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What Should a Learner's


Dictionary Include?



An evaluative study of the quality and effectiveness


of three English-English Learners Dictionaries

Mohammed Y. Abu-Risha
Department of Translation
University of Petra - Jordan

ATIDA E-Library
www.atida.org/e-library
library@atida.org

Content
Abstract

....

Abbreviations and Definitions of Terms Used in This Study ... 3


I. Statement of Problem ... 4
II- Review of Related Literature ...
II.1. Bobda (1998) .
II.2. Ahulu (1998) ........
II.3. Hamdan and Fareh (1997) ....
II.4. Jackson (1996) ....

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III. Significance of Study

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IV. Developing a Heuristic Checklist

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V. Corpus Analysis and Discussion ...


V.1. Semantic Information .
V.2 Grammatical Information ..
V.3. Morphological Information .
V.4. Ancillary Information .

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VI. Conclusion and Recommendations ....


VI.1. Conclusion ....
VI.2. Recommendations ...

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Bibliography ..
Online References ..

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Appendices ..
Appendix 1: Idioms that can be learnt from each
dictionary under study ....
Appendix 2: Collocations, idioms and fixed expressions
that can be learnt from each dictionary .
Appendix 3: Table summarising the results of study

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Abstract
The present study aims at the comparison and contrast of three monolingual
(English-English) dictionaries namely: Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of
Current English, Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary and Cambridge
International Dictionary of English, with the learner in mind. It has been found
that there are differences in presenting lexical items in each of the three
dictionaries, which prompted me to invent a heuristic checklist against which each
dictionary is evaluated with reference to twenty six representative lexical items
chosen at random. While CCELD has been evaluated as No.1 among the three
dictionaries, the research is not meant to prefer one dictionary to another as much
as to reveal the characteristics that can meet the persisting needs of the learner.
Based on linguistic and statistical analysis, the discussion of the research results,
indeed, concludes that a good learner's dictionary is more than a paraphrase a
word.

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Abbreviations and Definitions of Terms Used in This Study

CCELD
CIDE
OLDCE

:
:
:

Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary


Cambridge International Dictionary of English
Oxford Learners Dictionary of Current English

Par= Paraphrase

DF= Derivational Forms

Lexi= Lexical relations


FT= Formality and register
CIE= Collocations, Idioms and
Fixed Expressions
PS= Part of Speech
CL= Classification of Lexemes
VAS= Verb Argument Structure
1= A method is available

IF= Inflectional Forms


BrP= British Pronunciation
AmP= American Pronunciation

DIC= Dictionary
Var= Variation of usage
T= Total.
0= A method is not available

Lexical relations: synonyms, antonyms, hyponyms etc


Classification of Lexemes: attributive or predicative or gradable
(adjective), countable or uncountable (nouns), etc.
Variation of usage: variation according to country as Britain, USA,
Australia, etc, Variation in spelling.
Verb Argument Structure transitive, intransitive, ditransitive etc.
Formality and register: formal, informal, slang, colloquial, vulgar,
scientific, literary, medical etc.

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I. Statement of Problem
A learner's dictionary is by definition targeted to satisfy the needs of
the learner who should be helped not only to learn the meanings of lexical
items (new to him/her), but also how to use each correctly and
idiomatically. It is our belief, therefore, that any dictionary, especially a
learner's dictionary should employ specific methods of presenting a word
to the learner. This paper propounds a set of methods to help assess the
efficiency of an English-English dictionary (See Appendix 3).
The present piece of research will shed light on these methods with
reference to the assessment of three English-English dictionaries, namely
Cambridge International Dictionary of English (CIDE), the Oxford
Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English (OLDCE) and Collins
Cobuild English Language Dictionary (CCELD).

II- Review of Related Literature


II.1. Bobda (1998)
In his article on British and American usage, Bobda argues that the
divergences between American and British English pose problems of
intelligibility that cannot be altogether overlooked (Bobda: 1998, 17). Not
only do these divergences emerge on the spelling or semantic levels, but
also transcend them to the syntactic properties of words. Quoted below are
some interesting examples provided by Bobda:
Accommodation: Singular (British English)  Plural (US English )
(Bobda:1998, 16)
- Snuck out in British English  sneaked out (US English) (Bobda: 1998,
16).
I visited with my friends (American English) for I visited my friends
(British English) (Bobda: 1998, 16) underlines added
The above example shows that the uncountable becomes countable,
the transitive becomes intransitive and so forth. With learners dictionaries
in mind, there is no doubt that problems of usage among the different
varieties of English are significant.
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II.2. Ahulu (1998)


Samuel Ahulu, in his article entitled Grammatical Variation in
International English, points to the grammatical divergences existing
between standard English on the one hand, and written English in
postcolonial countries on the other. Noun countability, for example, does
not seem the same in both British English and some postcolonial English.
The word furniture is uncountable in British English, and could occur in
utterances like: a piece of furniture and pieces of furniture. Some
uncountable nouns, however, are used as countable in English written in
postcolonial countries as: luggages, furnitures, accommodations,
informations, etc.
II.3. Hamdan and Fareh (1997)
Quite a large number of foreign learners are obsessed with the idea
that if two words are synonyms, they can be used interchangeably in any
context whatsoever. Hamdan and Fareh, In their discussion of verb
argument structure, have observed that not only is this idea wrong, but also
that this misconception may sometimes be inherent in and reinforced by a
number of dictionaries. Two sets of verbs have been chosen and scrutinised
in terms of their respective VAS (Verb Argument Structures). Each two
verbs are semantically synonymous, but do not share the same argument
structure. The following is an illustrative example:
Build can occur in (1)a. and (1)b. below, whereas its generally cited
synonym construct can only occur in (2)b.
(1)

a. Ali built a grand palace for Salma.


b. Ali built Salma a grand palace.

(2)

a. Ali constructed a grand palace for Salma.


b. * Ali constructed Salma a grand palace.

(Hamdan and Fareh: 1997, 197) underlines added


Upon discussing the various problems besetting some monolingual
dictionaries, in this specific area, the researchers have recommended that

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dictionary compilers consider the provision of some more detailed


information on the syntax of verbs (Hamdan and Fareh: 1997, 215).
II.4. Jackson (1996)
Jackson is of the opinion that a learners dictionary should take into
account that EFL learners employ language in two functions: decoding (i.e.
listening and reading), and encoding (i.e. speaking and writing) (Jackson:
1996, 176). Therefore, if a dictionary is to meet these two needs, it should be
keen to include such essential information as context(s) of use and clear
definitions of all senses of a word (lexeme) in addition to the appropriate
register and field. But first and foremost, Jackson maintains that a learners
dictionary must provide for accurate and detailed grammatical
information so that correct and natural sentences can be encoded (Jackson:
1996, 176). To these, he adds collocational information.
If these suggestions, posited by Jackson, are carefully observed, the
EFL learner may be able to get rid of his/her native language interference in
his speaking or writing in the second language (herein English).

