 or 2N2222)

Resistors (5K,47 K,2 K, ,1 K)

Resistor (10 K)

Capacitors (10 F, 1 F)

Bread Board

Connecting wires

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

VCC

12V

R4

150k

R2

22k

R5

10k

C2

C5

Q2

10F

R3

10k

V1

50mVrms

1kHz

0

R8

1k

XSC1

CRO out put

10F

Q1

C1

Ext Trig

+

_

BC107BP

10F

BC107BP

R6

22k

C3

100F

R1

220

R9

5.6k

R7

220

R10

220

C4

100F

THEORY:

An amplifier is the basic building block of most electronic systems. Just as one brick

does not make a house, a single-stage amplifier is not sufficient to build a practical electronic

system. The gain of the single stage is not sufficient for practical applications. The voltage

level of a signal can be raised to the desired level if we use more than one stage. When a

number of amplifier stages are used in succession (one after the other) it is called a multistage

amplifier or a cascade amplifier. Much higher gains can be obtained from the multi-stage

amplifiers. In a multi-stage amplifier, the output of one stage makes the input of the next

stage. We must use a suitable coupling network between two stages so that a minimum loss

of voltage occurs when the signal passes through this network to the next stage. Also, the dc

voltage at the output of one stage should not be permitted to go to the input of the next. If it

does, the biasing conditions of the next stage are disturbed.

Figure shows how to couple two stages of amplifiers using RC coupling scheme. This

is the most widely used method. In this scheme, the signal developed across the collector

resistor RC (R2)of the first stage is coupled to the base of the second stage through the

capacitor CC.(C2) The coupling capacitor blocks the dc voltage of the first stage from

reaching the base of the second stage. In this way, the dc biasing of the next stage is not

interfered with. For this reason, the capacitor CC (C2)is also called a blocking capacitor.

As the number of stages increases, the gain increases and the bandwidth decreases.

RC coupling scheme finds applications in almost all audio small-signal amplifiers used in

record players, tape recorders, public-address systems, radio receivers, television receivers,

etc.

PROCEDURE:

1. Open Multisim Software to design Two stage RC coupled amplifier circuit

2. Select on New editor window and place the required component CS amplifier on the

circuit window.

3. Make the connections using wire and check the connections and oscillator.

4. Go for simulation and using Run Key observe the output waveforms on CRO

5. Indicate the node names and go for AC Analysis with the output node

6. Observe the Transient response and Ac Analysis for the first stage and second stage

separately and draw the magnitude response curve

7. Calculate the bandwidth of the amplifier

OBSERVATIONS/GRAPHS:

TRANSIENT RESPONSE:

FREQUENCY RESPONSE:

INFERENCE:

1. From the transient analysis, it is observed that,___________________________

2. From the frequency response curve the following results are calculated:

3. From the AC response, it is observed that, _____________________________

S. No.

Parameter

Max. Gain in dB

3dB Gain

Bandwidth of I stage

Bandwidth of 2 stage

Value

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1.

2.

3.

4.

Why do you need more than one stage of amplifiers in practical circuits?

What is the effect of cascading on gain and bandwidth?

What happens to the 3dB frequencies if the number of stages of amplifiers increases?

Why we use a logarithmic scale to denote voltage or power gains, instead of using the

simpler linear scale?

5. What is loading effect in multistage amplifiers?

EXERSISE:

1. Design two stage amplifier using different FET transistors.

2. Design a PCB layout for the two stages RC coupled Amplifier.

TWO STAGE RC COUPLED AMPLIFIER (Hardware)

AIM: 1. Plot the frequency response of a Two Stage Amplifier.

2. Calculate gain.

3. Calculate bandwidth.

COMPONENTS & EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED: -

S.No

Device

Range/Rating

QTY

1.

12V

(b) FET

BFW 11/2N4392

(c) Capacitors

10F

(d) Resistors

100F

100,470

1

1

4.7K,8.2k

2.

Signal generator

0.1Hz-1MHz

3.

CRO

0Hz-20MHz

4.

Connecting wires

5A

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

VCC

12V

R4

150k

R2

22k

R5

10k

C2

C5

Q2

10F

R3

10k

V1

50mVrms

1kHz

0

R8

1k

10F

Q1

C1

BC107BP

10F

BC107BP

R6

22k

R1

220

R9

5.6k

R7

220

C3

100F

R10

220

C4

100F

2. Adjust input signal amplitude in the function generator and observe an amplified

voltage at the output without distortion.

3. By keeping input signal voltage, say at 50mV, vary the input signal frequency from 0

to 1MHz in steps as shown in tabular column and note the corresponding output

voltages.

