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Schedule

User Guide

2005A

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Copyright 1993 - 2005 Schlumberger. All rights reserved.
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Patent information
Schlumberger ECLIPSE reservoir simulation software is protected by US Patents 6,018,497, 6,078,869 and 6,106,561, and UK Patents
GB 2,326,747 B and GB 2,336,008 B. Patents pending.

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Table of Contents - Schedule User Guide 2005A


Table of Contents - Schedule User Guide 2005A...................................................................................................................3
List of Figures ..... ...................................................................................................................................................................5
List of Tables ...... ...................................................................................................................................................................7
Preface ............... ...................................................................................................................................................................9

Chapter 1 - Developments.............................................................................................................. 11
Chapter 2 - Introduction ................................................................................................................. 13
Overview............. .................................................................................................................................................................13
Features ............. .................................................................................................................................................................15

Chapter 3 - Getting Started ............................................................................................................ 17


Starting Schedule .................................................................................................................................................................17

Chapter 4 - Tutorials ....................................................................................................................... 19


Creating a basic Schedule project ........................................................................................................................................23
Interactive data editing and validation ..................................................................................................................................44
3D visualization and predictive SCHEDULE file generation .................................................................................................86
Importing data from OilField Manager and Finder ..............................................................................................................123
Importing a SCHEDULE section from ECLIPSE data files .................................................................................................135
Creating and editing a multi-lateral multi-segment well model ...........................................................................................142

Chapter 5 - Reference Section..................................................................................................... 175


Introduction ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................175
Main window ....... ...............................................................................................................................................................177
Item list window .. ...............................................................................................................................................................184
Control network window......................................................................................................................................................186
Alias list window . ...............................................................................................................................................................191
Layer table window .............................................................................................................................................................192
Generate Framework Dates window ..................................................................................................................................193
Time framework window XYZ .............................................................................................................................................194
Simulation options window .................................................................................................................................................197
Events viewer window ........................................................................................................................................................200
Production history graph window........................................................................................................................................203
Menu options ...... ...............................................................................................................................................................206
Standard graph panels .......................................................................................................................................................212
Configuration (ECL.CFG) ...................................................................................................................................................223
Production history table window .........................................................................................................................................226
Completion diagram window...............................................................................................................................................227
Multi-segment well window .................................................................................................................................................230
Extract data panel...............................................................................................................................................................233
3D viewer............ ...............................................................................................................................................................238
Editing in the 3D Viewer .....................................................................................................................................................285
Trajectory definition window ...............................................................................................................................................287
Trajectory viewer/editor ......................................................................................................................................................288
Input file list window............................................................................................................................................................290

Chapter 6 - Technical Description ............................................................................................... 291


Calculation of Kh and connection factor .............................................................................................................................291
Grid intersection with deviation survey ...............................................................................................................................296

Appendix A - Production Data File Formats............................................................................... 301


Production data... ...............................................................................................................................................................301
Keywords ............ ...............................................................................................................................................................304
Data handling in Schedule ..................................................................................................................................................317

Appendix B - Event File Formats ................................................................................................ 321


Introduction ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................321
Event file UNITS keywords .................................................................................................................................................323
Well event file format ..........................................................................................................................................................325

Appendix C - Sources and combinations of grid, property and well data files ...................... 331
Introduction ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................331
What is a well trajectory? ....................................................................................................................................................332
Well geometry data from deviation survey data file ............................................................................................................338
Grid file format and contents...............................................................................................................................................345
Tubing description file format..............................................................................................................................................350

Appendix D - SCHEDULE Section File........................................................................................ 353


Exporting SCHEDULE section files ....................................................................................................................................353

Appendix E - ECLIPSE Import ..................................................................................................... 369


Introduction ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................369

Appendix F - Schedule Advisory Messages............................................................................... 371


Introduction ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................371
Error messages... ...............................................................................................................................................................372
Warning messages .............................................................................................................................................................373
Comments .......... ...............................................................................................................................................................375

Appendix G - Configuring Schedule ........................................................................................... 377


Introduction ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................377
SECTION FRAMEWORK ...................................................................................................................................................379
SECTION DISPLAY............................................................................................................................................................380
SECTION FRAMEDRAW ...................................................................................................................................................381
SECTION SCHEDULE .......................................................................................................................................................382

Appendix H - Converting 98B projects to 99A ........................................................................... 386


Introduction ......... ...............................................................................................................................................................386
New features in Schedule 99A............................................................................................................................................387
New features in Schedule 98B............................................................................................................................................388
Converting 96A projects to 98B ..........................................................................................................................................389

Appendix I - History of Developments ........................................................................................ 391


Index ............. ................................................................................................................................ 395

List of Figures
Chapter 1 - Developments.............................................................................................................. 11
Chapter 2 - Introduction ................................................................................................................. 13
Chapter 3 - Getting Started ............................................................................................................ 17
Chapter 4 - Tutorials ....................................................................................................................... 19
Figure 4.1
Figure 4.2
Figure 4.3
Figure 4.4
Figure 4.5
Figure 4.6
Figure 4.7
Figure 4.8
Figure 4.9
Figure 4.10
Figure 4.11
Figure 4.12
Figure 4.13
Figure 4.14
Figure 4.15
Figure 4.16
Figure 4.17
Figure 4.18
Figure 4.19
Figure 4.20
Figure 4.21
Figure 4.22
Figure 4.23
Figure 4.24
Figure 4.25

The Item List window ..............................................................................................................................26


The Completion/Event graph for well P2 ................................................................................................28
Default 3D well display ...........................................................................................................................35
Incompatible grouping structure in the Control Network window ............................................................47
Splitting the Control Network and hiding part of the hierarchy................................................................49
Production data graph of oil, water and gas rates ..................................................................................58
Averages superimposed on the production data graph ..........................................................................59
Cumulatives plotted on the production data graph .................................................................................60
Overlaid production data.........................................................................................................................62
Interaction between production data graph & table (detail). ..................................................................64
Edit well trajectory on 3D Viewer ............................................................................................................68
Alias list window......................................................................................................................................82
3D Well Viewer window displaying well completions. .............................................................................90
3D Well Viewer window displaying a well connection.............................................................................93
3D Well Viewer window displaying well deviations .................................................................................94
Example using Schedule for quality control ............................................................................................97
Control network for prediction run.........................................................................................................102
Control network for examples ...............................................................................................................105
A Definition Data file .............................................................................................................................129
Well trajectory on 3D Viewer ................................................................................................................149
Time framework settings.......................................................................................................................152
Well connections on 3D Viewer ............................................................................................................153
Schematic of the complex multi-segment well ......................................................................................166
Control Network of ECLIPSE wells .......................................................................................................167
Multi-segment wells in the 3D Viewer ...................................................................................................171

Chapter 5 - Reference Section..................................................................................................... 175


Figure 5.1
Figure 5.2
Figure 5.3
Figure 5.4
Figure 5.5
Figure 5.6
Figure 5.7
Figure 5.8
Figure 5.9
Figure 5.10
Figure 5.11
Figure 5.12
Figure 5.13
Figure 5.14
Figure 5.15
Figure 5.16
Figure 5.17
Figure 5.18

Example plot .........................................................................................................................................203


PostScript panel....................................................................................................................................238
VRML panel ..........................................................................................................................................239
Write Image panel.................................................................................................................................240
Well Bores panel...................................................................................................................................243
Edit Table..............................................................................................................................................243
Edit Boundaries panel...........................................................................................................................245
Object Appearance panel .....................................................................................................................251
The Animate Time panel.......................................................................................................................252
The timestep control buttons ................................................................................................................253
The Animate Time Options panel .........................................................................................................253
Normalization panel .............................................................................................................................254
Object Rotation panel ...........................................................................................................................256
Lighting panel .......................................................................................................................................257
Stereo Panel .........................................................................................................................................257
Property Display panel..........................................................................................................................260
Cell Probe panel ...................................................................................................................................261
Integer Threshold panel ........................................................................................................................262

Figure 5.19
Figure 5.20
Figure 5.21
Figure 5.22
Figure 5.23
Figure 5.24
Figure 5.25
Figure 5.26
Figure 5.27
Figure 5.28
Figure 5.29
Figure 5.30
Figure 5.31

Real Threshold panel ............................................................................................................................263


Control buttons......................................................................................................................................264
IJK Slicer panel .....................................................................................................................................265
VOI Grid Cells panel .............................................................................................................................266
VOI Domain Selection panel .................................................................................................................267
Create VOI From Boundary panel ........................................................................................................268
The Cell Face Selection panel ..............................................................................................................269
Wells panel ...........................................................................................................................................270
Ternary legend ......................................................................................................................................271
Color legend..........................................................................................................................................271
Edit Titles panel ....................................................................................................................................276
Axes panel ............................................................................................................................................278
The Z Plane/Segment Pick panel ........................................................................................................280

Chapter 6 - Technical Description ............................................................................................... 291


Figure 6.1
Figure 6.2
Figure 6.3
Figure 6.4

A bilinear surface ..................................................................................................................................296


Simple shift of three events to layer Sand_1 ........................................................................................298
Relative shift of two events to layer Sand_1 .........................................................................................298
Linear scaling shift of three events to layer Sand_1 .............................................................................299

Appendix A - Production Data File Formats............................................................................... 301


Appendix B - Event File Formats ................................................................................................ 321
Appendix C - Sources and combinations of grid, property and well data files ...................... 331
Figure C.1
Figure C.2

Meanings of the MAPAXES keyword entries ........................................................................................346


Meanings of default values of MAPAXES keyword ..............................................................................347

Appendix D - SCHEDULE Section File........................................................................................ 353


Figure D.1
Figure D.2

Default Eclipse Options settings ...........................................................................................................355


Well position leading to a perforation percentage greater than 100% ..................................................357

Appendix E - ECLIPSE Import ..................................................................................................... 369


Appendix F - Schedule Advisory Messages............................................................................... 371
Appendix G - Configuring Schedule ........................................................................................... 377
Appendix H - Converting 98B projects to 99A ........................................................................... 386
Appendix I - History of Developments ........................................................................................ 391
-

List of Tables
Chapter 1 - Developments.............................................................................................................. 11
Chapter 2 - Introduction ................................................................................................................. 13
Chapter 3 - Getting Started ............................................................................................................ 17
Chapter 4 - Tutorials ....................................................................................................................... 19
Table 4.1
Table 4.2
Table 4.3

Functionality covered by the tutorials ......................................................................................................20


Simulation Time Framework panel with the date added ..........................................................................56
FIELD KEYWORDS list .........................................................................................................................110

Chapter 5 - Reference Section..................................................................................................... 175


Table 5.1
Table 5.2
Table 5.3
Table 5.4
Table 5.5
Table 5.6

Multi-segment data table contents .........................................................................................................230


Configuration file settings ......................................................................................................................241
Open Inventor settings...........................................................................................................................283
OIFloViz settings....................................................................................................................................283
GeoFrame settings ................................................................................................................................284
RTView settings .....................................................................................................................................284

Chapter 6 - Technical Description ............................................................................................... 291


Appendix A - Production Data File Formats............................................................................... 301
Table A.1
Table A.2
Table A.3
Table A.4
Table A.5
Table A.6
Table A.7
Table A.8

Special keywords ...................................................................................................................................304


Definition keywords................................................................................................................................308
Data type keywords ...............................................................................................................................309
Production field keywords ......................................................................................................................312
Oil injection field keywords ....................................................................................................................314
Gas injection field keywords ..................................................................................................................315
Water injection field keywords ...............................................................................................................315
Rate units used by the Metric and Field unit sets ..................................................................................317

Appendix B - Event File Formats................................................................................................. 321


Table
Table
Table
Table

B.1
B.2
B.3
B.4

Event file UNITS keywords ....................................................................................................................323


Recognized event file length UNITS (units) ...........................................................................................323
Recognized event file pressure UNITS (units).......................................................................................324
Event names and associated event related data ...................................................................................325

Appendix C - Sources and combinations of grid, property and well data files ...................... 331
Appendix D - SCHEDULE Section File........................................................................................ 353
Table D.1

Possible combinations of CF, kh and Skin ............................................................................................359

Appendix E - ECLIPSE Import ..................................................................................................... 369


Appendix F - Schedule Advisory Messages............................................................................... 371
Appendix G - Configuring Schedule ........................................................................................... 377
Table G.1
Table G.2

SUBSECT GS keywords .......................................................................................................................381


SUBSECT VG keywords .......................................................................................................................381

Appendix H - Converting 98B projects to 99A ........................................................................... 386


Appendix I - History of Developments ........................................................................................ 391

Preface
Welcome to Schedule, a petroleum engineering software application from
Schlumberger. Schedule is an interactive program for preparing, validating and
integrating production and completion data for use in a reservoir simulator. The
software helps the engineer translate the real-world information into a format that can
be readily used by simulators. It is an integrated application for Windows and UNIX
platforms.

10

Developments
Chapter 1

2005A
Continued maintenance.

2003A
Continued maintenance.

2002A
Continued maintenance.

2001A
The functions of Schedule will be integrated into a future version of ECLIPSE Office.
No development has therefore taken place for the 2001A release.
Maintenance of this application is continuing until further notice.

Developments
2005A - 2000A

11

12

Developments
2005A - 2000A

Introduction
Chapter 2

Overview
Schedule is an interactive program for preparing, validating and integrating
production and completion data for use in a reservoir simulator.
Schedule imports production data from ASCII files (including Production Analyst
and OilField Manager format, and the Finder Schedule-Loader files). You can, also,
easily create this format from any database or spreadsheet. Schedule uses this data to
generate production control keywords for the simulator.
The program has graphic display features which simplify the validating and averaging
of production data. In addition, Schedule automatically calculates correctly averaged
production volumes for models with regular or irregular time steps. You may select
these time steps or they can be read in from a file describing reservoir events.
Schedule handles all the main categories of production data necessary for simulation
Schedule. These may take the form of well deviation surveys, historical production and
injection volumes, and completion data, such as those obtained from workover
operations. The software helps translate the real-world information into a format that
can be readily used by ECLIPSE and other simulators.
Schedule reduces the time needed to generate simulation model input files. You can
now enter, in a matter of hours, information about a field's history, which used to take
days to prepare. In addition, if a model is re-gridded, or a new time step sequence is
selected, Schedule can easily calculate the new production rates and well connection
data.

Introduction
Overview

13

Flexible time step selection


Simulation well rates can be calculated from imported oil, water and gas production
volumes based on any user-defined timestep framework. This framework can be
generated from a combination of specific events and regularly spaced time steps, rules
for which can be varied throughout the run. For example, you can opt to model the
early production, when data quality may be poor, using 6 monthly time steps. More
recent production history may then be modeled monthly. You can also generate
additional timestep to model specific well operations, such as workovers. This can help
to reduce the simulation run time and ensure that specific events are modeled more
accurately.

Automatic calculation of well completion data


Schedule input data is typically in the form of deviation surveys and completion data
which are specified in terms of measured depth. Schedule combines this information
with grid geometry and property data to calculate parameters defining how well
completions are connected to the grid. Schedule calculates cell intersections with each
deviation survey as a function of measured depth.
Once this information is calculated, you can specify or import events, such as
perforations and workovers in terms of measured depth. Schedule maps these events
to the appropriate grid cell and generate the connection parameters for the simulator.
In the process, Schedule takes into account corrections for partial penetrations and well
deviation, and allows for damage skin. If a well has multiple perforations within a
single grid cell, Schedule generates a single equivalent perforation for that cell.

On-screen selection of data groups


Schedule offers advanced point-and-click data grouping facilities. You can
interactively construct hierarchical groups of wells and sub-groups. Schedule
automatically calculates an aggregate view of production data for one well, a single
group, or the entire field. In addition, you have at your disposal the full range of
graphical handling features of Schedule that make data display and editing extremely
simple. Data can be superimposed, for comparison, by clicking and dragging, and
calculated properties such as GORs and watercuts are available for any level in the data
hierarchy. A range of layout and hard-copy output facilities are also included.

Support for prediction cases


Schedule supports the creation of new wells and groups, the switching of wells
between groups and the placing of wells in a grid based on their IJK location. Powerful
macro facilities exist to facilitate entering prediction control information where
controls may need to be duplicated or shared between multiple wells or groups.

14

Introduction
Overview

Features

Cross-platform support - from UNIX/Motif work stations, to PCs running


Windows, NT and Windows 95.

Link to Finder for production data, well events and well deviation data.

Link to Production Analyst and OilField Manager for production data.

Creates complete SCHEDULE section for reservoir simulators (such as the ECLIPSE
family of reservoir simulators). The Schedule keyword classes are designed in such
a way that they can be replaced by keyword classes for different simulators.

Graphical creation of group hierarchies from imported well data.

Graphical and tabular display of well data for any level of the hierarchy.

Zooming, panning, and editing operations on multiple simultaneous graphical


and tabular displays, and superimposition of additional data by dragging and
dropping.

Graph of GOR and water cut available for any level of the hierarchy.

Simulation well rates can be calculated based on any user-defined flexible time
step framework.

Time step framework can be generated from specific events and/or flexible
intervals which can vary with time.

Extensive event modeling capability, such as workovers and acid treatments.

Events specified in actual depths, with Schedule calculating the IJK location
required in the simulation grid.

Events can be ordered on a well-by-well basis.

User events to allow new keywords to be entered directly. This means that you can
enter and store all keywords in Schedule, even those which have yet to be fully
modeled.

Connection factors are calculated accurately within Schedule for deviated and
partially penetrating wells, and multiple perforations within a given cell.

Peaceman's formulation is solved in 3 orthogonal directions, along the perforated


interval, to more accurately describe the well connection to the grid.

Optional specification of formation layer for each perforation event.

Used to ensure calculated connections honor any formation information.

Easy checking of errors in production data including - incorrect downtimes,


missing events, incorrect perforations or deviation data, and erroneous recording
of production volumes.

Combining of well data into groups in the hierarchy for tabular and graphical
display.

Well information is easily fitted into any simulation grid, with transfer between
grids carried out both quickly and easily. Local grid refinements (LGRs) and
unstructured grids (PEBI grids) are also supported.

Interactive creation of well trajectories for prediction wells.

Creation and editing of all SCHEDULE section keywords.

Introduction
Features

15

16

A keyword macro mechanism which simplifies the task of specifying prediction


information for multiple wells in the control network.

A keyword template mechanism which allows the user to specify default values
for internally generated keywords.

Date macros, Initial and Final, which automatically track the first and last dates of
production history and events.

3D viewing of the well with perforations and connections to the grid animated
through time.

Calculation of the depth values for the COMPVE keyword.

Automatic aliasing of long well names to acceptable ECLIPSE names.

Support for multiple completions with separate flow history and shared well
trajectories.

Support for the generation of multi-segment well keywords from descriptions of


tubing and locations of chokes, packers and inflow controls.

Introduction
Features

Getting Started
Chapter 3

Starting Schedule
Using the GeoQuest Simulation Software launcher
This is available on the Windows NT platform. After successful installation of a
GeoQuest program, a program icon or short-cut is installed on the machine.
1

To start the GeoQuest Simulation Software Launcher select the program short-cut
from the task bar or double-click on the icon.

To start the Schedule program click on the Schedule button on the Launcher,
select a start-up directory when the Schedule Launcher panel appears by browsing
through the directory tree, and click on the Run button.

Using command prompts


PC platforms
1

Type $schedule command at the prompt in a DOS window on PC platforms.

Unix platforms
2

Type @schedule command at the prompt in the selected start-up directory on


UNIX platforms to run the start-up macro.

Getting Started
Starting Schedule

17

18

Getting Started
Starting Schedule

Tutorials
Chapter 4

Introduction
The aim of this section is to familiarize you with the main program functionality and
to demonstrate the workflow through the program. Schedule provides data import
and export interfaces to both Schlumberger and other applications, on condition that
the data file formats are consistent with the Schedule data file specifications.
Schlumberger applications are used as examples within these tutorials.
The first tutorial aims to give an overview of a typical Schedule project. Subsequent
tutorials highlight further areas of Schedule program functionality and build on
procedures demonstrated in previous tutorials. We therefore recommend that you
perform the tutorials in the order found in this manual. However, if you want to
examine a specific feature, select from the list of tutorials and the table below.

Available tutorials
1

"Creating a basic Schedule project" on page 23


This tutorial is aimed at first-time users of the program and demonstrates how to
work through a complete project. All input files have been prepared in a Schedulereadable format.

"Interactive data editing and validation" on page 44


This tutorial demonstrates the interactive data editing and data validating facilities
of Schedule. The tutorial also demonstrates the nearly complete interactive
building of a project.

"3D visualization and predictive SCHEDULE file generation" on page 86


This tutorial demonstrates some of the main new features of Schedule. The first
part deals with 3D well visualization capabilities. The second part covers the new
template, macros and ECLIPSE keyword definition facilities, thus focusing on the
use of the program for simulation prediction projects. It also covers the interactive
definition of hypothetical infill wells.

Tutorials
Available tutorials

19

"Importing data from OilField Manager and Finder" on page 123


An example is provided to show how production/injection data can be transferred
from OilField Manager into Schedule.

"Converting 98B projects to 99A" on page 386


This tutorial discusses the procedure for converting old Schedule projects (98B and
older) to Schedule 99A projects. If you feel some of the figures shown in tutorials
1, 2 and 3 are slightly different from those shown in your current Schedule version,
please refer to this tutorial to find the new features in Schedule 99A.

"Importing a SCHEDULE section from ECLIPSE data files" on page 135


This tutorial discusses reading existing ECLIPSE data files, viewing and editing, as
well as extracting data and extending the existing project.

"Creating and editing a multi-lateral multi-segment well model" on page 142


This tutorial shows how to use Schedule to build a multi-lateral multi-segment
well model. It includes step-by-step instructions for using the 3D Well Editor,
Trajectory Editing table, and Editing Segment panel, as well as for creating a tubing
file.

