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Instructor's Manual and Test Bank

to accompany

CONFORMITY
AND CONFLICT
READINGS IN CULTURAL
ANTHROPOLOGY
Fifteenth Edition

David W. McCurdy
Macalester College
Dianna Shandy
Macalester College
James Spradley

Pearson
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Copyright 2016, 2012, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by copyright, and
permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in
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photocopying, recording, or otherwise. For information regarding permissions, request forms and
the appropriate contacts within the Pearson Education Global Rights & Permissions department,
please visit www.pearsoned.com/permissions/.

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

ISBN 10: 0-13-416704-X


ISBN 13: 978-0-13-416704-6

CONTENTS
Preface

vii

Culture and Ethnography


1

Ethnography and Culture

JAMES P. SPRADLEY

Eating Christmas in the Kalahari

RICHARD BORSHAY LEE

Fieldwork on Prostitution in the Era of AIDS

CLAIRE E. STERK

Nice Girls Dont Talk to Rastas

12

GEORGE GMELCH

Language and Communication


5

Shakespeare in the Bush

15

18

LAURA BOHANNAN

Manipulating Meaning: The Military Name Game

20

SARAH BOXER

Conversation Style: Talking on the Job

23

DEBORAH TANNEN

Ecology and Subsistence


8

27

The Hunters: Scarce Resources in the Kalahari

30

RICHARD BORSHAY LEE

Illegal Logging and Frontier Conservation

34

NATHAN WILLIAMSON

10 We Are Going Underwater

38

SUSAN A. CRATE

11 Forest Development the Indian Way

42

RICHARD K. REED

iii
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Economic Systems

45

12 Reciprocity and the Power of Giving

48

LEE CRONK

13 Poverty at Work: Office Employment and the Crack Alternative

51

PHILIPPE BOURGOIS

14 Women in the Mine

55

JESSICA SMITH ROLSTON

15 Malawi Versus the World Bank

58

SONIA PATTEN

Kinship and Family

61

16 Mother's Love: Death without Weeping

66

NANCY SCHEPER-HUGHES

17 Family and Kinship in Village India

70

DAVID W. McCURDY

18 Polyandry: When Brothers Take a Wife

74

MELVYN C. GOLDSTEIN

19 Marriage and Adulthood in West Africa

77

SUSANNA FIORATTA

Roles and Inequality

80

20 Negotiating Work and Family in America

84

DIANNA SHANDY AND KARINE MOE

21 Becoming Muslim in Europe

88

MIKAELA ROGOZEN-SOLTAR

22 Mixed Blood

92

JEFFREY M. FISH

23 Motorcycles, Membership, and Belonging

95

DAVID W. McCURDY

iv
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Law and Politics

98

24 Cross-cultural Law: The Case of the Gypsy Offender

102

ANNE SUTHERLAND

25 Law and Order

105

JAMES P. SPRADLEY AND DAVID W. McCURDY

26 Navigating Nigerian Bureaucracies 108


ELIZABETH A. EAMES

27 Illegal Economies and the Untold Story of the Amputees 111


CAROLYN NORDSTROM

Religion, Magic, and World View

114

28 The Words Lover: Boyfriend Spirits in Senegal

118

RACHEL MUELLER

29 Baseball Magic

121

GEORGE GMELCH

30 Run for the Wall: An American Pilgrimage

124

JILL DUBISCH

31 Body Ritual among the Nacirema

128

HORACE MINER

Globalization

131

32 How Sushi Went Global

134

THEODORE C. BESTOR

33 Village Walks: Tourism and Globalization among the Tharu of Nepal

138

ARJUN GUNERATNE AND KATE BJORK

34 Nuer Refugees in America

142

DIANNA SHANDY

35 Global Women in the New Economy

146

BARBARA EHENREICH
AND ARLIE RUSSELL HOCHSCHILD

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10

Using and Doing Anthropology

149

36 Advice for Developers: Peace Corps Problems in Botswana

153

HOYT S. ALVERSON

37 Medical Anthropology: Improving Nutrition in Malawi

156

SONIA PATTEN

38 Public Interest Ethnography: Womens Prisons and Health Care in California


RACHAEL STRYKER

39 Using Anthropology

163

DAVID W. McCURDY

vi
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160

PREFACE

This supplement has been developed especially for use with the Fifteenth Edition of Conformity
and Conflict: Readings in Cultural Anthropology. Included are summaries of each article, true or
false questions, and multiple choice questions. Answers for true or false questions are indicated
by the inclusion of a T or F before each question. The correct answer for each multiple-choice
question is listed below the question.
The addition of key concepts to Conformity and Conflict starting with the sixth edition has
permitted an expansion of the number and scope of questions about each article. Questions are
largely confined to the main ideas and facts presented in each article, but there are also some
questions written to test the relationship of key concepts with articles.
You may use the questions included in this supplement in at least three ways: in their present
form, in a form altered to meet your requirements, and as a source of ideas for new questions.
You may prefer to rewrite questions to fit your style, course content, and students. Most instructors use the selections in Conformity and Conflict to illustrate course concepts and theory. It is
often possible to work material from lectures, a text, or other sources into the framework of
questions included in this manual.
Finally, you may want to use the questions presented here as a source of ideas for new questions.
It may be possible to ask something using a simpler and clearer question frame. Ideas for new
question topics often emerge from a review of old test items. However you decide to use them, I
hope that the article summaries, concept definitions, and questions presented here will be helpful
to you.

David McCurdy

vii
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viii
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PART 1
CULTURE AND ETHNOGRAPHY
The introduction to Part 1 discusses the concept of culture and the nature of ethnographic
fieldwork with special emphasis on the following definitions.
KEY DEFINITIONS
Culture is the acquired (learned) knowledge that people use to generate behavior and interpret
experience.
Explicit culture is culture that people are consciously aware of and can talk about.
Tacit culture is culture that is not coded in language by a people, such as speaking distances.
Ethnography is the process of discovering and describing a particular culture.
A microculture is a system of cultural knowledge characteristic of a subgroup within a larger
society.
Detached observation is a research approach in which investigators observe human behavior
and create their own categories and theories to describe and explain it.
A subject is a person who is observed by social scientists conducting experimental social or
psychological research.
An informant is an individual from whom anthropologists learn a culture.
A respondent is an individual who responds to questions normally associated with survey
research.
Naive realism is the belief (often unconscious) that people everywhere see the world in the same
way.
Culture shock is a state of anxiety that results from cross-cultural misunderstanding.
Ethnocentrism is the belief and feeling that one's own culture is best.

1
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PART 1 QUESTIONS
True or False?
F

1.

Culture is the patterned behavior characteristic of a group of people.

2.

Detached observation is a research approach in which investigators observe human


behavior and create their own categories and theories to describe and explain it.

3.

A microculture is the patterned behavior characteristic of a subgroup within a larger


society.

4.

An informant is what anthropologists call the individuals from whom they learn a
culture.

5.

Culture shock is the process of discovering and describing a particular culture.

Multiple Choice
1.

Sir Edward Burnett Tylor is known for his early definition of


a. ethnography.
b. culture.
c. naive realism.
d. culture shock.
Correct Answer: b

2.

When they do ethnographic fieldwork, anthropologists interview


a. objects.
b. subjects.
c. informants.
d. participants.
Correct Answer: c

3.

The process of discovering and describing a particular culture is called


a. interviewing.
b. ethnocentrism.
c. participant observation.
d. ethnography.
Correct Answer: d

2
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4.

The view that all people see and understand the world in the same way is called
a. naive realism.
b. culture shock.
c. ethnocentrism.
d. detached observation.
Correct Answer: a

5.

The belief and feeling that one's own culture is best is called
a. cultural relativism.
b. naive realism.
c. detached observation.
d. ethnocentrism.
Correct Answer: d

3
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Article 1
Ethnography and Culture

JAMES P. SPRADLEY

Summary In this introductory chapter from his book Participant Observation, Spradley defines
and emphasizes the importance of ethnographic fieldwork and the concept of culture.
Ethnography is the work of describing a culture. It requires the discovery of the native or
insiders point of view.
Cultural behavior consists of the actions generated by cultural knowledge. Cultural artifacts,
based on cultural behavior and cultural knowledge, are the things people make or shape from
natural resources. Culture, itself, is the socially acquired knowledge that people use to generate
behavior and interpret experience. Different cross-cultural interpretations of the same event
easily cause misunderstandings.
Culture may also be explicit (part of our conscious awareness) or tacit (outside awareness). The
meaning of things for members of a group is at the heart of the culture concept, a point related to
Blumers notion of symbolic interactionism. The concept of culture as acquired knowledge has
much in common with symbolic interactionism, a theory that seeks to explain human behavior in
terms of meanings. Blumers theory rests on three premises. The first is that human beings act
toward things on the basis of the meanings that the things have for them. The second is that the
meaning of such things is derived from, or arises out of, the social interaction that one has with
ones fellows. The third is that meanings are handled in, and modified through, an interpretive
process used by the person dealing with the things he encounters. Spradley concludes by
characterizing culture as a map, a guide to action and interpretation.
ARTICLE 1 QUESTIONS
True or False?
F

1.

Spradley defines culture as behavior, artifacts, and knowledge.

2.

Anthropologists, such as George Hicks, look for inside meaning when they do
ethnographic research.

3.

Tacit culture refers to cultural knowledge that informants consciously hide from the
ethnographer.

4.

Herbert Blumer developed a theory of symbolic interactionism.

5.

The concept of explicit culture is a key part of Herbert Blumers theory of symbolic
interaction.

6.

Spradley argues that culture is more like a map, guiding human action, rather than a
strict set of rules requiring specific behavior.
4
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Multiple Choice
1.

According to Spradley, the term ethnography refers to


a. the discovery and description of the culture of a particular group.
b. the statistical testing of hypotheses in the field, using survey questionnaires.
c. the discovery of ethnic subgroups within complex societies.
d. the process of cross-cultural classification, comparison, and explanation.
Correct Answer: a

2.

According to Spradley, culture, itself, is a kind of


a. behavior.
b. artifact.
c. knowledge.
d. ideal system.
Correct Answer: c

3.

According to Spradley, the belief that people everywhere interpret the world in the same
way is called
a. naive realism.
b. cultural behavior.
c. explicit culture.
d. tacit culture.
Correct Answer: d

4.

Which of the following is the best example of an action based on a tacit cultural rule for
members of U.S. society?
a. chewing with one's mouth closed
b. driving on the right side of the street
c. giving your father his chair in front of the family television
d. moving to the opposite side of an elevator when there is only one other person in it
Correct Answer: d

5.

The idea that human beings act toward things on the basis of the meanings they have for
them is a tenet of
a. naive realism.
b. explicit culture.
c. tacit culture.
d. symbolic interactionism.
Correct Answer: d

5
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6.

According to Spradley, the actions generated by cultural knowledge are called


a. cultural behavior.
b. cultural generation.
c. cultural artifacts.
d. explicit culture.
Correct Answer: a

6
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Article 2
Eating Christmas in the Kalahari

RICHARD BORSHAY LEE

Summary In this article, Lee describes a classic case of cross-cultural misunderstanding that
occurred near the completion of his fieldwork among the !Kung Bushmen. To thank the !Kung
for allowing him to live and work among them, Lee decided to donate an especially large ox for
them to eat at their annual Christmas feast. To his dismay, the !Kung seemed disappointed with
the animal he had chosen, claiming that it was too thin, old, and sick. Their attitude persisted
even after the butchered ox proved to be so large and fat that it fed 150 people for two days.
Only later did Lee discover that the !Kung customarily denigrate and ridicule hunters who have
killed large game in order to cool their potential arrogance. To Lee, the ox meant a gift, and in
American culture gifts should be reciprocated with thanks and appreciation. To the !Kung, the ox
was a large animal to be shared, something hunters contribute regularly. For them, the provider
must be kept in line lest he become impressed by his own importance (a position related to the
!Kung value on equality). Because of these different cultural interpretations of the same act,
cross-cultural misunderstanding resulted.
As a postscript to this article, remember that the !Kung were studied by Lee in the 60s; few live
as foragers today. For an update on the !Kung see the epilogue to article 8 by Lee and Biesele.
ARTICLE 2 QUESTIONS
True or False?
F

1.

!Kung ridiculed the ox Lee gave them for their Christmas feast because the animal was
too thin and old.

2.

Lee's gift of a Christmas ox was ridiculed by the !Kung because he misunderstood their
criteria for a desirable animal.

3.

The !Kung ridiculed the ox given them by Lee for their Christmas feast because this is
the usual way they cool the arrogance of people who provide important things for
others.

4.

The !Kung regularly understate their own hunting achievements to avoid looking
arrogant.

5.

!Kung regularly express admiration for one anothers hunting achievements.

6.

The misunderstanding that Lee experienced with the !Kung was based on different
cultural meanings for Lees gift of a Christmas ox.
7
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Multiple Choice
1.

!Kung expressed disappointment with the ox Lee gave them for the Christmas feast because
a. the animal was too thin and old.
b. this was their way to cool a givers potential arrogance.
c. the animal came from an outsider.
d. they were afraid that Lee would take the animal back if they showed approval.
Correct Answer: b

2.

The cross-cultural misunderstanding experienced between Lee and the !Kung occurred over
a. the cultural meaning of the gift of an ox.
b. the way Lee gave them the ox.
c. the cultural meaning of oxen.
d. the poor condition of the ox.
Correct Answer: a

3.

According to Lee, a !Kung hunter


a. eats all of a kill himself.
b. shares game only with his own family.
c. gives all the meat from an animal he has killed to the man who made the arrow he used.
d. shares what he kills with others and expects them to reciprocate.
Correct Answer: d

4.

According to Lee, when a !Kung hunter kills a large animal, he is likely to tell others
a. I have killed a large giraffe.
b. I have killed a big one in the bush.
c. I am no good for hunting. I saw nothing at alljust a little tiny one.
d. A giraffe happened to step in front of my flying arrow.
Correct Answer: c

5.

The way the !Kung treated Richard Lees gift of a Christmas ox reveals how much they
value
a. male dominance.
b family solidarity.
c. identification with nature.
d. equality.
Correct Answer: d

6.

Lee acquired the ox he intended to slaughter for the !Kung Christmas feast
a. from Herero pastoralists living nearby.
b. from a South African cattle rancher.
c. by catching it in the wild.
d. from a friend.
Correct Answer: a

8
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Article 3
Fieldwork on Prostitution in the Era of AIDS

CLAIRE E. STERK

Summary This article discusses ethnographic fieldwork as a processentering the field,


making contact, and developing rapport, as well as ethical dilemmas and stress. Undertaking
fieldwork in a Western microculture (in this case the culture of prostitute life), illustrates how
participant observation, originally developed to discover the content of non-Western cultures,
can be adapted for use at home. Sterks goal was to learn about the lives of prostitutes from the
women themselves. Her subjects comprised 180 low end prostitutes--those who worked on the
streets and in the crack houses of Atlanta and New York in the 1980s and 1990s.
Sterk learned that gatekeepers (initial contacts who give you access to other informants) can
become less important with time. Some self-nominated key informants had access to only part of
a cultural scene. Encouraging women to have some control over the research process enhanced
rapport; this meant letting informants tell their own stories and refraining from judgement.
Interviews were conducted in private and required consent forms, which perhaps surprisingly
Sterk was able to obtain. Abusive figures who controlled prostitutespimpssometimes
presented an impediment to research. Fieldwork involved stress, which was partially relieved by
being able to leave the field. Leaving the field, however, led to feelings of guilt.
The article ends with six observations about prostitutes and their culture. Prostitutes often blame
past experiences for their current status and alienation from normal people. There are different
kinds of prostitutesstreetwalkers, women who became hooked on drugs after they started in
the profession, women who entered the life already addicted to drugs, and women who turned
tricks as payment for drugs. Contracting AIDS was a great risk for prostitutes, but condom use
was often rejected by their customers and pimps. Men are often violent toward prostitutes.
Finally, women did sometimes leave this microculture, but their past often followed them.
ARTICLE 3 QUESTIONS
True or False?
F

1.

According to Sterk in her article, Fieldwork on Prostitution in the Era of AIDS,


virtually all the prostitutes she interviewed or observed were hooked on drugs.

2.

According to Sterk, Fieldwork on Prostitution in the Era of AIDS, 30 prostitutes she


Interviewed were college graduates and 75 percent of her informants had graduated
from high school.

3. In Fieldwork on Prostitution in the Era of AIDS, Sterk found that it was essential to
present yourself as an expert on the lives of informants before interviewing them and to
use such information to design interviews.
9
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T 4.

According to Sterk, Fieldwork on Prostitution in the Era of AIDS, finding informant


sites, making contact, dealing with self-appointed key informants, gaining rapport,
dealing with ethical dilemmas and leaving the field were all important challenges to
doing ethnographic fieldwork among prostitutes.

5. In Fieldwork on Prostitution in the Era of AIDS, Sterk found it was essential to


interview prostitutes in the presence of their pimps and other prostitutes in order to gain
trust.

6.

In Fieldwork on Prostitution in the Era of AIDS, Sterk found that AIDS affects the
lives of prostitutes but that customers often refuse to use condoms.

7.

According to Sterk, Fieldwork on Prostitution in the Era of AIDS, the greatest


impediment to developing rapport in the field is the requirement, imposed by her
university, that informants sign consent forms.

Multiple Choice
1.

According to Sterk, about __________ percent of the prostitutes she interviewed were not
drug addicts.
a. 10
b. 25
c. 40
d. 15
Correct Answer: b

2.

Which one of the following is an observation that Sterk makes in Fieldwork on Prostitution
in the Era of AIDS about gatekeepers? They
a. are not a vital part of fieldwork.
b. are important in gaining initial access to a scene.
c. may become more important to a study as time goes on.
d. tend to be individuals who exist on the periphery of a scene.
Correct Answer: b

3.

Three of the following statements made by Sterk in Fieldwork on Prostitution in the Era of
AIDS are true. Which one is not?
a. It is wise to watch out for self-appointed gatekeepers.
b. The best way to gain rapport is to show interest in informants and do things for them.
c. Talking with informants in groups often inhibits ethnographic discovery.
d. It is best to give informants some control over the interview.
Correct Answer: c

10
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4.

Which one of the following is a conclusion that Sterk reached in Fieldwork on Prostitution
in the Era of AIDS about prostitutes and
prostitution based on her field study?
a. Although the media portrays men as violent toward prostitutes, most are not.
b. Many women are able to leave their life of prostitution behind without any
consequences.
c. Although police and health professionals insist that prostitutes are drug addicts, most
are not.
d. First experiences as prostitutes often involve alienation from people outside the life.
Correct Answer: d

5.

In Fieldwork on Prostitution in the Era of AIDS, when Sterk first tried to make contact
with prostitutes on the street, they
a. became angry and tried to drive her away with threats.
b. largely ignored her.
c. called their pimps on cell phones causing their pimps to threaten her.
d. welcomed her warmly because she was interested in their lives.
Correct Answer: b

6.

In Fieldwork on Prostitution in the Era of AIDS, Sterk found that in-depth interviews
a. worked best if she had asked a list of carefully prepared questions.
b. worked best if held in private.
c. yielded little in-depth information.
d. were the most stressful part of fieldwork.
Correct Answer: b

11
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Article 4
Nice Girls Dont Talk to Rastas

GEORGE GMELCH

Summary This article uses the experience of an American student studying abroad to illustrate
the concept of naive realism, especially the American insensitivity to the existence of social class
and the nature of small communities. Gmelch noted that one of his students, Hanna, whose
research he was supervising in Barbados, suddenly encountered a serious fieldwork problem. Her
fieldwork involved living in a rural Barbadian community, where she worked in the village
school and lived with a host family. For several weeks her work went well. Rapport with her host
mother and other villagers was excellent and she was enthusiastic about her experience. Then
suddenly her homestay mother demanded that she move out because of what villagers were
saying about her. It turned out that she had been seen talking to a Rastafarian named Joseph, and
based on their view of Rastas, villagers had concluded that she was smoking marijuana and
bathing naked with him and other Rastas. Some even thought she was a drug addict.
Gmelch learned that indeed she had met a Rastafarian named Joseph, spoken to him publicly
several times in the village, and visited his cave in the hills on a couple of occasions. Hanna was
puzzled why villagers would be upset by her behavior. Her fieldwork was based around the
concept that anthropologists are supposed to be interested in different kinds of people
Her problem related to the existence of class in the Barbadian community; Rastafarians were
looked down on. People felt that Rastas often stole vegetables and fruit from villagers and lacked
good morals because they often went naked and looked bizarre. The situation was compounded
by the size and face-to-face nature of village life. Unlike suburban and urban communities in the
U.S., everyone knew each other in the village. Peoples behavior was a constant topic of gossip.
Gmelch dealt with the situation by talking to village elders and Hannas homestay mother. He
explained that she did not understand their concern about Rastas, that she had not slept with
Rastas, and that she meant no harm. In the end, Hanna was allowed to remain in the village. She
learned that her U.S. suburban culture denied the existence of class and lacked a sense of how
close people in a small community can be, combined with an American sense of personal
autonomy. In short, she naively assumed that people in rural Barbados would view her behavior
by her own standards.
In a postscript follow up years later, Hanna explained the profound impact that meeting Joseph
had had on her sense of openmindedness, and her growing awareness of discrimination and
prejudice.

12
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ARTICLE 4 QUESTIONS
True or False?
T

1. Gmelchs article, Nice Girls Dont Talk to Rastas, describes a conflict caused by his
students naive realism as she did fieldwork in a rural Barbadian community.

2. In Nice Girls Dont Talk to Rastas, Gmelch describes how one of his study abroad
students ran into trouble when she began living with a Rastafarian.

3.

In Nice Girls Dont Talk to Rastas, Gmelch notes that female students from the U.S.
find it nearly impossible to conduct fieldwork in Barbados because they are unwittingly
disrespectful to Barbadians.

4.

In Nice Girls Dont Talk to Rastas, when Gmelch learned about the difficulties his
study abroad student was having in her homestay village, he read her field notes and
discovered that she had been talking to and accompanying a Rastafarian named Joseph.

5.

In his article Nice Girls Dont Talk to Rastas, Gmelch argues that the U.S. students
often work on the idea of personal autonomy, meaning that if they see what they believe
is truth they can act without concern for what others think.

6.

In Nice Girls Dont Talk to Rastas, Gmelch concludes that U.S. middle-class students
do not realize that face-to-face communities like the ones where his students lived in
Barbados are homogeneous.

Multiple Choice
1.

According to Gmelchs article, Nice Girls Dont Talk to Rastas, when his students do
fieldwork in rural Barbadian communities
a. they fail to recognize that such communities are homogeneous.
b. they ignore the fact that class distinctions may be present in such communities.
c. they should expect to be looked down on by villagers.
d. they will be embraced warmly by the villagers.
Correct Answer: b

2.

In Nice Girls Dont Talk to Rastas, Gmelch notes that American students often behave
according to a principle called personal autonomy when they live among people in other
societies. This means that
a. if they see what they believe is truth, they can act without concern for what others
think.
b. they should be able to have their own private space in which to live.
c. they can feel free to criticize local people.
d. if they dont like a local custom, they can ignore it.
Correct Answer: a
13
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3.

According to Gmelch in Nice Girls Dont Talk to Rastas, the first thing he did after his
student, Hanna, told him she was being shunned by the Barbadian villagers where she was
doing her research was to
a. find and talk to the Rastafarians she had been seen with.
b. meet with local elders to discover their views on the problem.
c. explain to her homestay mother that Hanna meant no harm.
d. pull Hanna out of the village so she could work in a more receptive community.
Correct Answer: b

4.

On the basis of his students negative experience in a Barbadian village, Gmelch concludes
in Nice Girls Dont Talk to Rastas that
a. it is difficult for U.S. women to find acceptance in Barbadian communities because
people there think they are morally loose.
b. American students unconsciously look down on Barbadians and are unable to hide their
sense of superiority.
c. a great barrier to student research in places like Barbados is that local people view
students as tourists.
d. U.S. students assume that Barbadian communities are homogeneous and fail to
appreciate the social dynamics found in small face-to-face communities.
Correct Answer: d

5.

According to Gmelch in Nice Girls Dont Talk to Rastas, Barbadian villagers shunned his
U.S. study abroad student because she
a. had sexual relations with a Rastafarian named Joseph.
b. gave Joseph some of the fruit growing on her homestay mothers tree.
c. lived for a time with Joseph in his hillside cave.
d. was seen talking to and leaving the village with Joseph.
Correct Answer: d

6.

According to Gmelch in Nice Girls Dont Talk to Rastas, people living in the rural
Barbadian community where his study abroad student, Hanna, was doing research believed
that
a. Rastafarians had taken vows of celibacy and young women should not talk to them.
b. Rastafarians were low class because their ancestors had come from Africa.
c. Rastafarians were lazy, pot smoking people who stole things and bathed naked.
d. Rastafarians were members of a religion that revered Islam, not Christianity.
Correct Answer: c

7.

According to Gmelch in Nice Girls Dont Talk to Rastas, orthodox Rastafarians are
a. part of a religious sect whose members go without clothes and subsist off the land
b. part of a Muslim sect found largely on Caribbean islands.
c. a sub group practicing voodoo religious rights.
d. a monastic group that is based on a North African religious tradition.
Correct Answer: a
14
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PART 2
LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION
Part 2 introduces the following important concepts associated with language and speech, and
with other aspects and forms of communication.
KEY DEFINITIONS
A symbol is anything people can perceive with their senses that stands for something else.
Language is a system of cultural knowledge used to generate and interpret speech.
Speech refers to the behavior that produces vocal sounds.
Phonology consists of the categories and rules for forming vocal symbols.
Phonemes are the minimal categories of speech sounds that serve to keep utterances apart.
Grammar refers to the categories and rules for combining vocal symbols.
Morphemes are the minimal units of meaning in any language.
Semantics refers to the categories and rules for relating vocal symbols to their referents.
Sociolinguistic rules combine meaningful utterances with social situations into appropriate
messages.
Nonlinguistic symbols are symbols outside of language that carry meaning for human beings.
Metaphors represent a comparison, usually linguistic, that suggests how two things that are not
alike in most ways are similar in another.
Frames are social constructions of social phenomena.
PART 2 QUESTIONS
True or False?
F

1.

Language refers to the behavior that produces vocal sounds.


15
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2.

Language is a system of cultural knowledge used to generate and interpret speech.

3.

Things other than vocal sounds that can stand for other things are part of language.

4.

For most people, language uses the channel of sight for communication.

5.

Grammar refers to the categories and rules for linking vocal symbols with their
referents.

6.

People can communicate using nonlinguistic symbols.

7.

A metaphor is an alternative word for something.

8.

The minimal categories of speech sounds that serve to keep utterances apart are called
phonemes

Multiple Choice
1.

The behavior that produces vocal sounds is called


a. semantics.
b. language.
c. speech.
d. phonology.
Correct Answer: c

2.

Phonology consists of the categories and rules for forming symbols that engage which of the
channels available to humans for communication?
a. sight
b. touch
c. taste
d. sound
Correct Answer: d

3.

Minimal categories of speech sounds that serve to keep utterances apart are called
a. morphemes.
b. minimal pairs.
c. words.
d. phonemes.
Correct Answer: d

16
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4.

Hindi speakers hear which of the following two English phonemes as a single phoneme?
a. /t/ and /d/
b. /k/ and /g/
c. /b/ and /d/
d. /v/ and /w/
Correct Answer: d

5.

The categories and rules for combining vocal symbols are called
a. phonemes.
b. grammar.
c. sociolinguistic rules.
d. speech.
Correct Answer: b

6.

The phrase tax burden is a good example of the use of


a. hyperbole.
b. metaphor.
c. non-linguistic symbols.
d. linguistic crossover.
Correct Answer: b

7.

When linguistic anthropologists search for minimal pairs of words from informants, they are
most likely to be looking for
a. morphemes.
b. metaphors.
c. phonemes.
d. sociolinguistic rules.
Correct Answer: c

8.

English speakers do not use /ng/ (the final sound in going, for example) when they speak.
This behavior would best be classified as a
a. framing rule.
b. sociolinguistic rule.
c. non-linguistic rule.
d. phonological rule.
Correct Answer: d

17
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Article 5
Shakespeare in the Bush

LAURA BOHANNAN

Summary This article illustrates the concept of naive realism, the idea that members of one
group believe that everyone else sees the world they way they do, and shows how this belief
leads to cross-cultural misunderstanding. Convinced that people everywhere can understand the
basic theme of Shakespeares Hamlet, Bohannan tries to tell the story to Tiv elders during
fieldwork in West Africa. From the beginning, she finds that the Tiv translate the story into their
own cultural categories. Because the Tiv have no category for spirits of the dead who can talk,
they believe Hamlets fathers ghost must really be an omen sent by a witch, or a zombie. And
for the Tiv, instead of committing an impropriety, Hamlets mother did well to marry her dead
husbands brother within a month of her spouses death. The Tiv employ the custom of levirate
on such occasions, so it is expected for a woman to marry her dead husbands brother. The Tiv
think Polonius should be pleased that Hamlet is attracted to his daughter Ophelia. If they cannot
marry, she can at least become his mistress, and sons of chiefs give large gifts to the fathers of
their mistresses among the Tiv. At each turn in the story, the Tiv view events as they would in
their own society, identifying facts according to their own cultural map and reinterpreting
motives. The result is a very different Hamlet than Shakespeare wrote, and an excellent example
of how culture defines a peoples social world.

ARTICLE 5 QUESTIONS
True or False?
F

1.

Bohannan finds that with minor alterations in terminology, the English and the Tiv can
understand Shakespeares Hamlet in the same way.

2.

The Tiv lack a concept for what Europeans call a ghost.

3.

The Tiv felt it was a good omen for Hamlet's fathers ghost to return and talk with
Hamlet.

4.