PRECAUTIONS:

TABULAR COLUMN:

Frequency (in Hz)

With

Without

feedback

feedback

Input = 50mV

Gain Av=Vo/Vi

With

Without

feedback feedback

With

Without

feedback

feedback

20

40

80

100

1K

10k

50k,100K

1M

RESULT: 1. Frequency response of Two stage RC coupled amplifier is plotted.

3. Bandwidth= fH--fL = _________Hz. At stage I

4. Bandwidth= fH--fL = _________Hz. At stage 2

EXPECTED GRAPH:

SINGLE TUNED AMPLIFIER (Software)

PRELAB:

Study the operation and working principle Tuned amplifier.

OBJECTIVE:

To design single tuned amplifier using Multisim software and calculate the frequency

response and bandwidth Apparatus:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Transistor BC 107

Resistors 2K(2), 4.7K

Capacitors 10nF(2)

RPS

CRO

Breadboard

Connecting wires and probes

SOFTWARE TOOL:

Multisim

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

VCC

12V

R2

22k

C2

1nF

L1

1mH

XSC1

C5

Ext Trig

+

Q2

R3

10F

_

A

+

10k

BC107BP

V1

50mVrms

60kHz

0

R1

1k

R9

5.6k

R10

220

C4

100F

PROCEDURE:

1. Open Multisim Software to design circuit

2. Select on New editor window and place the required component on the circuit window.

3. Make the connections using wire and check the connections and oscillator.

4. Go for simulation and using Run Key observe the output waveforms on CRO

5. Indicate the node names and go for AC Analysis with the output node

6. Observe the Ac Analysis and draw the magnitude response curve

7. Calculate the bandwidth of the amplifier

OBSERVATIONS/GRAPHS:

2. Gain = _______dB (maximum).

3. Bandwidth= fH--fL = _________Hz.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. What is a tuned amplifier

2. Difine Q-factor

3. What is selectivity?

4. Is tuned amplifier a hallow band or wide band amplifier

5. give the applications for tuned amplifier

SINGLE TUNED AMPLIFIER (Hardware)

AIM: Plot the frequency response of a single tuned amplifier.

Calculate gain.

Calculate bandwidth.

S.No

Device

Range/Rating

Qty

1.

(b) BJT

12V

BC107

1

1

(c) Capacitors

10F

100F

(d) Resistors

220,22K,1k

5.6K,10k

2.

Signal generator

0.1Hz-1MHz

3.

CRO

0Hz-20MHz

4.

Connecting wires

5A

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

VCC

12V

C2

1nF

L1

1mH

R2

22k

C5

Q2

10F

R3

10k

BC107BP

V1

R1

1k

R9

5.6k

50mVrms

60kHz

0

R10

220

C4

100F

PROCEDURE: 1. Connect the circuit diagram as shown in figure.

2. Set the input signal amplitude in the function generator and observe an amplified

voltage at the output without distortion.

2. By keeping input signal voltage, say at 50mV, vary the input signal frequency from

0 to

1MHz in steps as shown in tabular column and note the corresponding output

voltages.

PRECAUTIONS:

TABULAR COLUMN:

Input = 50mV

Frequency

Output

Gain

Gain

(in Hz)

Voltage (Vo)

Av=Vo/Vi

(in dB) =

20log10(Vo/Vi)

20

40

80

100

500

1000

5000

10K

2. Gain = _______dB (maximum).

3. Bandwidth= fH--fL = _________Hz.

EXPECTED GRAPH:

RC PHASE SHIFT OSCILLATOR (Software)

PRELAB:

1. Study the different types of oscillator and their conditions.

2. Identify all the formulae you will need in this Lab.

OBJECTIVE:

1. To simulate RC phase shift oscillator in Multisim and study the transient response.

2. To determine the phase shift of RC network in the circuit.

SOFTWARE TOOL:

Multisim

APPARATUS:

1. Regulated power supply

1 No.

2. Function generator

3. CRO

4. Transistor (BC 107 or 2N2222)

5. Resistors (47 K, 2.2 K, 1k)

6. Resistor (10 K)

7. Capacitors (10 F, 100 F)

(1nf,or 10nf)

1 No.

1 No.

2 No.

1 No. each

3 Nos.

1No. each

3 No.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

VCC

12V

R4

47k

R5

2.2k

XSC1

C2

Ext Trig

+

10F

C5

C4

1nF

1nF

R3

10k

A

+

1nF

R2

10k

Q1

C1

BC107BP

R6

10k

R7

1k

C3

100F

PROCEDURE:

1. Open Multisim Software to design RC Phase shift oscillator

2. Select on New editor window and place the required component on the circuit window.

3. Make the connections using wire and check the connections and oscillator.

4. Go for simulation and using Run Key observe the output waveforms on CRO

5. Observe the Transient Response and Calculate the Frequency of the oscillator

OBSERVATIONS/GRAPHS:

TRANSIENT RESPONSE:

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. What are the conditions of oscillations?