Functionality covered by the tutorials


Tutorials 1 to 3 and 7 cover a complete Schedule project, starting with importing data,
followed by visualization, editing, and finally generating a SCHEDULE section file for
inclusion in an ECLIPSE run. Each of these tutorials covers specific areas of the
program functionality. Table 4.1 should help you quickly find the appropriate tutorial
when you are looking for more details on a specific feature.
Table 4.1

Functionality covered by the tutorials

Tutorial

Tabular editing

3D Editor

2D visualization,
data validation

3D visualization

ECLIPSE keywords,
macros, templates

Running ECLIPSE

Others
*.
.
.

20

OilField Manager and Finder link


Converting 98B projects
Reading ECLIPSE data

Tutorials
Available tutorials

How to interact with the 3D Viewer


Note

For the 2004A release we switched the underlying graphics libraries to


OpenInventor, giving greatly improved graphics performance. We took this
opportunity to adopt the OpenInventor standard mouse interactions, giving
us consistency with other OpenInventor applications such as Petrel.

The 3D Viewer has 2 distinct modes of operation: 'viewing' and 'picking'. The 3D
Viewer is by default in 'view' mode (the default cursor is a hand
), which means that
you can use the mouse buttons to rotate, translate and zoom the display. To pick on
objects in the display you must select the 'pick' mode (the cursor changes to an arrow
). In pick mode you cannot change the orientation of the display, just pick on objects
in the display.
To change mode you can either:

use the hand

and arrow

button on the top left toolbar,

use the 'P' (pick) and 'V' (view) keys,

or use the <Esc> key to toggle between modes.

View mode
When in 'view' mode, interaction is as follows:

Rotate
Press the left mouse button and move the mouse to rotate about the model.

Translate
Press the middle mouse button and move the mouse to pan from side to side.

Zoom
Press both the Ctrl key and the middle mouse button (or left and middle mouse
buttons simultaneously) and move the mouse to zoom the display.
Note

Note that the 3D Viewer displays a Perspective view by default.

Tutorials
Available tutorials

21

Other buttons of interest on the left hand toolbar are:

22

Normalize

Returns the model to the middle of the window.

Seek to Point

Select this button and then click on a point on the model.


The 3D Viewer zooms to the selected point. The S key
provides a short cut to this button.

Perspective

Toggles between Perspective and Orthogonal views of the


model.

User View

Returns the view to its orientation prior to a fixed view


being set (with the Set View buttons below).

Set View

These 6 buttons align the view with each of the primary


axes.

Tutorials
Available tutorials

Creating a basic Schedule project


Background
This tutorial is aimed at first-time users of the Schedule program. It demonstrates how
to work through a simple Schedule project.
This tutorial guides you through the main features of Schedule, from loading data
through data visualization and editing, to the production of an ECLIPSE SCHEDULE
section.
The input data files required have been created in a Schedule-readable format.
Although this is the recommended method of using the Schedule program, almost all
of the input data can be entered interactively into a Schedule project. Interactive data
input, data visualization and data editing is addressed in more detail in Tutorial 2,
"Importing the grid and property files" on page 45.
The geometrical block model and well description data, used in this example, have
deliberately been simplified to allow you to concentrate on the program functionality.
In this example, the simulation grid required as input for Schedule has been created
using the GRID program. A grid and a trajectory interface file for Schedule have been
exported from GRID in a Schedule-readable format.

Stages
The tutorial is divided into the following stages:

"Creating a new Schedule project" on page 24

"Importing data" on page 24

"Defining simulation timing" on page 33

"Visualizing, validating and editing data" on page 34

"Saving the project to disk" on page 37

"Defining Schedule reporting" on page 38

"Exporting the interface file for the simulator" on page 39

"Inspecting the interface file" on page 39

"Using the File menu to exit from current project" on page 40

"Running ECLIPSE" on page 41

"SCHEDULE standard symbols" on page 42

"Discussion" on page 42

Getting started
The tutorial data files are included with your Schedule installation. They can be found
in the following directory: schedule/tutorial/ex1/.
1

Copy all the tutorial data files to your current working directory.
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Tutorial 1: Creating a basic Schedule project

23

To start Schedule type @schedule in your working directory or run it from the
GeoQuest Simulation Software Launcher on your PC.

Creating a new Schedule project


A Schedule project contains all the information you have loaded, entered or calculated.
You can save a project file at any time, which allows you to restart Schedule at a later
date and continue working on the project from the point at which it was saved.
Note

When you create a new project, the existing project (and all associated data) is
cleared from memory. If you have made changes in the existing project, you
are asked if you want to save these changes before the new project is created.

When you start Schedule, a new project is created and the main window is displayed.
Hint

If you are already running a project and you want to create a new project, select
File | New.

Save this new project and name it EX1.PRJ.


1

File | Save As.

In the Write Schedule Project box, enter EX1.PRJ as the project name and save it.

Importing data
Background
This section explains how to import data into Schedule. For a complete Schedule
project you need the following data:

Production data (*.VOL, *.vol).

Well event data (*.EV, *.ev).


(for example well perforations, well squeezes, plugs, etc.)

Well geometry data (*.TRJ, *.trj; *.CNT, *.cnt; *.NET, *.net;


*.LYR, *lyr).

GRID data (*.*GR*, *.*gr*).

Property information (*.*IN*, *.*in*).

The Import menu in the Schedule window provides options for importing each of the
required data files. Schedule uses standard file extensions (shown above, in
parentheses) for file import dialogs.
Hint

24

If your import files have non-standard suffixes, they do not appear in the list
of files available for import. In this case, you must enter the complete file
names to read in the data.

Tutorials
Tutorial 1: Creating a basic Schedule project

Specifying the units being used in the project


Before importing data, specify the project/display units to be used in the current
project.
1

Setup | Units | Field


This sets the project/display units to FIELD units.
The selected project/display units determine:

The units used for data display on windows and panels

The units that are applied on data imported from files if the UNITS keyword
is not placed in the header of the data file

The units used in exported data (like in the SCHEDULE Section).

Hint

To make sure that the data are imported with the correct units, we recommend
that you always include the UNITS keyword in the headers of data files. If the
units are not specified in the data file, Schedule assumes that the data is in
project units. If the units specified in the file are different from the
project/display units, Schedule converts the data to project/display units.
With some files, for example GRID files, the program prompts for the units
during import.

You may need to edit the SCHEDULE section of your configuration file to change
the default setting of the map units from METRES to FEET for importing a grid file
in a field application. For details see "Importing a grid" on page 29.

Importing production data


Processing large amounts of production data to generate control keywords that can be
understood by the simulator can be a difficult and time-consuming task. Schedule
provides you with a powerful production data reader that understands various
production/injection data and file formats. These file formats include:

Production Analyst ASCII files

OilField Manager report files

Finder load files

Production data files created in many other databases or spreadsheets can be imported
by adding a few descriptive keywords to the start of the file. See "Production Data File
Formats" on page 301 for more details.
In this tutorial you will import a file that is already in Schedule-readable format.
1

Import | Production History | Replace.


The Replace option is used when importing data for the first time or whenever
you want to delete existing data and replace it with a new set.

Hint

If you have additional data to import (for example, if you have well
production data stored in different files) use the Merge option.

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Tutorial 1: Creating a basic Schedule project

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Hint

If you started the program from somewhere other than your working
directory, you need to go to the directory containing your data files.

Select EX1.VOL.

When Schedule is importing the production data, a progress indicator is displayed


briefly. This window disappears after successful completion of the operation. If any
errors occur during the operation, the progress indicator displays the error and you
must close the window by clicking on OK.
3

Data | Item List


The well names of the imported production data are now listed in the Item List
window, as shown in Figure 4.1.

Figure 4.1 The Item List window

Click on well P1:01 in the Item List window with the right mouse button.
A pop-up menu appears.

Select Table History.


The imported production data for the selected well is displayed in the Production
History table.

Hint

You can also edit the production data using this table. Details can be found in
"Entering and editing tabular production data" on page 51 and in the
"Reference Section" on page 175.

Hint

To see the same production data in graphical form, select Graph History from
the pop-up menu. This opens a graphical display window showing the
production data for the selected well.

26

Close the Production History table (and the graph window if it is open).

Tutorials
Tutorial 1: Creating a basic Schedule project

Importing events data


Data from well events such as perforations, squeezes and well tests are combined with
geometrical well and grid information to calculate connection factors for well to grid
connections.
1

Import | Events | Replace

Select EX1.EV from the file browser.

Hint

If you have well event data stored in several different files (for example,
separated by wells or by event types) then choose Import | Events | Merge
instead of Replace during import.

Click, with the right mouse button, on well P1:02 in the Item List window.

Choose Show Events from the pop-up menu.


This opens the well Events window, which allows you to view all of the events for
the selected well that are currently defined in Schedule.
The left side of the Events window shows the list of events for the selected well.
Further details concerning the currently selected event are displayed on the right
side of the window. You can click on any of the events on the left to display its
details.

Close the Events window.

Click, with the right mouse button, on well P2 in the Item List window.

Choose Graph Completions from the pop-up menu.


This displays a Completion/Event graph similar to Figure 4.2. This graph shows
the event history for the well P2 on a graph of the measured depth, MD, in the y-axis
versus time (x-axis).

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Tutorial 1: Creating a basic Schedule project

27

Figure 4.2 The Completion/Event graph for well P2

The top of each event is marked by a small yellow square. You can read the event
MD and the date at which the events occurred while the mouse is on the yellow
square of an event.
Hint

Click on View in the Completion/Event graph window, and choose Flow


Diagram from the pop-up menu to show the plot of production history at the
bottom of the graph.

Hint

Double clicking on a yellow square representing an event opens the Events


window for that event.

Close the Completion/Event window.

Importing control network


With Schedule, you can create a well and group control network that represents group
production and injection. A control network in Schedule does not have to represent a
physical grouping structure; it can be a control hierarchy for a simulation run, hence
the name control network. A hierarchy of groups with assigned wells can either be
built interactively within a project or imported from a file.You can view the control
hierarchy on the Control Network window.

28

Data | Control Network.


This displays the current control network (the well/group hierachy information).

Import | Control Network.


This allows you to import the control network from a file.

Tutorials
Tutorial 1: Creating a basic Schedule project

Select EX1.NET.

Note

A small square appears next to each well on the Item List. This indicates that
the well is now assigned to a group.

The Control Network window then displays the loaded hierarchy information.
EX1.NET is an example of a three-level hierarchy. The field occupies the highest
level, level 0. PLAT-A and PLAT-B are node groups at level 1. The groups at level 2
are all well groups (SAT-1, SAT-2, SAT-3) containing wells only. When these
wells are included, the hierarchy has three levels in total.
Hint

You can also build hierarchies, interactively, within a project by defining


groups and assigning wells to it. This is addressed in detail in "Interactive data
editing and validation" on page 44.

Importing a grid
Schedule calculates connections of wells with a simulation grid based on geometrical
grid and well information.
1

Import | Grid | Single Porosity


This allows you to import a grid file in single porosity (for example those
generated by a gridding application such as the GRID or FloGrid programs or by
ECLIPSE). For more details on grid file sources, see "Grid, property and well
geometry file sources, and combinations" on page 334.

Note

Schedule can read and manage a grid file in dual porosity, and set the wells in
dual porosity case. The process on the dual porosity case is similar to running
a single porosity case except that you must select Import | Grid | Dual Porosity
and import a dual-porosity grid file instead. The tutorials in this manual all
describe use of single porosities.

Select the grid file named EX1.FGRID.


This grid file was produced by the GRID program.

Caution

If the grid has not been exported using map coordinates, Schedule does
not know the map units, and it sets the units to the default setting specified
in the SCHEDULE section of the configuration file (usually METRES).

The file EX1.FGRID was not exported using map coordinates, but the map units were
FEET. When Schedule was importing the grid it may have displayed a message in the
log window stating Map units from config. file set to METRES. If this
is the case then do not continue working with these map units.
You need to edit the SCHEDULE Section of your configuration file to change the default
setting of the map units from METRES to FEET and re-import the grid file.
3

File | Save

Exit Schedule.

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Tutorial 1: Creating a basic Schedule project

29

Open your configuration file in a text editor (either the local ECL.CFG file if you
copied the master to you working directory, or the master CONFIG.ECL file in the
/ecl/macros directory).

Go to the section beginning SECTION SCHEDULE, uncomment MAPUNITS


FEET;
Or enter a new line with this text, comment MAPUNITS METRES and save the
configuration file.

Restart Schedule.
This loads the changed configuration file.

Caution

If you have edited the CONFIG.ECL file rather than the local ECL.CFG file,
you should not load the existing local configuration file. Instead, the
master configuration file should be copied to the current directory. In this
case, you will see this message
Local config file ECL.CFG exists, OK to use (n
deletes local file) (y/n)?
You should type n.

Open your Schedule project and re-import the grid.


This replaces the existing grid.
Schedule reports Map units from config file set to FEET in the Log
window.

Note

The grid and property information (GRID and INIT files) are not stored with
the project. This uses less disk space and allows Schedule to work faster.
Schedule only saves the path and file names of the GRID and INIT files, then
re-reads the files whenever it opens the project. If you have changed the
location of the GRID and/or INIT file or if you have moved the project file,
you are prompted for the new location of both files.

Defining well trajectories


A well trajectory describes the path of the wells through the simulation grid as well as
the initial permeability and Net To Gross (NTG) properties for the grid blocks through
which the well passes.
Schedule uses the well trajectory data to map the measured depth information for well
events onto the simulation grid block. The combination of well trajectory and
perforation information allows Schedule to calculate well connection factors for a
simulation run.
There are three ways of defining well trajectories in Schedule:

Importing well deviation survey data and calculating well


trajectory
You can import the deviation data file into Schedule (in the GRID format) and Schedule
uses it together with the grid file and the properties file to calculate the trajectory.

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Tutorials
Tutorial 1: Creating a basic Schedule project

Schedule can load the grid block property information from an ECLIPSE INIT file. The
ECLIPSE INIT data file can be produced with an ECLIPSE no simulation (NOSIM) data
set, run with the INIT keyword in the GRID section and the NOSIM keyword in the
RUNSPEC section. The NOSIM keyword performs data checking with no simulation.
When calculating the well trajectory in Schedule, ensure you perform the following
steps:

Load the grid file (the GRID file can be from ECLIPSE or the GRID program or
another gridding application).

Read the property file (ECLIPSE INIT file).

Import the deviation survey data (by importing the proper control *.CNT file).

Hint

The file reading sequence is not important as long as a grid file is available
before you read in the deviation data.

At this point you have imported the GRID file but not the property file. You now need
the properties (permeabilities and NTG values) for the trajectory calculation.
1

Import | Properties
This allows you to load the property information from the ECLIPSE INIT file.

Select EX1.FINIT from the File menu.

Import | Well Locations | Deviation Survey


This allows you to load the well deviation data.

Select EX1.CNT.
EX1.CNT is the control file that contains file names and data file format for the well
deviation information. The well deviation information for this example is held in
the deviation file named EX1.DEV. This deviation file is called by the control file
during the loading procedure.
The well trajectories have not been calculated, yet. Schedule automatically
calculates the trajectories if you perform one of the following actions:

Display well(s) in a 3D view.

View the well trajectory table for well(s).

Export the SCHEDULE section.

Select Data | Recalculate Trajectories.

Select Data | Recalculate Trajectories.


The well deviation data is not stored with the project. Schedule only stores the
calculated well trajectories. If you save and exit the project before calculating the
well trajectories, the deviation data must be re-imported to allow Schedule to
calculate the well trajectories. Once you have calculated the trajectories and saved
the project, the deviation data does not have to be stored.

Note

For the purpose of editing a well by means of the 3D Viewer, or of viewing the
well deviations graphically later on, we suggest you save the new deviation
data by exporting deviations in the Schedule main window before you save or
exit the project.

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Note

If your deviation data changes and you re import the data into the project, you
must select Data | Recalculate Trajectories to update the trajectories. Existing
data is replaced on a per well bore basis. You must also recalculate the
trajectories if your grid properties or dimensions have changed.

Importing a well trajectory file


These files are produced by a gridding application like the GRID or FloGrid programs
If you have the well geometry information already loaded in, for example, the GRID
program, you can calculate the well trajectory in GRID and export a trajectory file for
use in Schedule. This is done by selecting the Output of well connections option in
GRID. As block properties are already defined for the block model, the trajectory file
contains permeabilities and NTG values for the grid blocks that are intersected by the
wells.
At this point, since you have already calculated the trajectory internally based on
imported well deviation survey data, importing trajectory files replaces the existing
trajectories.
6

Import | Well Locations | Trajectory File

From the file browser select EX1.TRJ.

View a Well Trajectory table by clicking on a well on the Control Network window
with the right mouse button and selecting Edit Trajectory from the pop-up menu.

Hint

Another way to view and edit the well trajectory information will be
addressed in "Visualizing, validating and editing data" on page 34.

Note

If you import both the trajectory file from the GRID program (or another
gridding application) and the deviation data, you may import redundant well
geometry information. In this case, the information in the trajectory file has a
higher priority than the deviation information, unless you recalculate your
trajectories whilst having the deviation survey information loaded. Then the
trajectory is updated based on the imported well deviation information.

Interactively defining a well trajectory


If you do not have a trajectory file or a deviation survey available for a well, you can
define the trajectory manually by editing the trajectory table or by digitizing the well
graphically in a 3D Viewer. Both are easy ways in Schedule to specify drilling scenarios
for new wells during a prediction run. This is addressed in "Defining well trajectories
interactively" on page 64.

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Tutorial 1: Creating a basic Schedule project

Importing geological layer information


In a simulation model, geological units are represented by one or more grid layers. As
the geometry of the grid does not always model exactly the corresponding geological
layering, a well-to-grid connection is sometimes placed in the wrong simulation flow
unit. For example, a producing geological layer may be intersected by a well at a top
depth of 1000 feet. On the other hand the simulation block representing the geological
flow unit may have been assigned an average top depth value over its horizontal
extents of 1005 feet. If a perforation is placed from a depth of 1000 feet downwards it
will not only intersect the current grid block starting at 1005 feet, it is also placed in the
simulation block representing the geological unit above (for the interval between 1000
and 1005 feet). This may not be an active flow unit.
To avoid placement of well events in incorrect simulation grid layers, Schedule
provides a facility for placing well connections based not just on the measured depth
information but also on geological layer assignment.
You can define the geological flow units in a Layer Table where they are associated with
specific simulation grid layers. If the depth approximation of a grid layer is different
from the real position of the geological layer where a well event is assigned to,
Schedule automatically shifts the well event to the correct geological layer. For more
details on layer shifting, see "Defining well events" on page 71 and "Configuring
simulation options" on page 354.
1

Import | Layer Table.


This allows you to load the layer table.

From the file browser select EX1.LYR.

Data | Layer Table


This allows you to view and edit the Layer Table window.

Defining simulation timing


Schedule allows complete flexibility in the choice of time step lengths. Overall time
steps can be chosen on a daily, monthly or yearly basis. Time step size can also vary
during your simulation run. You can have very short simulator time steps during
periods of special interest, and long ones during periods of less interest. Additional
time steps can also be defined for specific well or group events. For more details on
declaring individual events to force additional time steps, see "Entering simulation
time framework data" on page 54.
Schedule calculates average production rates based on the time steps you have
defined. If you decide to use a different time step size for another simulation run,
Schedule will automatically recalculate the average production rates accordingly.
In the current example you will define monthly time steps with additional time steps
for well events.
1

Setup | Time Framework

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Tutorial 1: Creating a basic Schedule project

33

You can change the simulation timing by clicking the time step button on the
Simulation Time Framework window and selecting either Year, Month or Day from
the drop-down menu. You can add more time steps or more lines for events. The
Event Shifts column allows you to choose when Schedule adds additional time
steps if certain events occur. The date format allows real dates (for example 01 Jan
1970), symbolic dates (for example SOH indicating Start of History) and relative
dates (for example SOH + 1 month). You can enter extra user specified dates in the
Time Framework Date List panel, which is accessed from the Dates button. (See
"Time framework window XYZ" on page 194.)
2

Click on OK.
This accepts the default settings in the Simulation Time Framework panel (monthly
time steps, event shifts ignored).

Visualizing, validating and editing data


Data visualization, validation and editing is addressed in greater detail in "Interactive
data editing and validation" on page 44. You may have had a look at the imported
tabular data when following the loading instructions in the previous sections. The next
stage of this tutorial covers the three-dimensional display feature of Schedule.

3D visualization of well to grid connections


Once you have loaded or calculated your well trajectory, you can inspect a threedimensional view of the wells.

34

Click with the right mouse button on well G1 in the Control Network window.

Select View 3D Well.


The program calculates the well connections over the defined simulation time
based on the specified grid, well geometry, events and simulation timing
information and displays the well in the 3D Well Viewer window. By default
Schedule displays a picture similar to that shown in Figure 4.3. The actual view
may differ slightly due to the default settings, so axes and a bounding box for the
entire grid may be present. These can be removed in the Display|Axes menu
options.

Tutorials
Tutorial 1: Creating a basic Schedule project

Figure 4.3 Default 3D well display

Hint

You can select several contiguous or non-contiguous wells within a group


from the Well list with a combination of the mouse and the SHIFT or CTRL
keys.
To add more wells to a 3D Viewer that is already open, drag and drop the
selected wells to the open 3D Viewer window. If you wish to view the selected
wells in a different 3D Viewer, click on the 3D Viewer button

again.

Viewing the well completion state at the initial time step


1

If the cell outlines are not switched on, select 3D Well Viewer: Scene | Grid | Show
| Outlines.
This displays the model grid as an outline around the well trajectories, making the
wells easier to visualize. Alternatively, you can click on the outline button.

Hint

You can also select:


Cells only
Both Cells and Outline
Both Cells and Transparency (setting grid transparency to 0.5)

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Tutorial 1: Creating a basic Schedule project

35

3D Well Viewer: Scene| Grid | Property | PORO.


This displays porosity, one of the initial properties imported, in colored grid cells.

Hint
3

Select other initial properties for various views.

3D Well Viewer: View | Timesteps


This allows you to step through the completion history of this well.