The Tiv approved of Hamlets mothers marriage to her husbands brother within a
month of her husbands death.

5.

The Tiv felt that Laertes bewitched his sister, Ophelia, so that he could sell her body to
raise money to repay gambling debts.

6.

The Tiv example demonstrates that naive realism is a human condition that occurs when
people hold mistaken ideas about their own nature of their social and natural
environment.
18
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Multiple Choice
1.

In her article, Shakespeare in the Bush, Laura Bohannan shows that


a. the story of Hamlet does not retain its original meaning when told to a Tiv audience.
b. the story of Hamlet retains Shakespeares meaning for both the English and the Tiv.
c. the Tiv misunderstood why Hamlet's fathers ghost would seek revenge.
d. the Tiv were shocked by the quick marriage of Hamlets mother to his uncle.
Correct Answer: a

2.

One of the concepts that the Tiv found it necessary to reinterpret when they were told the
story of Hamlet was the English category for
a. revenge.
b. omen.
c. zombie.
d. ghost.
Correct Answer: d

3.

Three of the following describe ways the Tiv interpreted the story of Hamlet? Which one
does not?
a. The Tiv felt that the ghost of Hamlets father was really an omen sent by a witch.
b. The Tiv decided that Laertes killed his sister, Ophelia, through witchcraft.
c. The Tiv were pleased by the quick marriage of Hamlets mother to her dead husbands
brother.
d. The Tiv approved of Hamlets desire to kill his father's brother.
Correct Answer: d

4.

When the Tiv informed Laura Bohannan that she must be wrong about Hamlets fathers
ghost because the dead cannot talk, they displayed what anthropologists call
a. culture shock.
b. naive realism.
c. tacit culture.
d. cross-cultural solidarity.
Correct Answer: b

5.

According to Bohannan, the Tiv approved of


a. Hamlets desire to kill his fathers brother.
b. Hamlets desire to kill Polonius.
c. Ophelias attraction to Polonius.
d. Hamlets mothers hasty marriage to her dead husbands brother.
Correct Answer: d

19
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Article 6
Manipulating Meaning: The Military Name Game

SARAH BOXER

Summary Today, several linguists (See work by George Lakoff, for example) have looked at
the way metaphor is used to frame a particular view of an event or policy. This selection by
Sarah Boxer provides an excellent example of the framing process. Using information drawn
from an article entitled The Art of Naming Operations by Lt. Col. Gregory C. Sieminski, she
shows how the names for military operations have shifted in purpose from an inside code to a
public symbol meant to shape public perception. She concludes that the process is more difficult
than one might think.
The naming of operations began during World War II by the Germans who initiated the process
as an inside secret code. The British did the same but with rules laid down by Winston Churchill,
who felt operations names should not be boastful, despondent, or frivolous.
After World War II, the U.S. Pentagon started to name military operations for public
consumption, which inevitably led to controversies about what names should convey. During the
Korean conflict, for example, General MacArthur used aggressive names such as thunderbolt
and ripper for operations. The Vietnam War saw Lyndon Johnson veto aggressive names; for
him, the suggested operations name masher sounded too aggressive and he replaced it with
white wing. Following Vietnam, the Pentagon bureaucracy codified the process. Each area
command was given two-letter sequences that would start two-word operations names. Further,
the Pentagon developed a computer program entitled Code Word, Nickname, and Exercise
Term System (called NICKA for short).
More recent operations naming involves a verb-noun sequence such as promote liberty and
restore hope. Because almost any choice of words seems to offend someone, Boxer concludes
that the new game is to find words without meaning. Readers should note that today the first
word of the two-word phrase does not need to be a verb. Iraqi Freedom, is a case in point.

ARTICLE 6 QUESTIONS
True or False?
F

1.

According to Boxers article The Military Name Game, names for military operations
have little effect on the way the public perceives such actions.

2.

According to Boxer in The Military Name Game, the military uses a two-word
sequence to describe military operations.

20
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3.

In The Military Name Game, Boxer asserts that the original World War II purpose of
naming military operations was to generate public approval for them.

4.

According to Boxer in The Military Name Game, despite every effort to make them
benign, most recent attempts at naming military operations manage to offend someone.

5.

In The Military Name Game,Boxer shows how a modern computer program entitled
Code Word, Nickname, and Exercise Term System, or NICKA for short, has solved
most of the problems encountered by the Pentagon as it generates code names for
military operations.

6.

According to Boxer in The Military Name Game, code names for military operations
originated with the Germans in World War II and were intended to be secret.

Multiple Choice
1.

In her article The Military Name Game, Boxer argues that at the time she wrote the
article, naming military operations involved using
a. a two-word verb-noun phrase that is positive but that is almost meaningless.
b. mythology and religion because of their positive moral overtones.
c. words that are intended to remain secret.
d. aggressive terms such as Masher, Thunderbolt, and Ripper.
Correct Answer: a

2.

According to Boxer in The Military Name Game, the first name given to U.S. operations
in Afghanistan was
a. Desert Storm.
b. Mountain Shield.
c. Enduring Freedom.
d. Infinite Justice.
Correct Answer: d

3.

According to Boxer in The Military Name Game,,the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff created a
__________ nicknamed __________ to generate names for military operations.
a. military command committee, COMAT
b. computer program, NICKA
c. three-service bureau, BOCAB
d. military swat team, SWATNOM
Correct Answer: b

21
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4.

In The Military Name Game, Boxer notes that the name for U.S. operations in
Afghanistan, Infinite Justice, was dropped because
a. the term, justice, implied a legal rationale for pursuing the conflict and there was
none.
b. the phrase was too general and meaningless.
c. the Council on American-Islamic Relations felt it implied a godly role for the U.S.
d. the phrase angered the U.S.s Arab allies.
Correct Answer: c

5.

According to Boxer in The Military Name Game, military operations names such as
Roundup, Killer, Ripper, Courageous, Audacious, and Dauntless were used by __________
during ________________.
a. General MacArthur, the Korean War
b. Winston Churchill, World War II
c. General Abrams, the Vietnam War
d. Joint Chiefs of Staff, the war with Iraq
Correct Answer: a

22
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Article 7
Conversation Style: Talking on the Job

DEBORAH TANNEN

Summary In this selection excerpted from her book Talking from 9 to 5, Deborah Tannen
describes misunderstandings in the work place based on the different speaking styles of men and
women. Tannen notes that most people blame miscommunication on the intentions, different
abilities, and character of others, or on their own failure or the failure of the relationship.
Miscommunication in the work place, however, often occurs between men and women because
gender is a basic indicator of identity and because men and women learn different styles of
speaking.
Tannen introduces an example of gender-based misunderstanding in which a female manager
first uses praise then follows with suggestions to improve a male employees substandard report.
The manager thinks she is diplomatic; the employee mistakes her comments solely as praise and
miscommunication occurs. When the revised report is submitted, few of the suggested changes
appear, and the employee thinks the manager has been dishonest by first praising and now
criticizing the report. The differences, argues Tanner, have to do with different styles of
speaking. Men avoid being put in a one-down position by using oppositions such as banter,
joking, teasing, and playful put-downs. Women seek the appearance of equality and try to avoid
flexing their muscles to get jobs done. The misunderstandings occur when actors take each
others speaking styles literally.
The remainder of the selection deals with a particular male speaking style, the reluctance to ask
directions. Women ask directions because it seems to be the fastest way to get things done. Men
hesitate to ask questions, claiming that they develop their navigation skills by going at things
independently. Tannen argues that men avoid asking questions because it puts them in a onedown position. Each style has its pitfalls. Male pilots or doctors who fail to ask questions may
endanger their own or other peoples lives. Female doctors and managers who ask too many
questions may risk signaling that they are tentative or unsure of themselves.
Tannen concludes by saying that neither style is inherently wrong, just different, and that
speakers should be aware of gender-based speaking styles and flexible in their own use of them.

23
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ARTICLE 7 QUESTIONS
True or False?
F

1.

In Tannens article Conversation Style: Talking on the Job, claims that womens
speaking styles, based on a need to create the appearance of equality, are a better form
of communication in the work place than mens more direct speaking styles.

2.

According to Tannen in Conversation Style: Talking on the Job, speaking styles are
ritualized forms of verbal interaction that often differ between men and women.

3.

In Conversation Style: Talking on the Job, Tannen argues that most people blame
misunderstandings on the ambivalence of words used by men and women when they
talk at work.

4.

According to Tannen in Conversation Style: Talking on the Job, most people think
that miscommunication is caused by the intention, differing capabilities, and character
of others; by their own failure; or a poor relationship.

5.

In Conversation Style: Talking on the Job, Tannen claims that mens failure to ask for
directions is a serious flaw in communications between the sexes in the workplace and
should be changed.

6.

In Conversation Style: Talking on the Job, Tannen argues that in the workplace, men
often refrain from asking for directions because it puts them in a one-down position.

Multiple Choice
1.

In Conversation Style: Talking on the Job, Tannen argues that in the workplace
a. men often refrain from asking for directions while women often seek to create the
appearance of equality in a conversation.
b. gender does not affect talking styles.
c. women seek a one up position in conversation whereas men diffuse speech domination
by joking about it.
d. men are more likely than women to ask for directions.
Correct Answer: a

24
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2.

According to Tannen in Conversation Style: Talking on the Job, womens conversation


often works at the appearance of equality. Mens conversation, on the other hand, is often
directed at
a. an attempt to put others in a one-down position by bragging or inferring superior
knowledge.
b. avoiding the one-down position by acting as if they dont know what the other person
means.
c. avoiding the one-down position by ignoring other people.
d. avoiding the one-down position by using oppositions such as banter, joking, teasing,
and playful putdowns.
Correct Answer: d

3.

According to Tannen in Conversation Style: Talking on the Job, men often avoid asking
directions because
a. their over-direct style does not yield accurate answers.
b. asking puts them in a one-down position.
c. they fail to listen to the answers they get.
d. they dont want others to perceive them as uninformed.
Correct Answer: b

4.

In Conversation Style: Talking on the Job, Tannen tells the story of how Amy, a manager,
tried to tell her employee, Donald, how to change an unsatisfactory report. Her approach led
to misunderstanding because
a. she was too direct.
b. she put Donald in a one-down position by demonstrating her superior knowledge.
c. she praised the good parts of the report before suggesting changes.
d. Donald took her comments as a personal criticism.
Correct Answer: c

5.

In Conversation Style: Talking on the Job, Tannen notes that of all the examples of
conversational-style differences between men and women that lead to troublesome
outcomes, __________ has attracted the most attention of her readers.
a. mens tendency to interrupt women in normal conversation
b. womens tendency to criticize men when they talk with other women
c. womens tendency to be indirect when they talk with men
d. mens tendency to avoid asking directions of other people
Correct Answer: d

6. In Conversation Style: Talking on the Job, Tannen argues that one negative consequence
for women who ask questions is
that they may seem
a. uninformed and less intelligent.
b. uninterested in the subject matter.
c. less politically savvy.
d. unwilling to learn.
Correct Answer: a
25
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7.

According to Tannen in Conversation Style: Talking on the Job, which is not an


advantage cited by men for refraining from asking questions?
a. They avoid receiving incorrect information.
b. They learn to discover answers for themselves.
c. They can feel superior to other people by not showing their ignorance.
d. They avoid injuring the feelings of the individual sharing information.
Correct Answer: d

8.

In Conversation Style: Talking on the Job, Tannen notes that men often fail to ask for
directions and that women usually do ask for directions. Because it is easy to show that not
asking for directions can have dire consequences, she suggests that men
a. should change and ask for directions.
b. should ask for directions but in an indirect manner.
c. should be flexible, asking for directions when it seems appropriate to do so.
d. should have a female companion ask for directions.
Correct Answer: c

26
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PART 3
ECOLOGY AND SUBSISTENCE
The introduction to Part 3 discusses the concept of cultural ecology and a classification of
societies based on their adaptive food-getting strategies.
KEY DEFINITIONS
Ecology is the relationship of an organism to other elements within its environmental sphere.
Cultural ecology refers to the way people use their culture to adapt to particular environments.
The physical environment is the world people experience with their senses.
The cultural environment is a people's cultural classification of their physical environment,
which usually reflects their adaptive needs and cultural perspective.
Subsistence strategies are strategies used by human groups to exploit their environment for
material necessities.
Hunting and gathering (foraging) is an adaptive food-getting strategy based on the collecting of
wild plants and the hunting of wild animals.
Horticulture is an adaptive strategy in which food is gardened with a hoe or digging stick.
Slash-and-burn agriculture, sometimes also referred to as shifting agriculture, is a common
kind of horticulture in which large trees are cut and the fields burned over before planting.
Pastoralism is an adaptive strategy based on the herding of domesticated animals such as cattle,
sheep, or goats.
Agriculture is an adaptive strategy based on the intensive farming of permanent fields.
Agriculture is often associated with the use of the plow, irrigation, and sometimes terracing.
Industrialism is a subsistence strategy marked by intensive, mechanized food production and
elaborate distribution networks. It is dominated by a market economy, as well as separate legal,
religious, political, and economic systems.
Climate change is a long-term change in the Earth's climate, especially due to a long-term
increase in the atmospheric temperature as well as rising sea levels.
27
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PART 3 QUESTIONS
True or False?
F

1.

The physical environment is one area of human experience that people everywhere
categorize in the same way.

2.

Food-getting strategies have little impact on the structure of society.

3.

Four anthropological classifications of societies based on food-getting techniques are


hunting and gathering, horticulture, pastoralism, and agriculture.

4.

The origin of bipedality (two-footedness) in humans is something that an anthropologist


interested in cultural ecology would study.

5.

Slash-and-burn agriculture is a kind of horticulture.

6.

Cultural ecology is the most important form of subsistence strategy.

Multiple Choice
1.

The study of how people use their culture to adapt to particular environments is called
a. ecology.
b. cultural ecology.
c. environmental determinism.
d. physical ecology.
Correct Answer: b

2.

The world that people can experience with their senses is called
a. ecology.
b. cultural ecology.
c. physical environment.
d. cultural environment.
Correct Answer: c

3.

The fact that a tourist sees scenic mountains and valleys when viewing a high pass in the
Rocky Mountains, whereas a geologist sees cirque basins, U-shaped valleys, and paternoster
streams, illustrates the concept of
a. cultural ecology.
b. physical environment.
c. cultural environment.
d. scientific impartiality.
Correct Answer: c

28
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4.

Slash-and-burn agriculture would best be classified as which kind of the following adaptive
strategies?
a. horticulture
b. agriculture
c. pastoralism
d. industrialism
Correct Answer: a

4.

If a society uses irrigation, its food-getting (subsistence) system would best be classified as
a. agriculture.
b. horticulture.
c. pastoral.
d. hydraulic.
Correct Answer: a

5.

Some of the following are listed as subsistence strategies in Part 3 of Conformity and
Conflict. Which one of the following is not?
a. hunting and gathering
b. agricultural
c. manufacturing
d. horticultural
Correct Answer: c

6.

Which one of the following subsistence strategies would most typically be found to support
permanent settlements containing between 50 and 250 people?
a. hunting and gathering
b. horticulture
c. agriculture
d. pastoral
Correct Answer: b

7.

According to Part 3 of Conformity and Conflict, the relationship of an organism to other


elements within its environmental sphere is called
a. ecology.
b. cultural ecology.
c. the cultural environment.
d. biointeraction.
Correct Answer: a

29
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Article 8
The Hunters: Scarce Resources
in the Kalahari

RICHARD BORSHAY LEE

With an update by Richard Lee and Megan Biesele


Summary Basing his conclusions on an extensive study of !Kung subsistence activity and
nutrition in 1963, Richard Lee challenges the notion that hunters and gatherers lived a hand-tomouth existence. Despite residence in the Kalahari Desert, where there is an average yearly
rainfall of only six to nine inches, !Kung managed to lead a remarkably stable, relaxed existence.
They resided in camps located at permanent water holes. They frequently visited relatives in
other camps but rarely moved long distances to hunt and gather.
Overall, hunter gathering provided over 85% of subsistence needs. A key to assured subsistence
was the availability of vegetable foods, particularly the mongongo nut. !Kung could subsist
entirely on such foods although they preferred meat. Vegetable foods made up 60 to 80 percent
of their diet. The abundance of their sparse environment was revealed by the fact that !Kung ate
selectively, consuming only some of the edible plant and animal species found around them. A
significant number of !Kung lived beyond the age of 60, and approximately 40 percent of the
population did no productive work. !Kung spent only about two and one-half days a week in
productive activity, using the remainder of their time for leisure activities. Lee concluded that for
many hunting and gathering groups, a dependence on plant foods produced a stable, effective
way of life.
The way of life described for 1963 has changed, however. By 1994, most Ju/Hoansi !Kung were
living in permanent settlements, eking out a living by herding, farming, and craft production.
Hunting and gathering now only supply about 30 percent of their subsistence needs. The spread
of commercial ranching on the areas in which they traditionally foraged may soon reduce this
figure to zero.
ARTICLE 8 QUESTIONS
True or False?
T

1.

Richard Lee claims that the consumption of edible plants, rather than meat, was the key
to successful subsistence for the !Kung in 1963.

2.

Lee found that in 1963, from 60 to 90 percent of the !Kung diet consisted of meat
brought back to camp by the men.
30
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3.

Despite residence in a sparse desert environment, the !Kung did not eat a majority of the
edible plants and animals found in their territory when observed in 1963.

4.

Because their environment was so difficult, the !Kung relied heavily on the labor of
children and old people to provide edible plants for general consumption in 1963.

5.

According to Lee, in 1963 the !Kung had more leisure time than average Americans.

6.

One reason the study of !Kung subsistence patterns is so important is the rarity of the
case; the !Kung had had no contact with other people until the study began in 1963.

7.

Over the 30 years since Lee first described them, the Ju/Hoansi !Kung have come to
live in permanent villages and have become much less dependent on foraging to meet
their subsistence needs.

Multiple Choice
1.

According to Richard Lee, in 1963 !Kung men


a. supplied between 20 and 40 percent of the calories consumed by members of a camp.
b. hunted almost every day to bag sufficient food for peoples daily needs.
c. collected approximately 70 percent of the edible vegetable foods.
d. began hunting regularly before they were 10 years old.
Correct Answer: a

2.

Lee feels that the key to successful subsistence for many hunter-gatherers, such as the
!Kung, is
a. adequate defense against the encroachment of other hunting and gathering groups.
b. dietary selectivity.
c. dependence largely on a diet of edible plants.
d. band loyalty and membership stability.
Correct Answer: c

3.

According to Lee, the most important staple in the diet of the !Kung when studied in 1963
was
a. taro root.
b. the mongongo nut.
c. giraffe meat.
d. a kind of bitter berry.
Correct Answer: b

31
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4.

According to Lee and Biesele, by 1994 Ju/Hoansi !Kung were


a. living in mud-walled houses behind makeshift stockades.
b. living in circular, tight-knit villages.
c. obtaining about 70 percent of their food through hunting and gathering.
d. living in temporary, ever shifting camps.
Correct Answer: a

5.

In his article, Lee claims that when he studied them in the 1960s, !Kung
a. ate all of the edible plants and animals found in their environment.
b. lived in camps, each of which had a defended territory.
c. enjoyed a large amount of leisure time.
d. had to move every few days in search of scarce foodstuffs.
Correct Answer: c

6.

According to Lee, in 1963 the !Kung had a caloric intake of about __________ per person
per day.
a. 3,030
b. 2,410
c. 2,140
d. 1,890
Correct Answer: b

7.

An important point stressed by Lee about the Ju/Hoansi !Kung he studied in 1963 was that
a. both adults and children had to work every day to ensure a sufficient food supply.
b. the !Kung had to use virtually all of the edible plants and animals in their environment
in order to survive in the desert.
c. life in the state of nature was not necessarily nasty, brutish, and short.
d. meat provided more calories in the !Kung diet than other foods.
Correct Answer: c

8.

Some of the following statements about the !Kung as Lee describes their lives in 1963 are
not true. Which one is true?
a. They normally live in a core area about 30 miles in circumference.
b. The proportion of old people to the rest of the population is smaller than that of modern
industrial society.
c. Boys and girls usually assume food-collecting activities from the time they can walk.
d. They have much more leisure time than Americans.
Correct Answer: d

32
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9.

According to Lee and Biesele, in order to survive today, the Ju/Hoansi Kung will have to
a. specialize in the manufacture of trade goods for tourists.
b. take jobs in nearby cities in order to earn cash.
c. form borehole syndicates and stake out ranches to protect their foraging areas.
d. open reproductions of traditional foraging camps in order to attract tourists.
Correct Answer: c

33
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Article 9
Illegal Logging and Frontier Conservation

NATHAN WILLIAMSON

The Bolivian government has worked for years with NGOs (nongovernmental organizations) to
create plans for sustainable levels of managed logging in the Bolivian lowlands to protect the
Amazon rainforestin particular the Chimanes Indian Reservefrom clear cutting by illegal
loggers, ranchers, and farmers. Unfortunately, the policies put in place have largely failed, as
Williamson details in his article. His research, beginning nearly a decade after the conservation
policy was established, shows that illegal logging continues in the lowlands in a variety of ways,
fueled by poverty, weak government enforcement, and a worldwide demand for tropical
hardwoods. As his research indicates, conservation policy must take into account how those who
live in and around the forest are using it, in addition to the goals of those forming policy.
For the Chimanes Indians living in the Bolivian lowlands surrounding the Maniqui River,
preserving the most valuable tropical hardwoods means eliminating one of the few ways the men
in the tribe can earn money to feed their families.
For economic reasons, local tribes earning a subsistence living, bands of chainsaw gangs called
cuartoneros and even small, illegal logging companies continue to selectively and illegally
harvest mahogany and other tropical hardwood trees, leaving behind the less valuable species.
Each group involved in illegal harvesting has a slightly different impact on the forest than does
the legal, approved logger who is restricted by the conservation policies in place. The Chimanes
Indians stay close to the river and only clear paths wide enough for oxcarts to get the timbers to
the river. Cuartoneros (chain saw gangs) use machetes, chainsaws, and a backbreaking relay
system to get the cuartones (timbers) to the river, where they float them to small sawmills that
sell the wood to larger lumber companies. Both the Chimanes Indians and cuartoneros go into
the rainforest and reemerge more than a month later with timbers that will earn them three to five
times more than the one dollar a day that most can earn working as manual laborers. Though less
destructive than the legal methods that have more impact on the forest, they will still eventually
strip the forest of its most valuable treesthe one thing that the Bolivian government and NGOs
hope to prevent.
Perhaps a viable solution, Williamson suggests, is an international trade agreement that controls
the export of tropical hardwood and vilifies the use of illegally harvested woods, similar to the
campaigns of the fur industry. Otherwise, the Chimanes and cuartoneros will continue to find
ways to support their families, and eventually even approved logging companies may be tempted
toward more damaging ways of logging.

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ARTICLE 9 QUESTIONS
True or False?
1.

According to Williamson, conservation efforts by the Bolivian government and


conservation groups have largely succeeded in preventing illegal logging in the
Chimanes Indian Reserve.

2.

The Chimanes are a nomadic people who move about the forest to hunt and fish.

3.

Cuartoneros, or chainsaw crews, are often made up of poor men from San Borja. They
hunt for and harvest mahogany in more remote areas of the Bolivian lowlands.

4.

Numerous logging roads used to legally harvest tropical hardwoods cut up the
Chimanes Reserve, an area approximately the same size as the state of Rhode Island.

5.

According to Williamson, the opportunity for higher than average pay and a patronage
system keeps Bolivian men returning to the forest to undertake the risky job of illegally
harvesting mahogany hardwood.

6.

Williamson believes that sustainably logging virgin rainforest in ways that would
permit recovery and timber production over the course of the next 100 years would not
cost any more than the current efforts that permit illegal logging.

Multiple Choice
1.

The Maniqui is an Amazonian tributary that


a. meanders through Bolivias tropical lowlands to the frontier town of San Borja.
b. is used to carry cut timber up to La Paz in the highlands of Bolivia.
c. is the main mode of transport used by commercial logging companies.
d. winds through clear cut areas of the Chimanes forest.
Correct Answer: a

2. The logging policies established by the Bolivian government for the area in and around the
Chimanes forest
a. are sensible and workable.
b. will probably eventually lead to the forests destruction.
c. adequately meet the high worldwide demand for quality tropical hardwood.
d. encourage small lumber mills to work only with legal logging companies to harvest
tropical hardwood.
Correct Answer: b

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3.

The Chimanes Indians of Bolivia


a. are self-sufficient in many ways but still need money for goods they cannot produce
themselves.
b. are nomadic and move about the forest to hunt and gather food.
c. use an intricate system of logging roads and machinery to harvest tropical hardwood
trees from the forest.
d. are beginning to integrate more with their neighboring communities.
Correct Answer: a

5.

Cuartoneros, often made up of the poorest men from the frontier town of San Borja, use a
low-tech method of locating and harvesting mahogany trees. Their method depends on the
natural resources of the forest and
a. access to logging roads.
b. a compass and portable sawmill.
c. cooperation with the larger, legal logging companies.
d. chainsaws and outboard motors.
Correct Answer: d

6.

Once the mahogany tree has been located, the cuartoneros


a. work quickly to cut the tree and carry it to the nearest road.
b. work with the Chimanes scouts to carry the tree by oxcart to the nearest waterway.
c. clear a trail from the tree to the nearest large stream or river before doing any further
cutting.
d. get permission from Bolivian authorities to harvest the tree.
Correct Answer: c

7.

Planchones are
a. a natural resource that Chimanes use for trade.
b. a type of vegetable that grows in the Chimanes forest.
c. the name for the stretch of trail that each member of the team is assigned.
d. slabs of the mahogany tree cut down to six and one-half inches thick.
Correct Answer: d

8.

Cuartoneros cut the planchones, relay them to the nearest river, and then tie them into
a. cayapos and float them down the river to San Borja.
b. oxcarts for transport out of the forest.
c. lomeros in preparation for transport down river.
d. bundles that are then carried out on logging roads.
Correct Answer: a

36
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9.

For the most part, cuartoneros illegally harvest mahogany because


a. the work is easy and brings great monetary reward for little effort.
b. the mahogany trees are easy to find in the remote areas of the Chimanes forest.
c. there are few other opportunities for the indigenous people to earn money or work off
debt.
d. legal logging companies are not interested in logging mahogany and so offer no
competition.
Correct Answer: c

37
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Article 10
We Are Going Underwater

SUSAN A. CRATE

Summary The Viliui Sakha, a horse- and cattle-breeding people of northeastern Siberia, live in
an extreme, subarctic climate that has continuous permafrost and annual temperature swings of
180 degrees Fahrenheit. This place-based community has adapted to many different changes
over hundreds of yearsbeginning with Russian imperial expansion in the 1600s and as recently
as a result of the breakup of the Soviet Union in the 1990s. More recently, their adaptations have
been in response to local, physical changes brought about by global climate change. In her essay,
Susan Crate outlines the most notable ways global climate change has impacted life for the
Sakha, and details their remarkable capacity to adapt to these changes.
Crate conducted surveys and interviewed elders of the community who had the advantage of
witnessing many decades of change, offering a perspective that not many other community
members could. Crates research identified nine ways in which global climate change has
impacted the Sakha, including increased water on the land, late and lagging seasons, a decline in
certain game species, and temperature fluctuations. These changes cannot be attributed solely to
climate change; many of them have multiple stressors. Regardless, the Sakha have had to make
psychological, social, and physical adaptations to accommodate the new reality of their physical
world. Interestingly, very few of the Sakha attribute the changes to global climate change, and
instead point to other local causes such as a hydroelectric reservoir or the overabundance of
technology and mechanization. Despite this, the Sakha will continue to adapt as they have for
hundreds of years, figuring out how to negotiate the additional water on their land, learning how
to adjust their practices to have enough hay for their cows and horses, and purchasing electric
freezers to replace the traditional buluus (underground freezers) that are now increasingly
flooded out. The Sakha and their adaptations are offered by Crate as an example of how
communities and scientists might benefit from sharing information. Scientists have much to learn
about how climate change is affecting local environments and culture, and communities can
learn from scientists how to adapt in ways to address these local changes.
While many think of geologists and chemists as those best equipped to help the world adapt to
the effects of global climate change, Crate believes that anthropologists can help communities
weather these changes by fostering a greater understanding of how people like the Sakha have
adapted and continue to do so successfully. By identifying and learning about those communities
that are the most flexible in their responses to local changes, communities will have a model to
follow when global climate change begins to have a greater impact on the more temperate zones
of the planet.

38
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ARTICLE 10 QUESTIONS
True or False?
1.

The anthropological term place-based people refers to a group who depends directly
on its immediate environment for both physical and spiritual sustenance.

2.

An animistic worldview recognizes the sentient quality of humans, while excluding all
non-human entities such as animals, plants, and inanimate objects.

3.

In the world of the Viliui Sakha, black shamans travel from the middle world where
humans live to interact with sky spirits during the Sakha summer festival, thereby
ensuring a plentiful harvest.

4.

According to Crate, her research with the Sakha clarified her belief that global climate
change was affecting not only the villagers physical environment, but also their
adaptations to that environment.

5.

The increasing water on the land was psychologically upsetting to the Sakha and made
them fear that their land was sinking.