III. Significance of Study


The English learner's monolingual dictionary is very essential for
students of English as a foreign language. It is usually in this dictionary a
student learns a word and learns how to idiomatically use it in English. It is
therefore important to check how far successful a dictionary is in fulfilling
the needs of the learner's.
A search on the internet revealed many sites giving assessments on learner's
dictionaries (the key words searched for are: "evaluation, assessment,
dictionary, dictionaries, learner's".
One of these sites is:
http://www.geth.demon.co.uk/voc.html. This site however, like other ones
found, presents assessment on the use of monolingual learner's dictionaries
based on personal experience only.
An interesting example about groundless evaluations of dictionaries
could found at the aforementioned site is an advice by the writers, i.e.
Gethin and Gunnemark, saying that "Dictionaries tooare often the great
enemies of word-learning". Paradoxically, the writers talk about students
whose repertoire of vocabulary is poor and are tired of checking the
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dictionary every now and then while reading. So what is and where is the
problem? Is it in the dictionary or in the learner?
This illustration shows how some assessments of dictionaries have
either lacked systematicity and authenticity or haven't been based on solid
grounds.
This study therefore fills in the gap by suggesting a systematic and
linguistic method of evaluating a learner's dictionary, something that will
benefit both the user and the researcher in this field.

IV. Developing a Heuristic checklist


The following heuristic checklist shows what a learner expects or
needs to find in a learners dictionary:
1- Semantic Information:
A- Definition by paraphrase (para)
B- Lexical Relations (Synonyms and/or antonyms and/or semantic
field and/or co-hyponyms)
C- Formality and Technicality (formal, informal, slang, colloquial,
and register)
I- Collocations, idioms and fixed expressions
II- Illustrative examples showing the actual grammatical usage of the word
2-Grammatical Information:
I-Parts of Speech
II-Verb Argument Structure
III-Classification of a non-verb Lexeme (i.e. countable and
uncountable nouns, gradable, attributive and predicative
(Adjectives), etc.)
IV-Grammatical use in sentences
3- Morphological Information:
I-Derivational forms of lexemes
II-Inflectional forms of lexemes
4-Ancillary Information
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I-Pronunciation (with special reference to BrE and AE)


II-Variation (Variation of usage or spelling in the various Englishes:
British, American, New-Zealand, Australian, Canadian, etc.)
The above points will be the parameters of examining the chosen lexemes in
this study.
5. The Corpus
The corpus incorporated in this study includes twenty six lexemes
chosen randomly to represent the English alphabets. They are as follows:
Awning (n), buy(v), cybernetics (n), dwell (v), exult (v), fuse (n),
gutter (n), hypochondriac (adj), itinerary (n), justice (n), knot (n), luster (n),
muzzle (n), nurture (v), owe (v), pussy (n), quirk (n), ruse (n), syntax (n),
typewriter(n), utilize (n), voucher (n), write-up (n), xenophobia (n), your
(pro), zigzag(n).
6. Method
A comparison has been drawn among the chosen incorporated words
in terms of the parameters mentioned in V above. A table of these words is
appended to this research, providing a comparison between the three
dictionaries in question. The different methods have been checked. The
symbol 0 signifies the absence of a method, while 1 stands for its presence.
The existing methods with respect to each word have been checked and the
total amount of these methods for each dictionary has been calculated for
statistical purposes.
Each parameter will be defined below. Samples of lexemes will be
discussed and compared vis--vis the three dictionaries: CCELD, OLDCE
and CIDEL.
Our ultimate goal will be to provide insights for producing a new
generation of learners English dictionaries, i.e. to answer the question
posited in the title of paper.
A detailed analysis of the corpus is provided in the appendix of this
study.
7. Limitations of Study

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The present study is restricted to the selected lexemes mentioned in V


and the heuristic checklist in IV above. Optimal arrangement of entries,
pictorial illustrations or computerised versions of the same three
dictionaries (i.e. OLDCE, CIDEL and CCELD) will not be considered in this
study. This study is not concerned with word etymology as well. The fact
that this research tackles three dictionaries only does not, however, limit its
scope of application to other ones.

V. Corpus Analysis and Discussion


V.1. Semantic Information
V.1.1. Paraphrase:
Paraphrase is perhaps the most commonly used method of defining a
word in a dictionary. It provides a semantic analysis of the word in terms
of a number of features as shape, type, manner, constituents, etc. all of
which pertain to what the word stands for. Consider, for example the
following entry:
Awning n canvas or plastic sheet fixed to a wall above a door or
window and stretched out as a protection against rain or sun.
(Sinclair et al, 1990)
Here, paraphrase enables the learner to learn that an awning could be
(1) made of canvas or plastic (2) placed above a door or window, or (3) used
for protecting the doors or windows from rain.
The table below shows that paraphrase has been used to a
considerable degree in the three dictionaries in question:
Table (1)
The Percentage of Using the Paraphrase Method
in the Three Dictionaries
CIDE
Wd No.
26
Wd
No. 23
Para.
Percentage 88.46%
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OLDCE
26
25

CCELD
26
26

96.15%

100%
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Obviously, CCELD is the only dictionary that makes full utilisation of


paraphrase method in word definition. OLDCE follows, and then comes
CIDE.
Paraphrase is an effective device, which can be used however in an
inefficient way. It is supposed to provide considerable details on the
meaning of the word in question. The following is an illustrative review of
how the method of paraphrase has been used in the three dictionaries. This
review will enable us then to test the efficiency of this method in word
definition.
1- Dwell (v)
The way CCELD paraphrases this word is rather poor in comparison with
the rest of dictionaries. It states that if you dwell somewhere, you live
there. Such a definition wouldnt be sufficient, for the learner is likely to
be at a loss in differentiating between dwell and live. OLDCE provides
some further information but its paraphrase is still inefficient. CIDE states
that dwell is associated with a particular way but still it does not explain
how this word is distinct from live.
2-Exult (v)
The three dictionaries share the meaning of exult as "to show pleasure."
They differ however in explaining the way it is used, as follows:
a- to show great pleasure or happiness esp. at someone elses defeat or
failure (CIDE)
b- you feel and show great happiness and pleasure because of some
triumph or success you have. (CCELD)
- you speak in a way which indicates how pleased or proud
you are of something that has happened. (CCELD)
a-get great pleasure from something; rejoice greatly. (OLDCE )
3- Fuse (n)
CIDE again is more detailed on the matter. It states that a fuse melts
when the electric current is too high and so it prevents fire or other

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dangers. CCELD roughly states the same information. OLDCE however


is so brief as it does not denote the use of fuse in electrical devices.
4- Hypochondriac (adj.)
CCELD makes use of paraphrase here, while CIDE does not define the
word at all. As for OLDCE, it uses a narrow paraphrase in such a way as
the learner will be obliged to refer to the noun of this adjective to
understand the meaning. This way of definition is tiring and time
consuming for the learner who has to refer every now and then to other
derivatives in other entries to fully understand the word in question.
5- Itinerary (n.)
This item shows clearly how OLDCE is so concise in its paraphrase of
lexeme. The present item is not made clear through paraphrase, a matter
that may lead the learner to misunderstand the whole word. This in turn
will negatively affect the idiomatic use of the word in question.
CIDE, on the other hand, makes clear the notion of itinerary by
distinguishing it from plan, for an itinerary is a detailed plan. But
still this paraphrase is still rather vague and needs to be more illustrated by
means of specifying exactly the very nature and the use of the signified of
the word itinerary.
CCELD renders a plausible paraphrase of itinerary elucidating the
nature of the signified meaning. However, it still lacks some important
information, as for instance, the fact that an itinerary is a detailed plan.
Other pieces of information not given through paraphrase in the
present example are something like:
- a person who uses itinerary is likely to be a tourist or
traveler.
- An itinerary is likely to be used when you visit a place that
you don't have an idea about.
6- Justice (n.)
The major difference between the three dictionaries lies in the first
sense of the word or the first meaning to be paraphrased. While the legal
sense comes first in CIDE, the general sense of the word (referring to fair
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behavior or treatment) is dominant in the remaining two dictionaries. In