Hint

You can also use the Timestep toolbar

at the top right

side of the panel.

Viewing well connections


4

3D Well Viewer: 3D View | Connections

Hint

You can modify the displayed size of completion decorations and well radii by
selecting the menu option 3D Well Viewer: Scene | Wells | Level of Detail.

The 3D Well Viewer is an excellent tool for detecting badly-modeled wells.


Examples of bad models include wells with a large offset from the grid block center
caused by inappropriate positioning of grid cells or two wells intersecting the
same grid block. This is an important consideration if your project contains highly
deviated or horizontal wells.
5

3D Well Viewer: 3D View | Deviation


This allows you to view the imported well path.

3D Well Viewer: 3D View | Full Grid


This allows you to see the well positions within the whole model grid.

Hint

If you need to visualize another well, click, with the right mouse button on the
well name in the Control Network window and select View 3D Well from the
pop-up menu. If you have more than one well in your 3D display, the Wells
menu on the 3D Visualization window allows you to switch wells ON or OFF
by selecting individual well or Multiple SelectorYou can normalize the view
by selecting AutoNormalize from the Display menu or by clicking the
AutoNormalize button
in the top left of the 3D Viewer window.

The visualization can be customized in a number of ways, see "Tutorials 1 to 3 and 7


cover a complete Schedule project, starting with importing data, followed by
visualization, editing, and finally generating a SCHEDULE section file for inclusion in
an ECLIPSE run. Each of these tutorials covers specific areas of the program
functionality. Table 4.1 should help you quickly find the appropriate tutorial when you
are looking for more details on a specific feature." on page 20 for further information.
The Schedule 3D visualization facilities is addressed in more detail in "3D visualization
and predictive SCHEDULE file generation" on page 86.
7

36

Close the 3D Well Viewer window.

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Tutorial 1: Creating a basic Schedule project

Viewing the well geometry data


8

Reopen the 3D Well Viewer window with well G1.

Select 3D Well Viewer: Scene | Grid | Show | Outlines,

(if this is not already

switched on.) You will also need to click on the Cells button
to switch off the
Cells display function so that only the Cell Outlines are active. You see, clearly, a
well with three colors in a well completion status.
10 Select 3D Well Viewer: Controls | Well Show Table.

Hint

You can also do this by clicking the Well Show Table button,

, on the top

window.
11

Click on the central part of the green area on the well to open the Events Table for
G1.

12 View and close the table.


13 Click the Well Show Table button again, and this time click the central part of the
blue and gray area.
This opens the Trajectory table for G1.
14 View and click on the OK button to close the table.
15 Select 3D Well Viewer: 3D View | Deviation
This shows well deviation with a violet color.
16 Select 3D Well Viewer: Controls | Well Edit Deviation
17 Click on the central part of the well. You will see a message on Edit Well Bore:
Confirm edit of Well Bore: G1.
18 Click the OK button.
This opens the G1 Edit Table, and shows the deviation points on the well bore.
19 Try changing a value on the table, for example the value of X in point 3 to 8000, and
then click Update View. Watch what happens.
20 Click the Close button. The table will now close.
Hint

Click the Set View buttons on the left side of the window to set the view in
different directions.

21 Select 3D Well Viewer: Edit | Cancel Edit

22 Close the 3D Well Viewer window.

Saving the project to disk


Once you have edited the data imported into your current project, you should save
your project to disk. To do so, select
1

File | Save.

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37

Remember to export your deviation survey if you have not already done so, as
they are not saved with the project. Save it as Ex1.cnt.

Defining Schedule reporting


Schedule allows report files to be created at designated times during the simulation.
This section demonstrates how to define report steps for your simulation run.
Schedule reports are defined for the whole field; it is therefore handled as a FIELD
event.
1

Click with the right mouse button on the FIELD in your Control Network window.

Select Show Events

Select Events: New | Schedule Report Style to define your report frequency and
content.

To switch the properties to be reported on or off, press the appropriate selection


buttons (initially they only have a * in the middle) until either ON or OFF appears.

Switch reporting ON for:

from the pop-up menu.

grid block pressures

grid block oil saturation

grid block water saturation

grid block gas saturation

For a full description of each of the options and their associated values, refer to the
"ECLIPSE Reference Manual".
The report frequency and reporting times are defaulted to quarterly reports from
the Initial until Final data step of your simulation. You can change any reporting
time between the Initial and Final data step. You can also change the reporting
frequency to daily, monthly or yearly, with reports at any nth step.
6

Change the final report time from UNDEFINED to Final or EOS (End Of
Simulation).

Change the report frequency to once per year.

Click on Apply to register the changes and close the panel.


Additional time steps are placed in the simulation model at those dates where
Schedule reports are specified. Schedule inserts the ECLIPSE keyword RPTSCHED
at the defined intervals in the exported SCHEDULE section and ECLIPSE writes the
Schedule reports at the defined intervals to the print file.

38

Hint

You can specify further Schedule reports with different frequencies and
contents by defining another SCHEDULE section report.

Note

You can use the Simulation Options window to control how Schedule
generates the SCHEDULE section. Please refer to "Simulation options window"
on page 197.

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Tutorial 1: Creating a basic Schedule project

Exporting the interface file for the simulator


1

Export | Schedule Section, to create the SCHEDULE section file for inclusion in the
ECLIPSE data file.

Hint

Save the file with the name EX1.SCH.

Hint

We recommend that you place your SCHEDULE section file in the same
directory as your data files.

You can also export the subsections listed on the Export menu. Remember to
use the standard suffix as shown in the Filter column when exporting files. The
default standard file suffixes are used for file import and export dialogs.

Click on OK.
The program displays a panel that indicates the progress of the current keyword
generation and save operation.
Schedule first creates the simulation model, by converting all the Schedule
information into simulator keywords, the progress of which is indicated by the
Schedule status window named Building Simulation Model.
Schedule, then, writes the interface file for the simulator, the progress of which is
indicated by the Schedule status window named Writing Schedule section.

At the end of the run, you will get this error message:
3 Errors were detected during output.
Click on OK to complete the exporting process.

Hint

You can also export your SCHEDULE section for selected wells, or for groups
only. Click on the desired well or group on the Control Network window, then
select Control Network: Export | Selected Schedule.

File | Save.

Inspecting the interface file


1

Open the SCHEDULE section file EX1.SCH with a text editor.


This file is an interface file to ECLIPSE. It is the SCHEDULE section of the ECLIPSE
DATA file. You can include this file in the ECLIPSE DATA file by using the INCLUDE
keyword, as detailed in the "ECLIPSE Reference Manual".
The SCHEDULE section file consists of ECLIPSE SCHEDULE section keywords with
associated data, as well as information messages from Schedule which give you a
better understanding of the form and content of the data set.

Check the error message using the find function in a text editor.

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Tutorial 1: Creating a basic Schedule project

39

Schedule gives the following ERROR message in the exported file:


--

: G4 Acidise

Top:

8100.00 Bot:

8150.00 Skin: -13.00

--

: >> -- Acidising upper most perforation

-- ERROR: COMPDAT Cell 10 2 2 At least one CF component is negative


--

: G4 Connection 10

2 Perf. Len

--

WARN: G4 Connection 10

2 SUPPRESSED,

52.45 ( 61.3%)
cant calculate CF

The errors are for the problem cells on well G4. At least one CF component is
negative and you will find that this happens due to the well acidifying or
stimulation event.
Note

Schedule deals with the problem cells with errors by suppressing the cell
connection from the well.

If you continue to check the events on well G4, you find the skin factors are in large
negative values in the acidifying and stimulating events, which cause the
connection factors (CF) to become negative.
Note

ECLIPSE does not allow a negative CF. You can re-edit the events to fit the
criteria, or leave the problem cells out of the well connections.

Schedule writes keywords and associated data only when changes occur in the data. If
a keyword with associated data has been written at a defined date, it is valid until
redefined.
Hint

For example, the COMPDAT keyword in the SCHEDULE section file is written
when an event takes place on a well for the first time. It defines completion
data of wells and reflects well events at that specific date. When a well is
perforated, the COMPDAT keyword is written for that well, and the new data is
valid until the keyword is written again, when another event occurs.

In this tutorial example, well G1 was perforated at the initial state of the
simulation, which is shown when the COMPDAT keyword is first written. These
data are valid until January 15, when a layer of well G1 was squeezed. The
COMPDAT keyword is again written by Schedule to make these changes occur in the
simulator.
Hint

For further details on the SCHEDULE section of the simulator input DATA file,
please refer to the"ECLIPSE Reference Manual" and to "SCHEDULE Section
File" on page 353.

Using the File menu to exit from current project


1

40

To close Schedule, select File | Exit.

Tutorials
Tutorial 1: Creating a basic Schedule project

Schedule prompts you to save the current project if it contains any unsaved data. If you
do not want to save the changes, click on the Continue button, or the Exit button to exit
from the current project. Otherwise, click on the Cancel button and save the current
project.
Hint

After you exit from the current project, whether or not you have changed
anything, the data files remain unchanged unless you have exported the
updated data file(s) to a file(s) of the same name(s).

Running ECLIPSE
An ECLIPSE DATA file has been created for this tutorial. It runs the simulator using the
SCHEDULE section file you have exported from Schedule.
Before running the simulator, make sure that the directory where you run ECLIPSE
contains the SCHEDULE section file (EX1.SCH), the GRID file (EX1.GRDECL), and the
data file (EX1.DATA). Also ensure that both EX1.SCH and EX1.GRDECL have been
correctly included in the data file using the ECLIPSE INCLUDE keyword.
1

Run the simulator.


(By typing @eclipse on a UNIX platform, clicking on the GeoQuest Simulation
Software Launcher on a PC, or using ECLIPSE Office)

Specify the EX1.DATA file as the data file.

When the run finishes, look at the simulation results.

Hint

If you want to look at the production and pressure data for wells, they have
been written to the summary file (EX1.RSM).

You can use the Result Viewer of ECLIPSE Office to visualize your simulator results.
As uniform output has been chosen in the ECLIPSE data file (by specifying the
keyword UNIFOUT in the RUNSPEC section of the ECLIPSE data set), both unified
summary and restart files are written by the simulator.
The files written by ECLIPSE are:

EX1.FINIT
Initial and solution data

EX1.FGRID
Grid data

EX1.FSMSPEC
Summary specification file

EX1.FUNRST
Unified restart file

EX1.PRT
Print file

EX1.FUNSMRY
Unified summary file

EX1.RSM
Resume file

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Tutorial 1: Creating a basic Schedule project

41

SCHEDULE standard symbols


The standard symbols recognized by Schedule are as follows:

Schedule import/export file suffixes


The file extensions (suffixes) may be either in UPPER or in lower case.
*.VOL

Production file

*.EV

Well event file

*.TRJ

Well trajectory data

*.CNT

Well deviation control file

*.DEV

Well deviation data file

*.NET

Control network file

*.LYR

Geological layer file

*.ALS

Well name alias file

*.TUB

Well tubing description file

*.TFW

Time FrameWork file

*.*GRID

GRID file

*.*INIT

Property file

*.SCH

SCHEDULE file

*.*SMRY, *.*SMSPECY Summary file


*.*UNRST,*.X*, *.F* Restart file
*.DAT*

ECLIPSE data file

Symbolic simulation date


SOS

Start of simulation (can not be used in Simulation Time Frame work)

EOS

End of simulation can not be used in Simulation Time Frame work)

SPH

First date of production history

EPH

Last date of production history

SOH

Start date of simulation on production history

EOH

End date of simulation on production history

SOP

Start date of simulation on production prediction

EOP

End date of simulation on production prediction

Discussion
This tutorial demonstrated how to start a new project, load data into your project, view
data, and export the SCHEDULE section file for the simulator. While working through
this tutorial you learned what data is required by Schedule to create the simulator
interface file.
You then ran ECLIPSE to see how Schedule interacts with the simulator, and you may
have viewed the simulation results.

42

Tutorials
Tutorial 1: Creating a basic Schedule project

For more details on tabular and graphical data editing, work through Tutorial 2,
"Interactive data editing and validation" on page 44.
This tutorial focused on converting field data accumulated during the history of an oil
field into a SCHEDULE section keyword file, in an ECLIPSE-readable format. Schedule
can also create the simulator SCHEDULE section for a prediction run. Schedule can
define any SCHEDULE section keyword for the FIELD, groups and wells with
associated data that is then recognized by the simulator. You can also define templates
that fill in default data in your keywords or macros that automatically create keywords
with associated data. You can apply keywords, templates, and macros to individual
wells, several wells, well groups or the entire field. These features are addressed in "3D
visualization and predictive SCHEDULE file generation" on page 86.

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Tutorial 1: Creating a basic Schedule project

43

Interactive data editing and validation


Introduction
The goal of this tutorial is to demonstrate the interactive data editing and data
validating facilities of Schedule.
If you do not have all of the input data required for a Schedule project available in a
format that is readable by Schedule, the interactive data editing facilities of the
program help you to input your data correctly. You can create a complete project
within Schedule, by having available a grid and property file created in another
program, and then specifying the rest of the required input interactively on panels and
windows generated in Schedule.
If you have already loaded your data from existing input files, the same facilities allow
you to visualize and check your data for accuracy and completeness, and edit the data
where necessary.
Also, if you are not sure about the input data file format, you can enter the data
interactively on a panel, export the data using one of the Schedule data export options,
and then continue editing the data on the exported file which is now in the right
format. You can then re-import the file into your project after you have finished editing
the data file.
This tutorial demonstrates the main editing and visualization features of Schedule. In
addition, it guides you through a complete typical Schedule project.

Stages
The tutorial stages are as follows:

44

"Creating a new project" on page 45

"Importing the grid and property files" on page 45

"Creating a control network of wells and groups of wells" on page 46

"Entering, editing and analyzing well production and injection data" on page 51

"Defining well trajectories interactively" on page 64

"Entering geological layer data" on page 70

"Defining well events" on page 71

"Inspecting the completion diagram" on page 77

"Configuring simulation options" on page 78

"Exporting SCHEDULE section for use in ECLIPSE" on page 78

"Using Schedule for a history match run" on page 83

"Discussion" on page 85

Tutorials
Tutorial 2: Interactive data editing and validation

Getting started
The tutorial data files are included with your Schedule installation. They can be found
in the following directory: schedule/tutorial/ex2/.
1

Copy all the tutorial data files to your current working directory.

To start Schedule type @schedule in your working directory, or run it from the
GeoQuest Simulation Software Launcher on your PC.

Creating a new project


When you start Schedule, a new project opens automatically and the main Schedule
window appears on the screen. If you already have a Schedule project running, save it
before starting a new one, as discussed in "Creating a new Schedule project" on
page 24.
1

File | Save As
This opens the Save Project window, which allows you to enter a project name.

Enter EX2.PRJ as the project name and save it.

There are two other windows you work with most of the time during a Schedule
project: the Control Network and the Item List windows.
3

To open these windows, select:

Data | Item List

Data | Control Network

Hint

You may need to resize or move the various windows to make them fit neatly
on the screen. This makes it easier when entering and editing the data.

Importing the grid and property files


To build a new Schedule project you need the grid and property files, available from
other programs. For this tutorial both input files have been created with the ECLIPSE
simulator. For other sources of grid and property files, see "Sources and combinations
of grid, property and well data files" on page 331.
1

To load the grid information into your current project, select Import | Grid | Single
Porosity

Select the GRID file named EX2.FGRID from the file browser.

To load the properties information into Schedule, select Import | Properties

Select the property file named EX2.FINIT from the file browser.
During data import, Schedule briefly displays a progress indicator. This window
disappears after successful completion of the operation. If any errors occur during
the operation, the progress indicator displays the error.

Close the window by clicking on OK.

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Tutorial 2: Interactive data editing and validation

45

Note

The grid and property files can be either formatted or unformatted: if


formatted, they must have the extensions *.FGRID and *.FINIT; if
unformatted, the extensions *.GRID and *.INIT. Both upper and lower case
are accepted by the reader.

Creating a control network of wells and groups of


wells
The Control Network window allows you to interactively create a network (or
hierarchy) of groups and wells. Although there is an option to import a control
network from an ASCII file, you will find it convenient most of the time to create the
control network interactively in a Schedule project.
As mentioned in the previous tutorial, the control network does not necessarily have
to represent a physical grouping of wells in the field. You can group the wells together
for any specific purpose, for example to allow you to apply economic or physical flow
constraints on the wells or to sum up production/injection volumes.

Adding groups and wells to a control network


The top level of the hierarchy in the control network is called FIELD, which is
consistent with the ECLIPSE grouping structure requirement. First, add three groups
to the existing FIELD. (Wells can only belong to groups and not directly to FIELD. This
constraint is imposed by ECLIPSE.)
Groups can be added to FIELD (or to other groups, for that matter) in three ways:
1

Click with the right mouse button on FIELD and select Create Group from the popup menu. This allows you to key in a name for the group you want to add.

Name the group Group_1.

Click on FIELD with the left mouse button (this changes the fill color to red) then
click on the plus button
on the tool bar at the top of the Control Network
window. The same pop-up window appears.

Name the group Group_2.

Click on FIELD with the left mouse button then select Edit | New Group from the
Control Network menu bar. Again, the same pop-up window appears.

Name the group Group_3.

Now add a sub-group Group_3.1 to Group_3.

Note

To rename a group click on the GROUP name with the right mouse button and
select Rename Group from the pop-up menu. Enter your new name.

Similarly, you can now add wells to the groups you just created:

46

Click on Group_1 with the right mouse button and select Create Well from the pop
down menu.

Name the well Well_1 and click on OK.

Tutorials
Tutorial 2: Interactive data editing and validation

Hint

After you have imported production and/or events data from a file, you have
the well names available on the Item List window, and you can add wells to
different groups by dragging and dropping them from the Item List window.

10 Add another three wells to the first group and name them Well_2, Well_3 and
Well_4.
While you were defining the new wells in the Control Network window, the well
names appear, also, on the Item List window. They cannot now be removed from
the Item List.
Note

Groups can contain either wells or other groups, but not groups and wells on
the same hierarchical level because this is incompatible with the ECLIPSE
grouping structure; for example Group_1 should not contain another group in
addition to wells Well_1 to Well_4. Figure 4.4 shows an example of an
incompatible grouping structure.

Figure 4.4 Incompatible grouping structure in the Control Network window

There are two methods of removing wells or groups from the control network:
11 First select the items to be deleted in the Control Network window, Click on Well_3
and Well_4 from Group_1, then, click on the Dustbin button

at the top right

of the Control Network window. (This is not a drag and drop operation.)
Hint

Several contiguous or non-contiguous wells within a group can be selected


from the control network with a combination of the mouse and the Shift or
Ctrl keys. Multiple selections can only be made within one group on the
control network

12 Alternatively select the items to be removed first, click on Well_3 and Well_4 from
Group_1 and, then select, Edit | Remove Items.

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Tutorial 2: Interactive data editing and validation

47

The wells disappear from the Control Network, however, they remain on the Item
List but now do not have a black square beside them. This shows they are no longer
active in this project.
Note

Only wells that are assigned to groups in the control network are active and
are considered when a SCHEDULE section is generated. Active wells are
indicated by a black square by the side of the wellname in the Item List.
Removing wells from the control network does not delete related well
information; the wells are only made inactive in the current project. The same
applies when a group is deleted from the control network; all the wells
assigned to that group are removed, but they are still available for selection
and reassignment to another group.

Note

Any new well(s) created can not use same name(s) as the existing well(s) on
the Item List.

Assigning wells
You can assign wells to the control network in two ways:
By selecting the wellnames on the Item List window and dragging them over to the
required group.
13 Click on Well_3 on the Item List.
14 Drag the well to Group_1 in the Control Network and then release the mouse.
Or, by using the small text entry box on the Item List window to select inactive well
names that match a defined pattern. The special characters "*" and "?" are used as
wild cards in the text pattern string. The "?" character stands for any single
character, the "*" character stands for any number of characters. If you then click
on the + button above the text entry box, the required wells are highlighted and
you can drag them onto the control network.
15 Type Well_? in the text entry box and click on the plus button

above the box.

Well_4 is now highlighted.


16 Drag the well to Group_1.

Reassigning wells/groups in a control network


You can reassign wells to other groups by clicking on them and dragging them to
another group.
17 Click on Well_2 then drag it to Group_2.
18 Click and drag Well_3 and Well_4 into Group_3.1.
Note

48

When you drag a well/group the mouse cursor changes shape to a no entry
sign. This indicates that you cannot place the well in the current position. The
cursor changes to a cross hair when a valid destination for the well has been
reached.

Tutorials
Tutorial 2: Interactive data editing and validation

Hint

If there are a large number of wells and groups in the control network, you
may have to scroll through the Control Network window to view all the
network items. When re-assigning wells, there may be instances when you are
not able to view both the well you wish to move and its destination, at the
same time. In this case, we recommend splitting the Control Network window
into two panes. Along the bottom of the Control Network window there is a
black bar. Drag this bar to split the Control Network display area into two
windows and view different areas of the control network at the same time. You
can now reassign wells by dragging them from one screen to the other. To
remove the split drag the bar back to the bottom of the screen.

Hint

Alternatively, you can collapse part of the network on the Control Network
window by double-clicking on the box next to a group name. The wells
assigned to that group disappear, and the box has a "+" marker inside it to
indicate that there are hidden features. Double-clicking again on the box
expands the group once more.

Figure 4.5 Splitting the Control Network and hiding part of the hierarchy

Time-dependent control network


When you start to build your control network, Schedule assigns the time SOS
(indicating Start Of Simulation) to the network. This is indicated by an arrow at the top
left of the Control Network window next to the symbol SOS. This means the current
control network is valid for this SOS time.