Multiple Choice
1. The Viliui Sakha developed a belief system that helped them understand and interact with the
very extreme environment of Siberia. One example of this system is represented by
a. The creation of a buulus to store meat, milk products, and ice.
b. The shaman who communicates with the abaahi (evil spirits) of the underworld during
times of crisis and the Bull of Winter.
c. Black shamans traveling to the sky realms.
d. White shamans traveling to middle earth.
Correct Answer: b
2. The Sakha have had to adapt to physical and social changes over the years. Which of the
following was a pre-Soviet-era adaptation?
a. consolidation of Sakha subsistence practices into sovkhozi, the agro-industrial state farm
operations
b. industrialization during the 1950s
c. paying iasak, or fur tribute, to colonizers
d. land loss due to border changes
Correct Answer: c

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3. According to Crate, which of the following is a change to which the Sakha were forced to
adapt at the turn of the 21st century?
a. a subtle and gradual, increasing change in the cycles and patterns of weather and
climate
b. Soviet-era industrialization in the form of diamond mining
c. annexation of land by colonizers
d. land changes resulting from the fall of the Soviet Union
Correct Answer: a
4. The surveys and interviews conducted by Crate identified nine ways that the global climate
changes have forced the Sakha to further adapt to their climate. Of the nine areas, which was
found to be of most concern?
a. lagging and extended seasons
b. changing precipitation patterns
c. too much water on the land
d. colder summers
Correct Answer: c
5. According to Crate, the decline in hares, an important game species for the Sakha, cannot be
attributed solely to the effects of climate change. What other reason does she cite for this
change?
a. more time and resources for the Sakha to hunt than during Soviet times
b. the drying up of the land where hares typically nest
c. improvements on traditional Sakha hunting ethics
d. the use of better rifles
Correct Answer: a
6. Crates research turned up several reasons that the Sakha identified for the local climate
changes. Which of the following was blamed by most of the participants?
a. the Viliui hydroelectric reservoir
b. the natural wet and dry cycles of the areas ecosystem
c. the recent overabundance of technology and mechanization
d. global climate change
Correct Answer: a
7.

According to Crate, the detailed and specific observations of people like the Viliui Sakha
a. are important only to the people of northeastern Siberia.
b. are not relevant to the global community and should not inform policy initiatives.
c. contribute important information about the local effects of global climate change.
d. demonstrate that global climate change is not affecting the Republic of Sakha.
Correct Answer: c

40
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8.

Crates knowledge exchanges that followed her research were a great success. Which of
the following was not one of the goals of these exchanges?
a. Add local knowledge to the scientific understanding of climate change.
b. Share scientific knowledge with locals to help explain the changes they are
experiencing.
c. Dispute the argument that global climate change exists.
d. Inform policy communities about how climate change is affecting local communities.
Correct Answer: c

41
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Article 11
Forest Development the Indian Way

RICHARD K. REED

Summary When Richard Reed first entered the Guaran village of Itanaram over 20 years ago,
he had to make an arduous journey, first on rugged dirt roads by car, then for two days on foot
along a tropical forest trail. Only rivers and swampy areas broke the forest canopy. The village
itself was buried in the forest, with houses scattered along a trail next to a small river. Reeds
subsequent study revealed a tightly knit community whose members were tied together by
kinship and values on sharing and cooperation. Political structure was informal; a village leader
(tamoi) mediated disputes. Although villagers exploited their tropical forest environment, they
did so in a way that permitted its renewal. Men cleared garden plots in the forest. Women burned
the brush and planted the fields with beans, manioc, and orange trees. As fields became
exhausted after two or three years, new plots were cleared and old ones permitted to lie fallow
for 10 to 20 years so they could be reclaimed by the forest. Hunting and fishing provided a
significant portion of peoples food and, though seemingly isolated, villagers traded some forest
products especially yerba-mate leaves, for hooks, machetes, soap, and salt with outsiders.
Results of his study were described in Cultivating the Tropical Forest, an article included in
earlier editions of Conformity and Conflict.
Subsequent visits to Itanaram over the intervening years reveal changes commonly found in
many areas of the Amazon drainage. Roads now bisect the forest, bringing an influx of ranchers,
farmers, traders, frontier towns, and truck traffic. Clear cutting for farms and ranches has
devastated Guaran life and its sustainable economy. Settlements stand isolated and devoid of
resources. Villagers can no longer practice slash-and-burn agriculture; there are no animals to
hunt or fish to catch. Without renewable resources, many Indians have joined the legions of
unemployed or underemployed in frontier towns, and suicide rates, especially among young
men, have skyrocketed.
Shouldnt the Guaran simply accept the pain that accompanies modern development and look
forward to a brighter future? No, argues Reed, because the use of forestland for ranches and
farming is unsustainable. Cleared land quickly ceases to produce and is left vacant without a
surrounding forest to reclaim it, leaving a red desert. Instead, the Guaran model for forest
exploitation, even when it involves the extraction of forest products for sale to outsiders, is more
economical because it is sustainable. Persuaded by this argument, the Nature Conservancy has
recently bought and set aside 280 square miles of forest for sustainable development using the
Guaran model.

42
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ARTICLE 11 QUESTIONS
True or False?
T

1.

According to Reeds Forest Development the Indian Way, the Guaran and, in the
past, millions of other Indians, exploited the Amazonian tropical forests without causing
permanent harm to the ecosystem.

2.

Reed claims that the Guaran depend on a slash-and-burn agriculture for 94 percent of
their dietary needs.

3.

The Guaran, according to Reed, have exploited the forest commercially as well as for
subsistence for nearly 500 years.

4.

Reed argues that people must be prevented from living in the Amazon forest if the
tropical ecosystem is to survive.

5.

According to Reed, when colonists develop the tropical forest in which Guaran live,
the Indians must farm more and more land to survive.

6.

By sustainable development, Reed means that commercial lumber companies and


ranchers should replant the tropical forest after they have cut it down and permit
exploited areas to regenerate for approximately 40 years.

Multiple Choice
1.

In his article Forest Development the Indian Way, Reed argues


a. for government control of forest development that eases the Indians into the modern
world economy gradually.
b. for a sustainable development program that permits the collection and sale of forest
products without destroying the original ecosystem.
c. for an Indian relocation plan.
d. for laws that require commercial lumber companies and ranchers to replant the forest
and introduce a 40-year cutting and clearing cycle.
Correct Answer: b

2.

According to Reed in Forest Development the Indian Way, Guaran Indians subsist in the
Amazon tropical forest largely by
a. slash-and-burn farming.
b. horticulture and foraging.
c. foraging.
d. rubber tree tapping.
Correct Answer: b

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3.

Which one of the following was not a consequence of outside development in the Guaran
tropical forests, according to Reed?
a. The Indians who stayed on the land could no longer farm.
b. The Guaran could no longer practice successful horticulture.
c. Disease and malnutrition increased.
d. The Indians could no longer hunt and fish successfully.
Correct Answer: a

4.

In Forest Development the Indian Way, Reed argues that, for the Guaran, __________
was essential to subsistence.
a. farming
b. foraging
c. the combination of hunting and gathering
d. the combination of farming and foraging
Correct Answer: d

5. According to Reeds Forest Development the Indian Way, sustainable development could
look like
a. commercial forest exploitation with the elimination of natural resources.
b. leaving the economic, ecological, and social spheres of people living in the forest to
market forces
c. the promotion of social cohesion in among all people in the forest by more evenly
distributing rising living standards.
d. maintaining traditional practices of slash-and-burn combined with limited commercial
exploitation.
Correct Answer: d
6.

According to Reeds Forest Development the Indian Way, until the recent incursion of
colonos (colonists, such as ranchers and farmers), Guaran villagers
a. had no contact with people in other parts of South America.
b. traded with outsiders for machetes, hooks, soap, and salt.
c. developed an indigenous market system that tied villages together.
d. worked for decades as rubber tappers to augment their subsistence economy.
Correct Answer: b

44
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PART 4
ECONOMIC SYSTEMS
The introduction to Part 4 discusses the basic elements of the economic system including types
of exchange.
KEY DEFINITIONS
The economic system refers to the provision of goods and services to meet biological and social
wants.
Production refers to the process of rendering material items useful and available for human
consumption.
Allocation of resources refers to the cultural rules people use to assign rights to ownership and
use of resources.
Technology is the cultural knowledge for making and using tools and extracting and refining
raw materials.
The division of labor refers to the rules that govern the assignment of jobs to people.
Unit of production defines the persons or groups responsible for producing goods and services.
Distribution is a strategy for apportioning goods and services among the members of a group.
Market exchange is the transfer of goods and services based on price, supply, and demand.
Reciprocal exchange is the transfer of goods services between two people or groups based on
role obligation.
Redistribution refers to the transfer of goods and services between a central collecting source
and a group of individuals.
Subsistence economies are those that meet the local material necessities and social obligations;
they depend largely on the nonmarket mechanisms, reciprocity, and redistribution to motivate
production and exchange.
Market economies are associated with larger economies; drive production and consumption
through market factors of price, supply, and demand; and are characterized by high economic
specialization and impersonality.
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Neo-liberalism is a redistribution economic philosophy in capitalist countries that emphasizes


the free movement of goods, capital, and services, with cuts to public expenditure for social
services.

PART 4 QUESTIONS
True or False?
T

1.

A good example of reciprocal exchange in American society is gift giving at birthdays.

2.

Division of labor refers to the person or organized group responsible for producing
something.

3.

When people buy and sell goods and services on the basis of price, supply, and demand,
we call the process redistributive exchange.

4.

Market exchange is associated with many larger societies where people must be able to
procure a wide variety of goods and services from strangers.

5.

Because they are based on role obligations, taxes are an example of reciprocal
exchange.

6.

The economic system defines the provision of goods and services to meet human
biological and social wants.

7.

Technology refers only to the machines people use to make things.

Multiple Choice
1.

The provision of goods and services to meet biological and social wants is called
a. production.
b. the economic system.
c. market exchange.
d. the unit of production.
Correct Answer: b

2.

One would expect to find the least job specialization in a


a. hunting and gathering society.
b. horticultural society.
c. industrial society.
d. pastoral society.
Correct Answer: a
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3.

The cultural knowledge for making and using tools and extracting and refining raw materials
is called
a. production.
b. division of labor.
c. unit of production.
d. technology.
Correct Answer: d

4.

Some acts of reciprocal gift giving may not always be benevolent, as in the case of
a. swapping.
b. authors citations in academic works.
c. potlatching.
d. scientific contributions.
Correct Answer: c

5.

An economic philosophy that emphasizes the free movement of goods, capital, and services,
with cuts to public expenditures for social services is called
a. redistribution.
b. neo-liberalism.
c. subsistence.
d. allocation of resources.
Correct Answer: b

6.

Gift giving among family members at Christmas is an example of


a. barter.
b. market exchange.
c. reciprocal exchange.
d. redistributive exchange.
Correct answer: c

7.

Taxes would best be classified as a form of


a. redistributive exchange.
b. allocation of resources.
c. market exchange.
d. reciprocal exchange.
Correct answer: a

47
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Article 12
Reciprocity and the Power of Giving

LEE CRONK

Summary Cronk argues that everywhere in the world, gifts are used positively to establish and
maintain social relationships, but also negatively to intimidate and fight others. These
characteristics apply just as fully to gift exchange in industrial societies as they do for other
peoples.
Anthropologists learned about the complexities of gift giving through first-hand experience
during fieldwork. Richard Lee's !Kung informants criticized his gift of an ox, saying the ox was
thin and inadequate when clearly it was not. (See article 2 in Conformity and Conflict). Rada
Dyson-Hudson met with a similar reaction when she attempted to give pots to her Turkana
informants. Cronk also experienced the same reaction when he gave clothing to the Mukogodo,
who elaborate the act of gift exchange more than do most people. In every case, informants
attached different meanings to gift giving than did the anthropologists..
Gift giving has several dimensions, including how the gift is received and how it is reciprocated.
Often to reciprocate at once indicates a desire to end the relationship, Cronk points out. He
also notes that some gift giving arrangements, such as hxaro among the !Kung, are designed
solely to maintain a friendly relationship. In addition, the worth of gifts may not be taken into
account. The Trobriand kula ring, involving shell necklaces and armbands, represents one of the
most elaborate gift exchanges ever described by anthropologists.
Gift giving may not always be benevolent. The Kwakiutl potlatch, where rivals tried to flatten
each other with gifts, is a good example. Potlatching actually became a substitute for war after
the Canadian government suppressed real fighting.
Reciprocal gift giving is also important in U.S. society. Examples include a form of benevolent
gift giving, called swapping among African Americans living in an area of Illinois called the
flats. Scientific papers, usually referred to as contributions, are really gifts and have higher value
than those papers written for money. Even the citations of other peoples work so liberally
scattered throughout academic papers may be viewed as a form of gift exchange.
Gifts may also be used to manipulate people, as Grace Goodell documents for a World Bankfunded project in Iran. The gift of an irrigation project crushed local level political organizations
and shifted control to the central government. International relations often involve gift giving.
The concessions made between the U.S. and Soviet governments during disarmament
negotiations several years ago are a good example. Cronk concludes by pointing out that
American Indians understood the gifts power to unify, antagonize, or subjugate and that all of us
would do well to learn the same lesson.

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ARTICLE 12 QUESTIONS
True or False?
T

1.

According to Cronk in his article, Reciprocity and the Power of Giving, gift giving
can be used to intimidate people.

2.

In Reciprocity and the Power of Giving, Cronk argues that in most instances of gift
giving, donors expect those who have received the gift to reciprocate promptly.

3.

Both the Turkana and the Mukogodo peoples of Kenya diminished gifts given to them
by anthropologists as a way of diminishing any reciprocation they might feel was
expected of them.

4.

In Reciprocity and the Power of Giving, Cronk cites Hagstroms argument that
citations of other people's work in academic articles as well as the articles themselves,
are a form of gift.

5.

According to Cronk in Reciprocity and the Power of Giving, the phrase Indian
giver arose because North American Indians misunderstood European customs and
wanted gifts they gave to colonists to be returned promptly and with interest.

6.

In Reciprocity and the Power of Giving, Cronk reports that no matter how little he
gave his Mukogodo informants while he was doing fieldwork, they always seemed
grateful, which led to a warmer, more trusting relationship demonstrating the positive
power of giving.

7.

In Reciprocity and the Power of Giving, Cronk argues that gift giving is an important
way for people to initiate and maintain relationships in every society.

Multiple Choice
1. According to Cronk in Reciprocity and the Power of Giving, the Kwakiutl potlatch is a
good example of a way to
a. maintain equal social relationships between different clan members.
b. fight or flatten social rivals.
c. establish alliances between competing political factions.
d. create future material wealth for the giver.
Correct Answer: b

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2.

In Reciprocity and the Power of Giving, Cronk, citing work by sociologist Warren
Hagstrom, argues that __________ represent gifts in a system of reciprocal exchange.
a. citations in academic articles
b. business lunches
c. alcoholic drinks
d. blankets, coppers, and arm shells
Correct Answer: a

3.

In Reciprocity and the Power of Giving, Cronk notes that three of the following are good
examples of reciprocal gift giving. Which one is not?
a. shoes bought at a local mall
b. concessions made between U.S. and Russian negotiators during peace negotiations a
few years ago
c. shell necklaces and arm bands traded in ritual fashion in the Trobriand Island exchange
system called the kula
d. swapping reported by Carol Stack by African Americans living in a place in Illinois
called the flats
Correct Answer: a

4.

In Reciprocity and the Power of Giving, Cronk, reporting on a study by Grace Goodell,
notes that monetary support of an irrigation project by the _________ served to
__________ in Iran.
a. U.S., support local level political organizations
b. World Bank, support local level political organizations
c. U.S., crush local level political organizations
d. World Bank, crush local-level political organizations
Correct Answer: d

5.

According to Cronk in Reciprocity and the Power of Giving, the Mount Hagen tribes of
New Guinea use a gift giving system called moka to gain prestige and
a. guarantee security.
b. establish new relationships.
c. build trust.
d. shame rivals.
Correct Answer: d

50
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Article 13
Poverty at Work: Office Employment
and the Crack Alternative

PHILIPPE BOURGOIS

Summary The transition from a manufacturing economy to one based on office work is more
culturally disruptive to poorly educated working class city dwellers than one might suspect. This
is the conclusion drawn by Philippe Bourgois based on his three and one-half year ethnographic
study of Puerto-Rican crack cocaine dealers in New Your Citys Spanish Harlem.
When Puerto Ricans first moved to New York City, men with little education were able to find
factory work that enabled them to support their families with dignity. As time went by, sons
followed in their fathers footsteps, quitting school in their middle teens to take manufacturing
jobs that required little formal education but provided a decent living and a respected place in
surrounding Puerto Rican working class society. Protected by unions, their macho urban street
culture could be openly expressed on the production line without serious consequences.
All this changed, however, between 1963 and 1983 when over half the factories in New York
City either closed or moved to less expensive areas. Toughness and male swagger that worked
well on the factory production line now intimidated the better-educated largely Anglo people
who worked above them. The poor workers were often unable to read even the simplest
directions. Worse, they often found themselves supervised by women, a rare occurrence in
Puerto Rican society. Even the way they walked and looked intimidated Anglo co-workers.
Above all, they felt dissed (disrespected) by office Anglos, who would often comment openly
about their lack of education and ability. Working at the minimum wage, most lasted on the job
for only a few days. Unemployed once again, many turned to selling crack in a lucrative
underground economy, which placed them on a self-destructive track of drug addiction, violence,
and arrest. Even becoming bicultural, adopting Anglo office culture at work and street culture at
home, did not work well. Friends and family members accused them of selling out their heritage.
In an epilogue, Bourgois notes that four things changed this bleak underground work
environment in Spanish Harlem during the late 1990s: the economy grew at a high and sustained
rate providing more jobs even for the poor; the size of the Mexican immigrant population
increased significantly in Spanish Harlem; the war on drugs criminalized many of the poor; and
marijuana, not crack, became the drug of choice. As a result, more men found work in the
regular economy. But despite this turn of events, Bourgois concludes that there is little hope in
the long run for New Yorks inner city poor.

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ARTICLE 13 QUESTIONS
True or False?
F

1.

According to Bourgois in the article Poverty at Work: Office Work and the Crack
Alternative, second generation Puerto Rican residents living in Spanish Harlem began
to sell crack cocaine because they could find no other work in New York City.

2.

In Poverty at Work: Office Work and the Crack Alternative, Bourgois claims that
only 15 percent of second generation Puerto Ricans living in New Yorks Spanish
Harlem have ever held a job in the formal economy.

3.

In Poverty at Work: Office Work and the Crack Alternative, Bourgois notes that
many Puerto Rican men living in Spanish Harlem have at one time or another held
normal (not underground) jobs in New York Citys service economy.

4.

According to Bourgois in Poverty at Work: Office Work and the Crack Alternative,
the New York underground economy in which many Puerto Rican men work largely
consists of dirty sweatshop manufacturing jobs.

5.

In Poverty at Work: Office Work and the Crack Alternative, Bourgois argues that
Puerto Rican men feel degraded and disrespected in the entry-level service jobs found
in New Yorks office-bound economy.

6.

In Poverty at Work: Office Work and the Crack Alternative, Bourgois notes in an
addendum to his article that prosperity in the 1990s increased the number of Puerto
Rican men who sold crack as the price of the drug escalated.

Multiple Choice
1.

In Poverty at Work: Office Work and the Crack Alternative, Bourgois argues that the most
important reason that second generation Puerto Rican men living in Spanish Harlem find it
unpleasant to work in New York Citys professional offices is
a. the work pays too little.
b. they feel they are treated with disrespect.
c. they cant get to work because they are too poor to own cars.
d. they speak no English.
Correct Answer: b

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2.

According to Bourgois in Poverty at Work: Office Work and the Crack Alternative,
second generation Puerto Rican men failed at entry-level service sector jobs because
a. they were discriminated against by Anglo supervisors.
b. they tried to unionize their places of employment.
c. most dealt drugs at their workplace.
d. the way they looked and walked often frightened middle-class Anglos on the job.
Correct Answer: d

3.

According to Bourgois in Poverty at Work: Office Work and the Crack Alternative, East
Harlem men and women view their neighbors who manage to follow the white womans
rules during the day and street culture at night as
a. proud of their cultural heritage.
b. people to aspire to be like.
c. ashamed of who they truly are.
d. admirable.
Correct Answer: c

4.

According to Bourgois in Poverty at Work: Office Work and the Crack Alternative, the
New York City economy
a. has lost tens of thousands of jobs since 1963.
b. is dominated by manufacturing jobs requiring unskilled labor.
c. has the same number of jobs that it did in 1963 but more of these are located in offices.
d. has gained more jobs in the service sector.
Correct Answer: c

5.

According to Bourgois in Poverty at Work: Office Work and the Crack Alternative, the
unionized jobs associated with manufacturing in New York
a. provided life-time security for Puerto Rican workers.
b. were difficult for Puerto Ricans to get because they were foreigners.
c. permitted some rebellious behavior.
d. required more education than non-unionized jobs.
Correct Answer: c

6.

According to Bourgois in Poverty at Work: Office Work and the Crack Alternative, as
reported in the 1990 census,
a. 78.4 percent of the women living in New Yorks Spanish Harlem received public
assistance.
b. 48.3 percent of men living in Spanish Harlem were officially employed.
c. more than half the Puerto Rican men living in Spanish Harlem sell crack cocaine.
d. 42.4 percent of Puerto Rican men living in Spanish Harlem have fathered children with
women to whom they are not married.
Correct Answer: b

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7.

According to Bourgois in Poverty at Work: Office Work and the Crack Alternative, his
informant, Primo,
a. never held a job in New Yorks office environment.
b. left a job in a service company office primarily because of the low pay it offered.
c. had to quit his job because of repetitive stress syndrome.
d. failed at his office job because he could not alter his street identity and mimic
professional office culture.
Correct Answer: d

54
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Article 14
Women in the Mine

JESSICA SMITH ROLSTON

Summary
This article details the unique and complex gender roles that have developed in
the coal mines in Wyomings Powder River Basin. Typically thought of as full of stereotypically
ultra macho men, the coal mines in Wyoming disprove this assumption. In addition to being
comprised mostly of family men, women work alongside men as equalsin numbers greater
than in the industry as a wholein nearly every capacity. Women miners have developed ways
to build rapport with male coworkers that ensure that they are treated with respect. This article
details this complex system.
The Powder River Basin is home to a dozen coal mines that were opened in response to the
energy crisis of the mid-1970s and early 1980s. Many women in the area had grown up riding
horses, fishing, hunting, or working on farms and ranches, and were quite comfortable getting
dirty and doing manual labor. Mining seemed a natural fit, and offered high pay for those
without a college education. Females employed by the mines can make between $65,000 and
$100,000, depending on experience and overtime.
In addition to having to learn the ins and outs of a new industry, women had to learn how to
succeed in a traditionally male environment. They have done so by adjusting their identities and
taking on personas at work in order to gain respect and craft camaraderie with male coworkers.
Common labels like tomboy, lady, girly girl, and bitch have developed very specific
connotations; these personas represent specific gender identities that bring a range of emotions
from respect to disdain to disapprovalfrom coworkers. Smith Rolston details how the persona
a woman chooses at the mine can have far reaching implications and how adopting a single
persona is not enough; women in the mines must constantly and strategically adjust their
personas to fit the situation, potentially changing identity mid-conversation, mid-shift, or at any
time to respond appropriately to their male coworkers notions of femininity.
ARTICLE 14 QUESTIONS
True or False?
F

1.

Women represent between 25 and 50 percent of the total employees working in


Wyomings Power River Basin coal mines.

2. In the coal mining industry overall, women represent from 6 to 8 percent of the
workers.

3.

Gender divisions in the Powder River Basin coal mines are very rigid and make it
difficult for women to work alongside men productively.
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4.

Some of the women interviewed at the Power River Basin felt that their physical size
gave them an advantage over their male counterparts.

5.

In the social universe of the mine, the term lady generally has a negative connotation.

6.

Men and women are judged equally for their sexual aggressiveness on the job. There is
no double standard in Wyomings Powder River Basin.

7.

To be successful as a female coal miner, one must choose an identitytomboy, lady, or


girly girland never stray from that identity

Multiple Choice
1.

The first phase of the coal mining reclamation process is


a. blasting the large horizontal seam of coal in the ground.
b. removing and storing the delicate layer of topsoil.
c. picking up, moving, and dropping the overburden into an already excavated mine.
d. removing the coal from the ground with draglines, shovels, and haul trucks.
Correct Answer: c

2.

Women who work in the coal mines in the Powder River Basin
a. typically only hold positions in administration and management.
b. operate all of the heavy equipment used to extract the coal.
c. work in all departments except as frontline supervisors in charge of crews.
d. work mostly as mechanics.
Correct Answer: b

3.

Rank in the coal pits correlates to


a. a workers gender.
b. an individuals age.
c. number of years working in the mine.
d. hierarchy of the machines used to expose the coal.
Correct Answer: d

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4.

Melissa, one of the subjects of Jessica Smith Rolstons essay Women in the Mine,
identifies herself as a
a. tomboy.
b. bitch.
c. lady.
d. girly girl.
Correct Answer: a

5.

One of the more successful gender identities in a coal mine is the tomboy, defined as a
women who
a. departs very far from the conventional notions of femininity and acts in a more masculine
manner.
b. purposely emphasizes her femininity at the expense of forming friendships with guys.
c. departs from the conventional notions of femininity, does not mind getting dirty, and
does not get worked up about things.
d. strictly adheres to societally accepted gender roles.
Correct Answer: c

6. A key way for women in the mines to build workplace relationships with their male
coworkers is to
a. cultivate a very professional demeanor.
b. swear excessively and in the most vulgar manner.
c. come to work with well manicured nails and nice makeup.
d. engage in practical jokes.
Correct Answer: d
7. Of the many stereotypical personas active in the coal mining industry, __________ comprise
only a minority of the workforce.
a. ultra macho men
b. bitches
c. ladies
d. tomboys
Correct Answer: a

57
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Article 15
Malawi Versus the World Bank

SONIA PATTEN

Summary This article by Sonia Patten describes the impact of market-oriented World Bank
and International Monetary Fund policy on the subsistence farmers of Malawi. Early on these
two lending institutions adopted the Washington Consensus, a policy designed to reform the
economies of poor nations by instituting capitalism and bringing them into the world economy.
The Consensus required borrowing countries to adopt five rules in order to receive loans: (1)
cut spending on health, (2) privatize state-owned enterprises, (3) allow market set interest rates,
(4) open their economies to foreign investment and competition, and (5) manage currency rates.
Malawi is a small African nation. Ninety-five percent of its population lives on small one to four
acre plots of land typically producing just enough food (maize in this case) to feed family
members and participate in ceremonies such as weddings. Maize is hard on the land because it
requires substantial nutrients to grow properly. There is no land left to farm in Malawi, thus no
way to let some of it lie fallow to recover its fertility. British colonial officials recognized the
negative impact of exhausted land on maize yields and started providing subsidized fertilizer by
1952, a policy continued after independence. By the early 80s Malawi approached the World
Bank for a loan because of a balance of payments problem. By 1990 the government had ended
fertilizer subsidy programs, price controls, and regulated seed prices, and devalued its currency.
Unable to afford the cost, farmers grew crops without using fertilizer. The result was vastly
reduced crop yields, starvation and malnutrition, and a life expectancy of 37 years. Malawians
responded by skipping meals, mixing brans with maize flour, adding cassava to maize four,
selling assets and land, and in some cases begging.
Before the 2007 planting season, Malawis president reinstituted the subsidization of fertilizer.
The resulting yield that year so large that the country was able to export grain. Malnutrition
dropped and health increased. The Malawian case illustrates the impact of macro-economic
policy on a local micro economy.

ARTICLE 15 QUESTIONS
True or False?
F

1.

According to Patten in the article Malawi Versus the World Bank, the World Bank
and the International Monetary Fund sought to loan Malawi money in the 1980s until
recently because the people there were no longer able to meet their daily need for food.

2.

In Malawi Versus the World Bank, Patten claims that the goal of the World Bank and
IMF is to lend poor countries money in order to build more efficient government
agencies concerned with health and the control of HIV/AIDS.
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3.

In Malawi Versus the World Bank, Patten notes that the goal of the World Bank and
IMF is to loan poor countries money to help them institute capitalism and to bring them
into the global economy.

4.

According to Patten in Malawi Versus the World Bank, the effect of the World Bank
on Malawi was to drive people off their land and into cities where they could work in
newly established businesses.

5.

In Malawi Versus the World Bank, Patten argues that 95 percent of the Malawian
population lives on small farms 1 to 4 acres in size.

6.

In Malawi Versus the World Bank, Patten notes that the World Bank and the IMF
required Malawi to quit subsidizing fertilizer.

7.

According to Patten in Malawi Versus the World Bank, the Malawian farmers
responded to their inability to grow enough food by seeking work in the countrys
cities.

Multiple Choice
1.

In Malawi Versus the World Bank, Patten notes that the World Bank and International
Monetary Fund, along with approval of the U.S. Treasury, adopted a Washington
Consensus designed to __________ in poor countries.
a. underwrite better health programs
b. institute capitalism
c. help subsistence farmers increase their crop yields
d. strengthen democratic governments
Correct Answer: b

2.

According to Patten in Malawi Versus the World Bank, the Washington Consensus
required countries that borrowed money from the World Bank and IMF to
a. privatize state-owned enterprises.
b. increase spending on health and education.
c. limit their trade with foreign markets.
d. use public monies to subsidize commodities.
Correct Answer: a

3.

According to Patten in Malawi Versus the World Bank, the main crop of subsistence
farmers in Malawi is
a. cassava.
b. wheat.
c. sorghum.
d. maize.
Correct Answer: d
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4.

According to Patten in Malawi Versus the World Bank, officials of the World Bank
thought that __________ were the reason why Malawi experienced a balance of payments
problem in the 1980s.
a. government corruption
b. lack of a manufacturing sector in the economy
c. fertilizer subsidies
d. military expenditures
Correct Answer: c

5.

According to Patten in Malawi Versus the World Bank, the effect of the World Bank
loans on the people of Malawi was to
a. stimulate the growth of tourism and local manufacturing.
b. raise agricultural production.
c. lower the amount of maize produced.
d. increase the individual wealth of the farmers of Malawi.
Correct Answer: c

6.