2. Give the formula for frequency of oscillations?

3. What is the total phase shift produced by RC ladder network?

4. What are the types of oscillators?

5. What is the gain of RC phase shift oscillator?

EXERCISE: 1.Design RC Phase shift oscillator using FET and different design values

2. Design a PCB layout for RC Phase shift oscillator.

RC PHASE SHIFT OSCILLATOR (Hardware)

AIM:

Find practical frequency of RC phase shift oscillator and to compare it with

theoretical frequency for R=10K and C = 0.01F, 0.0022F & 0.0033F

respectively

COMPONENTS AND EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED:

S.No Device

Range/

Qty

Rating

1

a) DC supply voltage

12V

b) Capacitor

100F

10F

10K,5.6K

22K,100K

2

3

1K,

BC 107

(0-20) MHz

c) Resistor

d) NPN Transistor

2

CRO

3.

BNC Connector

Connecting wires

1

5A

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

VCC

12V

R4

22k

R5

1k

XSC1

C2

Ext Trig

+

10F

C5

C4

C1

10nF

10nF

10nF

R8

1k

R3

1k

R2

1k

Q1

+

R7

220

R1

1.0k

BC107BP

R6

5.6k

C3

100F

PROCEDURE:

Connect the circuit as shown in figure.

Connect the 0.0022 F capacitors in the circuit and observe the waveform.

Time period of the waveform is to be noted and frequency should be calculated by the formula

f = 1/T.

Now fix the capacitance to 0.033 F and 0.01F and calculate the frequency and tabulate as

shown.

Find theoretical frequency from the formula f = 1/2RC6 and compare theoretical and

practical frequencies.

TABULAR COLUMN:

S.No

Theoretical

Practical

Vo (p-p)

(F)

()

Frequency

Frequency

(Volts)

(KHz)

(KHz)

10nf

1k

1nf

1K

10n

10K

Theoretical frequency=

Practical frequency=

2. For C = 0.0033F & R=10K

Theoretical frequency=

Practical frequency=

3. For C = 0.01F & R=10K

Theoretical frequency=

Practical frequency=

HARTLEY OSCILLATOR (software)

PRELAB:

Study the operation and working principle Hartley oscillator.

OBJECTIVE:

To design Hartley oscillator using Multisim software and calculate the frequency

APPARATUS:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Transistor BC 107

Resistors 1K, 5K,10K,100K,

Capacitors 100nF(3),10nf

Inductor-10mH or 1mH.

RPS

CRO

Breadboard

Connecting wires and probes

SOFTWARE TOOL:

Multisim

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

VCC

12V

R4

100k

R5

5k

XSC1

C2

Ex t Trig

+

100nF

C1

C4

.01F

A

+

100nF

L1

10mH

Q1

BC107BP

R6

10k

R7

1k

C3

0.1F

L2

10mH

PROCEDURE:

1. Open Multisim Software to design Hartley oscillator circuit

2. Select on New editor window and place the required component on the circuit window.

3. Make the connections using wire and check the connections and oscillator.

4. Go for simulation and using Run Key observe the output waveforms on CRO

5. Calculate the frequency theoretically and practically

OBSERVATIONS/GRAPHS:

RESULT: -

1.

2.

3.

1.

Out frequency for L1=L2=10mH, C=100nf is_________

Out frequency for L1=L2=20mH, C=10nf is_________

Out frequency for L1=5, L2=10mH, C=10nf is_________

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. Define an oscillator?

2. Define barkhausen criteria

3. Which type of feedback is employed in oscillators

4. Give applications for oscillators

5. What is the condition for sustained oscillations

HARTLEY OSCILLATOR (Hardware)

AIM:

Find practical frequency of a Hartley oscillator and to compare it with theoretical frequency for

L = 10mH and C = 0.01F, 0.033F and 0.047F.

S.No

1

Device

a) DC supply voltage

b) Inductors

c) Capacitor

d) Resistor

e) NPN Transistor

2

3.