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Tutorial 2: Interactive data editing and validation

49

If your control network changes with time, you can reflect this in the project using the
Schedule time-dependent grouping structure. A time-dependent control network
allows you to re-assign wells between groups during a simulation run. This may be
helpful for applying different group production or injection constraints within the
history match and prediction period of a simulation run. Wells that change from
producers to injectors could also be re-assigned to injection groups and common
injection constraints applied.
19 To add another time to the control network to create a time-dependent grouping
structure select Edit | Add Time
A pop-up panel appears with a text box for entering a new time.
20 Enter 01.01.1972.
This new date appears at the bottom left corner of the window.
Note

You can also enter 1.1.1972, 1/1/1972, 1 Jan 1972 or similar, but you must enter
a 4-digit year (that is 1972 rather than 72). The date displayed on the window
will be 1/Jan/1972.

21 Make the new date active by clicking on it.


Note the control network at the previous time has been copied to the new time.
22 Re-assign Well_4 to Group_2 and delete Group_3.1.
Note

If you now switch between the different times by clicking on each date in turn
you will note the changes in the control network. Each network is valid for that
particular time.

23 To remove a date and its network first select the time to be removed. Select
01.01.1972
24 Then, Edit | Delete Time

Importing import control network files from Schedule projects


You can import control network files that have been exported from previous Schedule
projects.
25 Import | Control Network
26 Select EX2.NET from the pop-up file browser
This replaces the existing network.
Note

If you import a time-dependent control network from a control network file


and if there is a control network already present in the project, only those parts
of the existing control network are replaced where the dates in the file and in
the project match. The other dates merge into the project network.

The control network file uses three keywords:

50

*GROUPNODE - This describes the group structure

*LEAFNODE - This describes how the wells link to the groups

*DATE - Indicates the start date when the control network is valid

Tutorials
Tutorial 2: Interactive data editing and validation

The first item in the lines under *GROUPNODE and *LEAFNODE represents the child
and the second item the parent. The current control network exported to a file looks
like this:
*DATE SOS
*GROUPNODE
'Group_1' 'FIELD'
'Group_2' 'FIELD'
'Group_3' 'FIELD'
'Group_3.1' 'Group_3'
*LEAFNODE
'Well_1' 'Group_1'
'Well_2' 'Group_2'
'Well_3' 'Group_3.1'
'Well_4' 'Group_3.1'
*DATE 01 Jan 1972
*GROUPNODE
'Group_1' 'FIELD'
'Group_3' 'FIELD'
*LEAFNODE
'Well_1' 'Group_1'
'Well_2' 'Group_1'
'Well_3' 'Group_1'
'Well_4' 'Group_3'

Entering, editing and analyzing well production


and injection data
The recommended way to load production data into Schedule is to prepare and import
a proper production data file, with keywords in its header, that describes your data and
file format.
You can also import files prepared in other applications, such as Finder, OilField
Manager and Production Analyst, directly into Schedule.
Alternatively, you can define your production data interactively. This option is
discussed below.

Entering and editing tabular production data


This section describes how to define production data by entering it into tables, and
how to edit existing imported data. This is done in a production data table which you
open by:

Clicking on a well in the Control Network window with the left mouse button
(square turns red) then clicking on the View production data table button
on the tool bar at the top of the window.

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Tutorial 2: Interactive data editing and validation

51

Or:

By clicking on a well, with the right mouse button, and selecting Table History
from the pop-up menu.

For this tutorial you will use the first method. Ensure that SOS is still active.
1

Click on Well_1 then click on the View production data table


This opens an empty production table panel.

Switch on the columns for oil, water and gas production:

Production History: Columns | Oil

Production History: Columns | Water

Production History: Columns | Gas

button.

Three columns have now been added to the table. You will now create rows in the
table and enter production rates.

Adding production dates


There are two ways to do this:
3

Production History: Edit | Add Date

Enter the dates 01 Jan 1997, 1/2/1997, and 1.3.1997 in the pop-up text box.

Alternatively, clicking on the plus button

to the right of the column

headings brings up the same text box. Enter the date 1.Apr.1997.

Entering production rates


You can now input some production rates into the boxes for each date.
6

Enter the data as follows:

Sample Date

Oil (STB/DAY)

Water (STB/DAY)

Gas (MSCF/DAY)

01 Jan 1997

100

20

01 Feb 1997

300

40

10

01 Mar 1997

300

40

10

01 Apr 1997

400

60

50

Note

You can only enter and display daily production and injection rates in this
table. If you import data from a file which contains anything other than daily
rates, Schedule converts them to daily rates during import. The units of the
displayed data are dependent on the specified project units which were setup
using Setup | Units on the main window at the start of the project.

Close the table.

Open the table again.


You will see that the entry for 01 Mar 1997 has been deleted.

52

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Tutorial 2: Interactive data editing and validation

Note

Schedule displays the dates in which changes in production data occurs. This
means that if the production or injection rates for all phases stay the same for
some time, then Schedule displays the first date when the well started to
produce or inject at this rate. The next line of production data appears when a
change in the rate has occurred. This avoids the occurrence of many lines of
zeros being displayed if a well has been off production for long periods during
its production history.

Deleting production data


9

Click on any entry box in the line for the first date, then select Production History:
Edit | Delete Date.

10 Click on any entry box for a date lower down in the table and use Production
History: Edit | Delete Date to remove that intermediate line.
11 To commit the data, either click on the Close button (this applies the changes and
closes the panel), or if you want to leave the input window open, click on the Apply
button.

Copying production history


You can copy and name the production history of different phases for individual wells,
allowing you to produce versions of the production history.
12 To make a new version of production history select Data | Control network.
13 Open the production data table for Well_1.
14 Production History: Data | Create Version
This opens a panel with a defaulted * character in the box.
Hint

If you click on the OK button at this point, the program creates a new version
of all of the entered data. That is, you can use * alone but not as part of a text
string.
To create a new version of both Oil and Gas you must select Create Version
twice and enter Oil the first time and Gas the second time.

15 Enter Oil into the box then click on the OK button.


The current version (named Oil) is duplicated and named Oil.v0.
16 Production History: Columns | Oil.v0.
This activates Oil.v0 version on the table, edit the data in the Oil column.
Hint

Schedule uses the version named Oil for all operations; this is the version you
should edit. The original data is saved as Oil.v0. If you create another version
the version named Oil is duplicated and saved under the name Oil.v1. Again
the current version is named Oil and this is the version you should edit.

17 To restore the original data you should revert to version 0, select Production
history: Data | Revert to
18 Enter 0 into the box and then click on the OK button.
The Oil column now shows the original data.

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Tutorial 2: Interactive data editing and validation

53

19 Click on Close to close the Production table.

Importing production data


There is a prepared production data file for this example which you can import.
20 Select Import | Production History | Replace
21 Select the file called EX2.VOL.
When the imported file contains data for an existing well, any existing production
history for that well is over-written. If you now inspect the Production Data table, you
should find that the entries you made have been replaced with the data from the file.

Analyzing and reporting production history


22 To analyze the production history for all wells, select Data | Analyse Production
History in the main Schedule panel.
This starts a run and generates a panel displaying the production history report.
This shows all the periods where flow occurs, and the phase cumulative values for
all wells. At the this point no values are reported because there is not a connection
to the grid.

Analyzing the production history for individual well


23 Select a well on the control network.
24 Data | Check Production History
This generates a report of production history for this well, in the same way as
above.
Note

You can create a new version of the production history for an individual well,
in which the flow can be shifted into periods where a connection to the grid
does exist. To do this, use Data | Fix Production History

Entering simulation time framework data


By default, Schedule sets the time steps of your project to monthly between the SOP
(Start Of Prediction) and EOP (End Of Prediction) if there are no production data, or
between the SOH (Start Of History) and EOH (End Of History) if the production data
have been already imported.
Note

Schedule sets the Start and End time to the earliest and latest times Schedule
can find in the project from events or production data, if you have imported
valid production data. If you a running a prediction only, you must set a real
date for the simulations; otherwise the simulation starts at 1 Feb 1900, by
default.

To define the simulation time step frequency, select Setup | Time Framework.
The Simulation Time Framework window opens.

54

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Tutorial 2: Interactive data editing and validation

In this window you can define a flexible simulation time step framework that best suits
your simulation requirements. The overall time step size can be Year(s), Month(s) or
Day(s). You can change this by clicking on the step size button (at present showing
Month(s)) and selecting from the drop down menu.
You can use the Step By entry box to define different simulation times, for example
you could set up a half-yearly simulation period by selecting a Monthly overall step
size and a Step By entry of 6.
You can use the To entry box to place the time boundaries on arbitrary days of the
month/year. For example:

keep To empty if Step By setting is Day(s);


Step By
From: SOP

To:
Day(s)

Ignore

set up the fifth day of every simulation month with a To entry of 5 if the Step By
setting is Month(s);
Step By
From: SOP

Event Shifts

To:
Month(s)

Event Shifts
Ignore

set up the fifth of February with a To entry of 5/2 if the Step By setting is Year(s).
Step By
From: SOP

Hint

Year(s)

To:

Event Shifts

5/2

Ignore

You can vary the step size by dividing the simulation period into shorter
periods and using a different time step size for each period. You will define
three periods in this tutorial.

Set the initial time step size to 5 Days.


This time step size applies in the first simulation period from SOH to the start of
the next period.

Insert a new simulation period by clicking on New.

Set the date at the start of this second period to 1.3.1970.

Set the time step size for this period to 1 Month with the time boundary set at the
5th of each month.

Define the last simulation period which starts at 1.4.1971 and goes up to the end
of history (EOH).

Set the time step size for this period to 3 Months with the time boundary set at the
1st of each month.
You may wish to compare your display with Table 4.2 at this point.

By using the Event Shifts on the Simulation Time Framework window you can also
choose whether all or some events are shifted to simulation time boundaries (this
means that no additional simulator time steps are created for the dates when events
take place) or whether Schedule should create additional time steps for all or part of
the events.

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55

To ignore event shifting options for all events within the first simulation period,
select Simulation Time Framework: Event Shifts | Ignore
This ignores the event shifts and creates additional time steps for all events as
required.

Caution

Setting Event Shifts to Ignore may result in lots of small simulator time
steps during your simulation run and may reduce overall performance.

To apply event shifting options for all events within the second period select
Simulation Time Framework: Event Shifts | Apply
This gives you an option to select whether or not you want to shift and if so, how
to shift each individual event to a simulator target time step in the Event panel.

If you only want to add extra time steps for certain events, such as well tests that
require accurate modeling in time, while optionally selecting the remaining events as
simulator target time steps, Schedule allows you to customize the events shifting.
10 To customize the simulator time steps for individual events in the last period,
select Simulation Time Framework: Event Shifts | Custom
The Custom Event Shifting window opens. This lists all the available events for any
well and allows you to either ignore or apply shifting to each set of events.
11 Click on the button to the right of the event to choose either Ignore or Apply. Leave
Weltest, Stimulate and Frac as Ignore and change all the other events to Apply.
Table 4.2

Simulation Time Framework panel with the date added


Simulation Time FrameWork
Step By
From: SOH

To:

Day(s)

Event Shifts
Ignore

Delete

NEW

To: 1.3.1970

Month(s)

Apply

Delete

NEW

To: 1.4.1971

Month(s)

Custom

NEW

To EOH

First Production (SPH) = 01 Jan 1970

Last Production (EPH)= 01 Dec 1975

History Start (SOH) = SPH

History End (EOH)= SOP - 1 DAYS

Prediction Start (SOP) = EPH + 1 MONTHS


OK

Apply

Prediction End (EOP)= SOP + 1 YEARS


Dates

Cancel

Help

12 Click on OK to close the Custom Event Shifting window.


13 Click on OK to close the Simulation Time Framework panel.
This input results in target simulator time steps which are very small at the beginning
of the simulation (5-day steps for two months), followed by longer (monthly) time
steps and the 5th day of each month as the time boundary for the succeeding
13 months. Then, quarterly time steps with the first day of the month as the time
boundary for the rest of the simulation.

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Hint

If you use apply the event shifting options, then you can use Shift Direction
on the Events panel for each well/group to set how the event will be shifted
(either to an Earlier or to a Later timestep). See "Defining well events" on
page 71 in this tutorial.

Defining Schedule reports


Schedule reports are specified as so-called FIELD events. Additional time steps will be
placed at those dates where you have specified Schedule reports.
You can open the Events for FIELD window from the Control Network panel in two
ways:
14 Click on FIELD, with the left mouse button, (square turns red) then click on the
Event Table button

in the toolbar at the top left of the window.

15 Close the Events for FIELD window.


16 Clicking on FIELD, with the right mouse button, and select Show Events from the
pop-up menu.
This opens the Events for FIELD window again.
17 To select the style of your report select Events for FIELD: New | Schedule Report
Style
The right side of the Events for FIELD window now allows you to customize your
report. The frequency of your reports can be either Day(s), Month(s), Quarter(s) or
Year(s). You can also choose from a list of options for inclusion in the report by
clicking on the buttons next to the options to toggle them ON or OFF, or leave them
as 'Dont care' (or '*').
18 Change UNDEFINED to EOS in the To box.
19 Set the report frequency to quarterly.
20 Turn Grid Block Pressures, Oil Saturation, Water Saturation and Gas Saturation on.
21 Click on Close.
This applies the desired Schedule reporting options to the project and closes the
window. If you want to leave the window open just click on Apply.

Displaying production data on production data


graph
You can inspect the production data graph for a well in any one of three ways:

Click on the well with the left mouse button in the control network, then click on
the View Production Data Graph button

on the tool bar of the Control

Network window.

Click on the well with the right mouse button in the Control Network window, then
select Graph History from the pop-up menu.

Click on the well with the right mouse button in the Item List window, then select
Graph History from the pop-up menu.

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Tutorial 2: Interactive data editing and validation

57

Figure 4.6 Production data graph of oil, water and gas rates

Note

The SUMMARY file from an ECLIPSE run can be read in by using Schedule:
Import | Summary File. The results for a single case can then be displayed with
production history plots.

Open the production data graph for Well_1 using any of the methods outlined
above.

Display the average production/injection rate by selecting Well_1: Plots |


Averages
The rate averages, in a thicker dashed line, are now superimposed on the graph
(Figure 4.7).

Note

58

The plotted average reflect the Simulation Time Framework settings; that is, the
values plotted are production rates averaged over the defined time step size(s).
Also, the number of values plotted is a function of the Schedule report
frequency and the Event Shifts settings.

Select any of the options in the Plots menu to inspect them on the graph. Click a
second time to remove the option.

To view production on a specific range of date; double click on the date axis to
bring up the Axis Property Editing panel.

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Tutorial 2: Interactive data editing and validation

Click on the Range tab and set the visible data from 01/01/1970 to 01/10/1975.
This displays the specified production history period. You can also edit Labels,
Plots, Ticks and Style of plots.

Press OK to commit the changes and close the panel.

Figure 4.7 Averages superimposed on the production data graph

To see the cumulative production/injection history, from the Graph window, select
Well_1: Plots | Cumulative

The cumulative production data are now plotted along with flow rates and reaveraged rates (Figure 4.8).
8

Close the Production Data Graph window.

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59

Figure 4.8 Cumulatives plotted on the production data graph

The Graph window is able to display three different areas: the main display area, where
you can observe the production data; the navigation area, which you can use to alter
your view in the main window; and the Legend.
The appearance of the Production Data Graph window can be configured.
9

Open the Production Data Graph for Well_1.

10 Open the Configuration panel of the graph by selecting Well_1: Options|


Add/Remove Components
The Configure panel opens with various options available that you can toggle
on/off by selecting the option and clicking on the Show/Hide buttons respectively.
This moves the component to appropriate window and you should see the
component appear in/disappear from the Graph panel
11 Make the Navigation Graph and Legend window visible.

Layout tab
The Layout tab has the following components:

Legend see "Legend" on page 61 in this tutorial.

Navigation graph see "Navigation area" on page 61 in this tutorial.

Window tab
The Window tab has the following components:

60

Resize bars

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Tutorial 2: Interactive data editing and validation

Status bars

Tool bars

Copy to Clipboard/Bitmap file

Print options

Zoom properties

Mouse modes

Close menu option

Cursors

Graph margins

Dustbin

Color Inversion menu option

Refresh menu option

Title Settings menu

Graph Dialog menu options

Navigation area
This gives a view of all the data associated with the selected well. Note that there is a
red rectangular border with small squares in each corner around one of the graphs in
the Navigation window. You can use these to gain a more detailed display of a specific
area of the graph.
12 Click and drag one of the squares and note how the main view changes, displaying
only the area within the red rectangle.
The other displayed graphs are also changed to the same scale.
13 You can also zoom into any portion of the data on the main display by first clicking
on either the Zoom In
or the Zoom Out
button, then dragging a
window around the area to be investigated with the mouse. Note that the rectangle
in the Navigation area alters proportionately to the area on the main display.

Legend
This display is the key to the plots shown in the main display area. You will note that
one of the plots is highlighted in yellow. This corresponds to the plot inside the red
rectangle in the Navigation window. Click once on a line in the Legend to highlight the
selected plot, and the rectangle moves to the appropriate display in the Navigation
window.
Double-clicking on a line in the Legend opens another window from which you can
customize the plots in the main display. This is the Plot Style panel. You can customize
the color, thickness and style of the plot lines. To apply the format, click on Apply.
14 Double-click on Oil in the Legend.
This opens the Default Data Style Property Editing panel.
15 Increase the width of the line by moving the slider at the top right of the window.
16 Click on the Apply button.
The changes immediately become effective on the production data graph. Leave
the panel open.

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61

17 Double-click on Gas in the Legend area.


The Plot Style panel updates and displays the properties for the Gas Rates.
18 Change the color of the line to green and click on Apply.
19 Click on the Cancel button to close the Plot Style panel.

Overlaying production data for wells


Schedule allows you to overlay the production data for any number of wells or groups
on the same display.
20 Select other wells or groups from the Control Network window and drag them onto
the open production data graph one by one.
The window updates with the additional information, by overlaying the graphs
already displayed
Hint

Overlaying more than two or three plots at a time can lead to a crowded
display with difficulty in distinguishing between plots.

When you overlay plots in this way an additional menu called Items is added to the
Production Data Graph menu bar. It contains the names of all the wells and groups
displayed. You can use this menu to switch any of these plots OFF. This menu option
disappears when you switch off all but one production data plot. See Figure 4.9.
Figure 4.9 Overlaid production data

21 Close the Production Data Graph.

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Displaying production data for groups of wells and for


FIELD
If you select a group of wells or the FIELD in the Control Network window for
subsequent display in a Production data graph, Schedule plots the sum of the
production/injection data of all the wells within the selected group.
22 Select FIELD in the Control Network window and display the FIELD production
data graph.
The plots in this display now represent the total production/injection for the
FIELD.
23 Close the production data graph.

Quality control and editing


You can check the data for the project visually in the Production Data Graph window
and correct any obvious errors in the data table.
1

Open the Production Data Graph for Well_1.

To open the Production data table, on the production data graph select Well_1:
Plots | Table
The Production Data table opens.

Hint

You can position the table and graph windows so they are both accessible.
The graph and table views are linked together and any change made in the
table is reflected in the graph.

As you move the cursor over the graph the co-ordinates are indicated in the centre of
the status bar at the bottom.
3

Change to set current point mode by selecting Options | Current.

Note

You can only update the graph in this mode. There are no editing facilities for
the graph itself.

Click on a point on one of the graphs. The current point on the graph is marked
with a small circle. The date and value at that point are displayed on the bottom
left status bar and the corresponding point on the data table is highlighted.

Edit the highlighted number in the table.

Click on Apply on the Table panel.


This updates the graph.

Note

The averaged production data display is not linked to the table; we


recommend, therefore, you switch off this display when editing the graph by
using the graph to table link.

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63

Figure 4.10 Interaction between production data graph & table (detail).

Current point on graph

Defining well trajectories interactively


When you create history match simulation projects you normally have the well
trajectory files available (either directly from gridding applications or calculated from
well deviation survey data) for import into Schedule, as explained in "Creating a basic
Schedule project" on page 23.
On the other hand, trajectory files are not available for future wells that you need to
model in prediction runs. This is a typical case when you would use the interactive well
positioning facility in Schedule. The facility allows you to place hypothetical wells at
any point in the simulation grid model. The grid geometry and property information
will then be automatically processed by the program, and the well trajectories
calculated for the new wells.
You have two ways to build a new well trajectory:

By using a well trajectory table, or

By using the well editor on the 3D Well Viewer window.

Defining trajectories in a well trajectory table


1

Select Well_1 on the Control Network window and click on the View Well
Trajectory button

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The Trajectory window opens, but because neither a trajectory file nor a deviation
survey has been loaded there is no well geometry information available for this
well yet. However, as you loaded the grid previously, the global grid dimensions
and local dimension of local grid refinements (LGR) are available and displayed at
the top left corner of the window.
If you are in the prediction phase of a study you might want to look at the 3D view of
the existing wells and the global grid to decide where to place an additional well.
2

Open the 3D Well Viewer by selecting one of the wells and clicking on the 3D Well
Viewer button
on the Control Network window.
As there is no trajectory information available for the wells so far, Schedule
displays the full grid instead.
It is always useful to switch the display style to Outlines in order to see how
the well intersects the grid blocks.

Hint

Click on the Outlines button

on the tool bar in the 3D Well Viewer window.

Now place a well right in the top left corner of the grid. Type I=3, J=3 in the FIRST
and the LAST rows of the Trajectory window.

Leave everything else defaulted and click on Create.


The program produces a warning message if you enter illegal grid coordinates.