According to Patten in Malawi Versus the World Bank, Malawians responded to the lower
maize yields that occurred when fertilizer was no longer subsidized by
a. skipping meals.
b. eating nsima three times a day.
c. using a government voucher to purchase food.
d. emigrating to other African countries.
Correct Answer: a

7.

According to Patten in Malawi Versus the World Bank, when the president of Malawi
reinstituted the subsidized fertilizer program the
a. IMF withdrew its financial assistance from Malawi.
b. World Bank changed its policy concerning government subsidies.
c. U.S. wholeheartedly supported his actions.
d. maize yields grew substantially enough for Malawi to begin exporting again.
Correct Answer: d

60
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PART 5
KINSHIP AND FAMILY
The introduction to Part 5 reviews a variety of basic concepts anthropologists use to describe
kinship systems.
KEY DEFINITIONS
Kinship is the complex system of culturally defined social relationships based on marriage (the
principle of affinity), and birth (the principle of consanguinity).
Affinity refers to relationships through marriage.
Consanguinity refers to relationships by blood.
Descent is a kinship rule that ties people together on the basis of reputed common ancestry.
Patrilineal descent is a descent rule linking consanguine relatives together through males only.
Matrilineal descent is a descent rule linking consanguine relatives together through females
only.
Bilateral descent is a descent rule linking relatives together through both males and females
simultaneously.
Descent groups are groups based on a descent rule.
A lineage is a localized group that is based on unilineal (patrilineal or matrilineal) descent and
which usually has some corporate powers.
A clan is a descent group where members believe they are all descended from a common
ancestor, but where members cannot always trace their genealogical relationship to each other.
Phratries are large descent groups made up of clans.
Ramages are cognatic kin groups based on bilateral descent, which resemble lineages in size and
function but provide more recruiting flexibility.
A family is a kin group made up of at least one married couple sharing the same residence with
their children and performing sexual, reproductive, economic, and educational functions.
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Instructors should note that this traditional definition excludes single-parent families and blended
families and may be amended to take these into account.
A nuclear family is a kind of family consisting of just one married couple and their children.
An extended family is a family made up of two or more married couples and their children.
Marriage is the socially approved union of two people that confers sexual rights and legitimizes
children.
Exogamy means marriage outside a specified group.
Endogamy means marriage inside a specified group.
Monogamy is a kind of marriage in which one individual is married to another individual.
Polygamy is a kind of marriage in which one person is married to more than one person
simultaneously.
Polygyny is a kind of marriage in which one man is married to two or more women
simultaneously.
Polyandry is a kind of marriage in which one woman is married to two or more men
simultaneously.
The incest taboo is a legal rule that prohibits sexual intercourse or marriage between particular
classes of kin.
PART 5 QUESTIONS
True or False?
T

1.

The marriage of one man to two or more women is called polygyny.

2.

If the people of a village prefer that their children marry spouses from other villages,
they follow the rule of village endogamy.

3.

Descent is a rule of relationship that links people together on the basis of reputed
common ancestry. It often serves to regulate inheritance and the formation of kin
groups.

4.

A kinship group based on a unilineal rule of descent that is localized and has corporate
power is called a clan.

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5.

A family is a kin group made up of at least one married couple sharing the same
residence with their children and performing sexual, reproductive, economic, and
educational functions.

Multiple Choice
1.

are unilineal descent groups composed of lineages. Their members recognize


descent from a common ancestor, but cannot usually trace their actual genealogical
connections.
a. Ramages
b. Kindreds
c . Clans
d. Families
Correct Answer: c

2.

An older married couple, together with their married sons, their daughters-in-law, and their
grandchildren, all living in a single household, is a classic example of
a. a nuclear family.
b. an extended family.
c. a lineage.
d. a ramage.
Correct Answer: b

3.

Descent from a common ancestor through males only is called


a. patrilineal descent.
b. matrilineal descent.
c. bilateral descent.
d. endogamy.
Correct Answer: a

4.

A bilateral kinship group that is most like a lineage is called a


a. family.
b. clan.
c. phratry.
d. ramage.
Correct Answer: d

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5.

A rule of relationship that links people together on the basis of reputed common ancestry is
called
a. affinity.
b. descent.
c. patrilineality.
d. social organization.
Correct Answer: b

6.

A person one is related to by marriage is called a(n)


a. affinal
b. exogamous
c. consanguine
d. endogamous
Correct Answer: a

7.

The cultural rule that prohibits sexual intercourse among defined classes of relatives is
called
a. the incest taboo.
b. polygamy.
c. endogamy.
d. hypergamy.
Correct Answer: a

8.

The marriage of one woman to more than one man simultaneously is called
a. exogamy.
b. endogamy.
c. polygyny.
d. polyandry.
Correct Answer: d

9.

A relationship between two people that is socially recognized and which confers birth-status
rights on children is called
a. kinship.
b. a family.
c. marriage.
d. a rite of passage.
Correct Answer: c

relative.

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10. When a man is simultaneously married to two or more women, anthropologists call the
arrangement
a. polygamy.
b. polygyny.
c. polyandry.
d. exogamy.
Correct Answer: b
11. When it is preferred that a woman marry a man from her own village, we call the
arrangement
a. polygyny.
b. exogamy.
c. endogamy.
d. polyandry.
Correct Answer: c

65
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Article 16
Mothers Love: Death without Weeping

NANCY SCHEPER-HUGHES

Summary In this article, Nancy Scheper-Hughes argued that under conditions of extreme
poverty where there are high rates of infant mortality, it is a natural human response for mothers
to distance themselves emotionally from their dead and dying infants.
Scheper-Hughes based her conclusion on 25 years of fieldwork, starting in 1965, in the
shantytown of Alto do Cruzeiro on the edge of Bom Jesus de Mata, a market town in northeast
Brazil. Poverty in the shantytown produced a life expectancy of only 40 years, largely due to
high rates of infant mortality.
Scheper-Hughes first encountered womens reactions to infant death in 1965 when 350 children
died in a great baby die-off. Mothers seemed strangely indifferent to the deaths of their
children. It was then that Scheper-Hughes concluded that mothering in Alto do Cruzeiro meant
learning to abstain from forming emotional ties to their infants who were sick or weakthose
who were likely to die.
Social conditions were marked by brittle marriages; single parenting by women was the norm.
Most had no choice but to work in the shadow economy; babies were frequently left home
alone because infants could not be taken to work. Midwives and other women supported mothers
in their detachment. Even civil authorities and the clergy discouraged the attachment of mothers
to their babies. Registration of infant deaths was short and informal. Doctors did not recognize
malnutrition and, instead of treating a child at risk of dying, merely tranquilized them. The
church did not hold ceremonies for dead children, and infants were buried without headstones in
graves that would be used over and over again.
In an epilogue added by Scheper-Hughes for this edition, the author notes that by 2008 much had
changed in Bom Jesus. The advent of a democratic government brought a national health care
system, a change in Catholic beliefs about infant death, an under-the-counter morning after
pill, and most important, the installation of water pipes throughout the city. The result was a
dramatic decline in both infant birth and death rates. Mothers who once were resigned to letting
go of sickly babies now hold on to their infants. Unfortunately, high infant mortality has been
replaced by a new form of violence: the killing of young men, by gang leaders, banditos, and
local police.
ARTICLE 16 QUESTIONS
True or False?
T

1.

In her article, Mother's Love: Death Without Weeping, Nancy Scheper-Hughes


argues that mothers in the shantytown of Alto do Cruzeiro learned to accept the death of
a child without grieving.
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2.

According to Scheper-Hughes in Mother's Love: Death Without Weeping, poor


women in northeast Brazil would sacrifice in every way possible to keep their children
alive.

3.

According to Scheper-Hughes in Mother's Love: Death Without Weeping, civil and


church authorities in the northeast town of Bom Jesus de Mata, Brazil, treated infant
death casually and without much concern.

4.

According to Scheper-Hughes in Mother's Love: Death Without Weeping, the doctors


and clergy of the Brazilian city of Bom Jesus de Mata worked hard to save the lives of
poor children born in the shantytown of Alto do Cruzeiro but failed because of the
indifference of the infants mothers.

5.

In Mother's Love: Death Without Weeping, Scheper-Hughes feels that it was


instinctual for poor mothers to grieve deeply over the death of their babies in most
societies unless they have been separated from their infants by illness or divorce.

6.

According to Scheper-Hughes in Mother's Love: Death Without Weeping, mothers


living in Alto do Cruzeiro in northeastern Brazil have been known to actually hasten the
death of babies they felt would not survive by failing to feed them properly.

7.

In Mother's Love: Death Without Weeping, Scheper-Hughes claims that the


installation of piped, treated water to all homes in the shantytown contributed most to
the increased survival of infants in Bom Jesus de Mata.

Multiple Choice
1.

According to Scheper-Hughes in Mother's Love: Death Without Weeping, poor Brazilian


mothers living in a shantytown near the town of Bom Jesus de Mata
a. would do almost anything to earn money in order to pay for the treatment of their sick
babies.
b. stayed emotionally detached from their babies, particularly those they felt were likely to
die.
c. depended for child support on the local churches and civil authorities.
d. observed nearly a year of formal mourning when a child died, during which time they
were not allowed to dance or laugh in public.
Correct Answer: b

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2.

According to Scheper-Hughes in Mother's Love: Death Without Weeping, doctors in the


Brazilian town of Bom Jesus de Mata often
a. failed to recognize malnutrition as the primary cause of illness among poor babies.
b. refused to examine poor babies.
c. prescribed drugs that their mothers cannot afford to buy for their sick babies.
d. hospitalized poor sick babies because the infants mothers could not care for them.
Correct Answer: a

3.

In Mother's Love: Death Without Weeping, Scheper-Hughes reports that about


infants died in Alto do Cruzeiro, Brazil, in 1965.
a. 100
b. 150
c. 300
d. 350
Correct Answer: d

4.

According to Scheper-Hughes in Mother's Love: Death Without Weeping, three of the


following statements are true about how the death of poor babies were treated in Alto do
Cruzeiro and Bom Jesus de Mata, Brazil. Which one is not?
a. Babies were buried without headstones or markers.
b. Infant graves were reused for other infant burials later.
c. Midwives encouraged mothers of dead babies to grieve.
d. Civil authorities only required a two-paragraph report when a baby died.
Correct Answer: c

5.

On the basis of her work in northeastern Brazil and on literature describing practices in other
parts of the world, Scheper-Hughes feels that
a. it was instinctual for mothers to grieve deeply over a dead son or daughter in every
society, including those with high infant mortality rates.
b. it was natural for poor mothers to maintain emotional distance from infants who are
likely to die.
c. civil authorities tried hard to improve the condition of poor women but the latter would
not help themselves.
d. poor women let their babies die despite concerted efforts by church authorities to
prevent them from doing so.
Correct Answer: b

6.

The Catholic Churchs theology of liberation changed the way the Church handled infant
deaths. Under this theology,
a. a priest accompanied each funeral procession to the cemetery.
b. mothers were encouraged to believe that a saint had claimed the child.
c. a municipal gravedigger oversaw the burial without offering any prayers or sign of the
cross.
d. the bells of the parish church rang at each infants funeral.
Correct Answer: c

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7.

In an epilogue to her article Mother's Love: Death Without Weeping, Scheper-Hughes


argues that the primary cause of the decline in infant mortality on the Alto do Cruzeiro was a
result of
a. national health care agents going door to door to identify at-risk infants.
b. the installation of water pipes that carried clean water to virtually every home in the
shantytown.
c. an infant training program offered by a North American mission.
d. the under-the-counter availability of a morning after pill.
Correct Answer: b

69
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Article 17
Family and Kinship in Village India

DAVID W. McCURDY

Summary In this article, David McCurdy describes the importance of kinship among rural Bhil
tribal peoples living in Ratakote, a hill village located in the southern part of Rajasthan near
Udaipur, India. He argues that an elaborate and extended kinship system is not only a useful way
for peasants to organize their labor, land holdings, and broader social connections, but that it is
also a system that can be adapted to the market-dominated economic system currently emerging
in India.
Americans find it difficult to comprehend the importance of extended kinship, but for the Bhils,
the significance of kinship seems elementary. A wedding arranged by a villager for his daughter
in 1985 illustrates the point nicely. To begin the arrangement, the father must consult the
members of his patrilineage, who must later provide money and labor for the wedding. He will
send out word to his feminal kinthe relatives of the women who have married into his line and
the relatives of the men that women of his line have marriedin other villages. When
prospective grooms are found, the first consideration is clan membership. Clans are large and
consist of local lineages living in many villages over a wide territory. Bhils cannot marry into
their own, their mothers, or their fathers mothers clans; this constitutes incest.
Once a suitable spouse is found, negotiations commence to set a dapa (bride price), the money
and prestige goods given by the grooms family to that of the bride. Bride price is part of an
exchange for the labor and loyalty of the bride. Marriage becomes an alliance between the two
families but involves potential conflict. To clearly state that rights to her loyalty, labor, and
children shift to her husbands family at marriage, the wedding ceremony symbolizes the brides
removal from her natal group. After marriage, a relationship built on formal respect keeps the
brides family at a proper distance.
Extended kinship systems seem well suited to agrarian peasant life where families best control
landholding and economic production. Today, India is industrializing and the market economy is
attracting many rural peasants to cities as well as restructuring economic relationships in rural
villages. The market economy can easily weaken kinship systems by providing individuals with
salaries and independence, causing people to move to find work, and creating jobs that compete
for time with family obligations. Despite expansion of the market, Indians, including the Bhils
described in this article, have adapted kinship relationships to provide support as they scatter
across their country and around the world.
ARTICLE 17 QUESTIONS
True or False?
T

1.

In his article Family and Kinship in Village India, McCurdy argues that family and
kinship relations have been extended to provide support in the market economy.
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2.

According to McCurdy in Family and Kinship in Village India, until recently Bhil
tribals were only permitted to marry people from their own village, thus limiting the
scope of their economic and social worlds.

3.

According to McCurdy in Family and Kinship in Village India, marriage allies the
families of the bride and groom, which then become equal partners in an association of
feminal kin.

4.

According to McCurdy in Family and Kinship in Village India, the term feminal kin
refers to the relatives of the men who have married women of ones own line, or the
relatives of the women who have married men of ones own line.

T. 5.

In Family and Kinship in Village India, McCurdy notes that when a groom ritually
breaks into his future brides house at the beginning of the final wedding ceremony, the
act is one way to symbolize her movement from her natal family to his.

In Family and Kinship in Village India, McCurdy notes that clans are localized
organizations of relatives, made up of a persons close male relatives who are all
descended from a known common ancestor.

6.

Multiple Choice
1.

According to McCurdy in Family and Kinship in Village India,


a. extended kinship systems are especially well suited to the organization of holding land
in agrarian societies.
b. industrialization and the market economy have essentially eliminated extended kinship
ties in the Bhil village of Ratakote.
c. the Bhil tribals of Ratakote must marry spouses from their own clan, their mothers
clan, or their fathers mothers clan.
d. extended family kinship systems have completely broken down in the face of a cashfor-labor economy.
Correct Answer: a

2.

According to McCurdy in Family and Kinship in Village India, the term patrilineage
refers to
a. women belonging to ones own patriclan (arak).
b. women belonging to ones mothers patriclan (arak).
c. closely related men who are all descended from a known ancestor.
d. closely related women who are all descended from a known ancestor.
Correct Answer: c

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3.

In Family and Kinship in Village India, McCurdy argues that arranged marriage functions to
a. create alliances between Bhil families and patrilineages.
b. bring wealth to the grooms family because of the dowry they receive.
c. prevent the possibility of divorce in Bhil society.
d. insure a happier marriage for Bhil brides and grooms.
Correct Answer: a

4.

According to McCurdy in Family and Kinship in Village India, which is the most
important structural tension associated with marriage in Bhil society?
a. the decision about how large the dapa (bride price) will be.
b. the possibility that young people will refuse to be married.
c. the shifting of a womans loyalty, labor, and reproductive potential from her family to
her husbands family.
d. whether wives will inherit from their own or their husbands families.
Correct Answer: c

5. According to McCurdy in Family and Kinship in Village India, when Bhils visit other
villages, they usually stay with
a. members of their patriclan.
b. friends, not kin.
c. members of their extended family.
d. feminal kin.
Correct Answer: d
6.

According to McCurdy in Family and Kinship in Village India, a major tension in Bhil
society occurs over the movement of a woman from her own family to that of her husband at
marriage. Which of the following is a way Bhil cultural practices reduce this tension?
a. Grooms ritually storm the brides house to symbolize that they are taking the woman
away from her family.
b. After the wedding, the family of the bride has no contact with the groom, his new bride,
and his extended family for one year.
c. The bride and groom move to a village where neither family lives to start their own
lives.
d. The brides family keeps in close, familiar contact with the grooms family, visits often,
and checks on their daughters welfare.
Correct Answer: a

7.

According to McCurdy in Family and Kinship in Village India, in India work in the
market economy can weaken kinship systems by
a. costing families too much money.
b. increasing the economic dependence of people on their families and kin
groups.
c. reducing the time people have to devote to family and kin.
d. connecting ones reputation more to family than to work.
Correct Answer: c

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8.

In Family and Kinship in Village India, McCurdy observes that


a. despite the dispersal of relatives as a result of migration to cities for work, Indians
maintain a high degree of loyalty to and support of their kin.
b. work in cities has destroyed the Indian family and kinship system.
c. cash labor has led to personal independence and the end of family-arranged marriages
in India.
d. Ratakotes increase in population has led to a thriving agrarian economy.
Correct Answer: a

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Article 18
Polyandry: When Brothers Take a Wife

MELVYN C. GOLDSTEIN

Summary In this article, Goldstein discusses the functions of a rare custom, fraternal polyandry.
Along with monogamy, it is one of the most common forms of marriage in Tibetan society.
Among the Tibetans of northern Nepal, it is common for a woman to marry two or more men
who are brothers. This arrangement is generally made with the consent of the womans parents.
The oldest brother typically manages the household, with all of the brothers dividing the work
equally and participating as sexual partners with the wife. Although brothers in such an
arrangement can quarrel with each other and occasionally argue over sexual rights to the shared
spouse, many men and women prefer the arrangement.
All of the children of the marriage are treated equally by all of the brothers, and no attempt is
made to keep track of biological linkage. All of the children treat all the brothers equally, in
some regions referring to them as elder or younger. Divorce is possible; an unhappy brother
can simply leave the main house and set up his own household. Any children remain in the main
household, even if the departing brother is the real father.
Two theories have previously been advanced by anthropologists to explain polyandry. One
argues that the custom results from a shortage of women due to female infanticide. The other is
that polyandry correlates with a shortage of arable land. The claim is that with polyandrous
marriage, land can be held in the same male line without subdivision. Goldstein challenges both
explanations. There is not, he argues, a high rate of female infanticide among Tibetans, and
many Tibetan women live out their lives unmarried, yet bear children. If scarce land were the
problem, one would expect poor families with little land to practice polyandry, but it is wealthy
farmers who prefer the custom. Polyandry does serve to reduce the birth rate, but Tibetans do not
recognize this latent function. Instead, for the wealthier Tibetans who practice it, polyandry is
desirable because it permits them to keep land holdings together and continue to live a more
prosperous life.
By entering into a polyandrous marriage with his brothers, a Tibetan man has access to family
land, animals, and any other inheritances. He shares any work burden with his brothers, and thus
is afforded greater security. He may not have as much personal freedom as he would in a
monogamous marriage, but what he loses in freedom he gains in the economic security,
affluence, and prestige that comes with a larger, asset-holding, polyandrous family.
ARTICLE 18 QUESTIONS
True or False?
T

1.

According to Goldsteins Polyandry: When Brothers Take a Wife, it is richer


Tibetans living in Nepal who prefer polyandry.

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2.

Goldstein believes that Tibetan polyandry is a response to high rates of female


infanticide.

3.

In Polyandry: When Brothers Take a Wife, Goldstein argues that Tibetan polyandry
functions to reduce the birth rate.

4.

According to Goldsteins Polyandry: When Brothers Take a Wife, Tibetan polyandry


is a response to a shortage of arable land.

5.

In Polyandry: When Brothers Take a Wife, Goldstein argues that the Tibetan practice
of polyandry is analogous to the practice of primogeniture in nineteenth-century
England.

Multiple Choice
1. According to Goldstein in Polyandry: When Brothers Take a Wife, Tibetan polyandry
functions above all to
a. permit richer farmers to maintain their standard of living.
b. respond to a shortage of women caused by high rates of female infanticide.
c. preserve the matriline.
d. preserve the patriline.
Correct Answer: a
2. Which one of the following is not true about Tibetan polyandry?
a. Polyandry eliminates sexual competition among brothers.
b. Polyandry lowers the birth rate.
c. Polyandry enables wealthier farmers to maintain their higher standard of living.
d. Polyandry is often preferred by Tibetans.
Correct Answer: a
3. The custom of polyandry may end among Tibetans living in Nepal because
a. women do not like the custom.
b. men do not like the custom.
c. of government opposition and new economic opportunities.
d. of new techniques for reclaiming land to farm.
Correct Answer: c
4. According to Goldstein in Polyandry: When Brothers Take a Wife, it is difficult for a male
Tibetan to start his own farm because
a. the government restricts access to new land.
b. there is no more land to reclaim in the mountains.
c. it is difficult to terrace new land and keep animals simultaneously without help.
d. only the eldest brother has a right to the familys estate.
Correct Answer: c
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5. According to Goldstein in Polyandry: When Brothers Take a Wife, Tibetan polyandry


a. requires a group of brothers to marry one woman.
b. is caused by high rates of female infanticide, creating a shortage of women.
c. is a response to a shortage of arable land.
d. allows for greater personal freedom than monogamous marriage.
Correct Answer: a

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Article 19
Marriage and Adulthood in West Africa

SUSANNA FIORATTA

Summary
Across cultures, marriage is a rite of passage that confers statusboth legal and socialon those
who participate in it. Marriage often increases social status and, in some societies such as the
United States, affords participants legal protections not available through other means. However,
it is not generally thought of as something that affects an individuals status as an adult.
Individuals in the United States and other countries have every reason to believe that they will be
successful whether they marry or not. In her article, Marriage and Adulthood in West Africa,
Susanna Fioratta describes a society in Guinea where marriage is the only way to be considered a
responsible adult.
For both men and women in the Fouta Djallon, marriage is not a choice. It is vitally important
that an individual be married in order to be considered a responsible adult worthy of offering
advice, taking on roles in the community, and being trusted with money. Even potential
leaderssuch as 72-year-old presidential candidatesmust have a wife, children, and a home;
otherwise, they are considered incapable of being responsible, not worthy of offering advice, and
unable to show sympathy or pity. In the local Pular language, there is not even a word to describe
an unmarried adult woman. There are only words for girl or virgin (jiwo) and woman (debbo). A
state of being an adult unmarried woman is incomprehensible.
Achieving and maintaining a marriage in the Fouta Djallon is very difficult. Men must make
enough money to support a wife and family, build a house, and care for extended family. This
requires migrating to nearby countries to find work and save money. Women, for their part, must
endure painful excision to be considered eligible for marriage. As wives, they must submit to
their husbands at all times, cook and clean for a dozen or more individuals, bear and take care of
children, maintain a garden of vegetables, and do so with inadequate funds. To make ends meet,
wives often earn supplemental income selling snacks, cloth, or other items in the village.
Divorce and premature death are not uncommon. When women are divorced or their husbands
die prematurely, their parents quickly arrange new marriages; some widows are inherited as
wives of their deceased husbands brothers.
Fioratta argues that the challenges associated with marriage are what allow both men and women
to demonstrate that they are responsible, trustworthy adults. Despite these challenges,
particularly for women, marriage is a highly sought-after status and is necessary to becoming a
respected elder in the community.

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ARTICLE 19 QUESTIONS
True or False?
F

1. In the Fouta Djallon highlands of Guinea in West Africa, an individuals marital status
has no bearing on his or her standing within the community.

2. It is ideal that newlyweds have children soon after they marry so that the husband
may establish himself as the head of the household.

3. Because everyone in Fouta Djallon understands the societal importance of marriage,


the community works together to make it relatively easy to find a spouse and maintain a
healthy marriage.

4. A marriage, considered an important alliance between families in Fouta Djallon, is


typically arranged by the parents of the bride.

5. Most women in the Fouta Djallon wait until they are in their thirties before
accepting a marriage proposal.

6. The rite of passage for new babies in the Fouta Djallon may include a naming
ceremony, animal sacrifice, and blessing by an imam or elder.

7 Young men in the Fouta Djallon are at a disadvantage when it comes to finding a
suitable marriage partner because the population is made up of more men than women.

Multiple Choice
1.

Without ________ it is nearly impossible for a man or a woman in the Fouta Djallon to be
considered an adult, let alone a successful and responsible one, by others in the community.
a. a marriage
b. a career
c. an education
d. a prosperous business
Correct Answer: a

2.

In order to be considered eligible for marriage, a Fouta Djallon girl must have
a. had a naming ceremony one week after her birth.
b. had an animal sacrificed in her honor shortly after her birth.
c. had an imam or elder bestow a special benediction on her.
d. received the rite of excision.
Correct Answer: d

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3. Men in the Fouta Djallon are expected to make enough money to marry; support their
parents, future children, and other relatives; and build a house. In order to do this, most men
a.
b.

travel abroad to Europe and North America to find work and save money.
travel to nearby West African countries such as Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone,
Mali, and Cte dIvoire.
c. open their own small businesses.
d. live with their parents until they have saved enough money to marry.
Correct Answer: b
4. Migration offers young men the opportunity to earn
a. levirate.
b. jiwo.
c. dpart.
d. debbo.
Correct Answer: c
5.

The typical wedding celebration in the Fouta Djallon lasts for two or three days and includes
great quantities of rice, gifts of money or cloth, and
a. a sum of money paid by the brides family to the groom.
b. a sum of money paid by the grooms family to the bride.
c. a sum of money paid by the groom to the brides parents.
d. several suitcases of cloth for the mother of the bride.
Correct Answer: c

6. The parents of a potential bride will arrange a match directly with the groom himself (not
with his family) only if he
a. is already married, owns his own home, and is well established.
b. is not yet married, owns his own home, and is well established.
c. is not related to the bride and is not yet married.
d. does not plan to leave the Fouta Djallon to earn money.
Correct Answer: a
7.

When a marriage ends through death or divorce, men and women


a. seek an imams advice as to whether to marry again.
b. must actively seek to arrange a new marriage.
c. retain the same level of respect and status that they had when married.
d. live out their lives as widows and widowers, cared for by the community.
Correct Answer: b

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PART 6
ROLES AND INEQUALITY
The introduction to Part 6 reviews basic elements of social organization and social inequality.
KEY DEFINITIONS
Status refers to the categories of different kinds of people who interact.
Roles are the rules for action associated with particular statuses.
Social situation is a setting in which interaction takes place. Social situations include places,
times, objects, and events.
Social stratification is a form of inequality characterized by regularly experienced unequal
access to valued economic resources and prestige.
Social groups are organized collections of individuals.
Social networks are an assortment of people with whom an individual regularly interacts but
who themselves do not regularly form an organized group.
Inequality is a human relationship marked by differences in power, authority, prestige, and
access to valued goods and services, and by the payment of deference.
Class is a kind of social stratification that restricts individuals access to valued resources and
prestige within a partially flexible system. Social mobility between classes is possible although
often difficult.
Caste defines a second kind of social stratification, one based on permanent membership by
birth without the possibility of social mobility between castes.
Egalitarian societies are societies that lack formal social stratification, although inequality based
on age and gender is possible.
Rank societies are those in which there is unequal access to prestige, but not to valued economic
resources.
Stratified societies are marked by unequal access to both prestige and valued economic
resources.
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PART 6 QUESTIONS
True or False?
F

1.

Roles are the categories of different kinds of people who interact.

2.

An army private must salute when he approaches an officer and hold the salute until
after the officer has returned the greeting. This is an illustration of a status.

3.

As used in this book, the term status refers to a persons social rank.

4.

A lecture, classroom, desks, and time (9:30 a.m.10:20 a.m.) are all parts of the social
situation as that term is defined by the text.

5.

Anthropologists usually recognize two kinds of social stratification: egalitarian and


rank.

6.

Class is a kind of stratification defined by unequal access to prestige and valued


resources but which can permit individual mobility.

7.

Caste, like class, is a kind of social stratification into which members are born, but
which permits mobility based on the acquisition of wealth and symbols of higher
standing.

8.

A rank society is one in which members have unequal access to prestige and valued
economic resources.

Multiple Choice
1.

Particular social categories of people who interact are labeled


a. roles.
b. statuses.
c. social situations.
d. social groups.
Correct Answer: b

2.

Time, place, and objects are significant markers of


a. social groups.
b. social networks.
c. roles.
d. social situations.
Correct Answer: d

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3.

If a friend were to say, Hes the president of the college, the term president would refer
to a
a. status.
b. role.
c. social situation.
d. social relationship.
Correct Answer: a

4.

Anthropologists and sociologists argue that American racial groups are equivalent to
Indian__________ because racial identity is permanent and affects chances for acquisition
of prestige and economic success, and there are noticeable cultural differences among black
and white people in the United States.
a. classes
b. castes
c. kinship groups
d social groups
Correct Answer: b

5.

A society in which there is unequal access to prestige but equal access to economic
resources is called a(n)
a. egalitarian society.
b. socially stratified society.
c. rank society.
d. class society.
Correct Answer: c

6.

The culturally defined behaviors associated with particular social statuses are called
a. social identities.
b. social roles.
c. status clusters.
d. social action clusters.
Correct Answer: b

7.

A group ranked in a system of social stratification into which members are born for life is
called a
a. caste.
b. class.
c. rank society.
d. stratified society.
Correct Answer: a

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8.