this regard, the researcher is of the opinion that the most familiar sense of
the word should be stated first. This familiar sense is likely to be the one a
learner wants to look up in the dictionary. The most successful dictionary,
here, would be CCELD, which seems to have divided the word into senses
on a scale of the learners familiarity with the word. Each sense is
paraphrased precisely giving the learner much information on how use the
word in different contexts.
OLDCE starts with the most familiar sense of the word, i.e. right and
fair behaviour, yet its paraphrase is not so satisfactory as that of CCELD.
CIDE begins with the very legal sense of the word, i.e. the putting of the
law into action. The other senses are not mentioned here.
7- Knot (n.)
The problem of sense arrangement occurs once again in this item.
OLDCE begins with the most familiar sense which is a fastening made by
tying a piece or pieces of string, rope, etc., moving downward to the
uncommon senses ending with knot as a unit of speed measurement.
What distinguishes OLDCE from the other dictionaries is the addition of
another sense of the word ornament or decoration made of ribbon, etc
twisted and tied. Paraphrase in this dictionary however is still concise and
could hardly let the learner perceive and use the word properly.
CIDE begins with paraphrasing the word in its most common sense,
but then it suddenly mentions something related to another sense, i.e. to feel
uncomfortable. Despite the inappropriateness of sense arrangement, CIDE
seems to give well-constructed and easy-to-understand paraphrase of the
senses pertaining to the word in question.
CCELD is more elaborate in its paraphrase of the word knot. It
specifies that a knot may occur not only in ropes and strings, but also in
any other material where one end or part has passed through a loop and
been pulled tight. There seems to be a good arrangement of senses on a
scale of familiarity. The most common sense is placed before the less
common ones.
8-Nurture (IV.)

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CCELD and CIDE are roughly the same in their presentation and
definition of the word nurture. The problem is with OLDCE, which
ignores one of the senses, i.e. nurturing emotions, ideas, plans, etc.. Even
the senses it provides are not made clear enough, for what do we expect a
learner to learn when we tell him that to nurture is to encourage the
growth of something, or to nourish something? How can the learner be
sure that he is correctly saying, for example: "They are nurturing their
business"?
We notice here that the paraphrase method has been effectively
utilised in both CCELD and CIDE. This is not the case with OLDCE, which
does not seem to have successfully used the paraphrase method, which
proves to be very important in this example.
9- Syntax (n.)
OLDCE here is the most elaborate one. It precisely mentions that
syntax is the arrangement of words into phrases and phrases into
sentences. Next comes CIDE which does not mention anything about
"phrases". Finally comes CCELD which pays no attention to "phrases" or
"sentences".
From the above discussion we conclude that paraphrase is an
important method that may provide the learner with significant
information. It has also been obvious that even an efficient use of
paraphrase may not lead to the learners full understanding of a word. This
means that such purpose could be realised only when paraphrase goes
hands in hands efficiently with other methods.
V.1.2. Lexical Relations:
Following paraphrase, dictionaries usually resort to some items that
share lexical relations with the word under consideration for elucidating
purposes. These relations may include references to other words of similar
meaning (synonyms), broader meaning (superordinates), opposite meaning
(antonyms) or of the same semantic field (hyponyms). Before we begin our
analysis, it is important to tackle a problem of using synonyms. We must
not, however, assume that a learners dictionary should be involved in
telling all possible lexical relations, because this would fall in the domain of
a thesaurus rather than a dictionary.

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As seen in II.3, Hamdan and Fareh (1997) have shown some


reservation against the use of synonyms in illustrating the meaning of a
word. Arguing that a dictionary may be a potential source of error, they
say that two synonyms may be similar in meaning but differ in their
syntactic properties. The researcher, however, believes that this reservation
should not address a learners dictionaries, but rather dictionaries of
synonyms. For illustration, consider the following citation quoted from
Websters Dictionary of Synonyms (WDS) in connection with the synonyms
Buy and Purchase (that are among the pairs examined by Hamdan and
Fareh (1997):
.the words [buy and purchase] are often used
interchangeably without loss. buy may almost
always be substituted for purchase without
disadvantage.
(Webster, 1951:135) emphasis added
If a learner were to follow the above quotation, he would inevitably
think that both buy and purchase enjoy the same syntactic properties.
You can say for instance:
He bought me a house.
But not:
* He purchased me a house.
This misconception may also extend to other pairs of synonyms.
This problem inheres only in dictionaries of synonyms. As for
learners dictionaries, synonyms are words through which a sense is made
clear by means of mentioning a more common word of similar meaning.
Nevertheless, it is the DUTY of all learners' dictionaries to point out the
question of synonymy in their front matters warning the learner against
such misusage of synonyms.
Another point worth mentioning is the fact that a dictionary is not a
reference book of syntax. If a dictionary must allude every now and then to
the syntactic differences among synonyms, then it is likely going to be
anything but a dictionary.
The present study, accordingly, will consider synonyms, antonyms
and hyponyms as important advantageous devices for meaning
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clarification.
The following table shows to what extent the three
dictionaries observe lexical relations:
Table (2)
The Percentage of Using the Lexical Relations Method
in the Three Dictionaries

Wd. No.
Wd No. Lex.
Percentage

CIDE
26
10
38.46%

OLDCE
26
6
23.08%

CCELD
26
19
73.08%

It seems that sense relations have been observed and employed to a


considerable degree by CCELD. Following comes CIDE and then OLDCE.
It should be noted, however, that CIDE and OLDCE sometimes provide
synonyms implicitly in their paraphrase of words.
As far as CIDE is concerned, a close scrutiny reveals that this
dictionary resorts to sense relations, namely synonyms, to serve other
purposes than elucidating the meaning of a word (Consider relevant
discussion on Awning and Buy for example.)
1-Awning (n)
Two synonyms and one superordinate are mentioned in CCELD,
while CIDE observes other synonyms sunshade and sunblind. OLDCE
states no synonyms. Although synonyms in this example are not
erroneous, the absence of these synonyms may not prevent the learner's full
understanding and consequently use of the word in question, which has
been fully explained by paraphrase.
CIDEs mentioning of the two synonyms is intended to differentiate
between various usages of different varieties of English. CIDE says here
that Awning is mainly used in British English, while sunshade and
sunblind are used to express the same meaning in the USA and Australia
respectively.
2-Dwell (v)
The paraphrase of dwell attempted by CCELD has been insufficient
to provide for a good understanding of the same item. A superordinate
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reside is placed to fill in the gap. This is not the case with OLDCE, which
implicitly states that dwell = reside in terms of meaning. It is now
obvious that while a dictionary may discern the relationship between two
words as synonyms, other ones may consider them as hyponym and
superordinate in a semantic field.
3-Exult (v)
CCELD specifies two superordinates: rejoice and say in addition
to two synonyms: glory and crow. These lexical items are not placed
randomly, but in such a way as to the learner some knowledge of lexical
relations with the word in each relevant sense. This will enhance the
learners understanding of the polysemous nature of some words. CIDE
should have resorted to such synonyms to fill in the gap created by a brief
paraphrase.
4- Buy (v)
CCELD uses only two synonyms: purchase and gain in addition
to one superordinate bribe. Other synonyms should have been stated
such as those observed (implicitly) in OLDCE. In its paraphrase of the
word, OLDCE mentions such synonyms as purchase, obtain, believe
and delay. CIDE, on the other hand, mentions such synonyms as pay
for and believe (referred to by CIDE as GUIDE WORDS) for purposes of
entry design. CIDE uses such guide words to help the learner find which
meaning he wants quickly.
None of the dictionaries has observed the antonym sell.
5- Gutter (n)
Channel is the only synonym mentioned in CCELD, CIDE and
OLDCE. Other synonyms could have been given including cesspool,
sink, drain and sump, but paraphrase is sufficient in explaining this
word.
6- Itinerary (n)
The meaning of this item could be grasped without resorting to lexical
relations. In this example, we note how synonyms could be used
inappropriately. CCELD gives programme as a synonym of the subject