Note

Schedule calculates a well trajectory through the grid based on the input data and
displays the calculated trajectory in a table. Because you have previously imported
a property file (INIT), the Trajectory table contains values for both permeability
and NTG as shown below:
Trajectory - Well_1
Edit
LGR

Cell I Cell J Cell K MD Entry MD Exit Perm X Perm Y Perm Z NTG Entry X

Entry Y

8000.00

8020.00 200.00 350.00 80.00

1.00 1250.00 1250.00

8020.00

8040.00 200.00 350.00 80.00

1.00 1250.00 1250.00

8040.00

8060.00 200.00 350.00 80.00

1.00 1250.00 1250.00

8060.00

8080.00 200.00 350.00 80.00

1.00 1250.00 1250.00

8080.00

8100.00 200.00 350.00 80.00

1.00 1250.00 1250.00

8100.00

8150.00 200.00 350.00 80.00

1.00 1250.00 1250.00

Note that Schedule automatically continued the trajectory to the bottom layer of
the grid by adding four more intersections. The program can create vertical wells
very easily from just I and J input by creating a well intersection at each layer of the
grid. This also applies to arbitrarily-shaped wells. As long as you do not specify a
perforation at the extended location, the additional intersections at the end of the
well will not result in a connection with the grid.
If you do not have the properties file available when you calculate the trajectories,
Schedule will enter -1 in all the property columns. To update the properties simply
import the INIT file when available and the Trajectory table is updated
automatically.

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65

Close the Trajectory window.

Select Well_1 on the Control Network window and then click on the 3D well
viewer button

to see the well on the 3D well display.

You can now add the data for the other wells.
8

Repeat steps 1 to 7 for Well_2 but define an arbitrary path through the grid as
shown below:
Trajectory - Well_2
I

FIRST

TO

TO

TO

TO

LAST

Click on the Add Segment button to enter new lines in the table.
As this well is not intersecting an LGR, the last column in the table remains empty.

10 Repeat steps 1 to 5 for Well_3, but this time define the wells path as going through
the local LGR LGR1. (See table below.)
Both the local IJK grid coordinates and the name of the LGR for each intersection
have to be specified in the Trajectory window, for that part of the trajectory that
passes the LGR. The required information for the local coordinates of the LGR1
and global IJK dimensions are provided at the top of the Trajectory window.
Trajectory - Well_3
I

LGR

FIRST

LGR1

TO

15

LGR1

LAST

11 Click on Create
Schedule has now created a trajectory table with coarse grid intersections from
layers 1 to 6.
Note at the left of the table there is a column called Edit LGR with a button for a
drop-down menu for LGR1.
12 Click on the drop down menu button to the right of the LGR name to open the
trajectory table for the fine grid intersections.

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Schedule has created a trajectory through the LGR from fine grid layer 1 to 15 as
shown in the following table:

13 To return to the coarse layer table click on Exit LGR.


14 To close the Trajectory window click on OK.

Defining well trajectories using 3D well editor


15 Open the 3D Well Viewer on Well_1, Well_2, Well_3 and Well_4.
Hint

Select one of the wells and click on the 3D Well Viewer button
on the
Control Network window. Then drag the other wells to the open 3D Well
Viewer window.

16 Select 3D View | Full Grid


17 Click on the Outlines button
Hint

You can use 3D Well Viewer | Grid | Display | Transparency to adjust the grid
transparency or de-activate the cells to get a better display of the well
intersection.

18 Click on the Top View button

You will see the positions of well heads.


Now we can start to create Well_4.
Note

Before editing the well, you may need to look at Front View
to make
sure the grid layers are clearly distinguishable and editable. You can also
stretch out the vertical direction by clicking on the Vertical Stretch
button
on the tool bar of the 3D Well Viewer window.

19 3D Well Viewer: Edit | Wells | Edit Wells


This opens a panel with a List of Wells: select Well_4 and click OK. Another panel
opens listing all well bores for this well name. In this case there is only one.

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67

Note

When only one well is in the 3D viewer the panel showing the List of Wells is
omitted and the Well Bores panel opens directly.

20 Select Well_4 and click on Edit.


This opens Well_4 Edit Table. You can position the Table and the 3D Well Viewer
window so that they are both accessible. The 3D Well Viewer and Table are linked
together and any change made in one is reflected in the other.
21 Place a well head in the center of the cell on I=6 from left, J=6 from the top of the
grid by clicking once on the point you want.
A small white square appears on the cell. The corresponding data on this reference
point (first point of the stem) are displayed on the top part of the table.
22 3D Well Viewer: Wells
23 De-activate Well _1 and Well_2 to make the view clearer.
24 Click on the Left View button

on the tool bar in the 3D Well Viewer window.

You will see a cross section of J-K on the grid with J increasing from left to right
and K increasing from top to bottom.
25 Click 7 more points to build the well trajectory as shown in Figure 4.11.
Figure 4.11 Edit well trajectory on 3D Viewer

26 Edit the data as follows:


Reference point (First point of the Stem)

68

X =

2750

ft

Y =

2250

ft

Z =

8000

ft

MD =

ft

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Tutorial 2: Interactive data editing and validation

Subsequent points below...


Point

X (ft)

Y (ft)

Z (ft)

2750

2250

8010

2750

1750

8030

2750

1250

8050

2750

1250

8070

2750

1250

8090

2750

1250

8125

2750

1750

8125

27 Click on the Update View button on the Well_4 Edit Table panel. You will see the
updated well trajectory on the 3D Well Viewer.
28 Close the Table panel.
29 3D Well Viewer: Edit | Commit Edit
This commits the well trajectory data to the project.
30 Select Well_4 on the Control Network window and click on the View Well
Trajectory button

The Trajectory window opens and you can view the well trajectory data.
Note

The 3D Well Editor display shows map units, while the trajectory uses grid
units. It is possible, as shown in this example for Well_4, for the display of
entry data to differ between the 3D Well Editor display and the Trajectory table.

Note

The starting point of well measured depth (MD) entry is 0, if you edited it in
the 3D Editor; and is the top depth of the top grid if you edited it in the
Trajectory table. This does not affect the simulation results. You can reset the
MD value in the reference point to any value you want. Refer to the tutorial
"Creating and editing a multi-lateral multi-segment well model" on page 142
for details.

Export the well deviation data for future viewing and editing of the well deviation
using the 3D Well Viewer.
31 Export | Deviations
32 Save the data file as EX2.CNT.
This creates a control file which contains a deviation file named EX2.DEV.
There is a trajectory file in your working directory called EX2.TRJ which has been
produced within Schedule in the way described above, and exported from Schedule.
Import this file now into your project.
33 Select Import | Well Locations | Trajectory File
34 From the file browser select the file EX2.TRJ
This updates the data for your trajectories on a per-well basis and provides the
information necessary for following the remaining steps of this tutorial.

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69

Entering geological layer data


As discussed in the previous tutorial ("Importing geological layer information" on
page 33), Schedule allows events to be shifted to correct geological layers if a Layer
Table has been defined.
Schedule contains several options for layer shifting.
1

Setup | Options
This opens the ECLIPSE Options panel.

Go to the Layer Shifting box.


You have the following options of Linear Scaling, Relative Shift and Simple Shift.
The mechanism which shifts events into a named grid layer can maintain the
relative positions and sizes of the events. For more details please refer to
"Configuring simulation options" on page 354.

Caution

If you are not certain which layer shifting option you should use we
recommend using the default, Simple Shift, in which Schedule shifts each
event to its designated layer. Any portion of the event which extends
outside the layer is then removed.

Layer information can either be specified in a file and imported into Schedule using the
Import | Layer Table option, or it can be entered interactively into the Layer Table.
3

To enter layer information interactively, open the Layer Table by selecting Data |
Layer Table
The Layer Table List opens.
Note that Schedule has entered one dummy line by default. Assume that the
simulation grid layers 2 to 3 represent the geological flow unit called Sand_1 and
layers 4 to 6, flow unit Sand_2.

Layer Name

Top Layer

Bottom Layer

Sand_1

Sand_2

Hint

To enter a new line click on the + button at the top right corner of the table.

Hint

To delete a line, position the cursor on the line to be deleted and key the CTRL
and D keys together.

70

Edit the table as follows:

Close the Layer Table List by clicking on OK.

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Tutorial 2: Interactive data editing and validation

Defining well events


Although it is very easy to import events into Schedule via an event data file, you may
find it more useful at times to enter your well events interactively using the Events
window.
This section describes how to input events interactively into your project. It assumes
the following historical scenario for well Well_1:

Two perforations in the productive zones

Welltest and bottom hole pressure measurement

Hydraulic fracture to improve productivity of well

Excessive water coning in the well, workover and squeeze part of lower
perforation

Bottom hole pressure measurement

Well has reached economic limit and is plugged off

Before entering the events data


First ensure you have set a correct project unit.
1

Setup | Units | Field


This sets the project units to FIELD as needed for this tutorial.

Data | Layer Table and check the layer definition.

Check the simulation time framework which you have set before, as shown in
Table 4.2 by selecting Setup | Time Framework.

Building events for a well


Now we start to build the events for Well_1.
4

To define a perforation interactively for Well_1 open the Events window by


selecting Well_1 on the Control Network window and clicking on the Events
button

Place two perforations in the productive zones by selecting Event: New |


Perforation.
The Events window changes to allow you to specify a new perforation event; the
event type is entered in the events list at the left side of the panel, and the data
entry fields are displayed in the right side of the panel. The default date for the first
event placed on a well is SOS, which means the earliest time that can be found
currently in the project (the SOS date can be checked on the Simulation Time
Framework panel).

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71

Type in the following data in the entry boxes on the Events window:

Date

01 Jan 1970

Layer
(this field is optional and only
effective if Layer information is
specified)

Sand 1

Top Depth

8015 FEET

Bottom Depth

8055 FEET

Skin

2.5

Diameter

0.708 FEET

Comment

Perforation in upper productive


zone

Shift Direction

Earlier

You can enter either the Layer or the Top and Bottom Depth values to define the events.
In the case where both the layer and the depths are entered (as in this case) the
following rules apply:

The Layer setting overrules the Top and Bottom Depths settings.
For example, if you set the event in layer Sand_1 (layers 2-3), and the depth
settings correspond to layers 4-5, Schedule will reset the events to be in layers
2-3 in the exported Schedule section.

The minimum number of grid layers is applied.


For example, if you set the event in layer Sand_2 (layers 4-6), and the depth
settings correspond to layers 2-3, Schedule will set the events in layers 4-5
rather than 4-6.

If you have set the event shift to Apply (or Apply in Custom) on the Time Framework
you can apply the Shift Direction box on the Events panel to set as
Earlier, in which case the event is moved back to the preceding time step, or

None, in which case the actual timing of the events is added in the simulation,
or

Later, in which case the event is moved forward to the next time step.

Note

In fact the measured depth information for the first perforation event in
Sand_1 geological layer is slightly outside the simulation grid layers 2-3 (this
can be seen by comparing the data in the Events, Layer and Trajectory
SCHEDULE section). In this case Schedule shifts the perforation to match the
layer information provided and place an appropriate warning message in the
exported SCHEDULE section.

Hint

Although Schedule checks if perforation and well trajectory match, and if


production on the well is specified only for a well that has a connection, it is
helpful at this stage to open the trajectory and production history table for the
actual well and check visually the match of the data.

72

For the second perforation, again select Event: New | Perforation.

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Tutorial 2: Interactive data editing and validation

Type in the following data for the second perforation:

Date

12 Feb 1970

Layer
(this field is optional and only
effective if Layer information is
specified)

4-6

Top Depth

8065 FEET

Bottom Depth

8080 FEET

Skin

14

Diameter

0.708 FEET

Comment

Perforation in lower productive


zone

Shift Direction

Earlier

The Layer sets 4 to 6 and the Top and Bottom Depths cover layers 4 and 5. The
actual simulation layers will be in 4 and 5.
The Shift Direction sets Earlier as default. However, since the Time Framework will
set the Event Shift as Ignore during this time, the additional time steps for the
perforation are added during your simulation run.
Note

The sequence of entering events is not important: Schedule re-orders the


events based on the date of occurrence.

Note

Any text entered in the Comment field will appear as comment in the exported
SCHEDULE section file.

To enter the welltest event data select, Event: New | Welltest

10 Type in the data as follows:


Date

03 Jan 1970

Kh

500 MD-FEET

Comment

Welltest

Shift Direction

Earlier

A Kh (permeability thickness product) of a welltest event is specified for the well but
not for individual perforations. Schedule calculates cell connection factors based on
cell property, cell geometry and completion information. A welltest event causes these
cell connection factors to be modified. Kh will be scaled to all the individual cell
connections of the well, based on the values of the original cell connection factors.
11 To enter the bottom hole pressure measurement select Event: New | BHP

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73

12 Enter the following data:


Date

03 Jan 1970

B.H.P.

3550 PSIA

Comment

1st bottom hole pressure


measurement

Shift Direction

Earlier

A BHP event allows recorded bottom hole pressures to be placed in the output
WCONHIST statements (refer to "ECLIPSE Reference Manual") which can later be
plotted against the simulated BHPs.
13 To input the hydraulic fracture data for improving the productivity of well select
Event: New | Stimulate.
14 Enter the following data for the stimulation event:
Date

05 Jan 1970

Layer
(this field is optional and only
effective if Layer information is
specified)

Sand 1

Top Depth

8030 FEET

Bottom Depth

8050 FEET

Skin

-5

Comment

Hydraulic fracture in upper


productive zone

Shift Direction

Earlier

A large negative Skin number may result in a negative Connection Factor (CF)
which causes an error entry and deleting of the active cell, as shown in "Creating a
basic Schedule project" on page 23.
15 Workover and squeeze part of the lower perforation due to excessive water coning
in the well, select Event: New | Squeeze.
16 Enter the following data for the squeeze event:
Date

01 Jan 1973

Layer
(this field is optional and only
effective if Layer information is
specified)

Sand 2

Top Depth

8030 FEET

Bottom Depth

8050 FEET

Comment

Squeezing excessive water


producing zone

Shift Direction

Later

The Shift Direction is set as Later. Since the Squeeze date is the same as the time step
setting on Time Framework this date is applied.

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Caution

Take care when using layer shifting in a well with several perforation or
squeeze events. Schedule shifts each event to its designated layer; any
portion of the event which extends outside of the layer is then removed. In
these cases, it is best to use the layer shifting option that maintains the
relative position and size of the events (See "Layer shifting" on page 197)

17 Another BHP measurement took place, select Event: New | BHP.


18 Enter the following data:
Date

15 Jun 1972

B.H.P.

2990 PSIA

Comment

2nd bottom hole pressure


measurement

Shift Direction

Earlier

The Shift Direction is set as Earlier. Since the Time Framework sets the Event Shifts on
Custom and BHP on Apply at this time, this date will be shifted to 1 June in the
simulation run.
Note

This BHP event took place before the squeeze event. The sequence of entering
events is not important: Schedule re-orders the events based on the date of
occurrence.

19 Well reached economic limit and is plugged off, select Event: New | Plug
20 Enter the following data for the plug:
Date

01 Sep 1975

Layer
(this field is optional and only
effective if Layer information is
specified)

500

Top Depth

8030 FEET

Comment

Plugging off the well

Shift Direction

Later

Note

The Event Shift for Plug has been set as Apply on Time Framework, and the
Shift Direction is Later on the Event panel. This shifts Plug to the defined time
step on 01 Oct 1975.

A User event allows insertion of arbitrary text in the SCHEDULE section. The text
associated with the user event is inserted directly into the SCHEDULE section on the
date specified by the user event.
21 Now place a User event by selecting Event: New | User:

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75

22 Type in the following data:


Date

1/10/75

Identifier

User

Shift Direction

None

Note

There is a text box available for entering data. When you insert a comment here
it must have two dashes -- in front of it; otherwise it causes an ECLIPSE error.

If you have defined additional time steps to be inserted for user events on the
Simulation Time Framework panel, this User event results in an additional simulator
time step. This allows user-controlled positioning of additional time steps.
For this tutorial there is an event file containing exactly the same information for
Well_1 as you have been asked to enter, but it also contains events for the other wells
in your project. It is in your working directory and is called EX2.EV.
23 Import this file now by selecting Import | Events | Replace
24 From the file browser select the file EX2.EV
There is also a second events file containing some more bottom hole pressure
measurements for Well_1.
25 Import this file but this time merge it with the existing events by selecting Import |
Events | Merge
26 From the file browser select the file EX2a.EV.
If you look at the Events window now for Well_1 you will see that additional events
have been listed on the table. You can display a graph of bottom hole pressure versus
time now, on the production data graph.
27 To see these data, open the production data graph for Well_1 and select Well_1:
Plots | B.H.P.
You can also define additional simulator time steps for when a well changes operation
from production to injection. In this project Well_2 and Well_4 both change their status
from producer to injector.
28 From the main window select Data | Generate Framework Dates.
29 Check Production/Injection Changes and click on OK.
This places a simulation time step at the time when the wells change from
production to injection.
An appropriate message is written to the log of the main window.
Note

These time steps can be edited or regenerated but are otherwise fixed.

30 Open the Setup | Time Framework, and select the Dates button to show the
TimeFramework Date List.
Note that Prod/In. Change time steps exist in the list at the time when the well
started to inject.

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Inspecting the completion diagram


Once you have entered data for well events into Schedule, either by importing it from
a file or entering it on the Events window, you can inspect the completion diagram.
1

Select a well on the Control Network and then click on the Completions
button

Alternatively, click with the right mouse button on a well in the Control
Network window or in the Item List window, and select Graph Completions
from the pop-up menu.

The Completion/Events window opens and the completion state of the well is
displayed as colored boxes. Perforations are shown as cyan and squeezes as
magenta-colored rectangles across the window, showing their changes with time.
Grid connections are displayed as colored vertical lines drawn at the date the
connection is changed. Open connections are drawn in green and closed
connections are drawn in red. Small yellow boxes, called event markers, are
displayed to indicate the time and top measured depth (MD) of various events. If
the event does not have a MD (like a BHP measurement) the box is drawn at the top
of the wellbore.
The data can be viewed to display the well connections to the grid, or the well
perforations through time.
2

Select Completion/Events: View | Perforations


The y-axis now shows the measured depth information for the well and the
progress of the perforations with time.

Select Completion/Events: View | Connection


The y-axis now shows the IJK grid indices and well connections with the grid. The
different layers are shown as horizontal lines.

You can also view the flow diagram as well as the completion.
4

Select Completion/Events: View | Flow Diagram


This gives a view of production/injection rate with time.

Note

There must be enough data available in the project for the connections display
to be generated: well trajectories, property information and perforations data
are all needed.

Ensure that the Connections option is switched on by going to Completion/Events:


View | Connection.

The IJK labeling you see on the y-axis relates to global coordinates if the well is
connected to global grid cells, and to local coordinates if the well is connected in a local
grid refinement (LGR). The horizontal lines on the display that represent the horizontal
grid block boundaries are shown in red if local coordinates are displayed. Also, take a
look at the completion diagram for Well_3 as an example for a well connected in an
LGR.
After you have exported a SCHEDULE section, you can also display the so-called
internal events on this window by selecting View | Internal Events. This data is not yet
available, but we will discuss this issue later on in the tutorial.

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Pointing with the mouse at one of the events markers will display details on the event
in the status bar across the bottom left of the Completion/Events window. The
Completion window is linked with the Events window.
Hint

To open the Events window, just double-click on one of the events markers.
The chosen event will be highlighted on the Events window and related data
displayed.

Note

The positioning of the connection markers on the time axis (x-axis) reflects
your simulation Time Framework settings. If you specified additional
simulation time steps for an event, colored lines representing a connection
appear on the x-axis at the date you entered the event. If you decided to move
events to overall simulator time steps, they will appear at the simulator time
steps.

Close the Completion/Events window.

Configuring simulation options


Before you export the SCHEDULE section file to ECLIPSE, you should inspect the
ECLIPSE Options panel and change the settings where necessary.
1

Open the ECLIPSE Options panel by selecting Setup | Options


The options available on this panel determine how Schedule generates the
SCHEDULE section. The default settings should be acceptable for most of your
projects. We will use the defaults for the current example. For more details please
refer to "Configuring simulation options" on page 354.

Exporting SCHEDULE section for use in ECLIPSE


In your current Schedule project you have so far specified data for historical
production, well events, well geometry, and grid geometry, as well as imported
properties and layer information. You built a control network of groups and wells, and
inspected and verified the specified data on tables and graphs. Also, you set up the
proposed simulation time framework for ECLIPSE and specified special simulation
options. This is all you need before exporting a SCHEDULE section file for an ECLIPSE
history match run. For more information on creating SCHEDULE sections for ECLIPSE
prediction runs please refer to "3D visualization and predictive SCHEDULE file
generation" on page 86.
There are two ways to export a SCHEDULE section file:

Exporting a SCHEDULE section for the whole project using the Export | Schedule
Section menu option on the main Schedule window.

Exporting a selected SCHEDULE section for one or more wells or group(s) of wells
by selecting the well(s)/group(s) on the Control Network window and using the
Export | Selected Schedule on the Control Network window.

Before exporting a SCHEDULE section file, set the display/project units (the exported
file will be generated in the units used for the display):

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Check that units is set to field. Setup | Units | Field


The SCHEDULE section file will now be generated in FIELD units.

Select Export | Schedule Section on the main Schedule window.

In the pop-up file browser name the SCHEDULE section file EX2.SCH and click on
OK.
Schedule now builds a simulation model schedule section based on your input
data and writes the appropriate ECLIPSE control keywords to the include file. This
may take some time if your project is large; a progress indicator appears on the
screen.

Now export a SCHEDULE section for Well_1 only, by clicking on Well_1 on the
Control Network window.

Control Network: Export | Selected Schedule

Name the file EX2a.SCH and click on OK.

Note

You can only export selected SCHEDULE sections for wells within one group
because multiple selections can only be made within groups.

Now export a SCHEDULE section for Group_2 and Group_3 and name the file
EX2b.SCH.
Use the Ctrl key for selecting the second group.

You can now open the EX2.SCH, EX2a.SCH and EX2b.SCH files with any text editor
and inspect them. For an explanation of the content of these files please refer to
"Content of a typical SCHEDULE section file" on page 355 in this manual, and for
details about the generated keywords refer to the "ECLIPSE Reference Manual".
Schedule converts all the information from the current project into control keywords
that can be understood by ECLIPSE. As soon as you have the SCHEDULE section
exported, these control keywords and related data are also available in the Schedule
project for inspection and editing if necessary. We will refer to these control keywords
as internal keywords.
8

Run an ECLIPSE simulation run using the data file called EX2.DATA from your
working directory.
This contains the generated SCHEDULE section file EX2.SCH as an include file.