As societies grow larger, people may do most of their socializing in


a. ethnic groups.
b. territorial groups.
c. social networks.
d. kinship groups.
Correct Answer: c

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Article 20
Negotiating Work and Family in America DIANNA SHANDY AND KARINE MOE
Summary
In this article, Dianna Shandy and Karine Moe explore the complexities of the
latest research on how generations of women have handled the challenges of negotiating work
and family in America. By combining labor statistics, interviews with more than 100 women,
focus groups, and surveys of nearly 1000 college graduates, the authors explore the advances of
women in the workforce, their experiences juggling families and careers outside of the home,
and the subsequent choices new generations of women are making in this area.
Anthropologists used to view the gender relationship between men and women as one of inherent
male domination. Ernestine Friedl, however, argued that control of publicly distributed resources
was key to womens power. Among the Hadza of Tanzania for example, men and women gather
food equally, and subsequently relate to one another with relative gender equality. In contrast,
when men supply virtually all of the food, such as among the Inuit of the Arctic, there is
significant gender inequality.
Similar cultural ranking exists in the United States. In the United States ones occupation
determines relative rank. Today, women hold positions previously reserved for men only
positions that include leadership, management, and business ownership. Women make up half of
the workforce on all U.S. payrolls, and own one third of the businesses in the United States.
Additionally, women now account for more than 50 percent of all college students and are the
majority of those enrolled in graduate or professional schools. Women have made great strides
toward gender equality in the workplace over the last few decades, but many are still opting out
when they have children.
Many gender-related factors both push women out of the workforce and pull them toward family
and home, such as a womans second shift or experiencing a glass ceiling (the proverbial
barrier preventing advancement to a higher position). Unlike other industrialized nations, women
in the United States of at least three generations have experienced and continue to experience
significant structural barriers to flexible and affordable childcare.
Given the low cultural ranking given of the occupation of full-time motherhood, women often
struggle to maintain a sense of gender equality, prestige, and power while at home. Some do so
by forming strong social groups. Still others describe themselves as career women taking time
off to stay home with kids.

ARTICLE 20 QUESTIONS
True or False?
F

1.

In Negotiating Work and Family in America, Shandy and Moe argue that it is only
older women who face structural barriers in an attempt to negotiate work and family
responsibilities.
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2. In Negotiating Work and Family in America, Shandy and Moe illustrate how the
primary source of ones public social identity is his
or her occupation.

3. In Negotiating Work and Family in America, Shandy and Moe argue that even when
men and women work at the same jobs, men always have domination over women.

4. According to Shandy and Moe in Negotiating Work and Family in America,


anthropologist Ernestine Friedl argues that control of publicly shared resources, such as
animal proteins, in hunter-gatherer societies determines the degree to which females are
equal to males.

5. According to Shandy and Moe in Negotiating Work and Family in America, women
make up one third of all workers on U.S. payrolls.

6. In Negotiating Work and Family in America, Shandy and Moe report that when a
parent leaves the workforce, 97 out of 100 times it is the woman who drops out.

7.

According to research by Shandy and Moe, there is currently a surplus of well-educated


professional men in relationship to women.

Multiple Choice
1.

Shandy and Moe, in Negotiating Work and Family in America, argue that a key to
women's rank is
a. control over family finances.
b. having a large number of children.
c. obtaining high-level occupational positions.
d. their contribution of goods and services toward family maintenance.
Correct Answer: c

2.

According to Shandy and Moe in Negotiating Work and Family in America, ethnographic
research about the Inuit people of the Arctic
indicates that the males
a. share responsibility with the females for providing the animal protein to the
community.
b. provide virtually all of the food needs by hunting seals, walruses, whales, and fish.
c. forage for edible plants in addition to providing the community with necessary animal
protein.
d. and females work to meet their own individual needs for food.
Correct Answer: b

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3.

According to research cited by Shandy and Moe in Negotiating Work and Family in
America, the Washoe Indians of the Sierra Nevada Mountains in southern California
exhibit relative gender equality due to the fact that
a. the women are solely responsible for providing the food for the family groups.
b. men and women are responsible for their own individual needs for food.
c. the men provide virtually all of the food by hunting for animal proteins.
d. both men and women forage for edible plants and both catch small animals as a
source of protein.
Correct Answer: d

4.

Like the women in hunter-gatherer societies who share the responsibility for food supply,
Shandy and Moe argue in Negotiating Work and Family in America that U.S. women
a. now hold jobs traditionally reserved for men but have not gained the power and equality
that comes with these jobs.
b. still do not have access to education, jobs, and income as men do.
c. have increasingly gained power and equality as they hold jobs once reserved for men.
d. have gained access to education, but have not made inroads in equality in the area of
corporate and government jobs.
Correct Answer: c

5.

According to Shandy and Moe in Negotiating Work and Family in America, women now
serve as primary breadwinners in
__________ percent of all families, and own __________ of all U.S. businesses.
a. 30, two thirds
b. 40, one third
c. 20, two thirds
d. 10, one third
Correct Answer: b

6.

What factor do Shandy and Moe point to in Negotiating Work and Family in America as
the most important in understanding why women with unprecedented access to education,
jobs, and income, opt out of the workforce?
a. gender
b. income
c. education
d. generation
Correct Answer: a

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7.

__________ is the only industrialized country that fails to provide paid leave for new
mothers.
a. Sweden
b. United States
c. Papua New Guinea
d. Lesotho
Correct Answer: b

8.

According to Shandy and Moe in Negotiating Work and Family in America, factors that
pull women to resign from work and return to home full time include three of the following.
Which one do they not mention?
a. being with their children
b. lower stress
c. sense of responsibility
d. a biological imperative
Correct answer: d

9.

In Negotiating Work and Family in America, Shandy and Moe note that no longer holding
a high-ranking job is a problem for a womans prestige. What can a woman do to retain
prestige when she spends all her time at home?
a. note what her high prestige jobs had been
b. argue that being a stay-at-home mom is actually more important
c. note that she and her husband could not afford nannies
d. maintain a very clean and well appointed home
Correct answer: a

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Article 21

Becoming Muslim in Europe

MIKAELA ROGOZEN-SOLTAR

Increased globalization has brought people of different backgrounds in contact with one another
more than ever before. In Becoming Muslim in Europe, Mikaela Rogozen-Soltar argues that
this has created conflict, mutual influence, and increased intercultural and interreligious
marriages. These marriages, particularly in countries such as Spain, where religion and national
identity are deeply entwined, can be very difficult to navigate and highlight basic cultural
differences. Rogozen-Soltar identifies and discusses one of the biggest cultural differences that
exists today, that of Muslim and non-Muslim marriage partners. Her article illustrates the unique
challenges faced by Muslim converts in Spanish culture, where Catholicism is seen as part of
ones Spanishness.
Islam is the worlds fastest-growing religion based on new births and converts to the faith. Spain
has a rich, 800-year-old Muslim history, easily found in historic landmarks like the Alhambra,
and in Spanish dance, music, and cuisine. However, over several hundred years since the Spanish
Inquisition, and Francisco Francos enforcement of Catholicism as the national religion from
1939 until 1975, most Spaniards equate being Spanish with being Catholic. Additionally,
many Spaniards view Islam as a threat to Spanish identity and fear its resurgence in Spain.
In recent years, as Muslims have migrated to Spain and married Spanish women, some Spaniards
have been forced to reexamine their understanding of what it means to be Spanish. RogozenSoltar recounts the experience of Maria Martinez and her evolution from a Spanish woman with
stereotypical views of Islam, to someone in love with a Muslim man, to one who chooses to
convert to Islam. Her experience illustrates the judgment she and other converts to Islam face in
Spain.
The experiences of Maria and other converts to Islam highlight how importantand how
entrenchedcultural identities and memberships in social groups can be. Even though Maria
initially could not imagine how she, a Spanish woman, could become a Muslim, her growing
knowledge of Islam eventually allowed her to shift her view of her cultural identity. This led to a
different perspective of Spains Muslim history than that of the majority of her countrymen. Now
she tries to educate others about her changed views by reminding Catholic and secular Spaniards
of Spains Muslim heritage, while reinforcing the normalcy of Islam. She is careful not to try to
convert friends, but instead focuses on creating understanding by drawing parallels between the
two religions. For example, she equates Inshalla (God willing) with si Dios lo quiere (God
willing), a phrase commonly heard in Spain.

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ARTICLE 21 QUESTIONS
True or False?
F

1.

In Becoming Muslim in Europe, author Mikaela Rogozen-Soltar states that Spain


does not have one predominant religion; its citizens represent a wide variety of
religious beliefs, including significant percentages of Jews, Catholics, Protestants,
and Muslims.

2.

According to Rogozen-Soltar in Becoming Muslim in Europe, Islam is the worlds


fastest-growing religion, due in part to new births in existing Muslim societies and to
new Muslims who have converted.

3.

In Becoming Muslim in Europe, Rogozen-Soltar states that in order to convert to the


Muslim faith, would-be converts must enroll in religion classes and receive
official acceptance from religious authorities.

4.

According to Rogozen-Soltar in Becoming Muslim in Europe, due to the progressive


attitudes of many European countries, converts to Islam face few political or social
challenges.

5.

According to Rogozen-Soltar in Becoming Muslim in Europe, Spain was part of the


Muslim empire for 800 years and evidence of that history is seen in cities such as
Granada, buildings such as the Alhambra, and in Spanish cuisine, music, and dance.

6.

Because of the countrys history of Muslim identity, most Spaniards have little
difficulty understanding how their countrymen can be both Spanish and Muslim.

T. 7.

From 1939 to 1975, Francisco Franco enforced Catholicism as the national religion of
Spain.

Multiple Choice
1.

According to Rogozen-Soltar in Becoming Muslim in Europe, the Spanish Inquisition was


an effort to ensure a uniform religious and ethnic population in Spain. Over the course of
several hundred years, __________ were forced to convert, or be killed or exiled.
a. Catholics
b. Muslims and Jews
c. Catholics and Jews
d. Catholics and Muslims
Correct Answer: b

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2.

When the author first met Mara Martnez in 2006, she had married a Jordanian man and
a. planned to convert to Islam.
b. had given up wine, pork, and beer in preparation of converting to Islam.
c. had converted to Islam prior to marriage.
d. could not imagine a Spanish woman converting to Islam.
Answer: d

3.

When the author returned to Spain in 2008, Mara Martnez


a. had converted to Islam and was working with Muslims who were victims of religious
discrimination.
b. was still married but had retained her Catholic beliefs.
c. had divorced her husband due to religious differences.
d. still believed that an individual could not be both Spanish and Muslim.
Correct Answer: a

4.

As a result of the Spanish Inquisition and Francos enforcement of Catholicism as a


national religion, most Spaniards
a. believe it is easy to be both Muslim and Spanish.
b. embrace their fellow citizens who are exercising religious freedom by converting.
c. view Catholicism as integral to their national identity.
d. grow up in religiously diverse towns and cities, exposed to many other religions.
Correct Answer: c

5.

The five pillars of the Islamic faith include: the recitation of the __________, daily prayers,
fasting during __________, annual charitable giving, and pilgrimage to Mecca once
during the lifetime of those who are able.
a. Koran, Shahada
b. Shahada, Ramadan
c. Hijab, si Dios lo quiere
d. Inshallah, Shahada
Correct Answer: b

6.

Spaniards who convert to Islam


a. are required to legally change their status as a Spanish citizen to reflect this conversion.
b. face little discrimination and are accepted throughout the country.
c. endanger their social standing as recognized and respected members of Spanish society.
d. are welcomed with open arms by Muslims who have immigrated to Spain from Muslim
countries.
Correct Answer: c

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7.

After becoming a Muslim, Mara Martnez believed that the best way to fight popular
assumptions that Islam and Spanishness are diametrically opposed was to
a. remind Catholic and secular Spaniards about their countrys Muslim heritage.
b. write letters to the editors of local papers, demanding equal treatment for Muslims.
c. adopt traditional Muslim dress, including a hajib, whenever she went out.
d. try to convert as many Spaniards to Islam as possible.
Correct Answer: a

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Article 22
Mixed Blood

JEFFERSON M. FISH

Summary This article illustrates how the American concept of race is a cultural construction,
not a biological reality. Fish explains how there are no races among humans, because the concept
of race relates to individuals who mate but can bear no fertile offspring. Clearly, this is not true
of present-day humans. Human beings form a single species.
Our evident variations in physical appearance around the globe has occurred through the
processes of random mutation, natural selection, and genetic drift (accidental selection). Most
traits that Americans think of as racial, such as skin color, are adaptive to differences in
environmental conditions.
If races are not biologically distinguishable groups, what are they? They are what are known as
folk classifications of people based on culturally selected criteria. People everywhere classify
things in folk taxonomies, but classifications of the same things may vary from society to
society. For example, Americans classify avocados as vegetables and eat them in salads.
Brazilians classify avocados as fruits and eat them with lemon and sugar for dessert.
Although there are many ways in which people could classify each other, such as by body shape
for example, many Americans learn to group each other into races based primarily on skin
color (largely white, Asian, black, or Latino) and that these groups are rooted in
biological reality. Yet at the same time, there is a history of classifying people according to hypodescent, another social construction that is more about perceived ancestry. Many Americans still
tend to rank races; white is highest, followed by Asian, Hispanic (Latino), and black. Children
are allocated the racial classification of their lowest- (hypo) ranking parent. If your mother is
classified as black and your father white, you might still be classified as black no matter what
you look like.
This is in stark contrast to Brazilians, for example, who classify people into tipos (types) on the
basis of what they look like. Examples include loura (completely blond), preta (dark skin,
broader nose), sarar (tight curly blond or red hair, blue eyes, broad nose, and thick lips), and
cabo verde (straight black hair, dark skin, brown eyes, narrow nose, and thin lips). The children
of a Brazilian couple could be classified into different tipos if each child looks different.
The American conception of race is beginning to change as more people of different races
intermarry and immigrants whose racial identities are difficult to classify by the American
system enter the country. Other is a fast-growing category of racial identity.

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ARTICLE 22 QUESTIONS
True or False?
T

1.

In his article, Mixed Blood, Jefferson M. Fish argues that the American concept of
race is culturally constructed, not a biological reality.

2.

According to Fish in Mixed Blood, human beings cannot be classified into races on
the basis of physical characteristics because there is so little variation within the human
species.

3.

According to Fish in Mixed Blood, an avocado is classified by Brazilians as a fruit


and by North Americans as a vegetable.

4.

According to Fish in Mixed Blood, North Americans fail in their attempt to classify
people into races because they ignore important physical differences such as body shape
(rounded and lanky, for example).

5.

According to Fish in Mixed Blood, Brazilians classify people into tipos such as loura,
branca, morena, mulata, and preta on the basis of how they look.

6.

In Mixed Blood, Fish argues that scientists, such as psychologists, use the concept of
hypo-descent to choose the physical characteristics that determine biological races.

Multiple Choice
1.

According to Fish in Mixed Blood, the American conception of race


a. is based on what body shapes people have.
b. is based on the racial identity of ones parents.
c. ignores the principle of hypo-descent.
d. is based on biological reality.
Correct Answer: b

2.

According to Fish in Mixed Blood, the striking contrast between the very tall Masai and
the stature of the very short Pygmies, both of Africa, is representative of
a. race.
b. folk taxonomy.
c. hypo-descent.
d. human biological variety.
Correct Answer: d

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3.

In Mixed Blood, Fish argues that human biological races do not exist because
a. people from anywhere on the planet can mate with others from anywhere else and
produce fertile offspring.
b. scientists have ignored important physical traits such as body shape.
c. people find it politically incorrect to name them.
d. the real traits that indicate genetic groupings cannot be observed.
Correct Answer: a

4.

According to Fish in Mixed Blood, his daughter can change her race by flying from New
York to Brazil. She can do this because
a. Brazilians dont know what her North American racial classification is.
b. Brazilians have a different set of racial categories than do North Americans.
c. she can claim to be any race she wants; there are no such things as biological races.
d. although she is classed as white in the United States, she can become loura, preta, or
tipo in Brazil.
Correct Answer: b

5.

According to Fish in Mixed Blood, the terms moreno, loura, branca, and preta all refer to
a. areas of Brazil after which groups of people are named.
b. Brazilian names for different tipos (types).
c. areas of Brazil from which particular tipos are thought to have originated.
d. a folk taxonomy of skin colors starting with black and ending with white.
Correct Answer: b

6.

According to Fish in Mixed Blood, an avocado is classed as a


and a ____
in Brazil.
a. fruit, seed
b. seed, nut
c. vegetable, nut
d. vegetable, fruit
Correct Answer: d

in the United States

7. According to Fish in Mixed Blood, an increase in immigration has caused the most rapidly
growing census category, which is now
a. other.
b. black.
c. Asian.
d. Native American.
Correct Answer: a

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Article 23
Motorcycles, Membership, and Belonging

DAVID W. McCURDY

Summary
In his article entitled Motorcycles, Membership, and Belonging, David
McCurdy discusses the ways humans form groups, identifying the more common ways for
Americans and drawing a comparison between the traditional kinship group in rural India and the
more American method of social aggregation based on shared interests. Indian families would be
surprised, McCurdy suggests, to see how American families live in comparison to their own
existence in large, close-knit groups of extended families. Americans grow up in small nuclear
families, often with parents out working. Neighbors are often strangers, and people can appear
lonely. American society values individualism, independence, and competition.
However, McCurdy believes that Americans find satisfying social connections not from families
and neighbors, but instead from other groups: networks of friends from local taverns, work
organizations, and civic groups. He contends that these groups, as well as those formed around
shared interests, provide members with a sense of self-worth and a safe place to express their
social needs.
To illustrate his argument, McCurdy describes the Gold Wing Recreational Rider Association
(GWRRA), a group formed in 1976 by seven couples in Phoenix, Arizona, who owned Honda
Gold Wing motorcycles and wanted to connect with others for the purposes of touring. Since
then, this group has grown to include more than 70,000 members in the United States, Canada,
and 10 other countries. It boasts a paid staff, an army of volunteers, 10 deputy directors, nine
American and three Canadian regional directors, 49 district directors, and 586 chapter directors.
It has an annual rally called the Wing Ding that draws over 10,000 participants. Local chapters
gather for a variety of events, including monthly meetings, weekly rides, and fund-raisers.
McCurdy argues that the core values of this organization reflect the values and symbolism of
kinship groups and offer participants a framework of belonging and opportunities to express
themselves. Participation in the GWRRA brings with it a certain expectation of behavior.
Members show off their motorcycles, and are expected to have pride in their machines, cleaning
and adorning them with chrome and other accents. Participation is encouraged and rewarded by
pins and patches. Safety is of utmost importance, and members are discouraged from showing
off, driving after drinking, and riding aggressively. Additionally, couples are a valued part of the
group, and members are strongly encouraged to participate and tour with the group, despite the
physical challenges of motorcycle riding.
McCurdy concludes that belonging to a group of individuals who share an interest provides
Americans with a feeling of belonging that many do not find at home or work. It offers the
opportunity for personal recognition, a sense of self-worth, and a way to express themselves. For
many, McCurdy argues, this organized group provides what he calls a non-family home.

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ARTICLE 23 QUESTIONS
True or False?
F 1.

According to McCurdy in Motorcycles, Membership, and Belonging, children in the


United States are more likely to grow up in extended families and close-knit
communities, where loyalty to family is the most important value instilled in them from
a young age.

T 2.

According to McCurdy in Motorcycles, Membership, and Belonging, it is not


uncommon for individuals in the United States to live in close proximity to neighbors
they do not know and to guard their privacy, thus appearing lonely and preoccupied.

F 3.

In Motorcycles, Membership, and Belonging, McCurdy argues that individuals in


Indian society have turned to personal networks outside of their family, including
groups of people from local taverns, civic organizations, and special interests, for
satisfying social connections.

T 4.

According to McCurdy in Motorcycles, Membership, and Belonging, interest groups


such as the Gold Wing Road Riders Association (GWRRA) provide members with a
feeling of shared interest, sense of achievement, and self-worth that they may lack in
other aspects of their lives.

F 5.

Although designed for comfort and touring, the Gold Wing motorcycle, introduced by
Honda in 1965, was quickly adopted by sports-minded riders.

T 6.

The Gold Wing Road Riders Association was formed in 1976 by seven couples who
lived in Phoenix, Arizona.

Multiple Choice
1. Prior to the 1950s, motorcycle riding had what many perceived as an image; that it was
suitable for
a. average Americans.
b. women only.
c. outlaws.
d. couples.
Correct Answer: c

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2. According to McCurdy in Motorcycles, Membership, and Belonging, the official magazine


of the GWRRA that reaches over 70,000 members is called
a. Wing World.
b. Wing Nut.
c. Gold Wing Riders Monthly.
d. Wing Ding.
Answer: a
3. In Motorcycles, Membership, and Belonging, McCurdy argues that Honda company
employees take on the role of __________ as they ride along with Wingers as participant
observers, gaining insight on how to improve and redesign their motorcycles to meet riders
needs.
a. detached observer
b. ethnographers
c. respondents
d. reporters
Answer: b
4. According to McCurdy in Motorcycles, Membership, and Belonging, because the
GWRRA is organized around couples and not individuals, the GWRRA has unintentionally
a. diminished the role of women within the organization; women hold very few positions of
authority and make up a minority at all organized events.
b. offended women, causing them to form their own Gold Wing riding association.
c. created an important role for women in the organization; women hold high-level
positions and make up a majority of volunteers at rallies and fund-raisers.
d. largely ignored women who ride motorcycles in the United States and Canada.
Answer: c
5. According to McCurdy in Motorcycles, Membership, and Belonging, the GWRRA offers
the same opportunities for __________ that can still be found in rural Indian extended
families and close-knit communities today.
a. belonging and loyalty
b. individualism
c. competition
d. privacy and independence
Answer: a

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PART 7
LAW AND POLITICS
The introduction to Part 7 includes a discussion of basic concepts associated with the
anthropology of law and politics.
KEY DEFINITIONS
An infralegal dispute is one that is settled outside of a legal system and does not involve
violence.
An extralegal dispute is one that occurs outside the law and escalates into violence.
A legal system is a socially approved mechanism or system of how disputes and disagreements
are handled by those given the authority to do so.
Law is the cultural knowledge that people use to settle disputes by means of agents who have
recognized authority to do so.
Contests require physical or mental combat between disputants in order to settle disputes.
Self-redress is a legal process of dispute settlement where the disputants settle matters
themselves.
A go-between is a trusted third party who is given the right to negotiate the resolution of a
dispute.
An ordeal is a dispute resolution process that requires a disputant to take a powerful oath or
submit to a (usually painful) test.
A moot is an informal community meeting with the right to settle disputes. Conflicts are aired
until a settlement is reached.
A court is a formal organization with the right to settle disputes and enforce its decisions.
The political system is the process of making and carrying out public policy according to
cultural categories and rules.
Policy refers to guidelines for action.
The public refers to the group of people affected by policy.

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Support is anything that contributes to the adoption and enforcement of public policy.
Legitimacy is a kind of support based on peoples positive evaluation of public policy or public
officials.
Coercion is support derived from a threat or use of force, or the promise of short-term gain.
Authority is the right to make and enforce public policy.
Leadership is the ability to influence others to act.
Contest is a method of resolving disputes involving physical or mental combat.
Patrimonial authority is a form of government that is more or less a direct extension of the
noble household, in which officials originate as household servants and remain personal
dependents of the ruler.
PART 7 QUESTIONS
True or False?
T

1.

Any guidelines that can lead directly to action are called policy.

2.

A leader is a person who obtains power through authority.

3.

If a dictator makes people adhere to his policies by using force, his actions would fall
under the definition of support.

4.

The process of making and carrying out public policy according to cultural categories
and rules is called the political system.

5.

When the members of a society permit two people to settle a dispute by fighting each
other, we call their action self-redress and classify it as part of the legal system.

6.

The primary means of gaining conformity and order from individual members of a
society is through enculturation.

7.

A feud is a good example of a kind of support called coercion.

8.

According to anthropologists, all human disputes are dealt with by legal systems, not
just ones that go to a formal court.

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Multiple Choice
1. The cultural knowledge that people use to settle disputes by means of agents who have
recognized authority is called
a. law.
b. politics.
c. a court.
d. self-redress.
Correct Answer: a
2.

A dispute that is below the level of the legal process and without violence is
a. a legal dispute.
b. an extralegal dispute.
c. an infralegal dispute.
d. a feud.
Correct Answer: c

3.

A feud is an example of
a. coercion.
b. a legal dispute.
c. an infralegal dispute.
d. an extralegal dispute.
Correct Answer: d

4.

When disputes are settled through a community meeting that provides for an informal airing
of the conflict, we term this kind of settlement process
a. an ordeal.
b. a court.
c. a moot.
d. a contest.
Correct Answer: c

5.

The right to make and enforce public policy is called


a. coercion.
b. authority.
c. legitimacy.
d. leadership.
Correct Answer: b

6.

The people whom a policy will affect are called the


a. public.
b. faction.
c. tribe.
d. band.
Correct Answer: a
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7.

Anything that contributes to the adoption of public policy and its enforcement is called
a. authority.
b. coercion.
c. legitimacy.
d. support.
Correct Answer: d

8.

When people feel that a policy is wrong, but accept it because they value the government
that makes the policy, they are giving a kind of support called
a. legitimacy.
b. coercion.
c. authority.
d. leadership.
Correct Answer: a

9.

Among some Indian cultures, a(n) __________ is described as a supernaturally controlled,


painful, or physically dangerous test that is used to settle a dispute.
a. moot
b. go-between
c. self-redress
d. ordeal
Correct Answer: d

10. The process of making and carrying out public policy through the use of culturally defined
categories and rules is called
a. the political system.
b. legitimacy.
c. coercion.
d. authority.
Correct Answer: a

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Article 24
Cross-Cultural Law:
The Case of an American Gypsy

ANNE SUTHERLAND

Summary This article by Anne Sutherland looks at what happens when members of one culture
live under the legal jurisdiction of another. The article describes the case of a young Gypsy man
accused of using someone elses Social Security number, and the role played by an
anthropologist in his court defense.
The young Gypsy male used the Social Security number of a five-year-old nephew to apply for a
car loan. Gypsies believe that their vitsa (clan) has rights over property such as names and Social
Security numbers, and that vitsa members can share in these things. Although he had no
intention of stealing the car or defrauding anyone, the man was charged under a law that makes it
a felony to use someone elses Social Security number. The police also concluded that he was
part of a car theft ring.
Sutherland became involved in the case as an expert witness for the defense. Her first act was to
discover whether the young man was a Gypsy and what his name was. Gypsies take on many
American names, which they change often. Their identities are more typically associated with
their vitsa, or clan, and a larger grouping of clans called a natsia. During the trial she testified
that the young man had no intention of defrauding or stealing from anyone. She noted that it was
usual for members of vitsas to share American names, Social Security numbers, and other marks
of identity. Despite her testimony, however, the defendant was convicted.
Sutherland concludes her article with three points. First, Gypsies, who are a nomadic group, do
not stress individual identities, which are so important to settled Americans. For hundreds of
years the people and governments of the countries in which they live have persecuted Gypsies.
She cites ample evidence that American police also consider them a criminal society. Hiding
their identities has been their response to this persecution. Second, Gypsies suffer in jail to an
unusual extent because they believe they are polluted there. Gypsies avoid long contact with
non-Gypsies and their food because the latter pollute (marime) them. Their own relatives shun
them if this happens, and they must go through a period of purification before reintegration into
their own society. Third, there is a clash between the Gypsy view of membership in a corporate
kin group and the usual American view of individual rights.
ARTICLE 24 QUESTIONS
True or False?
T

1.

In The Case of an American Gypsy, Anne Sutherland describes a legal case in which
a 19-year-old Gypsy man was convicted of using someone elses Social Security
number, despite the fact that he had no intention of defrauding anyone.

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2.

According to Sutherland in The Case of an American Gypsy, Gypsies frequently take


one anothers Social Security numbers in order to hide their identities.

3.

In The Case of an American Gypsy, Sutherland describes a case in which a young


Gypsy man was accused of fraud by police in St. Paul, Minnesota.

4.

According to Sutherland in The Case of an American Gypsy, the largest group to


which Gypsies belong is called the vitsa.

5.

In The Case of an American Gypsy, Sutherland argues that Gypsies hide their
personal identities as a way to combat persecution by members of the societies in which
they live.

6.

In The Case of an American Gypsy, Sutherland notes that the young Gypsy man she
helped to defend in court refused to eat jail food, as a protest for not being allowed to
call his relatives.

Multiple Choice
1.

According to Sutherland in The Case of an American Gypsy, a young Gypsy man was
indicted by the government for
a. hiding his identity from authorities.
b. stealing cars.
c. using a relatives Social Security number.
d. lying to authorities about his real American name.
Correct Answer: c

2.

in The Case of an American Gypsy, Sutherland notes that the lawyer defending a young
Gypsy man of using a relatives Social Security number argued in court that
a. the Gypsy had not intended to commit a crime when he used the number.
b. the Gypsy used the number because of a fear of pollution (marime) from non-Gypsies.
c. Gypsies did not traditionally use Social Security, so Social Security numbers had no
importance to them.
d. many Gypsies are undocumented due to the broken immigration system.
Correct Answer: a

3.

According to Sutherland in The Case of an American Gypsy, Gypsies treat Social Security
numbers as
a. unimportant, because they do not use Social Security.
b. corporate property of their kin group, the vitsa.
c. a way to defraud banks so that they can get illegal loans.
d. a source of prestige, because they believe higher numbers bring greater success.
Correct Answer: b

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4.

In The Case of an American Gypsy, Sutherland reports that for Gypsies, going to jail
a. often provides needed time to recover from alcoholism.
b. helps them learn English and skills that facilitate getting real jobs in American society.
c. is welcomed because they finally get enough to eat there.
d. is an especially cruel punishment because it separates them from their kin.
Correct Answer: d

5.