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item, which is totally incorrect. A programme is far distinct in meaning


from an itinerary. This will lead us to conclude that an overuse of
synonyms could be unhealthy. A better synonym could be something like
guidebook, while programme, schedule and timetable could be
stated as co-hyponyms.
7- Pussy (n)
Pussy in its informal or slang usage refers to the female genitals.
There are of course other slang and informal synonyms of the word, none of
which is mentioned by any of the three dictionaries. The researcher
believes that a dictionary in explaining such an item must provide the more
formal or technical synonyms that could be used safely without causing any
kind of embarrassment or inconvenience. Such synonyms could be like the
more common term vagina or the more technical theca.
8- Quirk (n)
The synonym idiosyncrasy is used by CCELD. This synonym,
however, may be somewhat vague for non-native speakers of English. It is
recommended therefore that other synonyms are stated such as
"eccentricity, peculiarity, distinctive feature, trademark, mannerism, foible"
V.1.3. Formality and Technicality
A learner must be kept aware of the social attitude of native speakers
towards a specific word. Any use of a word in an inappropriate context
may lead the learner to an embarrassing situation or may cause him to utter
an odd, even awkward, utterance in the foreign language. It is an
advantage for a dictionary, therefore, to provide where necessary, in what
situation the item could be used, such as in informal, formal, frozen
or other situations. The present study shows that in terms of formality and
technicality, CCELD seems to dominate, followed by CIDE and then by
OLDCE as shown in the table below:

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Table (3)
The Percentage of Using
Formality and Technicality Method in the Three Dictionaries

Wd. No.
Wd. No.
Formality
Percentage

CIDE
26
6

OLDCE
26
6

CCELD
26
11

23.08%

23.08%

42.31%

The above table tells us that the three dictionaries do not cover all
items in terms of formality. Consider for instance the following examples:
- CIDE does not observe as formal the following items:
Fuse, itinerary, owe, ruse, and your
- As for OLDCE, these are:
Dwell, nurture, ruse and syntax
- CCELD ignores the formality of:
Fuse, itinerary, and owe
Consider also the verb buy. CIDE seems to be the only one to state
that the expression to buy yourself is used in the military in British
English.
V.1.4. Collocations, Idioms and Fixed Expressions
Recognising the meaning of a word, its lexical relations with other
words and its level of formality does not guarantee an idiomatic use of the
same word. There is in every language a specific non-systematic way of
combining words together. A collocation is simply a habitual co-occurrence
of two or more words. For instance, you can say I go home but not I go
house, or green with jealousy and not blue with jealously. Also, one
can discern the meaning of the collocation through the accumulation of the
meanings of its various constituents. Idioms on the other hand are more
fossilised due to the fact that they are syntactically restricted and that
they are rather metaphorical as to the meaning of the whole idiom is not the
accumulation of the meanings of its constituents. Consider the following
example:
He kicked the bucket. (= He died).

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* The bucket was kicked by him.


The outstanding problems and difficulties besetting the lexicographer,
in this regard, could be summarised in the following questions:
1. Where should collocations and idioms be extracted from?
2. How could it be tested that the selected collocations and idioms are
actual and real utterances said by native speakers of English? How
could one be sure that an idiom or collocation one chooses are not
mere idiosyncrasies.
3. Are the selected idioms and collocations up-to-date, or have they
become obsolete?
A learner my understand the meaning of specific words, but may
combine them erroneously, in terms of collocational and idiomatic meaning.
Thus, providing some collocations and idioms within the dictionary entry
seems to be inescapable.
Collocations and idioms grow with the growth of everyday language
and are unlikely to be limited. Thus, they and may not be comprehensively
encompassed in the learners' dictionary. The most commonly used ones,
however, should be stated and explained. In the following, we shall try to
see how much collocations the three dictionaries provided in this field. The
table below shows the percentage of using the method of idioms and
collocations in the three dictionaries:
Table (4)
The Percentage of Using
Idioms and Collocations Method in the Three Dictionaries
CIDE
Wd. No.
26
Wd.
No. 10
CIE.
Percentage 38.46%

OLDCE
26
6

CCELD
26
5

23.08%

19.23%

In appendix 2, a table shows how the three dictionaries have provided


for collocations and idioms.

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V.1.5. Illustrative Examples of Usage


We close our analysis in the semantic domain with illustrative
examples of usage, which are perhaps the most important feature a
learners dictionary must exhibit. A learner may understand the meaning of
a word through paraphrase, yet he may be unable to use it correctly and
appropriately. A review of the most recent English-English learners
dictionaries would tell us that the current trend is towards using authentic
illustrative examples of actual use by native speakers of English. The
following table shows the extent to which the three dictionaries have used
this method:
Table (5)
The Percentage of Using
The Illustrative Examples Method in the Three Dictionaries

NW
NWI1
Percentage

CIDE
26
25
96.15%

OLDCE
26
18
69.23%

CCELD
26
26
100%

Once again, we have to consider an important question: do the three


dictionaries use the method of illustrative examples to the optimal degree?
Or in other words, is this method efficiently utilised?
In order for an illustrative example to function efficiently, it should
(among other things):
1. be actually said by a native speaker (it should not be the
lexicographers own invention)
2. provide the user with some basic syntactic characteristics of the word
3. provide the user with some basic semantic characteristics of the word
(collocations, idioms, etc)
4. Social Use
Syntactic properties include questions on transitivity, word order,
countability, gradability etc. This information has been on the whole
provided in examples by the three dictionaries.