Check if the include file name in the SCHEDULE section of the ECLIPSE data file
matches with the name of the file generated by Schedule before running the
simulator.

Inspecting and editing internal events


10 Open the Events window for Well_1 from the Control Network window.
The left side of the panel shows a time-ordered list of events. The contents of the
list are controlled by the View menu options
11 Event: View | Completion:
If the view is ON (which is indicated by a small check mark on the menu option),
completion events are listed.
12 Event: View | Keywords:
If the view is ON, keywords introduced with the New | Keyword menu option in
this panel are displayed.

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13 Event: View | Internal:


If the view is ON, internally generated keywords are displayed. Internal events can
only be displayed, though, if the SCHEDULE section file has been previously
exported (which means that the simulation model has been generated by
Schedule).
Note

By default completion events are displayed.

In Schedule, we distinguish between three types of event:

Completion event:
Well events like perforations, squeezes etc. which are imported from the events file
or created on the Events window using the New menu options (except New |
Keyword).

Internal event:
Generated by Schedule during export of the SCHEDULE section, for example
WELSPECS and COMPDAT keywords. They are not stored with the project unless
edited by the user.

Keyword event:
Introduced with the Event: New | Keyword menu option or any internal event
that has been edited by the user (for more details please refer to "3D visualization
and predictive SCHEDULE file generation" on page 86.

14 Switch the display of internal keywords on by selecting Events: View | Internal


All keywords generated for Well_1 during the export of the SCHEDULE section are
now displayed on the list of events on the left side of the Events window. You can
either display the keyword name itself or the descriptions of the internal and
keyword events.
Hint

To toggle between showing the keyword name or a short description in the


event list select, Event: View | Descriptions.

Note

Internal keywords are not stored with the project. If you save and exit the
project and load it again, the internal events are no longer available.
Obviously, they can be quickly generated by exporting the SCHEDULE section
again.

15 Select the first COMPDAT event on the events list and change the connection factor
to 1.5.
If you edit an internal event on the Events window, it changes its status and
becomes a keyword event, which is then stored with the project. You might use
this facility to edit, for example, the internally calculated connection factor on the
Internal COMPDAT event. When you export the SCHEDULE section next time (which
means generating the internal keywords again), Schedule will realize that there is
already a keyword event corresponding to the internal event to be generated
(Schedule checks a few keyword-dependent entries like date or IJK). In this case
the keyword event takes precedence over the internal event and a proper message
is placed in the SCHEDULE section file. This is valid for any keyword event.
16 Click the Apply button. This leaves the panel open.
The COMPDAT event has now changed its status and become a Keyword event.

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17 Switch off the view of internal events with View | Internal option.
COMPDAT remains on the Events list.
18 Export the SCHEDULE section again (using Export | SCHEDULE section) as
EX2.SCH.
The display on the Events window is updated automatically. Schedule gives the
following warning message in the exported file:
--: Well_1 Connection 3 2 2 Perf. Len 20.00 (100.0%)
-- WARN: Well_1 COMPDAT may be inconsistent, existing event took
precedence over generated

19 Undo the edit on the COMPDAT event by selecting Events: Edit | Undo Edits
This opens the Edit History panel for COMPDAT which contains the list of edits.
Select those edits you want to undo (there is only one for the COMPDAT event in this
tutorial) by clicking on it with the mouse
20 Click on the Undo Selected button.
21 Close the Edit History panel.
If you edited lots of events, you can use the Undo To Selected button to undo all
edits from the top of the list down to your selected line. Try to use this option, but
first perform some more edits on COMPDAT to have a reasonable history of edits on
the event.
22 Delete now the COMPDAT user event by selecting Events: Edit | Delete.
23 Close the Events window.
Internal events are also included in the production data and completion graphs.
24 Export the SCHEDULE section again (using Export | SCHEDULE section) as
EX2.SCH.
25 Use the Completions button

to open the Completion/Events window for

Well_1 and select Completion/Events: View | Internal Events.


The display is updated and all internal events displayed.
Note

Remember that this window is linked with the Events window; doubleclicking on the events marker (the yellow square at the top of the event) opens
the Events window for the well, and highlights the selected event and
associated data. If you are double-clicking for example on an internal event
(like WCONHIST) on the Completion window and you want to see the
associated data on the Events window, you must also switch the internal
events display ON on the Events window.

26 Close the Completion/Events window.


27 Use

to open the production data graph for Well_1.

28 Select Well_1: Plots | Events.


The internal and completion events are now indicated on the graph by small
crosses. A click on one of these event indicators opens the Event window.
29 Close the Graph window.

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Inspecting and editing the alias list


If well or group names that are not recognized by ECLIPSE have been used in the
Schedule project, an alias is used instead of the original name when the SCHEDULE
section is created. When you exported the SCHEDULE section file, Schedule creates an
alias list for well and group names.
1

Open the Alias List panel using Data | Alias List.


This opens the Alias List window with the original names in the left column and
the aliases in the right as shown in Figure 4.12. You can edit these aliases and the
edited names are used the next time that you export the SCHEDULE section.

Figure 4.12 Alias list window

Note

This panel is empty until the SCHEDULE section has been exported.

Note

Schedule aliases all the lowercase well names to uppercase as required by


ECLIPSE.

Note

Schedule, also, aliases all the well names that have more than eight characters
to eight characters or less, as required by ECLIPSE.

Group_3.1 is recognized as an illegal group name by Schedule (because it has more


than eight characters) and the alias GRUP0001 has been used instead. Also a message
was written during the first export of the SCHEDULE section both to the main window
and to the SCHEDULE section file.

82

Edit this alias and call it G_3.1 and click on Apply.

Export the SCHEDULE section again; the edited alias will now be used.
It will be stored with the project.

Close the Alias List panel by clicking on OK.

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Inspecting input file list


5

To inspect the input file list select Data | Input Files.


This opens the Input File List window showing the names of the files read into the
project as well as the data type and the date when the files were read. This
information is also exported to the SCHEDULE section file and appears there in the
header. This is helpful for finding the resource files of the project again.

Close the Input File List panel.

Using Schedule for a history match run


Schedule not only helps you to prepare, validate and integrate production and
completion data in a very efficient way, it also reduces significantly the time spent on
updating simulation models during a history match run.
Below are a few examples of how Schedule can help you quickly update the simulation
model during a history match run.

Changing grid properties or grid geometry during a


history match run
Let us assume that you change simulation grid properties in the gridding application
during a history match run. Then if the changes occur also in the grid blocks that have
well connections, this effects the Connection Factor calculations for the COMPDAT
keyword in the ECLIPSE SCHEDULE section. Using Schedule, INIT files can be quickly
reloaded and trajectories recalculated using the Data | Recalculate Trajectories menu
option on the main window. This will update the properties in the well trajectories, and
the new SCHEDULE section can be exported to ECLIPSE. This can be repeated until a
match is achieved with the observed well conditions.
As an alternative to recalculating the trajectories every time you make a change, you
can set the simulation option Use Trajectory Perms in the ECLIPSE Options panel to
NO (Setup | Options). This forces Schedule to use the properties from the property file
(INIT file) for calculating the cell Connection Factors instead of those from the
trajectories. Thus you have only to import the updated property file before exporting
the new SCHEDULE section file for use in the simulation run. Refer to "Grid, property
and well geometry file sources, and combinations" on page 334.
When you looked at the well connections on the Schedule 3D Well Viewer, you may
have observed that the grid geometry does not always model the wells accurately. You
can easily update the grid geometry in the gridding application and send the changed
grid and property file to Schedule again for recalculating the well trajectories and
updating the well connections on the changed grid.
Note

If your grid geometry has changed and you have loaded a new grid file, you
need to update properties as well.

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83

Editing properties on the trajectory table


Schedule gives an easy and fast way to edit the permeabilities on the trajectory table
itself which result in modified Connection Factors for the well equations. If you edited
the trajectory table, it is then recommended that you export the changed trajectory file
using the Export | Trajectories option in the main window (you can re-import it at any
time into your current project or any other project). Otherwise you may lose your
changes if you recalculate the trajectories by accident.

Editing well trajectories on the trajectory table


If necessary any well trajectory calculated in Schedule or any imported trajectory file
from a gridding package can be edited on the trajectory table. This allows you to
change IJK values on the trajectory table to connect the well to another grid cell which
better represents the location of the well in the model, although this is not
recommended.
If you do move the well in this way, you should also update the properties that apply
to the new IJK location (permeabilities and NTG) in the trajectory table. Otherwise
Schedule will calculate Connection Factors based on the wrong cell property
information.
Also, if the original cell and the cell to which you moved the well intersection are of
different size and/or shape, then the entry and exit coordinates, and MD information,
will have to be updated. Otherwise Schedule will calculate the Connection Factor
based on the grid cell geometry information of the block you move the intersection to,
but it will still have the entry and exit coordinates and MD information from the original
block intersection.

Editing well trajectories on the 3D viewer


A well can be created graphically in a 3D Viewer and exported in GRID compatible
deviation survey format, so that a well created in Schedule can be read in GRID and
FloGrid. The well trajectory can be edited on the 3D Viewer if you have already saved
a deviation file. The changes will be updated automatically in the corresponding well
trajectory table.

Editing internal COMPDAT keywords on events window


After you have exported a SCHEDULE section, you can edit the internal events on the
Events window for each well. This is also true for the calculated Connection Factors
(COMPDAT keyword). This method of modifying internal events has been described
earlier in this tutorial. This is a very efficient and safe way of editing data, because
Schedule stores the edits made on the event (keyword) and you can undo the edits at
any time.

Editing overall target simulator time steps


Schedule automatically calculates averaged production volumes for the time steps you
have specified in the Simulation Time Framework window. If you require additional
time steps in order to more accurately model the reservoir behavior, then all you have
to do is to change your overall target simulator time steps in Schedule and export a new
SCHEDULE section file. Schedule automatically updates the averaged production rates
to the new time framework.

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Discussion
We demonstrated in this tutorial the interactive data editing and data validating
facilities of Schedule. We showed that it is possible to create a complete project
interactively within Schedule, by importing a grid and property file created in another
program and specifying the rest of the required input interactively in the Schedule
windows.
Also we guided you through a complete typical Schedule project, starting with
defining all input data required for a complete project, continuing with inputting the
correct settings for the simulation model, and ending with exporting the SCHEDULE
section file for ECLIPSE.
Lastly we described how Schedule can be used in an efficient way to support you in
making a history match in your project by varying grid geometry and well inflow
parameters.
We recommend that you now continue with "3D visualization and predictive
SCHEDULE file generation" on page 86, which focuses on using Schedule for
prediction runs and on 3D well connection visualization facilities.

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85

3D visualization and predictive SCHEDULE file


generation
Introduction
The aim of this tutorial is to demonstrate how to create a SCHEDULE file for prediction
runs and to show how the Schedule 3D well visualization capabilities aid in the
process.
The example prediction project involves introducing hypothetical wells and defining
target production/injection rates for both existing and future wells/groups.

Stages
The tutorial stages are as follows:

"Building a project from historical data" on page 87

"3D visualization of well connections" on page 89

"Using the 3D well viewer for quality control" on page 96

"Using the 3D well viewer for editing the well trajectory" on page 98

"Defining and visualizing hypothetical wells for prediction" on page 100

"Using templates, macros and keywords for predictions" on page 104

"Defining production targets for prediction run" on page 110

"Generating SCHEDULE section for specified period" on page 118

"Discussion" on page 121

Getting started
The tutorial data files are included with your Schedule installation. They can be found
in the following directory: schedule/tutorial/ex3/.
1

Copy all the tutorial data files to your current working directory.
ASCII Schedule files containing grid geometry, grid properties, historical
production, well events, well geometry and control network data have been
prepared for this tutorial.

Before importing these files ensure that your configuration file is right for running
Schedule.

Note

86

Our tutorials use feet as the map unit. Before you start Schedule you need to
edit the SCHEDULE section of your configuration file to change the default
setting of the map units from METRES to FEET.

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Tutorial 3: 3D visualization and predictions

Note

This must be done before importing the GRID file, otherwise you will not have
any intersections of the wells with the grid.

Open your configuration file in a text editor (either the local ECL.CFG file if you
copied the master to your working directory, or the master CONFIG.ECL file in the
/ecl/macros directory).

Go to the section beginning SECTION SCHEDULE. Uncomment MAPUNITS FEET


(or enter a new line with this text), comment MAPUNITS METRES and save the
configuration file.

Start Schedule.
This loads the changed configuration file.
Schedule will now report Map units from config file set to FEET in
the Log window when a grid file is imported.

Building a project from historical data


Importing data files
To build a new Schedule project, you need to import the corresponding data files.
1

Open a new project and change the units to FIELD with Setup | Units | Field.

Now use the following menu options to import data and select the appropriate
data files from your working directory:

Import | Grid | Single Porosity (EX3.FGRID)

Import | Properties (EX3.FINIT)

Import | Production History | Replace (EX3.VOL)

Import | Events | Replace (EX3a.EV)

Import | Events | Merge (EX3b.EV)

Import | Well Locations | Deviation Survey (EX3.CNT)

Import | Control Network (EX3.NET)

Save your current project using the File | Save As option and call it EX3.PRJ.

Opening the control network and the item list windows


4

Data | Control Network

Data | Item List

Configuring simulation time framework and report


frequency
Setting up the simulation time framework
6

Setup | Time Framework

Specify overall target simulator time steps of the first day in every two months (in
Step By enter 2 and in To enter 1) between the SOH and EOH dates.

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Change the Event Shifts to Custom

On the pop-up window leave all the time steps as Ignore except for BHP, change
this to Apply.

10 Click on OK.
11 Click on OK on the Simulation Time Framework window.
Note

This is important, because the previous events file that you loaded, EX3b.EV,
contains monthly BHP values. Adding additional time steps for these BHP
events would change the overall time step frequency to monthly, despite the
time step size being set to two months in the Simulation Time Framework
window.

Note

The event shifted cannot replace the one originally set. For example, if you set
BHP as 4970 psia on 1 Mar 1970 and 4700 psia on 1 Apr 1970 originally and
event shift applies to shift the BHP from 1 April to 1 March, Schedule retains
the original data for 1 March (4970 psia) and does not replace it with the 1 April
data. On the other hand, if there is no BHP data on 1 Mar 1970, the above shift
will result in BHP of 4700 psia on 1 March.

Setting up a Schedule report


12 Click on FIELD and then on the Event button
This opens the Events window for the FIELD.

13 Events: New | Schedule Report Style.


This opens the Schedule report.
14 Specify yearly reports on pressure and phase saturations at time SOS to EOS:
change UNDEFINED to EOS and Quarter(s) to Year(s).
15 Set switches 1 to 4 ON (Grid Block Pressures, and Grid Block Oil, Water and Gas
saturation) by clicking on the select boxes until ON appears.
16 Close the Events for FIELD window.
Closing the window automatically applies the input data. The project has now
been set to give yearly reports for pressure and phase saturations.

Displaying historical data


By using the buttons at the top left of the Control Network window you can now inspect
the production data tables and graphs, the completion and trajectory graphs or table,
the Events window, and well 3D view, as well.

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3D visualization of well connections


Visualization is one of the best methods for data quality control. Schedule allows you
to inspect three-dimensional views of well deviations, well completions and well
connections using the 3D Well Viewer facility. This helps you understand your well
model, and quickly detect wells that are poorly modeled in your simulation grid.
When you are in the prediction phase of a simulation project, inspecting the simulation
grid model and the existing wells on the 3D Well Viewer may help you to decide where,
when and how to place hypothetical wells. These can then be introduced in Schedule.
It is not our intention to teach well modeling in this tutorial; we will only demonstrate
how Schedule can help you to efficiently improve your simulation model.

Adding wells to the 3D well viewer


1

Click on SLANTW1 either on the Control Network or on the Item List window with
the right mouse button and select View 3D Well from the pop up menu.

Alternatively, select the well you want to visualize on the Control Network by
clicking on it with the left mouse button, and then clicking on the 3D Well
Viewer button
.
This will display a 3D view of the well through the grid which should be
similar to Figure 4.13.

Hint

If you have got a full grid display now without any well displayed on it, you
probably did not change the MAPUNITS in the configuration file to FEET.
Please refer to the second paragraph of the section "ASCII Schedule files
containing grid geometry, grid properties, historical production, well events,
well geometry and control network data have been prepared for this tutorial."
on page 86.

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89

Figure 4.13 3D Well Viewer window displaying well completions.

Hint

To open the 3D Well Viewer for more than one well within a group, select the
wells on the Control Network window with the mouse by holding down the
Shift key for multiple contiguous selections and the Ctrl key for noncontiguous selections. Click on the 3D Well Viewer button
.
To add wells to an existing display from a different group, select them on the
Control Network panel, then drag and drop onto the open 3D Well Viewer.
Using the right mouse button option you can only add one well at a time to the
viewer. If you wish to view the selected wells in a different 3D viewer then
click on the 3D Viewer button
again.

Add SLANTW1a to the 3D Well Viewer.

If you have several wells displayed on the 3D Well Viewer, you may end up with a very
crowded viewer display. To switch wells OFF in the display, click on the Wells dropdown menu which contains a list of the currently displayed wells.
3

3D Well Viewer: Wells | SLANTW1a


This switches the display of well SLANTW1a off.

Displaying grid property


By default, when opening the 3D Well Viewer, colored cells are displayed, together
with a color legend on active cell as shown in Figure 4.13 if you have already imported
the grid property file (*.FINIT).
You can choose to view other grid properties.
4

3D Well Viewer: Scene | Grid | Property


This opens a Property Display panel with a number of initial properties. Currently
ActiveCell is in application.

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Select grid depth by highlighting DEPTH.


This changes the cell color and legend to corresponding depth.

Click Close to close the panel.

Resetting the property threshold region


You can reset the property threshold within the limits of imported values.
7

3D Well Viewer: Scene | Grid | Threshold


This opens the Threshold panel. You can set the new display range by either
moving the slider bar or editing the value field.

Set the depth region Min 1100 and Max 1200.

Set Auto Apply on in the Threshold panel using the right mouse button.

10 Move Threshold window using the arrow button.

This allows you to limit the cells displayed to those that have depths that are inside
the given range.
11 Reset All and click on Close.

Editing the color legend


You can edit the color legend.
12 3D Well Viewer: Scene | Color Legend | Color Legend Editor
This opens the Color Legend Editor panel.
13 Make some changes and note the effects.
14 Close the panel.

Switching off the color legend display


You can switch off the color legend display on the 3D Viewer window.
15 3D Well Viewer: Scene | Color Legend | Show Color Legend
The color legend disappears from the window.
16 Click on Show Color Legend again, the color legend displays again.

Configuring the 3D well viewer


By default, when the 3D Well Viewer is opened, colored cells are displayed with their
borders (outlined cells).
17 Change the cell display style from cells to outlines by clicking on the Display
Simulation Grid Cells button

on the toolbar to turn off the display of cell

faces.
18 Normalize the view by clicking on the Normalize View button

at the top of

the button toolbar on the left side of the window or 3D Well Viewer: View |
Normalize...
Hint

You should normalize the view when you add or remove wells from the
display, or when you lose your view.

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91

For further information on manipulating the image see "Tutorials 1 to 3 and 7 cover a
complete Schedule project, starting with importing data, followed by visualization,
editing, and finally generating a SCHEDULE section file for inclusion in an ECLIPSE
run. Each of these tutorials covers specific areas of the program functionality. Table 4.1
should help you quickly find the appropriate tutorial when you are looking for more
details on a specific feature." on page 20:

Changing the well display


19 3D Well Viewer: Scene | Wells
20 Change the size of the Well Width and/or Height by either moving the slider bar or
editing the value field. If not checked, check the Connections item so that
connections to the grid cells will be indicated by spheres as well as values.
21 Change the display of the well name and status by selecting the options under the
Display and Level of Details.
22 Click on Apply to make the changes effective, or right click on the Apply button to
turn AutoApply on to apply the changes whilst you are making them so that you
can see what is happening.
23 If the grid blocks intersected by the well have low relief, use the Vertical Stretch
button

to exaggerate the vertical relief. 3D Well Viewer: View | XYZ

Exaggerate
Note

Before you use Vertical Stretch, you must ensure that AutoNormalize

is

not active.

Displaying well completions, deviation and


connections in time
By default, Schedule displays well completions on the 3D Well Viewer. Completions
like perforations and squeezes appear as colored decorations around the well:
perforations are displayed in green, squeezes in red.
1

To display cell connections, 3D Well Viewer: 3D View | Connections


Schedule displays the calculated well to grid cell connections. Whenever a
connection is present in a cell, this is indicated by a green cube. The calculated
connection factor is displayed near the well connection in the 3D Well Viewer.
When a perforation is squeezed off, this is indicated by a red colored cube with a
connection factor of zero displayed.

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Figure 4.14 3D Well Viewer window displaying a well connection

If the radius of the decoration is set too large, this may mask the displayed
connection factors. Adjust the radius settings if necessary. If you rotate the image,
the connection factors may be hidden behind the model.
Hint

If you cannot see well completions or connections for a well, open the Events
window for that well and check that the well was perforated before the time
step you are currently displaying. You might also examine the trajectory panel
for the well to see if the grid properties such as permeability and NTG are
available and have values greater than zero. If property data is not available,
this is shown as -1.00 entries in the permeability and NTG entry boxes. If only
the connection spheres are missing check that the connections are checked for
viewing in the Grid | Wells display panel, item 22 above.

To change to well deviation display select 3D Well Viewer: 3D View | Deviation


Schedule displays the well geometry loaded from the deviation survey data file
(Figure 4.15).

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93

Figure 4.15 3D Well Viewer window displaying well deviations

Note

Deviation survey data is only available for display if data is loaded into the
project with the Import | Well Locations | Deviation Survey menu option on the
main window. If you loaded a trajectory file from the gridding application
using the Import | Well Locations | Trajectory File menu option, the deviation
data is not available for display.