The case of the Gypsy defendant described by Sutherland in The Case of an American
Gypsy represents a good illustration of what happens when
a. a foreign people takes advantage of a lenient judicial system.
b. greedy lawyers misrepresent their non-American clients.
c. anthropological testimony is misused in court.
d. a normal practice for one group is a crime for another.
Correct Answer: d

6.

According to Sutherland in The Case of an American Gypsy, Gypsies find which of the
following things polluting (marime)?
a. relatives from other vitsas
b. non-Gypsies
c. Social Security benefits
d. driving cars
Correct Answer: b

7.

According to Sutherland in The Case of an American Gypsy, officials in the American


justice system often
a. view Gypsies as a criminal society.
b. trump up evidence against Gypsies.
c. deny Gypsy defendants their rights while they are in jail.
d. get extensive training in Gypsy culture.
Correct Answer: a

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Article 25
Law and Order

JAMES P. SPRADLEY AND DAVID W. McCURDY

Summary In this article, Spradley and McCurdy present law in the context of dispute
resolution, using cases drawn from anthropologist Laura Naders work in Ralua, a Zapotec
Indian village located in southern Mexico.
The article deals with several concepts: the structure of legal culture, including substantive law
and procedural law, legal levels, legal principles, and cultural values. Substantive law consists
of the legal statutes that define right and wrong. This is illustrated by the flirtation of a married
man with an unmarried woman, which the Zapotec treat as a crime. Similarly, the case of a son
who harvested coffee from his fathers land without permission is also defined as a crime to be
dealt with by the communitys legal system.
Legal levels refer to the ways in which disputes are settled by different kinds of authority agents.
Among the Zapotec, several levels for settling disputes exist. Disputes can be settled by family
elders, witches, local officials, the priest, supernatural beings, or officials in the municipio. If all
else fails, the dispute can be taken to the district court in Villa Alta.
Procedural law refers to the agreed-upon ways to settle disputes, which are often unwritten,
and therefore implicit in nature. In Ralua, for example, it is generally agreed that one should
not take family disputes to court, and disputes between villagers (such as an argument over the
washing stone) should be taken to court only if they cannot be settled between the disputing
individuals beforehand. In this case, the dispute was settled when the presidente (village
chairman who also presides over the village court) and other elected village officials formed a
work force, improved the washing facilities at the well, and declared that washing stones would
no longer be owned by individuals.
Legal systems reflect legal principles and cultural values. Legal principles are based on the
fundamental values of a culture; a legal principle is a broad conception of some desirable state of
affairs that gives rise to many substantive and procedural rules. Americans put great emphasis on
establishing truth, while for the Zapotec, a major legal principle is to make the balance. This
means to encourage compromise and settlement so that disputes disappear and disputants get
along with each other in the future. This in turn is based on the Zapotec cultural value of
maintaining social equilibrium. A direct confrontation between individuals where one loses and
another wins is unsettling to community members.

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ARTICLE 25 QUESTIONS
True or False?
F.

In the article Law and Order Spradley and McCurdy argue that a key to maintaining
order in the tightly knit Zapotec community of Ralua is the strict application of law and
punishment by village officials.

2. According to Spradley and McCurdy in Law and Order, substantive law is codified in
writing in literate societies. In non-literate societies, people define what a crime is by
using procedural law.

3. According to Spradley and McCurdy in Law and Order, there is no substantive law
that prohibits a man from beating his wife in the Zapotec village of Ralua.

4. According to Spradley and McCurdy in Law and Order, a legal principle for the
people who live in Ralua is "hacer el balance"to make the balance.

5. According to Spradley and McCurdy in Law and Order, a legal principle is defined as
an agreed-upon way to settle a dispute.

6.

According to Spradley and McCurdy in Law and Order, in the Zapotec village of
Ralua, frightening someone so that they come down with susto or magical fright, is a
crime.

7.

According to Spradley and McCurdy in Law and Order, the system of legal levels in
the Zapotec village of Ralua means that disputes can only be settled by the presidente
or principales.

Multiple Choice
1.

According to Spradley and McCurdy in Law and Order, in the Zapotec village of Ralua
two casesa flirtation of a married man and a son who took coffee from his father without
permissionillustrate
a. substantive law.
b. procedural law.
c. a legal principle.
d. infralegal law.
Correct Answer: a

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2.

According to Spradley and McCurdy in Law and Order, the agreed upon way to settle
disputes is called
a. courts.
b. legal principles.
c. procedural law.
d. substantive law.
Correct Answer: c

3.

In Law and Order, Spradley and McCurdy argue that the legal statutes that define right
and wrong are
a. legal rules.
b. substantive law.
c. procedural law.
d. legal levels.
Correct Answer: b

4.

According to Spradley and McCurdy in Law and Order, the rule in Ralua that principales
and their families should not use the court to settle family disputes is an example of
a. self-redress.
b. legal levels.
c. legal structure.
d. procedural law.
Correct Answer: d

5.

As reported by Spradley and McCurdy in Law and Order, anthropologist Laura Nader
feels that in Ralua, there is a strong value on_________, which underlies the communitys
substantive and procedural law.
a. private property
b. religious piety
c. personal success
d. maintaining equilibrium
Correct Answer: d

6. According to Spradley and McCurdy in Law and Order, toward the end of her stay in
Ralua, anthropologist Laura Nader made the balance, by
a. convincing the priest that she was not a protestant.
b. working as a mayoral in the court.
c. donating a barrel of mescal at a fiesta.
d. giving gifts to the presidente and other town officials.
Correct Answer: c

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Article 26
Navigating Nigerian Bureaucracies

ELIZABETH A. EAMES

Summary In this article, Elizabeth A. Eames describes her experiences in Nigeria both from the
perspective of an anthropologist and as an individual raised in the U.S. bureaucratic system. She
shares the lessons she learned as she tried to decipher the rules of proper behavior, and concludes
with a discussion of Max Webers concept of patrimonial authority.
Eames experiences and frustrations with the Nigerian social system stemmed in part from her
American-ness, her belief in equal and efficient treatment for all. Much to her surprise, the
social system in Nigeria operated on different principles: in Nigeria, rights are negotiable,
bribery is a legitimate way of doing business, and power comes from being in a position to grant
favors to others.
The authors introduction to the intricacies of Nigerian society and how much it depends on
interpersonal relations began before she ever set foot on Nigerian soil: a personal connection
rescued her visa from the maze of paperwork at the New York consulate. At the time she had no
idea how important the currency of favors and gratitude was to the social system, but quickly
came to understand that these, along with hospitality and strong greeting skills, were the only
way to accomplish anything in the patrimonial bureaucracy that operates in Nigeria today.
Seemingly simple undertakings, such as getting immigration forms signed, registering as a
graduate student, and extending her visatasks that were typically routine, impersonal, and
efficient in a legally dominated bureaucracy such as in the United Stateswere time-consuming,
confusing, and nowhere near routine. For some of these tasks, the simple act of describing the
problem led from one contact to another, and eventually a resolution presented itself. As her
network of contacts grew, so did her ability to get things done. Eames also learned the hard way
that not allowing acquaintances to assist her had significant consequences; it was seen as a
betrayal or a denial of a relationship. Everything in Nigeria, the author came to understand, was
personal.
The author describes Max Webers ideals of legal and patrimonial domination, and articulates
the six principles of patrimonial administration that Weber believed would eventually be
replaced by bureaucracy. Eames disputes this claim. Because an individuals understanding of
hierarchy is based on the relationship of infant and caretaker, Eames believes this creates a
psychological need for personalized treatment when interacting with authority figures. This
tendency causes individualseven in legal bureaucraciesto hope for personal treatment and
resent impersonal, cold interactions.

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ARTICLE 26 QUESTIONS
True or False?
F

1.

According to Elizabeth Eames in Negotiating Nigerian Bureaucracies, Nigerian


bureaucracies, like those in the west, are organized on the principle Max Weber
called legal domination.

2. According to Eames in Negotiating Nigerian Bureaucracies, patrimonial authority is


one that is organized as an extension of a noble household, where officials act as
household servants and are dependents of the ruler.

3.

Some of the most important aspects of a patrimonial authority are the speed and
precision with which it operates and the lack of personalized relationships and irrational
considerations that it incorporates.

4.

In Nigerian society, the term begging refers to the act of asking strangers for money or
food.

5.

In slash-and-burn agriculture, small pieces of land are cultivated for a few years until
the soil is no longer fertile; then the piece of land is abandoned.

6.

Dash and Long-Leg are Nigerian terms that refer to types of runners.

7.

In Nigerian society, a personal relationship is required to begin a business transaction.

Multiple Choice
1.

The famous American saying Its not what you know, its who you know best describes
the primary dynamic of
a. the legal bureaucracy of the United States.
b. the civil service system of the Han Dynasty in China.
c. the patrimonial authority of Nigerian society.
d. the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom.
Correct Answer: c

2.

In Nigeria, power and authority derive from


a. ownership of landed property.
b. the ability to grant favors to loyal dependents.
c. a persons wealth.
d. a persons social class.
Correct Answer: b
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3.

According to Eames in in Negotiating Nigerian Bureaucracies, bribery


a. terminates a personal relationship.
b. can lead to arrest in Nigerian society.
c. initiates a personal relationship.
d. is very uncommon in Nigerian bureaucracy.
Correct Answer: c

4.

When Eames was finally able to obtain her visa, it came through due to
a. a Nigerian custom called dash.
b. intervention by the American consulate.
c. intervention by the Nigerian government.
d. a Nigerian custom known as Long-Leg.
Correct Answer: d

5.

Eames attempt to become a registered occasional postgraduate student while in Nigeria


was symbolic of the patrimonial bureaucracy there, because
a. the author was able to visit the required offices and complete the process in under an
hour.
b. nothing about registering was routine; everything was personalized and no one could
tell her how to go about registering.
c. registering was an impersonal, clearly defined process that was simple to complete.
d. it required the intervention of the American government.
Correct Answer: b

6.

In the Western system of legal domination, an officials authority is based on


a. a given office, not the person who holds that office.
b. a combination of tradition and arbitrary decisions by the individual in charge.
c. who the officeholder knows in power above him or her.
d. how many individuals are indebted to him or her for past favors.
Correct Answer: a

7.

According to Eames in in Negotiating Nigerian Bureaucracies, patrimonial practices


similar to those found in Nigerian society do occur in the United States. The use of such
practices
a. occurs solely in the political arena.
b. is considered an illegitimate way to conduct business.
c. cannot coexist within a system of bureaucratically organized, legal domination.
d. is considered a legitimate way to conduct business.
Correct Answer: b

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Article 27
Illegal Economies and the Untold Story of the Amputees
CAROLYN NORDSTROM
Summary
Supporters of the use of land mines argue that they deter soldiers and protect
sensitive areas during combat. Statistics show, however, that those most commonly injured by
land mines are not soldiers, but instead children, women, and men engaged in nonmilitary
activities. These mines leave their victims without limbs, often unable to walk, work, or eke out
an existence in a part of the world where wheelchairs are nonexistent and life is incredibly hard,
even for a healthy individual.
The women of Muleque, Angola, who were injured by these land mines, at first developed
informal economies in order to simply survive. But as Nordstrom points out, they wanted more
than to merely exist. They formed their own informal banking systems, popular in Southern
Africa, and with just a few pennies, managed to raise money to invest in farmland. Joining an
informal bank group, according to Nordstrom, is the first step on the path that women follow out
of poverty and into development. There are many steps, and the process is difficult. Women start
with nothing; hard labor is the only way to raise the small amount needed to even join an
informal bank group.
According to Nordstroms research, women are the invisible center of gravity of society in
Southern Africa. A mans presence is fluid; a woman is always there. She makes the connections
that create family, society, and community networks. Without the women, according to the
author, families and societies collapse. With the women at the center, families succeed, and
health, education, and trade result. The author notes that is interesting that the womens efforts
and their contributions to development go unnoticed. According to figures from the United
Nations, these informal economies contribute $250 billion annually in imports, and this money
goes directly into the development of the country. Yet these women continue to be depicted by
non-governmental organizations (NGOs) as stereotypical victims barely surviving by selling
bananas and charcoal.

ARTICLE 27 QUESTIONS
True or False?
T

1.

In Illegal Economies and the Untold Story of Amputees, Carolyn Nordstrom argues
that an informal economyone that is not taxed or monitored by the governmentis
considered an extralegal network.

2.

According to Nordstrom in Illegal Economies and the Untold Story of Amputees,


land mines successfully deter soldiers and protect sensitive sites.

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3.

According to Nordstrom in Illegal Economies and the Untold Story of Amputees,


individuals in Muleque, Angola, who have been injured by land mines are provided
with wheelchairs and prosthetics to make it easier for them to get around.

4.

In Illegal Economies and the Untold Story of Amputees, Nordstrom notes that the
women in Muleque continued to clear farmland, plant crops, build shelters, and create
barter systems even after being disfigured or disabled by land mines.

5.

According to Nordstrom in Illegal Economies and the Untold Story of Amputees, the
Muleque women and other women in southern Africa often create their own self-run,
informal banking systems.

6.

According to Nordstrom in Illegal Economies and the Untold Story of Amputees, the
Muleque woman had friends in government, as well as in the mining and transport
industries, who regularly took their wares on flights or trucks going across the country.

7.

In Nordstroms article Illegal Economies and the Untold Story of Amputees, the local
coordinator for an NGO working with the amputees felt that taking the goods made by
the Muleque women on an official NGO flight was an improper use of the NGOs
equipment.

Multiple Choice
1.

In Illegal Economies and the Untold Story of Amputees, Nordstrom illustrates that the
self-run, informal banking system that the women of Muleque developed was
a. based on stability, trust, and allegiance.
b. regulated to ensure that a woman did not receive all of the money and then immediately
leave the group.
c. taxed and monitored by the government.
d. unsuccessful in providing women with proceeds to invest in farming or other items.
Correct Answer: a

2.

According to Nordstrom in Illegal Economies and the Untold Story of Amputees, the
efforts of the amputee women to group together, form banking systems, and move from
local subsistence to international profitmaking
a. were a haphazard reaction to their circumstances.
b. were part of a carefully crafted plan of development.
c. brought significantly less money into the country than unauthorized diamond mining.
d. were not central to the economy of the country.
Correct Answer: b

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3.

According to Nordstrom in Illegal Economies and the Untold Story of Amputees, the
United Nations worker equated __________ to the invisible center of gravity of the society.
a. women
b. men
c. informal economies
d. information banking systems
Correct Answer: a

4.

According to Nordstrom in Illegal Economies and the Untold Story of Amputees, the first
step in the informal economy formed by marginalized women in Muleque is
a. making products to sell at a small marketplace.
b. investment in a womans informal bank.
c. hard labor.
d. begging.
Correct Answer: c

5.

According to Nordstrom in Illegal Economies and the Untold Story of Amputees, when a
woman receives the entire banking pot in her informal banking group, she often will use the
money to
a. purchase a boutique and set up a formal business.
b. build a decent home to live in.
c. buy a car and hire a driver.
d. invest in a small piece of farmland to grow and harvest crops to sell.
Correct Answer: d

6.

In Illegal Economies and the Untold Story of Amputees, Nordstrom observes that the
earnings, networks, and contributions to development by the amputees and other women in
Africa
a. do not contribute as much to the economy as the amount earned in unauthorized
diamond mining.
b. rival the entire gross domestic products (GDPs) of the countries of this region of the
world.
c. pale in comparison to the GDPs of countries in this region of the world.
d. do not rise to the level of the $1 billion a year lost from oil profits.
Correct Answer: b

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PART 8
RELIGION, MAGIC, AND WORLDVIEW
The introduction to Part 8 presents the reader with a number of concepts related to religious
belief, action, and structure.
KEY DEFINITIONS
Religion is the cultural knowledge of the supernatural that people use to cope with the ultimate
problems of human existence.
Supernatural refers to the realm beyond peoples normal experience.
Ultimate problems include lifes meaning, death, evil, and transcendent values.
Transcendent values are values that override peoples individual goals and desires.
Personified supernatural force is supernatural power that resides in supernatural beings, such
as deities, ghosts, and other kinds of spirits.
Mana is impersonal, supernatural force that is free-floating and capable of inhabiting many
different things.
Magic refers to the strategies that people use to control supernatural force to gain a desired end.
Sorcery is the malevolent use of magic.
Witchcraft labels the activities of people who possess, often without knowing it, supernatural
power that is used for evil purposes.
A prayer is a petition directed at a supernatural being.
Sacrifice refers to the act of giving up something valuable to influence supernatural beings.
Spirit possession occurs when a supernatural being enters an individual and controls that
persons behavior.
Divination is the use of supernatural force associated with material objects to provide answers to
particular questions.
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Shamans are religious specialists who are believed to control supernatural power.
Priests are religious specialists who mediate between people and the supernatural.
Worldview refers to a system of concepts and often unstated assumptions about life. It often
contains a cosmology and mythology.
Cosmology refers to the cultural views about the nature of the world.
Mythology refers to the cultural views about how the world came to be the way it is.
Revitalization movements refer, in the words of A. F. C. Wallace, to deliberate, organized,
conscious efforts by members of a society to construct a more satisfying culture.
PART 8 QUESTIONS
True or False?
T

1.

Religion helps people cope with ultimate problems of their existence such as the
meaning of life, death, evil, and transcendent values.

2.

The term supernatural labels peoples irrational beliefs about power in inanimate
objects.

3.

If a religious specialist were to use a powerful saying to cure a sick individual,


anthropologists would label him or her a shaman.

4.

If a person uses a powerful spell to hurt another individual, anthropologists would label
him or her a witch.

5.

If a person believes that some rocks lying in a yam field contribute to the rapid growth
of the plants, we might suspect a belief in mana.

6.

Stories about how the world came to be are called cosmology.

Multiple Choice
1.

The cultural knowledge of the supernatural that people use to cope with the ultimate
problems of human existence is called
a. personified supernatural power.
b. mana.
c. transcendental values.
d. religion.
Correct Answer: d
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2.

Folk concepts of ghosts, spirits, ancestral beings, and gods are, according to most
anthropologists, signs of belief in
a. the supernatural.
b. taboo.
c. magic.
d. impersonal supernatural force.
Correct Answer: a

3.

In some societies, people believe that some individuals are born with supernatural force that
they consciously or unconsciously use to cause harm. Anthropologists classify these
supposed activities as
a. magic.
b. sorcery.
c. witchcraft.
d. alchemy.
Correct Answer: c

4.

When people use well-defined procedures to control and manipulate supernatural forces in
order to gain some end, they are practicing
a. prayer.
b. magic.
c. witchcraft.
d. taboo.
Correct Answer: b

5.

Religious specialists who mediate between people and the supernatural are called
a. witches.
b. shamans.
c. diviners.
d. priests.
Correct Answer: d

6.

When a religious specialist reads the cracks in the burned scapula (shoulder blade) of a
sheep to predict future events, the act would be called
a. divination.
b. sorcery.
c. magic.
d. witchcraft.
Correct Answer: a

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7.

Religious specialists who control supernatural power are called


a. priests.
b. diviners.
c. shamans.
d. witch doctors.
Correct Answer: c

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Article 28
The Worst Lover: Boyfriend Spirits in Senegal

RACHEL MUELLER

Summary This article by Rachel Mueller details the unique coexistence and cooperation in
modern Senegal of the Sufi sect of Islam, and Lbou, a religious cult that attributes inexplicable
behavior, health issues, and adversity to troublesome spirits (rab) who intentionally interact and
sometimes possess girls and women.
According to Mueller, Senegal is a growing, cosmopolitan country filled with history and a
tradition of great hospitality, or terenga. By all appearancesprayer mats in office buildings,
posters and photos of Islamic holy men in the cities taxis, and people in prayer five times a
daySenegal, and in particular, Dakar, is filled with people who practice Islam. Sprinkled
among the followers of Muhammad are individuals who adhere to a religious tradition that
involves invisible spirits roaming the earth and interacting with humans, sometimes in an
unpleasant and troublesome manner.
Mueller details the reasons these spirits are unhappy, and relates tales of their efforts to possess
young women who are beautiful and well dressed. Women and girls are encouraged to cover
their knees in public (these are a particular weakness of the faru rab, the boyfriend spirits who
possess and preoccupy girls and women) and dress conservatively, even while sleeping. Islam
and Lbou intersect at times, namely when Islamic holy men are called upon to communicate
with the spirits who bother women. Significantly, however, female healers and priestesses
(called an ndeppkat) also play an important role in liaising with the spirit world. Both the
Islamic holy men and the ndeppkat, Mueller explains, learn about the rab and determine what
can be done to discourage or drive him away. The remedies may include bathing in holy water,
making animal sacrifices, and dressing in a color unpleasant to the rab. Unfortunately, these
efforts do not always work, and an elaborate ritual called an ndepp may be necessary to exorcise
the rab entirely.
Mueller elaborates on the intersection of Islam and Lbou, as well as the effect that
modernization, globalization, and the Internet might have on the future of the Lbou beliefs and
traditions. Although Senegalese with financial means now turn to Western doctors for solutions
to what they believe is rab spirit control, and some of the effects are cured, many continue to
turn to healers because the rab spirit world is so strongly engrained in the Lbou culture.

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ARTICLE 28 QUESTIONS
True or False?
T

1.

According to Rachel Mueller in The Worst Lover: Boyfriend Spirits in Senegal, the
more common religion in Senegal is the Sufi sect of Islam. However, it is not
uncommon for young women to be possessed by jealous and vindictive boyfriend
spirits called faru rab, who make women act crazy and take off all of their clothes.

2.

In The Worst Lover: Boyfriend Spirits in Senegal, Mueller notes that, in Lbou
religious tradition, the rab originally coexisted in harmony with humans, but
became angered by their practice of Islam.

3.

According to Mueller in The Worst Lover: Boyfriend Spirits in Senegal, the people of
the Lbou district of Dakar believe that faru rab have the power to, among other things,
prevent women from speaking, give them sexual dreams, and trigger infertility.

4.

According to Mueller in The Worst Lover: Boyfriend Spirits in Senegal, although


there are many different types of rab, Madge-juenne, is known to be the most vicious
and should be avoided at all costs.

Multiple Choice
1.

According to Mueller The Worst Lover: Boyfriend Spirits in Senegal, the traditional part
of Dakar boasts a Senegalese culture of terenga, which makes it difficult to
a. speak to anyone outside of your social class.
b. go anywhere without being invited to share a meal, even with complete strangers.
c. communicate in any language other than the native language of Wolof.
d. practice any religion other than Islam.
Correct Answer: b

According to Mueller The Worst Lover: Boyfriend Spirits in Senegal, originally rab were
invisible spirits that lived in harmony with the nomadic humans and made their homes in
trees. The nature of the relationship changed when
a. the humans angered the Madge-juenne, a grand rab, and she sent the faru rab to trouble
them.
b. modernization and globalization began to conflict with belief in spirits.
c. humans needed land to grow more crops and began cutting down trees.
d. the Senegalese fully embraced Islam and turned their backs on their traditional belief
systems.
Correct Answer: c

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3.

In The Worst Lover: Boyfriend Spirits in Senegal, Mueller notes that the Lbou recognize
several different kinds of rab; only the __________ are the type that attach themselves to
humans in a troublesome way.
a. Kumba Bang
b. Lumbay
c. Diop
d. Faru rab
Correct Answer: d

4.

According to Mueller in The Worst Lover: Boyfriend Spirits in Senegal, one of the most
common reasons a faru rab attaches itself to women or girls is because of their
a. beauty and style of dress.
b. sexually promiscuous behavior.
c. lack of terenga, or hospitality.
d. disrespectful treatment of their elders.
Correct Answer: a

5.

According to Mueller in The Worst Lover: Boyfriend Spirits in Senegal, if visiting a


marabou cannot rid a girl or woman of a troublesome rab, the next step is to
a. make a sacrifice of small animals.
b. take baths in holy water.
c. participate in an elaborate ritual called an ndepp.
d. dress conservatively while awake and while sleeping.
Correct Answer: c

6.

In The Worst Lover: Boyfriend Spirits in Senegal, Mueller explains that an ndepp is
a. a single day spent in prayer to Mohammad, led by local marabout.
b. a private ceremony for the family of the girl possessed.
c. a ritual that involves making a month-long pilgrimage to a holy site.
d. a large, public ceremony that lasts for several days and includes dancing, drumming,
and singing.
Correct Answer: d

7.

As Mueller observes in The Worst Lover: Boyfriend Spirits in Senegal, drumming is


an important and overpowering part of the ndepp. A drummer walks around the crowd,
interacting with the dancers, and playing a __________ with one stick and one hand.
a. tama
b. sabar
c. tam-tam
d. bakk
Answer: b

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Article 29
Baseball Magic

GEORGE GMELCH

Summary This updated selection by George Gmelch shows how Americans use magical ritual
to reduce the anxiety associated with uncertainty. Gmelch focuses on baseball players but cites
the work of Bronislaw Malinowski on magic in the Trobriand Islands, where islanders use magic
when braving dangerous marine trips. In both cases, so different at first glance, magic is used to
reduce anxiety and increase a sense of control.
Ritual in baseball involves those prescribed behaviors in which there is no connection between
the behavior (e.g., tapping home plate three times) and the desired end (e.g., getting a base hit).
Gmelch describes how ritual surrounds two of the three main activities associated with the
gamehitting and pitching. This is because both involve great uncertainty. Fielding, the other
main activity, is relatively error-free and therefore receives little magical attention.
Baseball players display most varieties of magic. They use personal magic, such as a regular cap
adjustment before each pitch. Fetishes are also used; these are charmsusually small objects
believed to embody supernatural power (luck) that can aid or protect the owner. Baseball fetishes
are sometimes lucky pennies. Magic practices also include special diets, special clothing, and a
host of other devices they feel are associated with successful play. They also observe taboos
(things that should not be done, and that can bring bad luck), including one against crossing bats.
At the root of such behavior is this notion: people associate things with each other that have no
functional relationship. If a pitcher eats pancakes for breakfast and wins a game that day, he may
continue to eat them each time he plays because the act is now associated with success on the
field. Citing research on rats and pigeons, Gmelch notes that once an association is established, it
only takes sporadic success to perpetuate the relationship. Gmelch concludes that although
baseball players do not attribute their acts to any special, supernatural power, they nonetheless
follow ritual practices carefully to influence luck and guard against failure.
ARTICLE 29 QUESTIONS
True or False?
F

1.

In Baseball Magic, George Gmelch argues that magic is most often associated with
fielding in American baseball.

2.

According to Gmelch in Baseball Magic, baseball players often include personal


rituals, taboos, and fetishes in their practice of magic.

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3.

Skinner explains magic as a response to uncertainty, an attempt to control the


unpredictable.

4.

According to Gmelch in Baseball Magic, magical ritual in baseball is most often


associated with hitting and pitching.

5.

In Baseball Magic, Gmelch observes that pitchers have the most control over the
outcome of what they do in baseball, and therefore use the least magic.

6.

In Baseball Magic, Gmelch quotes a theory by anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski


that argues for the association between magic and uncertainty.

Multiple Choice
1.

Magic, according to Malinowski, occurs in response to


a. anger.
b. frustration.
c. anxiety.
d. social pressure.
Correct Answer: c

2.

According to Gmelch in Baseball Magic, baseball players can least control


a. pitching and hitting.
b. hitting.
c. fielding.
d. arguing with the umpire.
Correct Answer: a

3.

According to Skinner, as noted by Gmelch in Baseball Magic, magic once established


requires
to be maintained.
a. regular rewards
b. sporadic rewards
c. formal instruction
d. uncertainty
Correct Answer: b

4.

During one season when Gmelch was playing baseball, he refrained from eating pancakes.
This is an example of what anthropologists call
a. a taboo.
b. mana.
c. charms.
d. a ritual.
Correct Answer: a

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5.

Gmelch notes in Baseball Magic that fetishes are often associated with baseball magic.
These are
a. things to be avoided.
b. repetitive actions.
c. lucky charms.
d. sayings.
Correct Answer: c

6.

A magical practice in baseball that is culturally learned rather than personal is


a. the wearing of the lucky number 77.
b. wearing a pair of shoes that bring luck.
c. tugging the hat before each pitch.
d. mentioning a no-hitter while the game is in progress.
Correct Answer: d

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Article 30
Run for the Wall: An American Pilgrimage

JILL DUBISCH

Summary Starting in 1996, sociologist Raymond Michalowski and anthropologist Jill Dubisch
joined a group of motorcyclists riding on a trip called the Run for the Wall, a pilgrimage (ritual
passage) from California to the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, DC.
The Run for the Wall was started by a group of Vietnam veterans in 1989 and has occurred every
year since. It requires its participants to ride motorcycles from California to Washington, DC,
although many join or drop out along the way. The run takes 10 days and includes stops for rest
and ceremonies. Communities along the runs route welcome run members and often feed and
house them for free. Riders see the run as a pilgrimage that helps heal wounds caused by the war,
and serves to honor the dead and those left behind (POWs and the missing in action).
Dubisch introduces the concept of pilgrimage as a journey that has a purpose, with a destination
that has special meaning. The destination may get its emotional power from its location or
symbolic meaning. Pilgrimages are rituals, defined (in Davis-Floyds words) as patterned,
repetitive, and symbolic enactments of a cultural belief or value. Personal transformation is a
key result. Rituals often reenact social myths. They, according to anthropologist Victor Turner,
have two poles the ideological and the sensory that can be changed and modified regularly.
Pilgrimages are a kind of ritual. They create what Victor and Edith Turner call a liminal state,
which is a special period of time between normal routines. Travel is one way to mark such a
liminal period.
The Run for the Wall began as a way for veterans to deal with the physical and mental wounds
caused by their participation in the Vietnam War, and the indifference and hostility that greeted
them when they arrived home. Motorcycles have been associated with veterans groups since
World War II. They symbolize freedom, self-reliance, patriotism, and individualism. Patriotism
is especially important to those who make the run and is symbolized by the U.S. flags and eagles
that adorn their motorcycles. Riding motorcycles gives a feeling of political power to
participants. The machines are not an ordinary way to travel. Riding them also involves danger
and hardship; suffering for the cause increases openness to personal change and an eventual
feeling of accomplishment.
Dubisch describes several ceremonial events along the run that evoke strong emotions. The wall
itself has special power, meaning, and emotional impact. It causes outbursts of grief and
recognizes both the individual dead and the departed as a whole. Some riders say they hear the
spirits of the dead talking at the wall when they are there at night. This pilgrimage has a lasting,
transformational effect on its participants, and illustrates the importance of feelings and emotion
associated with religion and ritual.