Number of Words using the Illustrative Examples Method

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Take for instance the following examples:


1- Buy (v)
Let me buy you a drink (CCELD)  buy + Oi + Od
Money cant buy happiness (OLDCE )  buy + Od
Notice also the following self-explanatory example given by CIDE:
He bought his mother some flowers/ He bought some flowers
to his mother.
2- Cybernetics (n)
CCELD is the only dictionary here that illustrates the use of the word.
This use, however, seems to be a luxury. The world of cybernetics or the
cybernetics department are unlikely to add to our knowledge of the word
in terms of its syntactic or semantic properties. For that reason, it seems
that CCELD and OLDCE have preferred not to give any example.
3- Dwell (v)
There are three examples in CIDE, and one in each of COBUILD and
OLDCE. CIDE stresses two important uses of the verb dwell, so we can
say: dwell in + Place or Dwell with + Someone.
4- Exult (v)
Examples have been given in each dictionary illustrating how to use
the word with in/at. CIDE, however, adds exult over.
5- Owe (v)
Notice:
We owe you our thanks / We owe our thanks to you (CIDE)
I owe my parents an enormous amount / I owe an enormous amount
to my parents. (CIDE)
One way of examining the efficiency in using the illustrative examples
methods is by answering the following question: How many idioms and

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expressions or collocations have I learnt from the examples provided in the


three dictionaries? The answer is illustrated through the following table:
Table (6)
The Efficiency of the Illustrative Examples Method
CIDE
NW
26
Collocations 51
Idioms
14
Col + Idioms 65

OLDCE
26
30
7
37

CCELD
26
45
19
64

The above table tells us that CCELD and CIDE are more useful than
OLDCE on terms of illustrative examples efficiency. It is worth mentioning
that OLDCE seems to be focusing, in an unjustifiable manner, and relying
on condensed examples and phrases rather than clauses or complete
sentences.
V.2

Grammatical Information

One of the main properties that distinguish a learners dictionary is


that grammatical information is more detailed than an ordinary dictionary.
Part of speech, for instance, could be said to be ancillary in any dictionary
but the learners. Take the following example:
In Arabic, to use the word
is used as an intransitive verb, while in
English the counterpart of this word is usually transitive:


The man disguised himself as a policeman.


Should a learners dictionary be oblivious to this fact, it would be more
amenable to causing perplexity and language interference problems in the
use of words by a non-native speaker.
It is interesting to note that CIDE disperses many syntactic rules and
grammatical information, not only within word entries, but also in the
course of its body. After explaining the word compare, for example,

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CIDE draws a frame in which the concept of comparing and grading is


explained and discussed elaborately.
In the ensuing sections of this part, we shall look into three basic
elements of grammatical properties of words, i.e. the part of speech, verb
argument structure and classification of lexemes (other than verbs).
Grammatical information is restricted in this paper to: part of speech,
verb argument structure and grammatical classification of non-verbs.
V.2.1 Part of Speech
The part of speech has been fully observed by the three dictionaries
with respect to all words of the present corpus. CCELD, however, has an
advantage over the other two dictionaries for its clear labeling of the part of
speech. All labels referring to nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc. are placed on
the left margin with respect to each sense of the word, so these labels are
easy to notice and easy to understand. The other two dictionaries have
preferred to place the label directly after the pronunciation or the sense of
the word.
V.2.2 Verb Argument Structure
The most detailed grammatical information in a learners dictionary is
that given to verbs since:
verb syntax is essentially the syntax of the clause, and it is where
there are probably more differences between languages. The verb
lexeme in a clause determines the potential occurrence of the other
elements in the clause.
(Jackson, 1996:180)
Of the twenty six words of the corpus, only six words are verbs.
These are: buy, dwell, exult, nurture, owe and utilise. Other words of the
corpus that could be used as nouns are excluded, simply because they have
been randomly chosen as non-verbs.
As we have mentioned earlier, grammatical properties, including verb
argument structure, are clearer in CCELD than the other two dictionaries.
Not all the selected verbs are covered in terms of their arguments. Consider
the following table:

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Table (7)
Verb Argument Structure
CIDE
No. of Verbs
6
Wd.
No. 5
explaining
VAS
83.33%
Percentage

OLDCE
6
6

CCELD
6
6

100%

100%

The verb buy is excluded form the verb argument structure analysis.
1-Dwell (v)
CCELD states that dwell is followed by an adverbial, but the illustrative
example is a bit syntactically perplexing. The problem is with the word
somewhere, for this may impede a learners interpreting of the word.
After reading the definition of the word, an Arab EFL learner has produced
the following sentence which is totally erroneous:
* He

has dwelt

Amman.
somewhere

OLDCE, on the other hand, does not state that dwell could occur in
an NP-VP-PP structure, through it does say that dwell is intransitive.
The problem is resolved in CIDE, which states that dwell is a verb
that is always followed by an adverb or preposition. Two illustrative
examples are given to show how the word is used with the prepositions in
and with.
The word dwell should have been syntactically defined as: int.,
V+A/PP.
2-Exult (v)
The syntactic information regarding exult is made implicit, through
illustrative examples, in CIDE and in OLDCE, the latter of which provides
some vague symbols like I, Ipr, It. Although illustrative examples help us
understand the syntactic properties of the word in CIDE and OLDCE, these

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properties seem to be much clearer in CCELD. Consider the following


syntactic features of exult as mentioned in CCELD:
a) The first sense of exult is usually used with an adverb
b) The second sense of exult is used after a quotation
c) The third sense of exult is usually used with an adverb
3- Nurture (v)
There is nothing remarkable concerning the syntactic properties of
this word, as the three dictionaries mention that it is transitive and takes an
object.
4-Owe (v)
CIDE states that the word is stative and cannot be used in the progressive
tense as to say: is owing. This has been indicated by the mentioning of:
[T not be owing]. CCELD however is more elaborate and clear in terms of
the syntactic features of the different senses when specifying the following
arguments:
a. V+O
b. V+O+O
c. V+O+A (to)
d. V+O+O
e. V+O+O
f. V+O+A+ (to)
OLDCE is still vague in its representation as it provides mere symbols
lacking illustration, which is not a good feature of a learners dictionary.
5-Utilise (v)
Nothing of much importance could be said regarding this word, as
the three dictionaries state that the word is transitive, and provide
illustrative examples.
It seems, however, that none of the three dictionaries have indicated
whether a verb is stative (cannot occur in the progressive) or dynamic (can
occur in the progressive).
V.2.3 Classification of Non-verb Lexemes
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Here, we talk about noun countability and adjective gradability.


These two features should be observed in learners dictionaries, because of
the lack of a one-to-one correspondence among words of different
languages in this regard.
Beside verbs, the twenty-six-word corpus incorporates twenty nouns
and adjectives. By observing the countability of noun, a learner becomes
sure that he may derive a plural of this noun, or use an indefinite article
before it. Gradability, on the other hand, would inform us if we can derive
the comparative and superlative forms by adding -er and est respectively,
or pre-modifying it by very. The three dictionaries, once again, differ in
using this method. The following table is illustrative:
Table (8)
Classification of Lexemes (Other than Verbs)

Total No.
Feature Used
Percentage

CIDE
20
13
65%

OLDCE
20
8
40%

CCELD
20
14
70%

CCELD, therefore, makes more use of the classification feature. The


opposite is true for OLDCE, which does not seem to rely to a large degree
on countability and gradability.
As for adjectives, Quirk et al (1972) observe that:
adjectives are distinguished positively by their ability to function
attributively and/or their ability to function predicatively after
intensive verbs, including 'seem'
(Quirk et al. 1972: 234)
Two adjectives appear in the corpus, namely hypochondriac and
xenophobic.
None of the three dictionaries provide an explicit
explanation on the correct use of these adjectives (i.e. in terms of
attributivity and predicativity). CCELD and CIDE at least illustrate through
examples how these adjectives are used predicatively. OLDCE is short on
this specific point.