Note

Well deviation data is not stored with the project because it is not required
once the trajectories have been calculated. If you save and exit the project, and
then open it again, the deviation data is no longer available for display. You
may want to save your deviation file before closing the project.

To view the full simulation grid select 3D Well Viewer: 3D View | Full Grid

Click on the Normalize View button

to adjust the displayed full grid image

to fit the window.


5

Use the mouse and keyboard key combinations as described on page 20 to move,
rotate and resize the image.

Hint

94

By selecting the various 3D View options from the menu you can change the
well display style from Completion to Connection to Deviation whilst
displaying the full grid. To switch the full grid display OFF, select 3D View |
Full Grid option again.

Change the view back to connections.

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Note

If you first open the 3D Well Viewer with a well that does not have trajectory
information, Schedule opens the 3D Well Viewer with a display of the full grid.
Adding another well with trajectory information changes the view to that for
the newly added well.

The 3D Well Viewer allows you to inspect changes of completions and cell
connections with time.
7

Use the Timestep

button, found on the top right of the 3D Well Viewer

window to either step through time, return to the earliest view, jump to the latest
time step or animate through time.
The initial and final time and the intermediate time steps are determined by the
earliest and latest date in your current project as well as by the settings in the
Simulation Time Framework panel.
8

Open the Simulation Time Framework panel to inspect your current settings, Setup
| Time Framework
When you open the 3D Well Viewer window for a well or when you add another
well to the existing 3D view, Schedule calculates the Simulation Model for the
selected well(s), that is to say it calculates well connections with the grid for every
target simulator time step specified in the Simulation Time Framework panel.
Additional time steps will be calculated for those events where you indicated time
steps were to be added. This may take quite some time if your current project
contains a lot of history data and short time step intervals. A progress window
appears indicating the progress of the current operation.

Open the Timesteps window using 3D Well Viewer: View | Timesteps


This allows you to inspect the time steps and settings for your current project.
There is one time step every second month with additional time steps for all events
except BHP events.

10 Select a specific date by clicking on it with the mouse.


This displays the completion or connection state of the displayed well(s) at this
date in the viewer. You can also progress through time on this window using the
Timestep button

button.

11 Return to the Simulation Time Framework panel and change the settings.
12 Set the target simulator time steps to once every two months as before, but now set
all well event dates to Apply in the Event Shifts.
Note

Setting Apply to Event Shifts on the Time Framework does not mean that the
events will automatically all be shifted to the target simulator time steps. It
depends on the settings of the Shift Direction on the Events panel. If the setting
of the Shift Direction is None, then the event are not shifted.

13 Click on Apply.

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95

Note

At the same time that you applied the changes to the simulator time step
settings, the Refresh button

on the button tool bar of the 3D Well Viewer

became active. This indicates that the 3D Well Viewer display is out of date
because of a data change. Other edits can cause the display to be out of date,
such as changes in well events or trajectories from either editing on one of the
panels or importing another data file.
14 Click on the Refresh button.
Schedule re-calculates the simulation model and updates the 3D Well Viewer display
and the Timesteps panel.
15 Change the simulation time framework settings back to their previous settings
(one simulator time step every second month and ignore all event shifts except BHP
events).
16 Close the 3D Well Viewer window and the Simulation Time Framework panel.

Using the 3D well viewer for quality control


The 3D Well Viewer is a powerful tool for quality control of well models. If your
simulation grid model uses large grid blocks around a well or if the well is highly
deviated or horizontal in a coarse grid, inaccurate modeling of the well can result in
connections being placed far from the actual well path. Model inaccuracies like this can
easily be detected in the 3D Well Viewer as soon as a well intersects and is perforated
in an active grid block, Schedule places a cell connection in that grid block and allows
you to view the connection.

An example of using the 3D well viewer for quality control


1

Open the 3D Well Viewer for well SLANTW1.

Alter the display to Outlines

SLANTW1 is a slanted well intersecting a slanting, sloping fault.


3

Animate the model in time by using the Timestep

button on the toolbar.

Display the well completions and deviation, then the cell connections.
Comparing the Completion/Deviation views and the Connection view shows that
the large grid blocks do not accurately model this slanted well.

Another well called SLANTW1a with a similar location to SLANTW1 is included in this
tutorial. This second well has had the simulation grid model resolution around the
well improved by placing three amalgamated local grid refinements (LGRs) along the
well path.

96

Add SLANTW1a to the 3D Well Viewer display.

Switch the SLANTW1 display OFF and Normalize.

3D Well Viewer: View | XYZ Exaggerate

Change the x value to 2, and the z value to 4.

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3D Well Viewer: View | Set View | Front


The screen should now be similar to the one shown in Figure 4.16. You can see,
from the well completions and connections, how the greater grid resolution
improves the model quality for this highly deviated well.

Figure 4.16 Example using Schedule for quality control

Similar examples are the well pairs VW4 - VW3 and VW5 - VW6.
10 Investigate those on the 3D Well Viewer now.
Well VW1 is an example of how Schedule places well connections in a radial LGR. If a
well intersects a coarse grid block containing a radial LGR and the well perforates the
block, Schedule connects the well either with the innermost ring of a two dimensional
radial LGR or with the four sectors of the innermost ring of a three dimensional radial
LGR, thus shifting the connection to the center of the radial LGR. This is apparent in the
seventh fine grid layers of the radial LGR that is intersected by well VW1.
11 Display the Deviation to see where the well deviates from the LGR, then view the
Connections of well VW1.
12 Animate the model with the Timestep buttons until you can see the connection
placed in the seventh fine grid layers.
Note

When exporting well trajectory files from the GRID program for subsequent
import into Schedule, you are prompted during data export about shifting
wells located in radial LGRs to the center of the radial LGR, select YES.
This results in well connections in only the innermost ring of the radial LGR,
which matches the assumptions made in Schedule.
If you select NO the wells may be connected elsewhere than the innermost
ring, Schedule cannot then use the well trajectory through the radial LGRs.

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97

Using the 3D well viewer for editing the well


trajectory
1

Open well SLANTW1 as an example, 3D Well Viewer: Wells | SLANTW1

Hint

This option can be used to (De)activate wells displayed in the 3D Viewer.

Remove SLANTW1a from the display. 3D Well Viewer: Wells | SLANTW1a.

3D Well Viewer: 3D View | Completions

3D Well Viewer: Controls | Well Show Table

Click on the well bore center.


This will open the Well Trajectory Table on well SLANTW1 and allow you to view
and edit the well.

Click on OK on the Trajectory Table to close it.

Viewing and editing a well deviation


There are two methods of viewing and editing a well deviation.
Note

You can not view and edit a well deviation until you have imported a well
deviation file. As mentioned before, well deviation data is not stored with the
project. Currently, we suggest you export the deviation file (Export |
Deviations) after you created a well deviation graphically in a 3D Viewer
before you save and exit the project. A warning message will appear on the
Schedule Log window if you are not doing so.

First method
7

3D Well Viewer: Edit | Wells | Edit Wells


This opens the List of Wells panel.

Select well SLANTW1 and then click Edit.


This opens Edit Table panel. The pointed well deviation is shown on the 3D Well
Viewer window.

Close the Edit Table panel.

Second method
10 3D Well Viewer: 3D View | Deviation
11 3D Well Viewer: Controls | Well Edit Deviation
12 Click on the well bore center.
This displays a message panel.
13 Click on OK to confirm editing well bore.
The SLANTW1 Edit Table panel opens. The pointed well deviation will show on
the 3D Well Viewer window.
14 3D Well Viewer: View | Set View

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15 View the well deviation in different directions.

Using the edit table


You can edit the deviation data on the Edit Table:
16 Click on one box of the table. The number in the box changes to blue. Then click on
+ on the top right corner of the lower table.
This adds one row below the current row.
17 Change the data on the table panel and then click on Update View.
18 Right click on the table and select Undo from the pop-up menu.
This undoes your last change.
19 Right click on a selected point in the table and select Delete... from the pop-up
menu.
Hint

You can use this to delete data that you do not want.

20 Click on Update View.


The updated well deviation shows on the 3D Well Viewer window.

Editing the deviation data in the 3D viewer window


You can edit the deviation data directly on the 3D Well Viewer window:
When you open the 3D Editor, Edit | Edit On and Edit | Select/Move

are defaulted

to Apply.
21 Click on any square point to highlight it in the 3D Well Viewer.

You can then move this point to the position you want and the corresponding
values on the Edit Table also change.

If you select Edit | Digitize

you can continue to edit your well deviation

from the last point from which you exited.

If you select Edit | Delete

you can delete any point on the deviation path

by clicking on the point. The deviation makes a straight line between the
points on either side of the point deleted.

If you click on Edit | Edit On

again, it toggles to its inactive state. The

deviation points disappear and you see a normal 3D well view. Click again on
Edit | Edit On to make it active again.

Edit | Clear Edit

clears the table and all points on window.

Edit | Reset Edit

recovers the original deviation.

Edit | Cancel Edit

cancels the editing without saving any updated data.

Edit | Commit Edit

commits the updated data, which then replaces the old.

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99

Caution

Double clicking on the 3D Viewer window acts as Commit Edit. Take care
not to lose your original data by doing it.

22 Practice the above processes but do not click on Commit Edit.


23 Edit | Cancel Edit
Hint

to cancel the whole edit.

For more information see "Editing in the 3D Viewer" on page 285

24 3D Well Viewer: File | Close


If you have not cancelled the edit before closing the 3D Viewer. A message panel
asks you whether you want to commit the edits you have done. Click on No to
close the 3D Well Viewer window.

Defining and visualizing hypothetical wells for


prediction
We assume that a history match has been done for the current example and that the
simulation model correctly represents the reservoir behavior. We now use this
simulation model for a prediction run for a period of two years from 01 Apr 1974, the
end of historical production date, to 01 Apr 1976.
As common production/injection targets for groups of wells will be applied and
hypothetical wells introduced, it will help to re-group the wells on the control network
for the prediction period of this example.
Introduce a new start time for the changed control network on the Control Network
window using:
1

Control Network: Edit | Add Time

Enter the date to start as 01 April1974 and make the date 01 Apr 1974 active on
the Control Network window by clicking on it.

Note

All changes to the control network for the current selected date on the Control
Network window only affect the control network on the active date.

Move well VW5 to group G_1 and VW7 to group G_2.2 by dragging with the
mouse.

Defining hypothetical wells for prediction period


After assessing the recovery from the reservoir with the existing producing wells and
realizing that it is generally low, we decided that four new wells could be drilled in the
future. To investigate the effect on the overall recovery, those hypothetical wells are
drilled and perforated in the current Schedule project. This is done at the beginning of
the prediction period.
The 3D Well Viewer is used to decide the locations of the new wells.

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Open 3D Well Viewer now by selecting one or more wells on the Control Network
window and clicking on the 3D Well Viewer button

on the toolbar.

Add all historical wells to the 3D display (at this point in the tutorial this should
be all of the wells).

Normalize the view to fit the whole picture into the display window, and view the
wells from the top by clicking on the Top View

button.

Toggle the Full Grid display ON.

Note

It should be mentioned at this point that the simulation grid used in this
tutorial is a generic one. It has been generated in that way to better
demonstrate Schedule well visualization and quality control features.

After inspecting existing well positions and displaying solution data such as phase
saturations from the history match in a post processor 3D display, we decided to place
four hypothetical wells in the reservoir as described below.

Adding prediction wells to the control network


8

To add the new wells return to the Control Network window.

Click on G-3 in the Control Network window with the right mouse button

10 From the drop-down menu choose Create Well


11 Add wells horw2 and horw3.
12 Then to group G_4 add horw4 and vw9
Hint

Use lowercase well names for hypothetical wells to help you visually
distinguish them from historical, existing wells. However, as ECLIPSE
requires, Schedule automatically aliases all the lowercases in a well to
uppercase when exporting a SCHEDULE section.

Your control network at the beginning of the prediction phase (01 April 1974) should
look similar to Figure 4.17:

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101

Figure 4.17 Control network for prediction run

Note

Well names are case sensitive within Schedule. Therefore, the case used for
well names on the control network, the events, well geometry and production
data must be the same. Schedule does not allow two wells to have exactly the
same name in a project, but allows two wells to use the same name in different
cases. In which case Schedule aliases the second well entered into a new name.
A warning massage is printed in the Log window to record this change.

Interactively defining the well trajectory through the grid


Now use the Schedule internal well trajectory definition facility to introduce new well
paths through the grid.
Note

If your are familiar with this process, import the well trajectory file called
EX3_PRED.TRJ for the prediction wells using Import | Well Locations |
Trajectory File. The file was exported from Schedule after introduction of the
well data as described below. Importing the file will merge the trajectories
with the existing ones.

13 Open the Trajectory panel for horw2 by selecting the well on the Control Network
window and clicking on the Trajectory
Hint

102

button on the toolbar.

You may have to resize the panel in order to see all the information including
the buttons at the bottom.

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14 Define the path of the hypothetical horizontal and vertical wells through the grid
by entering the data as shown in the following tables:

Trajectory table for horw2:


I

FIRST

TO

LAST

Trajectory table for horw3:


I

FIRST

TO

LAST

FIRST

TO

LAST

10

FIRST

LAST

Trajectory for horw4:

Trajectory table for vw9:

When a well is introduced by interactively defining its path through the grid, Schedule
automatically extends the well intersections to the bottom of the grid. This option
makes the introduction of vertical wells easier, by defining the I and J location of the
well for First and Last and letting Schedule insert the well from the top to the bottom
of the grid. This option means that intersections for deviated or horizontal wells are
also extended to the bottom of the grid. This is a visual effect, as no perforations are
defined in the extended well path and no connections are placed in the extended well
path.

Perforating the prediction wells


An event file has been prepared for you that contains perforation information for the
introduced prediction wells.
15 Merge these events to the existing ones by importing the events files using, Import
| Events | Merge
16 Select the EX3_PRED.EV file from the pop-up file browser.

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103

Visualizing prediction wells


If you had your 3D Well Viewer open when importing the prediction well events, the
Refresh

button is active in the toolbar.

17 Click on it to update the display.


18 Add the new prediction wells to the 3D Well Viewer display.
You can now investigate the new wells together with the historical wells with and
without full grid display.
Alternatively you can switch the display for historical wells OFF and investigate
the completions and connections for the prediction wells in more detail.
Note

Make sure that you are looking at a time step where the new wells have
already been perforated (that is after 01 April 1974). Use either the Timestep
button or the Timesteps panel (which is opened using Grid | Timesteps) to
move to the appropriate time step. Ensure that the Prediction period is
included in your Simulation Time Framework (For example, if you wish to
have both a History and a Prediction period then set the time frame from SOH
to EOP)

You can also view the new well connections individually to inspect the new
calculated well connection factors. The numbers are displayed along the well path
for each cell connection.

Using templates, macros and keywords for


predictions
After you have created the history match for a project you can go on to make
predictions with the simulation model by defining production and injection targets for
a well, group of wells or the field. Schedule helps you rapidly and accurately set up
your prediction run. For example,

Well, group, FIELD phase production rates, water cut, GOR, liquid rates and well
bottom hole pressure history can be viewed on the production data graph, which
can then be used to decide future production targets.

Any well, group or general keyword to be used in an ECLIPSE SCHEDULE section


can be interactively specified within Schedule. Thus a complete SCHEDULE section
for both the historical and prediction phase of a simulation study can be produced.

Macros on groups of wells and on the FIELD can be specified to generate


keywords for groups within the control network.

Templates for groups of wells and for the FIELD can be specified to fill in
defaulted entries in any keyword.

Note

104

It is recommended that you read the following section before proceeding with
the rest of the tutorial.

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Keywords, templates and macros


Keywords, templates and macros are introduced as events for wells, groups or the
FIELD.
You can place these special events by using the following menu options on the Event
window:

Events: New | Keyword

Events: New | Template

Events: New | Macro...

The following section explains the meaning of keyword, macro and template events
and their effects on the content of the exported SCHEDULE section with examples using
the following control network:
Figure 4.18 Control network for examples

Within the Schedule and ECLIPSE programs the FIELD is treated similarly to a group.
The statements made below for groups will therefore also be valid for the FIELD, that
is group can also be taken to mean group and/or FIELD.

Keyword event
A keyword event is introduced with the Event: New | Keyword menu option on a
group or well Events window, and defines an ECLIPSE SCHEDULE section keyword
with related entries. The defined ECLIPSE keyword and entries are written to the
SCHEDULE section file at the date specified during export. Well keywords are available
on the Well Events window, group keywords on the Group Events window, both
group and general keywords on the FIELD Events window.

Examples
Example 1
GCONPROD specified as a keyword event on the FIELD Events window will result in
the GCONPROD keyword being written in the SCHEDULE section file for FIELD at the
date specified.
GCONPROD
'FIELD' 'ORAT' 70000.000 12* /
/

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105

Example 2
GCONPROD specified as a keyword event for Group1 on the Group Events window will
result in GCONPROD being written in the SCHEDULE section file for Group1 at the date
specified.
GCONPROD
'Group1' 'ORAT' 10000.000 12* /
/

Example 3
WCONPROD specified as a keyword event for Well1 on the Well Events window results
in WCONPROD being written to the SCHEDULE section file for Well1 at the date specified.
GCONPROD
'Well1' 'OPEN' 'ORAT'

3000.000 4* 500.000 3* /

Macro event
A macro event is introduced with the Event: New | Macro menu option on a group or
FIELD Events window. This generates ECLIPSE SCHEDULE section keywords for
either wells or groups.
If a well keyword (a keyword beginning with the letter w) is specified as a Macro
event for a group, this keyword is generated for all wells belonging to that group and
to all its sub-groups.

Examples
Example 1
WCONPROD specified as a macro event on group Group2 results in WCONPROD being
written to the SCHEDULE section file for all wells under the sub-groups of Group2 at
the specified date:
WCONPROD
'Well2.1.1' 'OPEN' 'BHP' 5* 2500.000 3* /
'Well2.1.2' 'OPEN' 'BHP' 5* 2500.000 3* /
'Well2.2.1' 'OPEN' 'BHP' 5* 2500.000 3* /
'Well2.2.1' 'OPEN' 'BHP' 5* 2500.000 3* /

If a group keyword (a keyword beginning with the letter g) is specified as a Macro


event, this keyword is generated for all next-level groups belonging to the group for
which the keyword was defined.

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Example 2
GECON specified as a macro on group FIELD results in GECON being written to the
SCHEDULE section file for all lower groups on the next level under the group FIELD at
the specified date:
GECON
'Group1'

2000.000 1* 0.900 10.000 1* 'NONE' 'YES' 1* /

'Group2'

2000.000 1* 0.900 10.000 1* 'NONE' 'YES' 1* /

If a keyword, to be generated by a macro event, already exists when the macro is


applied, and the existing keyword entries match the macro, then the existing keyword
and its entries will apply. If there are no existing keyword entries and they have been
defaulted, but these entries are available in the macro event, the macro entries are
applied to the keyword.
Example 3
If a COMPDAT macro event is defined for a group with the same IJK location as the
Schedule internally-calculated COMPDAT keyword with the same event date, then for
those wells in the group the generation of COMPDAT is suppressed.
Macros applied at a lower level in the control network have priority over macros
applied at a higher level of the control network if applied at the same date.
A WCONPROD macro specified for FIELD with a target oil rate of 4000 STB/DAY and
another WCONPROD macro specified for Group2.2 with a target oil rate of 2000
STB/DAY results in the following entries:
WCONPROD
'Well1'

'OPEN'

'ORAT' 4000.000 8* /

'Well2'

'OPEN'

'ORAT 4000.000 8* /

'Well2.1.1'

'OPEN'

'ORAT' 4000.000 8* /

'Well2.1.2'

'OPEN'

'ORAT' 4000.000 8* /

'Well2.2.1'

'OPEN'

'ORAT' 2000.000 8* /

'Well2.2.2'

'OPEN'

'ORAT' 2000.000 8* /

Template event
A template event is introduced with the Event: New | Template menu option on a
group or FIELD Events window. A template contains a well or group keyword and
specified values for the keywords associated entries. Once applied, the template
entries replace the defaulted entries of keywords found on lower levels in the control
network. This allows you to quickly define keyword entries that would have otherwise
been defaulted if the data is unavailable within the Schedule project. The template is
applied during the export of the SCHEDULE section.

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107

Examples
Example 1
The COMPDAT keyword is internally generated by Schedule based on well and grid
geometry, properties and well event information. Some historical data information is
unavailable such as saturation table number or D-factor and is therefore defaulted in
the SCHEDULE section file, for example, for wells under group Group2:
COMPDAT
--WELL

K1

K2

Sat.

CF

DIAM

SKIN

ND

DIR

'Well2.1.1'

10

'OPEN'

1*

4.724

0.656

26944.387

20.000 1* 'X' /

'Well2.1.2'

'OPEN'

1*

0.353

0.656

2828.427

5.000 1* 'Z' /

'Well2.2.1'

'OPEN'

1*

1.278

0.656

2545.584

5.000 1* 'Z' /

'Well2.2.2'

'OPEN'

1*

0.893

0.656

2262.742

5.000 1* 'Z' /

Defining a template for COMPDAT for group Group2 in the example Control Network in
Figure 4.18 and specifying saturation table number equal to 3 and a D-factor of 0.001
changes the COMPDAT entries to:
COMPDAT
-- WELL

K1 K2

Sat.

CF

DIAM

KH

SKIN

ND

DIR

'Well2.1.1'

10

'OPEN'

4.724

0.656 26944.387

'Well2.1.2'

'OPEN'

0.353

0.656

2828.427

5.000 0.001 'Z' /

'Well2.2.1'

'OPEN'

1.278

0.656

2545.584

5.000 0.001 'Z' /

'Well2.2.2'

'OPEN'

0.893

0.656

2262.742

5.000 0.001 'Z' /

20.000 0.001 'X' /

Template entries are only applied to defaulted entries. Data already available in
keywords for which a template is applied have priority over entries defined in
templates.
Example 2
An entry for wellbore diameter (DIAM) in a COMPDAT template for Group2 does not
have any effect, because this entry is derived internally for the well events data and is
therefore already defined when the template is applied.
Templates cannot be applied to keywords generated with a Macro event.
Example 3
If WCONPROD keywords are generated for wells using a macro, entries such as rate or
pressure constraints that have been defaulted in the macro cannot be filled in using a
WCONPROD template, and therefore are not written to the WCONPROD keywords for the
wells.
Templates applied at a lower level in the Control Network have priority over templates
applied at a higher level of the Control Network.