4

BNC Connector

Connecting wires

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Range/Rating

Quantity

12V

5mH

0.01F,0.022F;0.033F

0.047F

1K,10K,47K

BC 107

1

2

1

1

1

1

(0-20) MHz

1

1

4

5A

VCC

12V

R4

100k

R5

5k

C2

100nF

Q1

C1

100nF

L1

1mH

C4

.01F

CRO output

BC107BP

R6

10k

R7

1k

C3

0.1F

L2

1mH

PROCEDURE:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure.

2. With 0.1F capacitor and 20mH in the circuit and observe the waveform.

3. Time period of the waveform is to be noted and frequency is to be calculated by

the formula f = 1/T .

4. Now fix the capacitance to 0.033 F and 0.047F and calculate the frequency and

tabulate the readings as shown.

1

5. Find the theoretical frequency from the formula f =

2 LT C

Where LT = L1 + L2 = 5mH + 5mH = 10mH and compare theoretical

and practical values.

PRECAUTIONS: No loose contacts at the junctions.

TABULATIONS:

S.No

LT(mH)

C (F)

1

2

10

10

0.01

0.033

10

0.047

Theoretical

frequency

(KHz)

Practical

frequency

(KHz)

Vo (peak to

peak)

RESULT:

1. For C = 0.01F, & LT = 10 mH;

Theoretical frequency =

Practical frequency =

2.

For C = 0.033F, & LT = 10 mH;

Theoretical frequency =

Practical frequency =

3.

For C = 0.047F, & LTs = 10 mH;

Theoretical frequency =

Practical frequency =

COLPITTS OSCILLATOR (software)

PRELAB:

Study the operation and working principle Hartley oscillator.

OBJECTIVE:

To design Hartley oscillator using Multisim software and calculate the frequency

APPARATUS:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Transistor BC 107

Resistors 1K, 5K,10K,100K,

Capacitors 100nF(3),10nf

RPS

CRO

Breadboard

Connecting wires and probes

SOFTWARE TOOL:

Multisim

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

VCC

12V

R4

100k

R5

5k

XSC1

C2

Ex t Trig

+

100nF

C1

L1

20mH

A

+

100nF

C4

0.1F

Q1

BC107BP

R6

10k

R7

1k

C3

0.1F

C5

0.1F

PROCEDURE:

6. Open Multisim Software to design Colpitts oscillator circuit

7. Select on New editor window and place the required component on the circuit window.

8. Make the connections using wire and check the connections and oscillator.

9. Go for simulation and using Run Key observe the output waveforms on CRO

10. Calculate the frequency theoritaly and practically

OBSERVATIONS/GRAPHS:

RESULT: 4.

5.

6.

2.

Out frequency for L1 =10mH, C1=C2=100nf is_________

Out frequency for L1 =20mH, C1=C2=10nf is_________

Out frequency for L1= 10mH, C=10nf , C2=100nf _________

REVIEW QUESTIONS

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Classification of oscillators.

Give an example for LC oscillator.

Which phenomenon is employed for crystal oscillator.

Give the applications of oscillator.

COLPITTS OSCILLATOR (Hardware)

AIM:

Frequency for L= 5mH and C= 0.001F, 0.0022F, 0.0033F respectively.

COMPONENTS & EQIUPMENT REQUIRED: S.No

1

Device

a) DC supply voltage

Range/Rating

12V

Quantity

1

b) Inductors

c) Capacitor

5mH

0.01F,0.01F,100F

1

1

1K,10K,47K

BC 107

(0-20) MHz

d) Resistor

e) NPN Transistor

2

3.

BNC Connector

Connecting wires

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

1

5A

VCC

12V

R5

5k

R4

100k

C2

CRO output

100nF

Q1

C1

100nF

L1

20mH

C4

0.1F

BC107BP

R6

10k

R7

1k

C3

0.1F

C5

0.1F

2. Connect C2= 0.001Fin the circuit and observe the waveform.

3. Time period of the waveform is to be noted and frequency should be calculated

by the formula f=1/T

4. Now, fix the capacitance to 0.002 F and then to 0.003 F and calculate the

frequency and tabulate the reading as shown.

5. Find theoretical frequency from the formula f=

Where CT

1

2 LC T

C1C 2

and compare theoretical and practical values.