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ARTICLE 30 QUESTIONS
True or False?
T

1.

According to Jill Dubisch in Run for the Wall: An American Pilgrimage, the run is
taken annually by a group of motorcyclists who start the ride in California, stop nightly
for rest and ritual ceremonies, and end at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in
Washington, DC.

2.

Dubisch notes that the Run for the Wall began as a way to promote respect for service
in the U.S. military.

T. 3.

In Run for the Wall: An American Pilgrimage, Dubisch observes that those who ride
in the Run for the Wall consciously see it as a pilgrimage.

4.

In Run for the Wall: An American Pilgrimage, Dubisch defines pilgrimages as


religious rituals that involve journeys to sacred places.

5.

According to Dubisch in Run for the Wall: An American Pilgrimage, pilgrimages are
journeys with a purpose, taken to a place with meaning. They can be religious, secular,
or personal.

6.

In Run for the Wall: An American Pilgrimage, Dubisch argues that pilgrimages rarely
affect people who are well adjusted and content with their lives.

7.

In Run for the Wall: An American Pilgrimage, Dubisch cites a definition of ritual that
says rituals are patterned, repetitive, symbolic enactments of cultural beliefs or values.

8.

In Run for the Wall: An American Pilgrimage, Dubisch notes that the term liminality
defines an emotional state that is sparked by ritual ceremony.

9.

According to Dubisch in Run for the Wall: An American Pilgrimage, the ritual for the
soldiers missing in Vietnam is especially powerful because of the mountainous location
of Limon, Colorado.

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Multiple Choice
1.

A central point that Dubisch makes about the men who participate in the Run for the Wall is
that
a. they wish to repair the emotional wounds caused by their Vietnam war experiences and
unpleasant homecomings.
b. they are motivated by a desire to embarrass those who opposed the war.
c. they enjoy showing off their expensive motorcycles to onlookers.
d. they seek to increase veterans appropriations by publicly pressuring Congress.
Correct Answer: a

2.

According to Dubisch in Run for the Wall: An American Pilgrimage, the term liminality
refers to
a. the emotional content of ritual.
b. a ritual period that is different from normal, everyday time.
c. the patterned, repetitive aspects of ritual.
d. the special social myths reenacted by ritual.
Correct Answer: b

3.

In Run for the Wall: An American Pilgrimage, Dubisch notes that the carnival period
preceding Lent meets the criteria of a ritual because it
a. protects individuals.
b. moves individuals from one social status to another.
c. maintains order in the world.
d. designates a period of time when special activities are permitted.
Correct Answer: d

4.

According to Dubisch in Run for the Wall: An American Pilgrimage, anthropologist


Victor Turner believed that ritual
a. organized all human behavior.
b. could be seen in peoples normal, day-to-day behavior.
c. had two poles, one ideological and the other sensory.
d. is designed to express freedom, self-reliance, patriotism, and individuality.
Correct Answer: c

5.

According to Dubisch in Run for the Wall: An American Pilgrimage, motorcycles are
associated with _____________in American culture.
a cooperation
b. freedom
c. veterans
d. criminal behavior
Correct Answer: b

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6.

In Run for the Wall: An American Pilgrimage, Dubisch notes that participants in the Run
for the Wall
a. often frightened onlookers with their outlaw biker looks.
b. annoyed other motorists by hogging miles of highway with hundreds of bikes.
c. were mostly members of Western, especially Californian, motorcycle clubs.
d. were usually Vietnam veterans.
Correct Answer: d

7.

According to Dubisch in Run for the Wall: An American Pilgrimage, Run for the Wall
participants stopped at
a. Angel Fire, New Mexico.
b. Denver, Colorado.
c. the Apache reservation in Arizona.
d. Window Rock, Wyoming.
Correct Answer: a

8.

In Run for the Wall: An American Pilgrimage, Dubisch argues that participation in the
Run for the Wall
a. is like a rite of passage, moving normal veterans into a select group of war advocates.
b. is a needless glorification of war.
c. is a personally transforming experience, partly designed to heal personal wounds.
d. is not effective as a form of protest.
Correct Answer: c

127
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Article 31
Body Ritual among the Nacirema

HORACE MINER

Summary Miners classic, satirical article describes the body ritual of a North American people
called the Nacirema. Driven by a cultural value of the fragility and importance of their bodies,
they engage in a series of daily rituals designed to make their bodies more presentable and long
lasting. Underlying body ritual is a cultural perception that the human body is ugly with a
tendency toward debility and disease. The Nacirema engage in complex rituals to cover up
bodily imperfections and slow the bodys deterioration. They have a household shrine with a
chest full of magical charms, and a holy font located below the charm box. Charms come in
many forms and are used for many specific purposes.
There are medicine men to guide the Nacirema in the use of charms, and holy-mouth-men that
use various tools to purify and maintain the mouth; this in addition to the twice-daily mouth rite
done at home that involves the use of a special brush..
More elaborate ceremonies are performed in a local temple, the latipsoalthough that is often
viewed as a place to die. Those entering the latipso are often stripped of their clothing, handled
by vestal virgins, and made to do their bodily functions in a sacred vessel and in public.
Normally, however, excretory functions are ritualized and relegated to secrecy, as are natural
reproductive functions.
There is also another practitioner, called a listener, who has the power to exorcise the devils
that lodge in the heads of people who have been bewitched. Parents, especially mothers, are
often suspected of putting a curse on their children. For a large gift, a witch doctor will conduct
exorcism sessions, when he or she listens to the others troubles and fears from childhood.
Miner concludes that from the evidence above, the Nacirema are a magic-ridden people.

ARTICLE 31 QUESTIONS
True or False?
T

1.

According to Horace Miner in Body Ritual among the Nacirema, the Nacirema
display an extreme concern for the maintenance and care of their bodies.

2.

In Body Ritual among the Nacirema, Miner notes that among the Nacirema, a ritual
specialist called a latipso specializes in the care of the mouth.

3.

According to Miner in Body Ritual among the Nacirema, men engage in a daily ritual
that involves scraping and lacerating the face with a sharp object.
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4.

According to Miner in Body Ritual among the Nacirema, the Nacirema regularly look
forward to entering a local shrine, called the latipso, to have their bodies renewed.

5.

According to Miner in Body Ritual among the Nacirema, the Nacirema demonstrate
masochistic tendencies as evidenced by their willingness to have their teeth probed and
excavated by ritual specialists called holy-mouth-men.

6.

In Body Ritual among the Nacirema, Miner observes that the Nacirema enjoy eating a
variety of foods that have been purified by dipping them in a ritual vessel filled with
boiling oil.

7.

In Body Ritual among the Nacirema, Miner notes that Nacireman women regularly
visit ritual houses to have their heads baked in special ovens.

Multiple Choice
1.

In Body Ritual among the Nacirema, Miner points out that the fundamental belief that
underlies Nacireman body ritual is
a. that the human body is ugly and subject to disability and disease.
b. the concern about the beauty of the body.
c. that the health of the body depends on the health of the mind.
d. that disease of the body is caused by a persons failure to take care of it properly.
Correct Answer: a

2.

According to Miner in Body Ritual among the Nacirema, the Nacirema often undergo
_________ procedures in order to care for their bodies.
a. month-long
b. painful
c. ineffective
d. sophisticated
Correct Answer: b

3.

In Body Ritual among the Nacirema, Miner notes that the opulence of a Nacireman home
is determined by
a. whether the homes shrine is equipped with a font.
b. what the home is constructed from.
c. how large the home is.
d. how many shrines the house contains.
Correct Answer: d

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4.

According to Miner in Body Ritual among the Nacirema, the latipso is the name for
a. holy-mouth-men.
b. household shrines.
c. medicine mens temple.
d. the charm box found in a household shrine.
Correct Answer: c

5.

According to Miner in Body Ritual among the Nacirema, the Nacirema believe that
a. mothers are the only people who can teach their children body rituals.
b. fathers tend to put a curse on their children when they try to teach them body rituals.
c. holy-mouth-men, unless they are given a large gift, will harm children.
d. mothers are likely to put a curse on their children when they teach them body rituals.
Correct Answer: d

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PART 9
GLOBALIZATION
The introduction to Part 9 includes a discussion of basic concepts, such as cultural hybridization
and transnationalism, that are associated with the larger topic of globalization.
KEY DEFINITIONS
Cultural diffusion is the passage of cultural ideas, culturally defined behaviors, or culturally
produced artifacts from one society to another through borrowing.
Cultural hybridization is the process by which a cultural custom, item, or concept is modified
or hybridized to fit the cultural context of a society that borrows it.
Diaspora is a scattered population with a common geographic origin.
Globalization is the process that promotes economic, political, and other cultural connections
among people living all over the world.
Guest workers are individuals who are given temporary visas to live and work in another
country.
Multicultural is, literally, more than one culture. The term is usually applied to situations where
groups with different cultural backgrounds are part of a larger social aggregate.
Refugees are people who flee their country of origin because they share a well-founded fear of
persecution.
Remittances are transfers, often financial, that flow from migrants back to their home countries.
Social remittances are ideas, practices, and social capital that flow from the host country to the
sending society.
Transnational means across national borders.
World system is the economic incorporation of different parts of the world into a system based
on capitalism, not politics.

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PART 9 QUESTIONS
True or False?
T

1.

Cultural hybridization is the process by which a cultural custom, item, or concept is


modified or hybridized to fit the cultural context of a society that borrows it.

2.

Refugees are individuals who emigrate from one country to another.

3.

Cultural diffusion is the process by which a cultural custom, item, or concept is


modified or hybridized to fit the cultural context of a society that borrows it.

4.

Multicultural literally means more than one culture, but the term is usually applied to
situations where groups with different cultural backgrounds are part of a larger social
aggregate.

5.

The world system is the economic incorporation of different parts of the world into a
system based on capitalism, not politics.

6.

The world system is the movement of a cultural category, culturally defined behavior,
or culturally produced artifact from one society to another through borrowing.

7.

Refugees are people who flee their country of origin because they share a well-founded
fear of persecution.

8.

Cultural hybridization is the economic incorporation of different parts of the world into
a system based on capitalism, not politics.

Multiple Choice
1.

The passage of a cultural idea, culturally defined behavior, or culturally produced artifact
from one society to another through borrowing is called
a. cultural diffusion.
b. multiculturalism.
c. cultural hybridization.
d. globalization.
Correct Answer: a
.

2.

The process by which a cultural custom, item, or concept is modified to fit the cultural
context of a society that borrows it is called
a. globalization.
b. tourism.
c. transnationalism.
d. cultural hybridization.
Correct Answer: d
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3.

The process that promotes economic, political, and other cultural connections among people
living all over the world is called
a. cultural diffusion.
b. world systemization.
c. globalization.
d. cultural hybridization.
Correct Answer: c

4.

The situation where more than one different culture is part of a larger social aggregate is
called
a. multicultural.
b. cultural diffusion.
c. cultural hybridization.
d. globalization.
Correct Answer: a

5.

People who flee their country of origin because they share a well-founded fear of
persecution are called
a. tourists.
b. immigrants.
c. stateless persons.
d. refugees.
Correct Answer: d

6.

The economic incorporation of different parts of the world into a system based on
capitalism, not politics, defines
a. world system.
b. cultural diffusion.
c. cultural hybridization.
d. multiculturalism.
Correct Answer: a

133
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Article 32
How Sushi Went Global

THEODORE C. BESTOR

Summary This article by Theodore Bestor reveals the complex network of relationships that
define a global economic system. Focusing on sushi, a traditional Japanese cuisine, Bestor shows
how the international adoption of the culinary custom, and especially its centerpiece, raw bluefin
tuna, has created a global system that involves Atlantic fishing and fish farming, national and
environmental regulations, realignments of labor and capital, and shifting markets.
The article begins with a description of a bluefin auction at a fishing pier near Bath main. About
20 buyers evaluate and bid on three large bluefins, consulting buyers in the Tsukiui fish market
in Japan by cell phone to establish prices. Once bought, the fish are packed in ice and flown to
Japan. Japanese have a long-term affection for the bluefin, a fish that was originally caught only
for sport in the United States. The Japanese had turned to international tuna suppliers in the past,
when the world adopted a rule that restricted fishing boats from one nation from fishing within
200 miles of the coast of another country. Jumbo jets brought fresh New England bluefin into
easy reach of Japan, and U.S. fishermen began to catch and export the large tuna. The 1980s
were prosperous for Japan, which sustained the market for bluefin, but the economic bubble
burst in the early 90s. Just in time, North Americans developed a taste for sushi, creating a
strong market for the fish. As sushi became more and more popular in the United States, and
later Europe, the expanded market increased fishing activity all across the Atlantic, and gave rise
to fish farming, especially in Spanish and Croatian waters. But markets rely on supply and
demand; in 1999 the Japanese managed to catch a years supply of tuna in three days, reducing
demand and prices. Prices also fell when environmental conditions in the Mediterranean resulted
in reduced oxygen in the water. About 800 tuna in a Spanish fish trap suffocated and were caught
and processed immediately, causing an oversupply that lowered tuna prices around the world.
Today, the market for tuna continues to thrive. The best bluefin still go to Japan where the
market is still strongest, but the rest satisfy palates in many other parts of the world. Now
fishermen often come in conflict with customers, governments, regulators, and environmentalists
around the world as they catch or farm tuna. Because tuna fishing is a local industry, local
economies based on fishing may be affected instantly by changes in world prices for the fish.
Bestor also points out that a global market does not necessarily mean cultural homogenization.
Sushi, he argues, is considered a Japanese delicacy no matter where in the world it is eaten.

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ARTICLE 32 QUESTIONS
True or False?
F

1.

In How Sushi Went Global, Theodore Bestor notes that the Japanese love of sushi
increased because the introduction of jet aircraft in the 1960s made it possible to ship
fresh bluefin tuna, the centerpiece of sushi, to Japan before the fish could spoil.

2.

According to Bestor in How Sushi Went Global, few North Americans ate bluefin
tuna before the international market for sushi developed, preferring instead to fish for
tuna as a sport.

3.

In How Sushi Went Global, Bestor argues that the Japanese control the world price
for bluefin tuna because the government sets prices paid for imported fish, which, in
turn, affects the economy of U.S. fishing villages.

4.

In How Sushi Went Global, Bestor notes that bluefin tuna are now raised in Spanish
waters near Gibraltar, where they are fed by hand.

5.

According to Bestor in How Sushi Went Global, America has become the center of
the world market for sushi and bluefin tuna, and Japan is now on the periphery.

6.

In How Sushi Went Global, Bestor concludes that Japan is still the central market for
internationally caught bluefin tuna, and the Japanese have tried to teach American
fishermen and tuna buyers how to judge the quality of tuna that are suitable for the
Japanese market.

Multiple Choice
1.

According to Bestor in How Sushi Went Global,


a. globalization has meant homogenization. Sushi is no longer viewed as a Japanese entity
worldwide.
b. in waters off of Seabrook, New Hampshire, bluefin tuna are trapped, fed by hand, then
processed to meet the demand for sushi in Japan and around the world.
c. tunas popularity in Japan has declined significantly in the past two decades.
d. the first appearance of tuna in Japanese literature was in the eighth-century collection of
imperial court poetry called Manyoshu.
Correct Answer: d

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2.

In How Sushi Went Global, Bestor thinks the reason that the Japanese had to turn to the
world market for bluefin tuna was that
a. they had completely fished out bluefin tuna in the Pacific.
b. an international agreement prevented fishing within 200 miles of other countries
shores.
c. the Japanese discovered that Atlantic tuna were much better than their own Pacific tuna.
d. sushi became more popular in Japan in the 1960s, and demand outran supply.
Correct Answer: b

3.

In How Sushi Went Global, Bestor observes that Tsukiji, Tokyos wholesale seafood
market,
a. auctions off only Japanese-caught bluefin tuna.
b. handles just 13 percent of the tonnage that New York Citys Fulton Fish Market sells
each year.
c. is sent daily information about tuna conditions in such fishing grounds as Montauk,
Cape Cod, and Cartagena by fishermen in return for information about prices.
d. is one of three bluefin tuna auctions; the other two are in Madrid, Spain and Boston,
Massachusetts.
Correct Answer: c

4.

According to Bestor in How Sushi Went Global, Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABT)
a. is a nonmigratory species that lives in the Mediterranean Sea; ABT normally weigh
roughly 6 to 10 pounds.
b. is a migratory species of fish that is found in the Pacific Ocean and most often caught
with fighting tackle.
c. has been so overfished in the wild that it is now only available from seafood farms in
Asia.
d. is highly migratory; can be found from the equator to Newfoundland and from Turkey
to the Gulf of Mexico; and can weigh over 1,000 pounds.
Correct Answer: d

5.

In How Sushi Went Global, why does Bestor refer to bluefin tuna as stateless fish?
a. Bluefin tuna swim so fast and migrate so far, they may not remain in any nations
waters for long.
b. ICCAT (the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas), made
up of 28 countries, has declared that the fish should receive stateless legal status.
c. No one country has been willing to take responsibility for conserving bluefin tuna.
d. Bluefin tuna form part of sushi in every country of the world.
Correct Answer: a

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6.

In How Sushi Went Global, Bestor notes that Japans control over sushi as a Japanese
cultural entity
a. has diminished as it has become more widely available around the world, from baseball
stadiums to fine dining establishments in the United States, and from apartments in
Madrid to Buenos Aires.
b. has weakened, as many non-Japanese sushi bars that identify with other ethnicities have
opened in metropolitan areas outside of Japan.
c. is apparent in the use of Japanese buyers and tuna techs to instruct New England
fishermen on the proper techniques to catch, handle, and pack tuna for export.
d. has diminshed; the number of U.S. visas granted to Japanese sushi chefs, tuna buyers,
and other workers in the global sushi business has dropped to under 200 a year.
Correct Answer: c

137
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Article 33
Village Walks: Tourism and
Globalization among the Tharu of Nepal

ARJUN GUNERATNE
AND KATE BJORK

Summary Arjun Guneratne and Kate Bjork focus on what it was like for an ethnic group, the
Tharu, to become the objects of tourists curiosity (the tourist gaze). The article describes
tourists arriving in Pipariya, a Tharu village located near the Chitwan National Forest in Nepals
tarai region in 1989. They report on what the tour guide says and how the tourists and villagers
respond. The so-called village walk is a good example of cultural tourism (there is also
recreational, medical, religious, eco-, and sex tourism). It is usually one stop on a more broadly
structured tour of Nepals mountains, cities, and the Chitwan forest itself. The authors stress the
importance of the anthropological study of tourism as a significant part of globalization research.
They point out that nearly 100 million people go on tour every year and spend billions of dollars.
Their impact on local economies as well as on peoples ways of life represents a significant
globalizing force.
From the Tharus point of view, the way they are characterized by Nepals tourist industry is
both significant and humiliating. Originally the tarai was a heavily forested area bordering the
foothills and valleys of the Himalayan Mountains. Despite the land made inhospitable by
malaria, the Tharu still managed to settle there, tilling small forest plots and hunting for their
subsistence. All this changed in the 1950s when the insecticide DDT largely eradicated the
mosquitoes that carried malaria. As a result, settlers from Nepals hills and Indias plains soon
infiltrated the area and cleared most of the land for cultivation. Settlers soon outnumbered the
Tharu, who adapted to the newcomers. Tharu now worked in tourist hotels and farmed in the
same way as other rural Nepalese, and their children attended school. For the tourist industry,
however, the Tharu past seemed like a natural tourist attraction. Tourist brochures claimed that
the Tharu were a primitive native people who were untouched by civilization. Tour guides
echoed this view as they walked tourists through Pipariya. In addition, most guides belonged to
Nepals two highest-ranked ethnic groups, the Brahmin and Chhetri, and treated the Tharu as
inferiors. They brought tourists into Tharu houses without permission and treated those inside
with disrespect. Tourists themselves were largely ignorant of the Tharu and occasionally treated
villagers like zoo exhibits. From the Tharu perspective, tourists could usually be tolerated as
guests. (There is no word for tourist in their language; they call them guests.) Their greatest
concern was the negative way they were portrayed by the tourist industry.
In 2009, one of the authors revisited Pipariya and encountered a different picture. The Tharu had
constructed a small museum. Museum exhibits represented how they used to live, successfully
divorcing their past from the present. (The tourist gaze often makes people more aware of their
culture and its past.) The museum was the first place that tourists visited and deflected most of
them away from the villages residential compounds. Globalization had also impacted the Tharu
in other ways. Many young men have gone to work in foreign countries and send money home
regularly. A few have even managed to acquire green cards for work and residence in the United
States.
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ARTICLE 33 QUESTIONS
True or False?
T

1.

According to Guneratne and Bjork in Village Walks, Nepalese tourist companies


characterize the Tharu as primitive forest dwellers untouched by civilization.

2.

As Guneratne and Bjork observe in Village Walks, most guides that led tours to
Pipariya were from lower-ranking ethnic groups and had little knowledge of the Tharu.

3.

In Village Walks, Guneratne and Bjork note that, despite the incursion of tourists
during the dry season, the Tharu residents of Pipariya managed to live much as they had
before the 1950s.

4.

According to Guneratne and Bjork in Village Walks, most Tharu men from Pipariya
wore Western-style clothes, whereas many Tharu women continued to wear their
traditional dress.

5.

In Village Walks, Guneratne and Bjork report that, although some tourists intruded
into Tharu houses in Pipariya, guides were careful to warn them against doing so.

6.

According to Guneratne and Bjork in Village Walks, most foreign tourists failed to
detect a difference between Brahmin and Tharu houses in Pipariya.

7.

In Village Walks, Guneratne and Bjork conclude that when people are the object of
the tourist gaze, they become more aware of their own culture and group identity.

Multiple Choice
1.

According to Guneratne and Bjork in Village Walks, the Tharu village of Pipariya is
located adjacent to
a. the Chitwan national forest.
b. the Himalayan mountains.
c. the Tarai National Forest.
d. the border with India.
Correct Answer: a

2.

In Village Walks, Guneratne and Bjork note that tour companies have characterized the
Tharu as
a. successful forest horticulturalists.
b. primitive forest aboriginals.
c. the remnants of a lost Nepalese tribe.
d. refugees from central Nepal.
Correct Answer: b

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3.

In Village Walks, Guneratne and Bjork report that an angry Tharu household head once
a. struck a rude tourist with a stick.
b. berated a tourist for smoking marijuana in his compound.
c. threatened a tour guide with a stick for invading his kitchen.
d. blocked a tourist-laden ox cart from entering Pipariya.
Correct Answer: c

4.

According to Guneratne and Bjork in Village Walks, Tharu villagers from Pipariya
referred to tourists as
a. pests.
b. customers (of goods the villagers had for sale).
c. arrogant.
d. guests.
Correct Answer: d

5.

According to Guneratne and Bjork in Village Walks, Tharu villagers preferred tourists
who
a. photographed their houses and children.
b. ignored their tour guides.
c. asked them the most questions.
d. arrived in the village by themselves rather than in a tour group.
Correct Answer: d

6.

In Village Walks, Guneratne and Bjork indicate which Nepalese ethnic group(s) the tour
guides are most likely to come from:
a. Brahmin and Chhetri
b. Bhangi and Brahmin
c. Sherpas
d. Dolpa
Correct Answer: a

7.

When Arjun Guneratne returned to Pipariya in 2009 he found that


a. some Tharu from the village were working overseas and sending money home.
b. the Tharu had built a small museum the depicted life as it had been many years ago but
tourists never visited it.
c. tourists had largely stopped visiting the village, because its residents had now built
brick houses and resembled their Brahmin neighbors.
d. globalization had failed to touch the Tharu.
Correct Answer: a

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8.

According to Guneratne and Bjork in Village Walks, the authors


a. ended up giving lectures about Tharu culture to tourists.
b. (especially Bjork) were themselves a tourist attraction.
c. tried to change the way the Tharu were characterized by tour guides and tourist
companies.
d. helped Tharu villagers avoid tourists whenever possible.
Correct Answer: b

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Article 34
Nuer Refugees in America

DIANNA SHANDY

Summary In this article updated in 2015, Dianna Shandy, who has conducted ethnographic
research among Nuer refugees in the upper Midwest since 1997, looks at what their status as
refugees means, how they managed to come to the United States, why they were located in more
than 30 different U.S. states, how a people raised as cattle herders survive and adapt to life in a
U.S. urban setting, and what this tells us about the interconnectedness of a globalizing world
and anthropologys role in it.
Although no special categories were assigned to people who first migrated to the United States
(they were all simply called immigrants), today there are at least two categories , migrants and
refugees based on their reasons for coming here. The United Nations (UN) defines refugees as
people who have left a country because of a well-founded fear of persecution based on race;
religion; nationality; membership in a particular social group; or political opinion. They are not
merely IDPs (internally displaced persons) who have left home but are willing to return. To
manage the refugee problem (by 2014 there were 60 million refugees in the world), there is a
UN agency headed by a high commissioner for refugees (UNHCR). The UN and many countries
see three solutions for refugee placement: voluntary repatriation, integration into a country of
asylum, or rarely, third-country resettlement. Typically, refugees are first housed in camps, and
then certified for resettlement. The United States takes in a limited number of refugees and
employs the UN criteria for refugee certification. But decisions about who is eligible vary, based
on officials interpretations of the criteria and ever shifting resettlement policies. Officials also
must deal with cross-cultural differences and language barriers as they decide who is a refugee
and who is an economic refugee (someone whose main motive to move is for economic
advantage).
The Nuer who live in the United States have made it through this bureaucratic process. Thok
Ding, who is mentioned in the article, was brought up herding cattle in a Nuer pastoral village,
experienced the death of his father when northerners attacked his village, moved with his family
to a camp in Ethiopia, attended and excelled at a Christian mission school there, moved to
another camp for further schooling, moved back to the Sudan with his family when fighting
broke out in Ethiopia, traveled back to Addis Ababa where he joined friends, moved to a camp in
Kenya, applied for refugee status with the UN there, and was eventually accepted for refugee
resettlement by the United States. His arrival and settlement in the United States was facilitated
by Lutheran Social Services, a volunteer organization (volag to insiders) contracted by the
United States. Helped by the organization, he was placed in Minneapolis, settled in an apartment,
and guided toward a job. Later he left Minneapolis for Des Moines and a job in the meat packing
industry, where he hopes to continue his education, save money, marry a woman from the South
Sudan, and bring his family, with whom he corresponds frequently and to whom he sends
money, to the United States.
The case illustrates several points. Refugee issues are complex and varied, and involve endless
bureaucratic hurdles. Refugees who manage to gain resettlement (many do not) must be
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tenacious, ambitious, clever, and opportunistic. The Nuer make successful refugees because
many possess these characteristics.

ARTICLE 34 QUESTIONS
True or False?
T

1.

According to Shandy in Nuer Refugees in America, the Nuer refugees who have been
resettled in the United States were originally a pastoral people living in South Sudan.

2.

According to Shandy in Nuer Refugees in America, Nuer refugees have been sent to
the United States by Christian missionaries who live in South Sudan.

3.

In Nuer Refugees in America, Shandy notes that the UN defines refugees as IDPs,
meaning internally displaced persons.

4.

According to Shandy in Nuer Refugees in America, the first anthropologist to


conduct and publish extensive ethnography about the Nuer was Sir E. E. EvansPritchard.

5.

According to Shandy in Nuer Refugees in America, the UN looks at three possible


solutions to the refugee problem: voluntary repatriation to the country of origin,
integration into a country of asylum, or third-country resettlement.

6.

In Nuer Refugees in America, Shandy argues that the only ways refugees can gain
resettlement in another country is by having a useful skill needed by the country, or by
the intervention of relatives or friends who guarantee they will provide the refugees
with jobs.

7.

In Nuer Refugees in America, Shandy reports that Thok Ding was finally resettled in
the United States after his father was killed in the Sudanese civil war; he attended
school in Ethiopia, and lived in a refugee camp in Kenya.

8.

According to Shandy in Nuer Refugees in America, the UN has several categories of


refugees. The refugee most likely to be accepted for resettlement in a second country is
called an economic refugee.

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Multiple Choice
1.

According to Shandy in Nuer Refugees in America, the UN classifies refugees as people


who have
a. left their home country but are willing to return.
b. left their home country to seek economic prosperity elsewhere.
c. left their home country because they fear persecution based on race, religion,
nationality, political opinion, or membership in a social group.
d. left their homes but are still in their home country.
Correct Answer: c

2.

According to Shandy in Nuer Refugees in America, the Nuer of South Sudan were first
studied by
a. Sir E. E. Evans-Pritchard.
b. Sir Thok Ding.
c. Robert Gardner.
d. Sharon Hutchinson.
Correct Answer: a

3.

In Nuer Refugees in America, Shandy notes that a peace agreement signed in __________
ended the NorthSouth war in Sudan, and South Sudan gained its independence in
__________.
a. 1983, 2005
b. 2011, 2014
c. 1996, 2011
d. 2005, 2011
Correct Answer: d

4.

According to Shandy in Nuer Refugees in America, Nuer boys go through a painful


initiation ceremony called the
a. IDP ceremony.
b. gaar ceremony.
c. cicatrization ceremony.
d. ngoya ceremony.
Correct Answer: b

5.