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The three dictionaries, on the whole, are not satisfactory when it


comes to specifying the kinds of adjectives.
CIDE, however, is (grammatically speaking) distinguished from the
other two dictionaries with an important and significant feature. It does
provide every now and then grammatical and syntactic information that
would be of great assistance to the learner. Check the said dictionary and
consider, for instance, the front matter (pages xiii-xviii). It includes brief but
simple and easy-to-grasp information on word classes: their forms and
functions.
V.3. Morphological Information
Morphology deals with the internal structure of words in terms of
their derivations and inflections. The question that arises in this study
regarding morphological investigation is: does a dictionary provide the
learner with the derivations and inflections of a word?
Table (9) below shows how CCELD has been keen in providing all
possible morphological information of the word within the same entry.
This does not seem the case with CIDE and OLDCE.
Table (9)
Morphological Information (Derivation and Inflection)

Total of Words
Derivation
Inflection
Total
Percentage

CIDE
26
10
3
13
50%

OLDCE
26
9
4
13
50%

CCELD
26
7
12
19
73.08%

Examples form CCELD are: awnings for awning, bought for


buy, exulting for exult, etc. An example for CIDE is: itinerarition for
itinerary. As for OLDCE , an example is lustrously for lustre.
V.4. Ancillary Information
It is true that paraphrase is perhaps the most important part of the
definition of a word, but it is also a fact that in most dictionaries,
lexicographers tend to provide some additional ancillary information. Such
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ancillary information may provide the learner with a further degree of


knowledge concerning the word in question. These pieces of information
are ancillary, as they may be omitted altogether from the entry without
affecting the learner understands of the word.
A problem, however, may arise on the surface if we take into account
the diversity of learners levels of education. A beginner, for instance, may
find every single detail important for learning the word, while an advanced
learner may find a lot of methods in dictionaries nothing but a luxury, that
he can do without.
Ancillary information may include regional dialects, pronunciations,
variations of usage, formality and technicality etc. For the purposes of the
present study, ancillary information will be restricted to pronunciation and
variation of usage.
V.4.1 Pronunciation
With regard to the British pronunciation, all words of the corpus have
been observed in CCELD and CIDE. As for OLDCE, it ignores one single
word only, that is xenophobic.
Beside the British pronunciation, CIDE provides for American and
Australian pronunciations where applicable. Examples are: awning,
cybernetics, gutter, quirk, etc.
CCELD observes the British pronunciation only, simply because it
states that the dictionary is directed for those who are mainly interested in
learning British English.
The three dictionaries use the same standard phonetic symbols.
V.4.2 Variation of Usage
It has been stated above in II.1 that American English and British
English may differ in using the same word semantically and syntactically.
It has also been stated that a good learners dictionary may have to mention
these differences of usage. The term variation of usage will be used here
to refer to either of the following two notions: (1) variation in spelling, and
(2) syntactic and/or semantic variation in usage.

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Table (10):
Variation of Usage

Total of Words
Wd. No. VAR
Percentage

CIDE
26
8
30.77%

OLDCE
26
3
11.54%

CCELD
26
2
7.69%

In this arena CIDE, dominates. 30.77% of the total words in the


corpus have been observed in terms of variation of usage among British
English, American English and Australian English. Consider the following
for examples pertaining to the present analysis:
1-Awning (n)
CIDE draws the attention of the learner that this word is mainly used
in British English, while other synonyms are used to refer to the same
meaning in Australian English sunshade and Australian English
sunblind. English and American pronunciations are provided.
2- Buy (v)
CIDE observes that the following expressions that involve the verb
buy are used only in British English:
- We bought in (=bought for future use)
- You buy yourself (=you pay a sum of money so that you
can leave earlier)
It also observes the following expression as used in informal American
English:
- You buy the farm (you die)
3-Fuse (n)
CCELD states one of the senses of the form as used in informal
English. CIDE, however, observes the following usage:
The fuse has gone / has broken (British and Australian English) (The
neutral expression is The fuse has blown)

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4- Justice (n)
Consider the following usages observed by CIDE and CCELD:
- Justice is a judge (American English)
- Justice as a part of a title of a judge (British English) [CIDE adds that
it is also used as such in Australian English)
- Justice of the peace (American English as CIDE specifies)
Of the three dictionaries, OLDCE does not seem to give much
consideration to this method.

VI. Conclusion and Recommendations:


VI.I. Conclusion:
This study has been concerned with three dictionaries: Oxford
Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English, Collins Cobuild English
Language Dictionary and Cambridge International Dictionary of English. A
set of methods has been set up in the form of a heuristicchecklist and
twenty six words have been randomly chosen to form the corpus of the
study. The corpus has been examined with respect to three major domains:
Semantic Component, Grammatical Information and Ancillary Information.
The findings have been organised and provided in the appendices of this
study.
The findings of the present piece of research have proved useful in
evaluating how much the learner learns in consulting any of the three
dictionaries named above. In other words, the ultimate goal of our
discussion is to arrive at a point where we can understand whether the
learners knowledge with respect to a word has been enhanced or not.
Following is an overall analysis and evaluation of the three dictionaries:
1-Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English
OLDCE has proved to be somehow insufficient and inefficient in the three
domains of the heuristic checklist. Paraphrase is rather concise, illustrative
examples are limited and restricted to fragments and phrases instead of
clauses and sentences. Lexical relations are also rare (23.08%). There are,
however, a few examples illustrating the use of words, though these

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examples are in the form of fragments and phrases rather than full
sentences or clauses. These illustrative examples are also poor in
collocations and fixed expressions.
In the syntactic standpoint, OLDCE pays attention to all verbs of the
corpus in terms of their argument structures. This is a good advantage, yet
OLDCE needs to revise the nature and positions of symbols in this regard.
These symbols have proved to be difficult to understand by the learner, and
should be placed on the margin of every sense so they can be clearly and
easily identified. Stative and Dynamic labels should also be taken into
account.
OLDCE still needs to further its presentation in terms of noun
countability and adjective classification (gradable and non-gradable,
attributive or predicative).
It is optional for OLDCE to enter the variation of usage in
international English as a new feature or method of defining a word. Also,
it is not obligatory for it to display the pronunciations of British English and
American English simultaneously.
2-Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary
On the semantic level, this dictionary has been satisfactory in
providing a good paraphrase of words, lexical relations including
synonyms, antonyms and superordinates. Formality and technicality have
been observed in 42.31% of the words, but what gives CCELD advantage
over other dictionaries is its use of illustrative examples with respect to all
the twenty six words of the corpus. CCELD has passed the efficiency test
we have previously posited for examining this use against the question:
How much do these illustrative examples provide for collocations and
idioms? The result is amusing, 64 collocations and expressions could be
learnt from the twenty six words definitions.
On the syntactic level, CCELD has been keen in providing all
argument structures of each single sense of the 6 verbs incorporated in the
corpus. Noun countability has been fully observed, but the dictionary
needs to specify explicitly the gradability of adjectives. The illustrative
examples should be reviewed in a manner that they would contain much
syntactic information of the word when it comes in a clause or a sentence.