C1 C 2

TABULAR COLUMN:

S.NO

L(mH)

C1 (F)

C2 (F)

1mH

.1u

0.1u

1mH

0.01u

0.1u

CT (F)

Theoretical Practical

Vo(V)

Frequency

Frequency Peak to

(KHz)

(KHz)

peak

1mH

0.01

0.0iu

RESULT:

1. For C=0.01F, 0.1uf & L= 1mH

Theoretical frequency =

Practical frequency =

2. For C=0.1F, 0.1uf & L= 1mH

Theoretical frequency =

Practical frequency =

3. For C=0.01F, 0.01uf & L= 5mH

Theoretical frequency =

Practical frequency =

DARLINGTON PAIR AMPLIFIER (software)

PRELAB:

1. Study the operation and working principle of Darlington pair Amplifier

2. Identify all the formulae you will need in this Lab.

3. Study the procedure of using Multisim (Schematic & Circuit File)

OBJECTIVE:

1. To simulate the Darlington Pair amplifier in Multisim and study the transient and

frequency response.

2. Obtain the frequency response characteristics of Darlington pair amplifier by

hardware implementation.

3. To determine the maximum gain, 3dB gain, lower and upper cutoff frequencies

and bandwidth of Darlington pair Amplifier by performing the AC analysis.

SOFTWARE TOOL:

Multisim

APPARATUS:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Function generator

CRO

Transistor (BC107, BC372, or 2N3904)

Resistors (1K, 82K,22K,2.2 K,22K,390)

Capacitors (10 F)

Bread Board

Connecting wires

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

1No.

1No.

1No.

3No.

1No. each

2 No.

1 No.

VCC

12V

R4

82k

R1

2.2k

XSC1

C2

Ex t Trig

+

10F

C1

_

B

Q1

BC372

10F

XFG1

R3

1k

R5

22k

R2

390

Theory:

Darlington transistor (often called a Darlington pair) is a compound structure consisting of

two bipolar transistors (either integrated or separated devices) connected in such a way that

the current amplified by the first transistor is amplified further by the second one. This

configuration gives a much higher common/emitter current gain than each transistor taken

separately and, in the case of integrated devices, can take less space than two individual

transistors because they can use a shared collector. Integrated Darlington pairs come

packaged singly in transistor-like packages or as an array of devices (usually eight) in an

integrated circuit.

The Darlington configuration was invented by Bell Laboratories engineer Sidney Darlington

in 1953. He patented the idea of having two or three transistors on a single chip sharing a

collector.

PROCEDURE:

1. Open Multisim Software to design the Darlington pair amplifier circuit

2. Select on New editor window and place the required component on the circuit window.

3. Make the connections using wire and check the connections and oscillator.

4. Go for simulation and using Run Key observe the output waveforms on CRO

5. Indicate the node names and go for AC Analysis with the output node

6. Observe the Ac Analysis and draw the magnitude response curve

7. Calculate the bandwidth of the amplifier

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. Why do you need more than one stage of amplifiers in practical circuits?

2. What is the effect of cascading on gain and bandwidth?

3. What happens to the 3dB frequencies if the number of stages of amplifiers increases?

4. Why we use a logarithmic scale to denote voltage or power gains, instead of using the

simpler linear scale?

5. What is loading effect in multistage amplifiers?

2. Design a PCB layout for the above Darlington pair amplifier

DARLINGTON PAIR AMPLIFIER (Hardware)

AIM: - To Plot the frequency response of a Darlington amplifier. Calculate gain.

Calculate bandwidth.

S.No

Device

Range/Rating

Qty

1.

12V

(b) BJT

BC547

(c) Capacitors

10F

(d) Resistors

22k,2.2K,1k 1

82K,390

2.

Signal generator

0.1Hz-1MHz

3.

CRO

0Hz-20MHz

4.

Connecting wires

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

VCC

12V

R1

2.2k

R4

82k

C2

BC547C

V1

10F

Q7

C1

CRO

Q6

10F

50mVpk

1kHz

0

R5

22k

R3

1k

BC547C

R2

390

PROCEDURE: 1. Connect the circuit diagram as shown in figure. Set the RPS voltage at 12V and input

signal amplitude (sine wave) 50mV, 1 KHz in the function generator.

2. Feed the sine wave signal to the input of the amplifier and observe an amplified

voltage at the output without distortion.{ input at CH-1 & output at CH-2}

3. By keeping input signal voltage, constant 50mV, Select the Range switch of FG input

signal frequency from {10Hz to 1MHz} in steps. Note down the output Vo peak-topeak amplitude of signal for different frequencies in tabular column.

4. Calculate the Bandwidth from the plot of graph.

TABULAR FORM

Input 50mV

Frequency

Output

Gain

Gain

(in Hz)

Voltage (Vo)

Av=Vo/Vi

(in dB) =

20log10(Vo/Vi)

20

40

80

100

500

1000

5000

1M

EXPECTED GRAPH:

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