In Nuer Refugees in America, Shandy observes that the Nuer are most often first aided in
their quest to be resettled in the United States by
a. relatives.
b. UN officials.
c. voluntary organizations (volags).
d. U.S. immigration officials.
Correct Answer: c

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6.

In Nuer Refugees in America, Shandy defines transnationalism as


a. the nationalistic fervor of one people that causes them to go to war with another.
b. the shifting of national loyalties from one nation state to another.
c. another word for global markets.
d. the cross-cutting ties that span the borders of nation-states.
Correct Answer: d

7.

In Nuer Refugees in America, Shandy notes that the U.S. immigration service has settled
the Nuer in about 30 different states because
a. they could not find a single location for them all.
b. they feel refugees adapt better if they are scattered in small groups around the
country.
c. they hoped to prevent the Nuer immigrants from finding each other and building
communities here in the United States.
d. their safety depends on hiding them among American families so that their political
enemies cannot find them.
Correct Answer: b

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Article 35
Global Women in the New Economy

BARBARA EHRENREICH
AND ARLIE RUSSELL HOCHSCHILD

Summary In this selection, Barbara Ehrenreich and Arlie Hochschild look at an important
aspect of globalization: the movement of poor women from Third World societies to wealthier
nations. Published as the introduction to Global Women: Nannies, Maids, and Sex Workers in the
New Economy, the piece begins with the story of a Sri Lankan woman serving as a nanny to a
two-year-old child in Greece. The subject of a documentary film, When Mother Comes Home for
Christmas, Josephene Perera has been a migrant worker for 10 years. She earns enough to
support her three children at home, but only gets to see them once a year. Over time two of her
children show signs of distress. Despite this, she returns once again to her job in Greece, trading
a life of poverty at home for money in a distant land. Put another way, she gives up her family
life to make one for parents who work full time in a wealthy nation.
The authors stress several points about the flow of immigrant workers over the last few years.
Movement has occurred between poor and rich countries. The international workforce, once
largely consisting of men, now includes a substantial number of women, laboring as domestics,
nannies, and sex-for-hire workers. The change marks a different relationship between rich and
poor nations. Once rich nations mined poor ones for their natural resources; now they mine them
for people. Four migration patterns stand out: one is the flow of workers from Southeast Asia to
the Middle and Far East; a second from Eastern to Western Europe; a third from South and
Central America to North America; and a fourth from Africa to Europe. In many of these places,
foreign workers have taken domestic jobs once held by local people. For example, in America
maids and nannies were once largely the domain of black women. These jobs are now largely
filled by Latinas. Poor countries have come to value the money sent home by their citizens
working abroad, and some have programs to prepare female citizens for foreign service and to
find jobs abroad.
There are a number of factors that attract poor women to do overseas work. There are plenty of
jobs for domestics in wealthier countries because so many women there have gone to work in
what was once a largely male economy. Job opportunities are even greater in First World
countries, because governments have not instituted programs to help their working women with
child care and other domestic needs; men have not stepped in to fill the gap at home; and men
have created a demand for sex-for-hire workers. In addition, as the wealth gap between rich and
poor countries grows, women from poor countries can make many times the amount of money
they could earn at home by taking jobs abroad.
Women may also be pushed to leave their countries in order to work abroad. Some leave to
escape abuse at home. Many women who leave are well educated but had found no reasonably
paid opportunities.

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ARTICLE 35 QUESTIONS
True or False?
T

1.

According to Ehrenreich and Hochschild in their selection, Global Women in the New
Economy, millions of women now migrate from poor countries to work in rich ones.

2.

In Global Women in the New Economy, Ehrenreich and Hochschild argue that most
women who migrate from poor countries to rich ones cannot get work in their home
countries because they are so poorly educated.

3.

In Global Women in the New Economy, Ehrenreich and Hochschild note that many
women from wealthy societies have succeeded in the tough male world but have
turned over the care of their children, elderly parents, and homes to women from the
Third World.

4.

According to Ehrenreich and Hochschild in Global Women in the New Economy,


Third World governments have attempted to prevent their female citizens from
migrating because the latter are causing massive social breakdown by leaving their
children and families.

5.

In Global Women in the New Economy, Ehrenreich and Hochschild report that Third
World women working as maids and nannies in America have caused the American
children they care for to feel stress, because such women are foreign and cannot
understand how to treat their American charges.

6.

In Global Women in the New Economy, Ehrenreich and Hochschild note that there
are four major flows of migrant women: one from Southeast Asia to the Middle and Far
East, a second from East Europe to Western Europe, a third from South and South and
Central America to North America, and a fourth from Africa to Europe.

7.

As Ehrenreich and Hochschild observe in Global Women in the New Economy, one
reason First World women hire Third World women as domestics and nannies is that
First World governments have not instituted programs to help them with child care.

Multiple Choice
1.

According to Ehrenreich and Hochschild in their article Global Women in the New
Economy, women who migrate for work in other countries are often
a. better educated than most women in their home countries.
b. disappointed by the small amount of money they can make abroad.
c. discouraged by their home governments to seek work abroad.
d. shunned by their community for leaving their children in the care of other people.
Correct Answer: a
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2.

According to Ehrenreich and Hochschild in Global Women in the New Economy, African
women are most likely to migrate to ____________ for work as domestics and nannies.
a. the Far East
b. the United States
c. Europe
d. Southeast Asia
Correct Answer: c

3.

Which of the following factors encourages Third World women to migrate to the First
World for work, according to Ehrenreich and Hochschilds article Global Women in the
New Economy?
a. the amount of money they can make and send home
b. the possibility of achieving citizenship in the host country
c. the potential for improved health care
d. the possibility of eventually moving their families to the host country.
Correct Answer: a

4.

Which one of the following is a characteristic of Third World women who migrate for work,
as reported by Ehrenreich and Hochschild in Global Women in the New Economy?
a. Most are under 20 years of age.
b. Many are better educated than other women from their home country.
c. Most are single without children.
d. Most migrate to escape abusive husbands or other family members.
Correct Answer: b

5.

In Global Women in the New Economy,Ehrenreich and Hochschild report that one of the
greatest problems faced by women who migrate from Third World countries for work in the
First World is
a. finding enough money to travel to jobs outside their home country.
b. lack of sufficient education to hold jobs in the First World.
c. resentment of the kinds of jobs they are forced to take in the First World.
d. long separation from their children and family members.
Correct Answer: d

6.

According to Ehrenreich and Hochschild in Global Women in the New Economy, a Sri
Lankan woman named Josephine Perera has
a. worked away from her children for 10 years in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Greece.
b. takes frequent visits back to Sri Lanka to visit her children.
c. is unable to financially support her three children who still live in Sri Lanka.
d. has been unable to find domestic work outside of her country.
Correct Answer: a

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PART 10
USING AND DOING ANTHROPOLOGY
The introduction to Part 10 includes a discussion of basic concepts, such as innovation and
acculturation, associated with culture change and applied anthropology.
KEY DEFINITIONS
Innovation is the invention of qualitatively new forms. It involves the recombination of what
people already know into something different.
Borrowing refers to the adoption of something new from another group.
Diffusion is another word for borrowing, often used by anthropologists who trace how an
innovation is borrowed from one group to another.
Social acceptance is a process that something new or borrowed must pass through to become
known and accepted by a group of people.
Cultural contact refers to the meeting of two culturally distinct groups.
Acculturation is the process of change that occurs due to cultural contact.
Applied anthropology includes any use of anthropological knowledge to influence social
interaction, to maintain or change social institutions, or to direct the course of cultural change.
Adjustment anthropology uses anthropological knowledge to make interaction more
predictable between people who use different cultural codes.
Administrative anthropology uses anthropological knowledge for planned change by those
outside the local cultural group.
Action anthropology uses anthropological knowledge for planned change by the local group.
Advocate anthropology is the use of anthropological knowledge by the anthropologist to
increase the local groups power of self-determination.
Business anthropology is the application of anthropological theories and practices to the needs
of private-sector organizations, especially industrial firms.
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United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples was a 2007 resolution
intended to help indigenous peoples resist outside intrusion under international law.

PART 10 QUESTIONS
True or False?
T

1.

Innovation is the recombination of previously known concepts into something


qualitatively new.

2.

Acculturation refers to the process of learning ones culture.

3.

Social acceptance of an innovation involves three steps: identification, analysis, and


substitution.

4.

If an anthropologist studied how the use of tobacco spread throughout the world, he or
she would be interested in cultural diffusion.

5.

An anthropologist attempts to influence the way people treat tramps by publishing a


book on tramp culture, thus making tramps more predictable to those who must deal
with them. Such an anthropologist would be doing adjustment anthropology.

6.

Applied anthropology focuses on the use of anthropological knowledge to inform,


enlighten, or increase the understanding of some individual or group.

7.

Action anthropology requires that the group that is to change has some legitimate
process for making decisions.

8.

When an anthropologist attempts to make social interaction more predictable in cases


where two people are operating with different cultural codes, he or she is doing action
anthropology.

Multiple Choice
1.

A recombination of things that are known into something different is called


a. culture change.
b. innovation.
c. social integration.
d. diffusion.
Correct Answer: b

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2.

The meeting of two culturally distinct groups is called


a. diffusion.
b. acculturation.
c. social contact.
d. cultural contact.
Correct Answer: d

3. The process of change due to culture contact is called


a. diffusion.
b. borrowing.
c. acculturation.
d. enculturation.
Correct Answer: c
4.

Which of the following authors is an extreme diffusionist?


a. Erich von Dniken
b. W. Lloyd Warner
c. Emile Durkheim
d. Sigmund Freud
Correct Answer: a

5.

Any use of anthropological knowledge that makes social interaction more predictable among
persons having different cultural codes is called
a. academic anthropology.
b. action anthropology.
c. administrative anthropology.
d. adjustment anthropology.
Correct Answer: d

6.

Any use of anthropological knowledge to influence social interaction, to maintain or change


social institutions, or to direct the course of cultural change is called
a. applied anthropology.
b. adjustment anthropology.
c. advocate anthropology.
d. administrative anthropology.
Correct Answer: a

7.

In action anthropology, planned change is initiated, controlled, and implemented by


a. administrators
b. the people affected by change
c. the anthropologist
d. outside observers
Correct Answer: b

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8.

Any use of anthropological knowledge by anthropologists to increase the power of selfdetermination of a particular cultural group is called
a. action anthropology.
b. academic anthropology.
c. advocate anthropology.
d. adjustment anthropology.
Correct Answer: c

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Article 36
Advice for Developers:
Peace Corps Problems in Botswana

HOYT S. ALVERSON

Summary This classic article by Hoyt Alverson provides an excellent example of how
anthropology can be applied to the solution of practical problems. Although written years ago, its
message is equally relevant today as Peace Corps volunteers, USAID workers, military
personnel, and NGO (non-governmental organization) employees engage in nation building
around the world. Alversons conclusion is clear: development work in foreign (and even in
some domestic) settings requires cross-cultural understanding.
Alverson was asked by a program director to investigate problems with the Peace Corps
development efforts in Botswana. Volunteers, he was told, were to introduce development
projects to Tswana farmers but found it difficult to so. The Tswana often resisted the volunteers
efforts. They would seem to cooperate but eventually nothing happened. Frustrated, volunteers
tended to isolate themselves, failed to learn the local language, and hung out with other
Americans or Europeans. Some gave up. Others failed to complete their two-year contracts.
Many felt spiteful toward the Tswana and some even experienced nervous breakdowns.
Alverson approached his task by looking at both the culture and perspective of the Peace Corps
volunteers, and the culture and responses of the Tswana. (Alverson had already spent 15 months
doing ethnographic research in a Tswana community.) He discovered that volunteers had many
unstated assumptions, based on culture. Often, for example, volunteers wished to be respected
for their superior knowledge and their ways of doing things, which they believed were better.
Volunteers also believed that the Tswana had asked them to help impart their Western cultural
knowledge and that they, the volunteers, were different from colonial authorities because they
did not force people to change. The conclusion to draw from this information is simple: the
volunteers self-perception made it harder for them to learn about the people they were there to
engage.
The remainder of Alversons paper deals with areas of cross-cultural misunderstandings between
volunteers and the Tswana. One example is the concept of time. The American volunteers
concept of time is lineal: the Tswana concept sees time as bounded by events. Volunteers
became frustrated when the Tswana did not show up on time. Another example is that volunteers
appreciate candor as they talk. The Tswana like smooth, non-confrontational discourse. As a
result, a Tswana may lie about something to avoid conflict.
In sum, Alverson sees the discomfort displayed by American Peace Corps volunteers in
Botswana as a consequence of life in a very different, culturally defined Tswana world. The
implied solution is to inform volunteers about their own cultural and self-perceptions, and teach
volunteers as much as possible about the culture of those with whom they intend to work.

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ARTICLE 36 QUESTIONS
True or False?
T

1.

In Alversons Advice for Developers, Peace Corps volunteers working in Botswana


often isolated themselves, hung out with other Americans or Europeans, felt spiteful
toward the Tswana, and failed to complete contracts.

2.

In Advice for Developers, Alverson reports that Peace Corps volunteers maintained
an aloof distance when they talked with Tswana farmers.

3.

According to Alverson in Advice for Developers, Peace Corps volunteers conceive of


time as lineal while the Tswana associate it with events.

4.

In Advice for Developers, Alverson observes that Tswana farmers speak about their
feelings with candor.

5.

In Advice for Developers, Alverson suggests that the Tswana are liable to show up at
a volunteers door when the American says, We should get together sometime.

6.

According to Alverson in Advice for Developers, the Tswana like their privacy and
resent American volunteers when the latter invade their space.

7.

Tswana farmers, notes Alverson in Advice for Developers, fail to recognize the subtle
references about sex, age, and class in the English language of Peace Corps volunteers.

8.

As Alverson notes in Advice for Developers, Americans reveal intimate information


about themselves to friends. The Tswana feel revealing secrets is dangerous.

9.

In Advice for Developers, Alverson concludes that, Peace Corps volunteers tend to
force people like the Tswana to do what they, the volunteers, consider is needed.

10. In Alversons estimation, Peace Corps volunteers feel they are making a sacrifice to serve
other, less fortunate people, and that they are the experts in relations with local people.

Multiple Choice
1.

According to Alverson in Advice for Developers, how do Peace Corps volunteers see
themselves?
a. They see themselves as students, there to learn from the Tswana about how to change
their American ways.
b. They see themselves are experts, there to teach the less fortunate.
c. They know that the Tswana do not want them in Botswana, but feel that they know
better than the Tswana was is good for their community.
d. They dont want to impart Western ideas in their work with the Tswana.
Correct Answer: b
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2.

In Advice for Developers, Alverson observes that the Tswana see time as
a. lineal.
b. connected to events. Time happens when events happen.
c. a non-concept. The Tswana do not think in terms of time.
d. measured by a cycle of ritual occasions.
Correct Answer: b

3.

Based on Alversons report in Advice for Developers, which one of the following
statements about Peace Corps volunteers is true?
a. They easily recognize Tswana class and age distinctions.
b. They are often able to make up a good lie rather than tell the truth.
c
They like their privacy and resent it when the Tswana interrupt their tranquility.
d. They are offended by the usual candor of Tswana speech.
Correct Answer: c

4.

Alverson has seen the Tswanas belief that being alone is


a. a time to think.
b. a way to experience a religious experience.
c. a necessary part of resting.
d. a time for secrets.
Correct Answer: d

5.

According to Alverson in Advice for Developers, Tswana see greeting others as


a. a waste of time.
b. a way to be polite.
c. a strategy to avoid work.
d. an essential act and time to exchange news.
Correct Answer: d

6.

In Alversons estimation, which statement best describes the Tswana?


a. The Tswana do not value friendships based on trust and honesty.
b. The Tswana believe that privacy is important part of daily life.
c. The Tswana value truth and honesty above all.
d. The Tswana feel that work comes before hospitality and socializing.
Correct Answer: a

155
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Article 37
Medical Anthropology: Improving Nutrition in Malawi

SONIA PATTEN

Summary In this article, anthropologist Sonia Patten describes her experience as an


anthropologist on a team of researchers working to improve infant and child nutrition in rural
Malawi, a small nation in Africa. She and colleagues from two American universities, under the
auspices of the University Development Linkages Program, worked with faculty from a college
in the University of Malawi system to develop and implement a program addressing the
mortality rate for children, a rate that at the time was very nearly one in four.
Patten and her team members developed a plan to provide milk-producing goats to the women of
the villages, teach them how to care for and raise the animals, and show them how to incorporate
the protein- and calorie-rich milk into recipes that they could feed their malnourished children.
The team met with village leaders and elders to convince them to allow women to own the goats,
explain how the plan would work, and ensure them that this was a worthwhile effort to help
combat the malnutrition their children faced. Once convinced, researchers identified villages that
would be the best candidates for this social researchthose with an animal-theft problem were
considered too problematic to include in the project.
A baseline survey of households that included children under five was conducted, while
scientists from the research team crossbred goats with the necessary characteristics on a local
Malawi farm. Eventually women were provided with a goat and the basic toolsa bucket, a
measuring cup, and a panto get started. Local members of the research team taught the women
how to incorporate the goats milk into their childrens food and made weekly visits to villages
to weigh and measure the children. The children, even those who were receiving even small
amounts of goats milk, all showed steady height and weight gains, at least for a time.
The project continued to address food insecurity problems and issues that arose from the goatraising efforts. The researchers taught the women how to plant, grow, and process soybeans into
flour that they could use when no goats milk was available. All of their efforts were
sustainablewomen were asked to return their first baby goat to the researchers and 5 kg of seed
after the first harvest. The research teams efforts worked within the culture of the Malawi,
incorporated indigenous resources, and were conducted in the native language of the villagers.
The author concludes that the project was highly valued by rural women, as evidenced by the
number who wanted to participate. It proved that the addition of goats milk to a childs diet was
valuable, and the success of the project is noted by similar projects that were introduced by
Malawi nongovernmental organizations. Additionally, Patten elaborates on the importance of
having an anthropologist on a research team, and identifies her role and responsibilities. Her
expertise proved valuable to the acceptance of the project and the high level of participation by
the Malawian villagers.

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ARTICLE 37 QUESTIONS
True or False?
T

1.

In addition to typical wet or dry seasons that most countries experience, Malawi has a
hungry season: the period between when the last of the stored harvest is consumed
and the first of the next seasons crops are harvested.

2.

The length of the hungry season in Malawi has decreased in recent years.

3.

Medical anthropology can be defined as the study of human health in a variety of


cultural and environmental contexts.

4.

Applied medical anthropology focuses on the biomedical studies of human adaptations


to disease.

5.

Child undernourishment in Malawi is a major problem, with a mortality rate for


children under five of 24 percent, or very nearly one in four.

6.

In Malawi, babies are breastfed for only six months before mothers begin to wean them
onto a gruel made from water and rice flour.

7.

According to Patten in Medical Anthropology: Improving Nutrition in Malawi, the


UDLP team undertook a plan to try teaching Malawi women how to incorporate cows
milk into the gruel fed to babies and children, to get more protein and calories into their
diet.

Multiple Choice
1.

In Medical Anthropology: Improving Nutrition in Malawi, Patten notes that in Malawi


culture, goats have traditionally been seen as
a. walking bank accounts.
b. animals bred solely for milk production.
c. animals that dont provide enough in resources to warrant raising them.
d. nuisance animals that eat the crops grown by villagers.
Correct Answer: a

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2.

According to Patten in Medical Anthropology: Improving Nutrition in Malawi, the UDLP


planned to provide
a. village elders with goats to collectively raise and milk for the all of the villages
children.
b. the male head of household a milk-producing goat to raise and use for the nutritional
needs of his entire family.
c. the male head of household a goat to raise and slaughter for meat.
d. the woman of each household with a milk-producing goat to raise and use for her
childrens nutritional needs.
Correct Answer: d

3.

In Medical Anthropology: Improving Nutrition in Malawi, Patten notes that some villages
were not good candidates for the social research project due to
a. a language barrier between the anthropologists and the villagers.
b. an ongoing problem of animal theft.
c. the elders resistance to the plan.
d. the resistance of women head-of-households in those villages.
Correct Answer: b

4.

According to Patten in Medical Anthropology: Improving Nutrition in Malawi, the


hungry season, the time between the consumption of the last of the stored harvest and the
first harvest of the new season, now often begins in _________ and ends in __________.
a. June; November
b. December; March
c. September; March
d. March; September
Correct Answer: c

5.

In Medical Anthropology: Improving Nutrition in Malawi, Patten notes that the UDLP
project to teach women how to raise and care for goats, and to incorporate milk into their
childrens food, was
a. flatly rejected by the village leaders.
b. so popular that it quickly had more participants than it could accommodate.
c. too difficult for the women of the villages to undertake.
d. failed due to the theft of goats by people in other villages.
Correct Answer: b

6.

From the research Pattens team conducted, they learned that


a. women in the villages headed 50 percent of all households.
b. each household had an adult male regularly living with them.
c. over 35 percent of the children were underweight for their age.
d. 20 percent of the women were illiterate.
Correct Answer: c

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7.

In Medical Anthropology: Improving Nutrition in Malawi, Patten notes that by 2004,


a. one third of the women still had their original project animal.
b. half of the women had lost their original animals to theft.
c. only one woman had sold her animal before it had produced a viable kid.
d. village elders had taken control of all of the buck stations and had begun charging for
its services.
Correct Answer: c

159
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Article 38
Public Interest Ethnography: Womens Prisons and Health Care in California
RACHAEL STRYKER
Summary In this article, Rachael Stryker describes how ethnography can be used to affect
public policy. With government sponsorship, she and a group of her undergraduate students
interviewed a number of inmates incarcerated in two California state prisons for women. Their
goal was to learn about the provision of health care from the prisoners perspective. Armed with
the insiders point of view, they produced recommendations for changes, some of which were
adopted by prison authorities.
Public interest ethnography (a branch of applied anthropology) involves ethnographic research
among people who are affected by policy. It brings a human face to the impact of policy and
often seeks to empower those affected by it. The study of health care provided in Californias
womens prisons is a good example. The researchers discovered that to receive care, an inmate
had to fill out a request, pay a five-dollar copay, receive a ducat (something like a hall pass), and
then see one of three people: an MTA (medically trained correctional guard), a nurse, or a
doctor. The process could take weeks and was complicated by the fact that inmates had little
money, were often treated by unqualified health providers, and were frustrated by an inability to
speak English (many inmates spoke only Spanish). Inmates often feared medical procedures and
felt that doctors treated them with disrespect. They also told about instances of sexual
harassment. Other factors related to inmate health included poor sanitation caused by
overcrowded cells, and lack of cleaning and personal hygiene supplies. AIDS patients were
housed in the general inmate population. Food was also a problem, especially for diabetics and
those with food allergies. Finally, inmates did not get enough exercise. Inmates often responded
to these problems by treating themselves or ignoring symptoms.
The ethnographic study produced a list of recommendations. It advised the state to simplify the
process required of inmates to receive health care, reduce or eliminate the copay because inmates
had little money, eliminate the MTA position, hire more qualified nurses and doctors, provide
translators, reduce overcrowding, and improve nutrition and sanitation. In response to these
recommendations the state increased translation services, eliminated the MTA position, and
started a process to reduce overcrowding. Other recommendations were taken under advisement.

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ARTICLE 38 QUESTIONS
True or False?
T

1.

According to Stryker in Ethnography in the Public Interest, public interest


ethnography looks at public policy from the perspective of those who are affected by it.

2.

In Ethnography in the Public Interest, Stryker notes that public interest ethnography
involves fieldwork among policy makers.

3.

As Stryker contends in Ethnography in the Public Interest, public interest


ethnography may achieve a redistribution of power that includes those affected by
policy.

4.

According to Stryker in Ethnography in the Public Interest, public interest


ethnography is aimed at redistribution of wealth in the United States.

5.

In Ethnography in the Public Interest, Stryker reports that a Latina inmate named
Nicole was subdued, stripped naked, and incarcerated separately when she experienced
complications related to a medication she was taking.

6.

In Ethnography in the Public Interest, Stryker admits that the Womens Prison
Healthcare Project she directed unfortunately failed to produce actionable
recommendations.

7.

According to Stryker in Ethnography in the Public Interest, female inmates at two


California prisons often avoided seeking treatment for their ailments, because getting
an appointment with a health care provider took so long and many inmates could not
afford the required copay.

8.

As indicated in Ethnography in the Public Interest, Stryker knew of female inmates in


two California prisons who sometimes faked ailments to receive medical treatment
faster.

9.

As indicated in Ethnography in the Public Interest, the ethnographic project Stryker


directed recommended that prisons should eliminate the medically trained guard
(MTA) position.

Multiple Choice
1.

According to Stryker in Ethnography in the Public Interest,


a. overcrowding was not a problem at the prisons she studied.
b. women were very well paid for the work they did in the prison.
c. women sometimes faked illness to get faster medical attention.
d. women had equal and unfettered access to adequate medical care.
Correct Answer: c
161

2.

According to Stryker in Ethnography in the Public Interest, the prison position of MTA
was held by a
a. nurse practitioner.
b. medically trained guard.
c. medical appointment secretary.
d. designated prison doctor.
Correct Answer: b

3.

According to Stryker in Ethnography in the Public Interest, in order to receive medical


treatment, female inmates in the California prison system had to
a. file a $10 copay form.
b. always see an MTA first.
c. always see a nurse practitioner first.
d. receive a ducat.
Correct Answer: d

4.

The purpose of public interest ethnography, in Strykers analysis in Ethnography in the


Public Interest, is to
a. study the motivations of policy makers.
b. assess the costs associated with a policy.
c. assess a policy from the perspective of those affected by it.
d. discover inconsistencies in a policy.
Correct Answer: c

5.

In Ethnography in the Public Interest, Strykers study determined that


a. there are adequate translation services in the prisons studied.
b. the number of MTA positions should be increased.
c. overcrowding had no impact on prisoners access to health care.
d. the MTA position should be eliminated.
Correct Answer: d

6.

According to Stryker in Ethnography in the Public Interest, the state asked the
ethnographic project she directed to assess
a. how women access health care in prison.
b. the effects of overcrowding.
c. whether the position of MTA should be abolished.
d. how much female inmates should be paid for their work.
Correct Answer: a

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Article 39
Using Anthropology

DAVID W. McCURDY

Summary In this article, McCurdy discusses some of the professional applications of


anthropology, such as in advertising, engineering, teaching, and business, to name a few. He also
argues that an anthropological perspectivecharacterized by ethnographic research, embracing
the concept of microculture, and cross-cultural sensitivitycan help professionals perform better
in a wide array of situations.
McCurdy illustrates his argument using the case of a newly appointed warehouse manager who
is called upon to improve service to customer outlets operated by UTC, a large corporation.
Instead of bringing in new rules and regulations, as most new managers do, she chose to
undertake an ethnographic approach during her six-week grace period. By using ethnographic
research she was able to discover the detailed nature of the problem, while building goodwill
with the warehouse employees.
The educational materials handled by the warehouse had been reaching customer outlets in poor
condition and in inaccurate amounts. Warehouse employees, who had been under great pressure
to work rapidly, had felt forced to estimate, rather than count, the materials they shipped to
outlets.
By having the books shrink-wrapped and reducing the size of the shipping boxes, the manager
was able to speed up work at the warehouse, ensure that the right number of books and other
materials was being shipped, and improved the condition of the goods at their destination.
By using an ethnographic approach, the new manager had revealed the problems at hand. Only
this made it possible to find realistic solutions.
ARTICLE 39 QUESTIONS
True or False?
F

1.

According to McCurdy in Using Anthropology, ethnographers work largely by


administering and analyzing questionnaires.

2.

As he describes it in his article Using Anthropology, McCurdy notes that one of the
problems at UTC was that warehouse workers failed to count books correctly.

3.

In Using Anthropology, McCurdy assesses that one disadvantage of using the


ethnographic approach in management is that workers come to feel that no one cares
about them.

4.

According to McCurdy in Using Anthropology, over half the Ph.D.s in anthropology


each year find employment outside of academia.
163

5.

McCurdy reports in Using Anthropology that an anthropologist who works as a


consultant discovered that Chicago-area natural gas consumers lied on questionnaires
when they said they were trying to conserve energy.

Multiple Choice
1.

According to McCurdy in Using Anthropology, the first thing a new manager at UTC did
after assuming a new position was to
a. shrink-wrap books in the warehouse.
b. ask warehouse workers, customer outlet staff, and other employees about problems and
procedures.
c. ask previous warehouse managers for advice.
d. change the counting and shipping procedures in the warehouse.
Correct Answer: b

2.

In Using Anthropology, McCurdy argues that


who study anthropology can take into daily life.
a. ethnography
b. knowledge of particular cultures
c. the ability to conduct survey research
d. knowledge of cross-cultural economics
Correct Answer: a

3.

The manager at UTC spent time learning the warehouse system as an insider views it, and
discovered that inaccurate warehouse inventory numbers resulted from
a. employees throwing away materials.
b. a problem with software that tracked inventory.
c. pressures on employees to work fast, preventing them from accurately counting
and recording what was shipped.
d. employee theft.
Correct Answer: c

4.

McCurdy claims in Using Anthropology that in many companies, newly installed


managers tend to
a. listen to their employees suggestions.
b. ask employees to teach them the new job.
c. leave their employees alone.
d. impose a new agenda on their employees.
Correct Answer: d

164

is an important skill that people

5.

According to McCurdy in Using Anthropology, an anthropologist was hired to find out


why customers of a utility company failed to reduce energy consumption, despite their
claims that they were trying to conserve. He discovered that
a. customers were lying.
b. thermostats were faulty.
c. meters were faulty.
d. fathers turned down thermostats, other family members turned them up.
Correct Answer: d

165