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CCELD has well observed, as well, the derivational and inflectional


forms of the majority of words concerned. CELD states its main interest in
the introductory as the target learner of British English. In view of this, it
would not be obligatory that CCELD observes the variations of spelling,
pronunciation and lexical usage among the various English varieties. It has
however, in some cases, provided for information on specific expressions
used only by the American English speakers.
3- Cambridge International Dictionary of English
The dictionary on the whole is interesting and satisfactory, with some
reservations on the style of presentation.
CIDE, nevertheless, is
characterised by the organisation of its word-senses and labeling each sense
with a Guide Word that facilitate the process of looking up a word.
Syntactic information and rules are also made available in the front matter
as well as in the body (where appropriate). Illustrative examples are also
efficiently utilised. These provide the learner with some syntactic and
semantic features of the word concerned. Collocations, idioms and
expressions exist. CIDE, moreover, has the following unique features:
1. It pays attention to the pronunciations of other varieties of English,
such as American English and Australian English in addition to
British English.
2. It warns the learner of using false friends. This will help reduce the
interference of the learners mother tongue in his learning of English.
3. It keeps the learner aware of the semantic differences in using words
by various English varieties. An example has been noted in the above
discussion, when CIDE states that while British English uses awning,
American English uses sunshade and Australian English uses
sunblind to refer to the same meaning.
CIDE is on the whole presentable, meaning that is comfortable to use, yet
it needs a re-arrangement of its symbols regarding the verb argument
structure features and other ones pertaining to other classes of words such
as adjectives, nouns, prepositions, etc.
VI.2. Recommendations
What should a learner's dictionary include? This question, the title
of the paper, should be answered by both the learner and the lexicographer.
On the one hand, the learner should define his needs and know exactly
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whether a dictionary he has bought fulfills his needs in learning a foreign


language. On the other hand, the lexicographer should be aware of the real
needs in all the fields according to the heuristic checklist devised in this
paper.
We recommend also that further studies touch on some areas not
covered in this paper such as: overall presentation, cultural information
necessary for understanding a word or one of its senses, word etymology,
false friends, computerized versions of learner's dictionaries.
The learner's dictionary is in fact not a book of syntax or morphology,
i.e. such pieces of information should not be very elaborate in the
dictionary, but it should be satisfactory when the learner learns a word or
one of its senses.
As far as ancillary information is concerned, it is recommended that a
dictionary provides such information as: tables that shows frequency of
words, irregular verbs, colors and words ending with certain suffixes like
logy, -ism, etc.

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Bibliography
1- Allee, John. 1951. Websters Dictionary of Synonyms. G. & C. Meriam
Co. Publishers, USA.
2- Ahulu, S. 1998. Grammatical Variation in International English. English
Today, 14(4): 13-18. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.
3- Bobda, A. 1998. British or American English: Does it matter?. English
Today, 14(4): 13-18, Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.
4- Cowise, Anthony (ed.). 1995. Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of
Current English. Oxford. Oxford University Press.
5- Hamdan J. and Fareh, S.1997. Dictionaries as a potential Source of Error
for Arab EFL Learners: Evidence from verb Argument Structures Studia
Anglica Posaniensia, XXXII, pp. 21-41
6- Jackson, H. 1996. Words and Their Meanings. London. Longman
7- Loughridge, B. 1990. Which Dictionary?. London. Library Association
Publishing Ltd.
8- Procter et al. 1997. (low-price edition), Cambridge International
Dictionary of English. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press, UK.
9- Quirk, R. Greenbaum, S. Leech, G. and Svartvik, J. 1972. A Grammar of
Contemporary English. London. Longman
10- Sinclair, J. et al. 1997 (reprinted edition). Collins Cobuild Dictionary of
Idioms, Williams Collins Sons & Co. Ltd., UK
11- Sinclair, J. et. al. 1990. Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary.
London. Williams Collins Sons & Co. Ltd.

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Online References:
1- Abu-SEleek, Ali. The Syntactic Consequences of Differences in American
and British English Usage in Longman Dictionary of English Language And
Culture. Retrieved from: http://alifarhan11.tripod.com/1.htm on January 1, 2001
2- Gethin, A. and Gunnenmark, Erik. Learning Vocabulary1. Retrieved
from: http://www.geth.demon.co.uk/voc.html
3- Meho, Lokman. DICTIONARIES: Outline of Significant Points.
Retrieved from: http://www.albany.edu/~meho/isp605/dictionaries.html
4- Szynalski, Tomasz and Wojcik, Michal. Review of the Collins COBUILD
English Dictionary for Advanced Learners Retrieved from:
http://www.antimoon.com/how/cobuild-review.htm on January 20, 2003

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Appendices
Apendix 1
Idioms that can be learnt from each dictionary under study
Item

CIDE

CCELD

OLDCE

Buy (v)

buy yourself out


buy the farm
buy it

the amount a certain


sum of money buys
buy freedom
Ill buy that
buy someone

he cant be bought
buy a pig in a poke
to buy time

Fuse (n)

Gutter (n)

Justice (n)

the fuse has blown


the fuse has gone
the fuse has broken
to blow a fuse
to lit the fuse
to light the fuse
1- the gutter press
1- a miscarriage of justice
2- to bring someone to
justice
3- to obstruct the course
of justice
4- justice of the peace

1- on a short fuse

/
(he) brought to justice
do justice to someone
do yourself a justice

to tie a knot in the rope


my stomach was in
knots
knot of people

to be tied up in knots
a knot of people
a knot in the stomach
at a rate of knots

Item

CIDE

CCELD

Nurture
(v)

1- to nurture talent

nurture plans, ideas


or people
to nurture an motion
to owe someone
something
to owe someone a
living

Knot (n)

Owe (v)

Pussy (n)
Quirk (n)

Zigzag (n)

to owe thanks to
I owe you one
to owe someone a
living the world
owes him a living
1- to get himself a pussy
by some strange
quirk
an odd quirk of fate
1- in zigzags

/
/

36

/
1- a miscarriage of justice
2- bring somebody to
justice
3- do oneself justice
do justice to
somebody/something
justice of the peace
cut the Gordian knot tie
somebody/oneself in
knots
tie the knot
at a rate of knots
OLDCE

/
owe something to
someone
the world owes one a
living
/
1- by a quirk of fate

J/H

Appendix 2
Collocations, idioms and fixed expressions
that can be learnt from each dictionary
N= Not provided

CO. = collocation

FX= fixed expressions or idioms

Item

CIDE

CCELD

OLDCE

Awning (n)

Buy (v)

to buy her silence


Im afraid Pats
bought the farm
this time.
To buy the guard
To buy time
.buy the story
(believe in)
He was going to
buy it sooner or
later (to be
killed)
N

buy freedom
things that it buys
to buy someone
Ill buy that
Hell never buy it

-The best education


that money could
buy
The victory was
dearly bought.
To buy an excuse
To buy time

Dwell somewhere

Exult at
., he exulted
Exult in
Mend the fuse
Has the fuse blown
then/
Theres been a fuse

Exult at
Exult in

Dirty gutters, the little


gutter girl, have
gone to the gutter
N

The gutter

A luxurious itinerary

A sense of justice
Economic justice
System of justice
Administration of
justice

Social justice
With some justice
Mr. Justice Smith
To do himself justice
Full justice to

Cybernetics(
n)
Dwell (v)
Exult (v)

Dwell in
Dwell with
Exult in / at / over
, he exulted

Fuse (n)

A thirteen-amp fuse
The fuse has blown
The fuse has gone
Light/ lit the fuse

Gutter (n)

The gutter

Hypochondri
ac (adj.)
Itinerary (n)

Certain hypochondriac
tendency
Fix their own itinerary
Change their
announced itinerary
The system of justice
Miscarriage of justice
To bring to justice
Obstructing (the
course) of justice

Justice (n)

37

A four-hour fuse

J/H

The Supreme Court


Justice
Mr. Justice Ellis

Knot (n)

Tie a knot in the rope


My stomach was in
knots
Knots of anxious
people

Lustre (n)

Restore the lost lustre


to your car.
A rich lustre
# He loved the curve
of her cheek, the
brightness of her
eyes and the lustre
of her hair.
Add lustre to
N
Nurture children
Nurture young talent
Nurture democracy
Nurture ambitions

Muzzle (n)
Nurture (v)

Owe (v)

He owed so much
money
I owe him $10.00
We owe you our
thanks/ we owe
our thanks to you
You owe me an
explanation
The world owes him a
living
You owe it to yourself
to ask the children
to leave home.

Justice will come your


way
Bring to justice
They did justice to him
I can do it justice
Supreme Court Justice
Mr. Justice Dillon
Tied a crude knot
The knot of her
headscarf hung
beneath her head.
A tight knot of bodies
Constant knots of
sightseers
She was tied up in
knots
He could tie himself up
in knots over the
simplest thing
Knots of tension
At a rate of knots
The extraordinary
lustre of her eyes
Lustre of encrusted
gold
The tarnished lustre of
his name

-Since wed already


eaten, we couldnt
do justice to her
cooking (i.e. could
not eat all the food
she had cooked)

N
Nurture children
Nurture plants
Nurture the land
Nurture a project
Nurture personnel
Nurture passion
You owe me a fiver
He owed me a
hundred and eighty
pounds
She owed her method
to his teaching
We owe you our
thanks
He owes me an
explanation
The world owes her a
living

N
Nurture children
Nurture a project
Nurture plans

38

The deep lustre of


pearls
Add lustre to ones
name

He owes his success to


luck
Owe loyalty to a
political party
I owe my parents a
great deal
I owe a lot to my wife

J/H

Pussy (n)

Quirk (n)

Ruse (n)
Syntax (n)
Typewriter
(n)
Utilise (v)
Voucher (n)

Write-up (n)
Xenophobic
(adj.)
Your (pro.)

Zigzag (n)

I owe my success to
my education
He owes his life to the
staff
He is a pussy-cat
He wanted to get
himself a pussy
Quirks and foibles
A quirk in the rules
By some strange quirk
of fate
By an odd quirk of fate
N
N
Electric typewriter

Little quirks and


oddities
By a quirk of fate
Atmospheric quirks

Odd historical quirks


By a quirk of fate

His ruse has failed

Think up a ruse
My ruse has failed
N
Typewriter ribbon

N
N

Utilise earlier research


A voucher system

N
Ten-pound-gift
voucher
Pay voucher
Meal voucher
Favorable write-up
Terrific write-up
A xenophobic mistrust A curiously
Xenophobic violence
xenophobic attitude
Its non of your Whats your name?
business
You saw it with your
own eyes
Your Majesty, Your
Lordship
A flash and a zigzag
A series of zigzags
A zigzag way
In a zigzag
Zigzag fashion
In zigzags
A zigzag course
A zigzag path
A dress with a zigzag
pattern / a pattern of
zigzags on it
A zigzag road
A zigzag coastline

39

Utilise solar power


Gift voucher
Special discount
voucher
Luncheon voucher
Enthusiastic write-up
N
You and your bright
ideas!
Your Majesty,
Your Excellency
Zigzag road
Zigzag course
Zigzag flash of lighting

J/H

Appendix 3
Table summarising the results of study
-Semantic ComponentItem

Para

Lexi

FT

CIE

IlEx

Grammatical
Information
PS CL
VAS

Morphological
Information
DF
IF

BrP

AmP

Var

DIC
T1

Awning
Awning
Awning
Buy
Buy
Buy
Cybernetics
Cybernetics
Cybernetics
Dwell (v)
Dwell (v)
Dwell (v)
Exult (v)
Exult (v)
Exult (v)
Fuse (n)
Fuse (n)
Fuse (n)
Gutter
Gutter
Gutter
Hypochondriac
Hypochondriac
Hypochondriac
Itinerary
Itinerary
Itinerary
Justice
Justice
Justice
Knot (n)
Knot (n)
Knot (n)
Luster
Luster
Luster
Nurture (v)
Nurture (v)
Nurture (v)
Owe
Owe
Owe
Pussy (n)
Pussy (n)
Pussy (n)
Quirk
Quirk
Quirk
Ruse
Ruse
Ruse

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1

0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1

0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0

1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1

0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

40

0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Cambridge
Oxford
Cobuild
Cambridge
Oxford
Cobuild
Cambridge
Oxford
Cobuild
Cambridge
Oxford
Cobuild
Cambridge
Oxford
Cobuild
Cambridge
Oxford
Cobuild
Cambridge
Oxford
Cobuild
Cambridge
Oxford
Cobuild
Cambridge
Oxford
Cobuild
Cambridge
Oxford
Cobuild
Cambridge
Oxford
Cobuild
Cambridge
Oxford
Cobuild
Cambridge
Oxford
Cobuild
Cambridge
Oxford
Cobuild
Cambridge
Oxford
Cobuild
Cambridge
Oxford
Cobuild
Cambridge
Oxford
Cobuild

J/H

7
3
7
11
9
10
6
6
6
7
7
8
4
7
9
9
7
9
9
5
6
6
5
5
7
7
7
9
6
9
9
8
9
7
5
6
8
5
9
10
6
8
6
5
6
9
6
8
5
5
7

Syntax
Syntax
Syntax
Typewriter
Typewriter
Typewriter
Utilise
Utilise
Utilise
Voucher
Voucher
Voucher
Write-up
Write-up
Write-up
Xenophobic
Xenophobic
Xenophobic
Your
Your
Your
Zigzag
Zigzag
Zigzag
Muzzle (n)
Muzzle (n)
Muzzle (n)

0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Cambridge
Oxford
Cobuild
Cambridge
Oxford
Cobuild
Cambridge
Oxford
Cobuild
Cambridge
Oxford
Cobuild
Cambridge
Oxford
Cobuild
Cambridge
Oxford
Cobuild
Cambridge
Oxford
Cobuild
Cambridge
Oxford
Cobuild
Cambridge
Oxford
Cobuild

7
6
7
5
4
5
10
7
7
7
5
5
6
4
5
5
1
5
5
6
5
6
3
5
5
5
6

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1

1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

TOTAL (2)

26

10

10

25

26

13

10

26

15

CIDE

TOTAL (2)

25

18

26

25

OLDCE

TOTAL (2)

26

19

11

26

26

14

12

26

CCELD

TOTAL 3 =
Semantic information + grammatical information + morphological information + ancillary information
TOTAL (3)
1CIDE :
181
2OLDCE:
142
3CCELD:
185
Par= Paraphrase, Lexi= Lexical relations, FT= Formality and register, CIE= Collocations, Idioms
and Fixed Expressions, PS= Part of Speech, CL= Classification of Lexemes, VAS= Verb
Argument Structure, DF= Derivational Forms, IF= Inflectional Forms, BrP= British
Pronunciation, AmP= American Pronunciation, DIC= Dictionary, Var= Variation of usage, T=
Total.
 Lexical relations = synonyms, antonyms, hyponyms etc
 Formality and register = formal, informal, slang, colloquial, vulgar, scientific, literary,
medical etc.
 Classification of Lexemes: attributive or predicative or gradable (adjective), countable or
uncountable (nouns), etc.
 Verb Argument Structure transitive, intransitive, ditransitive etc.
 Variation of usage = variation according to country as Britain, USA, Australia, etc,
Variation in spelling.

41

J/H