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Example 4
A COMPDAT template specified for Group2 with saturation table number of 3 and
another COMPDAT template specified for Group2.2 with saturation table number of 4
results in the following entries:
COMPDAT
-- WELL

'Well2.1.1'

10

K1 K2
1

'OPEN'

Sat.

4.724

CF

0.656 26944.387

DIAM

KH

SKIN

ND

DIR

'Well2.1.2'

'OPEN'

0.353

0.656

2828.427

5.000 0.001 'Z' /

'Well2.2.1'

'OPEN'

1.278

0.656

2545.584

5.000 0.001 'Z' /

'Well2.2.2'

'OPEN'

0.893

0.656

2262.742

5.000 0.001 'Z' /

20.000 0.001 'X' /

A particularly important use of templates is to specify data for wells


(WELSPECS/L). Schedule has a defaulted template on WELSPECS/L for field
events where the preferred phase for the well is set as OIL. However, you have
to add template(s) to handle the defaults for water injection wells or gas wells.
An example of this case is found in "Creating a basic Schedule project" on
page 23.

Note

Name pattern
Templates and macros have name patterns which restrict the application of the
template, or creation of the keyword, to those wells or groups matching the pattern.

Examples
Example 1
A COMPDAT template specified for Group2 with saturation table number of 3 and
another COMPDAT template specified for the same group, Group2, with saturation table
number of 4 and name pattern of Well2.2* results in the following entries:
COMPDAT
-- WELL

K1 K2

Sat.

CF

DIAM

KH

SKIN

ND

DIR

'Well2.1.1'

10

'OPEN'

4.724

0.656 26944.387

'Well2.1.2'

'OPEN'

0.353

0.656

2828.427

5.000 0.001 'Z' /

'Well2.2.1'

'OPEN'

1.278

0.656

2545.584

5.000 0.001 'Z' /

'Well2.2.2'

'OPEN'

0.893

0.656

2262.742

5.000 0.001 'Z' /

20.000 0.001 'X' /

You may now continue with the tutorial, which illustrates how to use keywords,
macros and templates in more detail.

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109

Defining production targets for prediction run


1

Open the Events window for the FIELD by selecting the FIELD on the Control
Network window and clicking on the Events

button.

After inspecting the production data graph for the FIELD and taking into account the
additional production from the introduced prediction wells, you decide to set a target
FIELD oil production rate of 70,000 STB/DAY at the beginning of the prediction run
(01 April 1974). To do this define the GCONPROD keyword for the FIELD, which sets the
production rate target using the guide rate method of group control.
2

Now specify GCONPROD as a keyword event on the FIELD Events window by


using Events for FIELD: New | Keyword...

Select GCONPROD from the FIELD KEYWORDS list.

If you are still using the default display units METRIC, switch now to FIELD using
the Setup | Units | Field menu option.

Close and re-open the Events window to update the displayed units.
Alternatively, you can change the input units individually for each entry field on
the Events window using the units drop-down menu.

Hint

To alter the default display units edit the SCHEDULE section of the
configuration file and comment either UNITS METRIC or UNITS FIELD.

Table 4.3

FIELD KEYWORDS list

BOUNDARY

BOX

COLUMNS

DEBUG

DRILPRI

DRVDT

DUMPCUPL

ECHO

EXTRAPMS

FORMFEED

GASFCOMP

GASFDELC

GASMONTH

GASYEAR

GCONINJE

GCONPRI

GCONPROD

GCONSUMP

GCONTOL

GCUTBACK

GDCQ

GDCQECON

GDRILPOT

GECON

GLIFTLIM

GLIFTOPT

GNETINJE

GNETPUMP

GPMAINT

GRUPMAST

GRUPNET

GRUPRIG

GRUPSLAV

GRUPTARG

GRUPTREE

GSATINJE

GSATPROD

GSEPCOND

GSWINGF

GUIDERAT

IMPES

IMPLICIT

LGROFF

LGRON

LIFTOPT

LOAD

MATCORR

MESSAGES

NETBALAN

NEXTSTEP

NEXTSTPL

NOECHO

NOWARN

OPTIONS

PRIORITY

PRORDER

RCMASTS

READDATA

RPTRST

RPTSCHED

SEPVALS

SKIPREST

SWINGFAC

TUNING

TUNINGL

USECUPL

VAPPARS

VFPCHK

VFPTABL

WDRILRES

WHISTCTL

WLIMTOL

WORKLIM

WPAVE

The target oil rate applies at the beginning of the prediction phase.

110

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DRSDT

Enter the following data in the text entry boxes of the GCONPROD keyword event
window:

Date

1.4.1974

Control Mode

ORAT

Oil Rate

70000 STB/DAY

Or exceeding max.

Hierarchy Control

Guide Type

Excess Water Response

Excess Gas Response

Excess Liquid Response

Shift Direction

None

Leave everything else defaulted and click on Apply.


This keyword event with its related entries will result in the following text being
written to the SCHEDULE section during export:
GCONPROD
'FIELD'

'ORAT' 70000.000 12* /

We assume that all wells in the current project should meet the same economic
constraints in the future. Economic limits are specified for wells using the WECON
keyword. As this keyword is applied for all wells under the FIELD, specify a macro
event at the FIELD level, which then generates the keyword with the specified entries
for all the wells at lower levels in the control network.
8

Events for FIELD: New | Macro


This opens the WELL/GROUPS Macros list.

Select WECON from the list.


This adds a WECON macro to the events list on the left side of the Events window.

Note

A letter (M) appears in front of WECON which indicates that this event was
specified as macro event.

10 Enter the following data into the text entry boxes of the WECON macro event
window:
Date

1.4.1974

Maximum water cut

0.9 STB/STB

Workover.

CON

End Run if all shut

NO

Quantity

Secondary Workover

Name Patten

VW*

Shift Direction

None

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111

The WECON macro applied at the FIELD level will cause the following text to be written
in the SCHEDULE section file on 01 Apr 1974 during export:
WECON
VW5 2*

0.900

10.000 1*

CON

NO

5* /

VW1 2*

0.900

10.000 1*

CON

NO

5* /

VW2 2*

0.900

10.000 1*

CON

NO

5* /

VW3 2*

0.900

10.000 1*

CON

NO

5* /

VW4 2*

0.900

10.000 1*

CON

NO

5* /

VW7 2*

0.900

10.000 1*

CON

NO

5* /

VW6 2*

0.900

10.000 1*

CON

NO

5* /

VW8 2*

0.900

10.000 1*

CON

NO

5* /

Note

Since the VW* was entered into the Name Pattern box, the macro is applied
only to wells named VW. Note that it is case sensitive, that is the well vw9
is not recognized by VW*.

When the target field production specified with GCONPROD can no longer be
maintained by the current production wells it will be necessary to open more wells. To
do this use the keyword QDRILL. This keyword puts the prediction wells horw2,
horw3, horw4 and vw9 into a drilling queue and opens them automatically in sequence.
QDRILL is a text keyword, which means it has only text as entries. For this type of
keyword, Schedule provides the option of entering them as User events on the Events
window.
11 Select Events for FIELD: New | User
12 Enter the date 01 Apr 74.
13 Enter the data for QDRILL as shown below::
Date

01 Apr 1974

Identifier

User

Shift Direction

None

QDRILL
HORW2 HORW3 HORW4 VW9
/

14 Apply the edits and close the FIELD Events window.


Caution

112

All the applied well names entered on the User panel must be in
uppercase, no matter how they are defined in the control network. This is
because Schedule aliases all the well names on the Control Network or Item
List to the uppercase for the ECLIPSE run, but it cannot alias the well
names in the User events.

Tutorials
Tutorial 3: 3D visualization and predictions

You must now specify the wells in the drilling queue specified as shut producers. You
can use the WCONPROD keyword to define wells as SHUT and to specify the target oil
rates when opened.
15 Open the Events window for horw2.
16 Events for horw2: New | Keyword...
17 On the Events window for horw2, select the WCONPROD keyword from the WELL
KEYWORDS list and enter the following data:
Date

01 Apr 1974

Open Flag

SHUT

Control Mode

ORAT

Oil Rate

5000 STB/DAY

B.H.P.

500 PSIA

Shift Direction

None

18 Leave everything else defaulted with no entries in the other fields.


19 Apply the changes and close the window.
20 Specify WCONPROD for the other wells in the drilling queue on their respective
Events windows with the same entries as horw2 above but with the oil rates listed
below.
Do not insert BHP limits in the WCONPROD keyword for these wells because later we
want to show how a WCONPROD macro interacts with the keyword events.

horw3:
10000 STB/DAY

horw4:
7000 STB/DAY

vw9:
4500 STB/DAY

Hint

When you are entering new events or keywords in the Events window, click
on the event in the list which precedes the new event you are introducing. This
copies the date from the highlighted event to the newly introduced event.

If a prediction period is specified, Schedule terminates production and injection for all
wells at the next time step after the end of the history match period by setting well rates
to zero in the WCONHIST and WCONPROD keywords. New production/injection
keywords for all wells, therefore, must be specified at the beginning of the prediction
period.
Note

If only historical data is exported these zero rate entries do not appear in the
exported file.

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113

Examples
The wells in the current project have historical production data until 01 Mar 1974, with
the rates defined on 01 March 1974 valid for the whole month of March. Time steps
every two months have been specified.
Example 1
If no prediction data is specified and you export the SCHEDULE section for a start date
of Initial and an end date of Final, the last time step that models the rate entry from 01
Mar 1974 would have ended at 01 May 1974 at the same rates, with the following
output to the SCHEDULE section file:
DATES
1 MAR 1974/
/
WCONHIST
SLSNTW1 OPEN ORAT 1850.000 375.000 38000.000 1* 1* 1* 0.000
/
~~
~~
~~
VW8 OPEN ORAT 415.000 128.000 13880.00 1* 1* 1* 1* /
/
DATES
1 MAY 1974/
/

114

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Example 2
With a prediction period specified on the Simulation Time Framework panel, for
example an end date of 01 Jul 1974, but no prediction keywords defined, another two
month period are therefore added to the SCHEDULE section file with a WCONHIST
keyword setting the phase productions to zero:
DATES
1 'MAR' 1974/
/
WCONHIST
'SLANTW1'
'OPEN'
1* 1* 0.000 /

'ORAT'

1850.000

375.000 38000.000 1*

~~
~~
~~
'VW8'
1* 1* /

'OPEN'

'ORAT'

415.000

128.000 13880.000 1* 1*

/
DATES
1 'MAY' 1974/
/
WCONHIST
'SLANTW1'
1* 1* 1* 1* /

'OPEN'

'ORAT'

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

~~
~~
~~
'VW8'
1* 1* 1* 1* /

'OPEN'

'ORAT'

/
DATES
1 'JULY' 1974/
/
--END OF SIMULATION

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115

Example 3
For the current tutorial, prediction keywords have been specified at 01 Apr 1974, which
results in another time step being generated at this date. As this is the next time step
after the last historical production data, Schedule writes the WCONHIST keyword with
zero entries for all phases at this time step, thus terminating the production for all wells
just before the prediction keywords appear:
DATES
1 'MAR' 1974/
/
WCONHIST
'SLANTW1'
'OPEN'
1* 1* 0.000 /

'ORAT'

1850.000

375.000 38000.000 1*

~~
~~
~~
'VW8'
1* 1* 1* 1* /

'OPEN'

'ORAT'

415.000

128.000 13880.000

/
RPTRST
1 /
DATES
1 'APR' 1974/
/
WCONHIST
'SLANTW1'
1* 1* 1* 1* /

'OPEN'

'ORAT'

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

~~
~~
~~
'VW9'
1* 1* 1* 1* /

'OPEN'

'ORAT'

We will now continue with the tutorial. At this point, the historical wells need to be
brought back on production under FIELD target rate control (remember, the FIELD
target rate has been set using the GCONPROD keyword for the FIELD).

Specifying a keyword macro


Specify a WCONPROD Macro for the FIELD at 01 Apr 1974.
1

Events for FIELD: New | Macro and enter the data as follows:

Date

116

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Tutorial 3: 3D visualization and predictions

01 Apr 1974

Open Flag

OPEN

Control Mode

B.H.P.

200 PSIA

Name Pattern

Shift Direction

None

The WCONPROD keyword events have already been specified before for the prediction
wells at the same date. Schedule merges the Macro and Keyword events with the
Keyword event having higher priority, and writes the following to the SCHEDULE
section during export:
WCONPROD
'SLANTW1'
'SLANTW1a'
'SLANTW2'

'OPEN' 1* 1* 1* 1* 1* 1*
'OPEN' 1* 1* 1* 1* 1* 1*
'OPEN' 1* 1* 1* 1* 1* 1*

200.000 1* 1* 1* /
200.000 1* 1* 1* /
200.000 1* 1* 1* /

'VW5'

'OPEN' 1* 1* 1* 1* 1* 1*

200.000 1* 1* 1* /

'HORW1'

'OPEN' 1* 1* 1* 1* 1* 1*

200.000 1* 1* 1* /

'VW1'

'OPEN' 1* 1* 1* 1* 1* 1*

200.000 1* 1* 1* /

'VW2'

'OPEN' 1* 1* 1* 1* 1* 1*

200.000 1* 1* 1* /

'VW3'

'OPEN' 1* 1* 1* 1* 1* 1*

200.000 1* 1* 1* /

'VW4'

'OPEN' 1* 1* 1* 1* 1* 1*

200.000 1* 1* 1* /

'VW7'

'OPEN' 1* 1* 1* 1* 1* 1*

200.000 1* 1* 1* /

'VW6'

'OPEN' 1* 1* 1* 1* 1* 1*

200.000 1* 1* 1* /

'HORW2'

'SHUT'

'HORW3'

'SHUT'

'VW8'
'HORW4'
1* 1* /
'VW9'

'ORAT' 10000.000 1* 1* 1* 1*
'ORAT'

4000.000 1* 1* 1* 1*

'OPEN' 1* 1* 1* 1* 1* 1*
'SHUT'
'SHUT'

'ORAT'
'ORAT'

500.000 1* 1* 1* /
200.000 1* 1* 1* /

200.000 1* 1* 1* /

7000.000 1* 1* 1* 1*

4500.000 1* 1* 1* 1*

200.000 1*

200.000 1* 1* 1* /

Note that the BHP limit of 200 psia defined at the WCONPROD FIELD Macro has been
applied to the WCONPROD keyword for the prediction wells horw3, horw4 and vw9,
where the BHP limit was allowed to be defaulted. The BHP limit has been specified for
horw2 as 500 psia when the WCONPROD keyword was introduced for this well- this
entry remains unchanged.
After setting up production targets for all wells at the beginning of the prediction
period, you can export a SCHEDULE section file and perform an ECLIPSE simulator
run.

Specifying restart file output at end of history match


period
In order to start a prediction run from a restart file after the end of the history match
period, you must specify a RPTRST keyword in the FIELD Events window.
2

Open the Events window for the FIELD and select Events for FIELD: New |
Keyword
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117

Select RPTRST from the FIELD Keywords list.

Enter a Restart File Frequency of -1 and ensure that the Date is set to 01 Mar 1974.
A restart is written at the next time step that follows 01 Mar 1974.

Apply and Close the panel.

Generating SCHEDULE section for specified


period
The simulation period over which the generated SCHEDULE section applies is specified
in the Simulation Time Framework panel.
1

Before proceeding, check your settings on the Simulation Time Framework panel.
You may have changed the settings when you performed the 3D visualization part
of this tutorial.

Ensure that the overall simulator target time steps are defined once every two
months and that additional simulator time steps are created for all events except
BHP measurements. Refer to "Configuring simulation time framework and report
frequency" on page 87.

Exporting single SCHEDULE section file for history


match and prediction period
To export a SCHEDULE section file for both the history match and prediction period,
the final date for creating the simulation model has to be modified.
3

Make the following time settings on the Simulation Time Framework panel:

From: SOH

To: 01 Apr 1976

Alternatively, you can enter 1.4.1976 into the EOP box and set:

From: SOH

To: EOP

These settings result in the export of a simulation model with time steps created
from 01 Jan 1970, the date of history start (SOH) until 01 April 1976 during export,
thus including the four years of history and two years for prediction.
4

Export the complete SCHEDULE section using Export | SCHEDULE section

Call the exported file EX3_ALL.SCH.

Open the file with a text editor and go to the date 01 Apr 1974, when the prediction
period starts, to inspect the entries made by Schedule.
You will find that the DATES keyword has been written for the first day of every
second month as well as when events other than bottom hole pressure
measurements have taken place. The last date in the file is 01 Apr 1976 in keeping
with your Simulation Time Framework panel settings.

118

Run ECLIPSE with this SCHEDULE section file.

Tutorials
Tutorial 3: 3D visualization and predictions

The ECLIPSE data file called EX3.DATA is located in your working directory.
Before running ECLIPSE, open the data file with a text editor, go to the end of the
file, and check if the include file name in the SCHEDULE section is EX3_ALL.SCH.
If you have any problems in running ECLIPSE, a base file called BASE_ALL.SCH
which matches the instructions in this tutorial has been included for comparison.
The simulation run may last a few minutes.

Exporting SCHEDULE section file for history match


period only
If your project contains only historical data and keywords for the history match period,
it is sufficient to use the default dates SOH to EOH on the panel as start and end date
for the exported SCHEDULE section.
Initially, when your project contains only historical data, they represent the earliest
and latest dates in the events and production history records. On exporting, Schedule
writes the DATE keywords starting from the date shown as SOH on the panel until the
date shown as EOH.
For our example with monthly time steps in the last period, the last DATE keyword
exported will be 31 March 1974, because the defaulted definition of EOH is
EOH = SOP - 1 DAY = EPH + 1 MONTH - 1 DAY in order to capture all the flow for
the last month.
If your project also contains settings for a prediction period, you must specify the Final
date for the export of the history match SCHEDULE section; otherwise, prediction
settings may be picked up in the extra time step written to complete the historical flow,
as discussed above, and the restart might be written at the wrong date. This is the case
for the current tutorial, where prediction keywords have already been introduced and
a restart is defined at the end of the history match period.
8

To export a SCHEDULE section file for the history match period only, open the
Simulation Time Framework panel and edit the range of the date settings as
follows:

From

SOH

To

EOH

Step By

2 Month(s)

To: (Event Shifts)

Events Shifts

Custom

History Start (SOH)

SPH

History End (EOH)

SOP -1 DAYS

Prediction Start (SOP)

EPH + 1 MONTHS

Prediction End (EOP)

01 Apr 1976

Export | SCHEDULE section

10 Name the exported SCHEDULE section file EX3_HIST.SCH.


11 Examine the exported file in a text editor.
Note that the last DATE written to the file is the date which has been entered as the
To date on the Simulation Time Framework panel.

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119

If you want, you can compare the file youve produced with the BASE_HIST.SCH
base file in your working directory, which has been created following the
instructions in this tutorial.
The next DATE that appears after the RPTRST keyword at the end of the exported
SCHEDULE section file is 31 Mar 1974, the date when the RESTART file will be
written during the history match simulation run.
12 Open the ECLIPSE DATA file called EX3.DATA, which is in your working
directory, go to the end of the file and change the include file name in the
SCHEDULE section to EX3_HIST.SCH.
13 Run ECLIPSE using EX3.DATA.
The simulation run may last a few minutes. ECLIPSE creates a RESTART file called
EX3.FUNRST in your working directory at 31 Mar 1974, the last day specified at
the history match run. We will use this RESTART file for a further prediction period
run, as described below.

Exporting SCHEDULE section file for prediction period


only
To export a SCHEDULE section file for the prediction period only, both the Initial and
Final dates for creating the simulation model have to be modified. The last date
specified during the history match run was 31 Mar 1974. This was also the restart date.
14 Enter the following time settings on the Simulation Time Framework panel for
exporting the prediction SCHEDULE section file:

From: 01 Apr 1974

To: 01 Apr 1976

or

From: SOP

To: EOP

These settings result in an exported simulation model created from 01 Apr 1974,
the start of the prediction period, until 01 April 1976, thus exporting the prediction
period only. A restart file was written for 31 Mar 1974. A simulation starting from
a restart must start later than the restart date.
15 Open the ECLIPSE Options panel using Setup | Options.
16 Set the Suppress History option to YES.
This suppresses all historical production data during export, preventing
production data from the last historical time step being picked up and included in
the exported file.
17 Export the SCHEDULE section for the prediction period using Export | SCHEDULE
section
18 Call the exported file EX3_PRED.SCH.
19 Open the file with any text editor.

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Note

If you export a SCHEDULE section file with a start date later than the First
Production date (SPH), Schedule summarizes the completion history of all
wells as a comment at the top of the exported SCHEDULE section file and writes
the latest valid completion keywords (WELSPECS(L), COMPDAT(M) at the
beginning of the SCHEDULE section file. This tells ECLIPSE about the
completion state of the wells at the beginning of the simulation run. This
output is not compulsory for ECLIPSE, as the information is available in the
restart file.

20 Inspect the completion summary at the top of the EX3_PRED.SCH file.


The ECLIPSE RESTART data file, EX3_PRED.DATA, for a FULL restart from the end of
the history match period is located in your working directory.
21 Open the data file with a text editor, go straight to the end and ensure that the
include file name in the SCHEDULE section is EX3_PRED.SCH.
22 Check also if the RESTART keyword has been included in the SOLUTION section:
SOLUTION
RESTART
EX3 41
/

This entry means FULL restart from a unified restart file. The sequence number of the
restart file (here 41) must be the same as written in the print file, EX3.PRT. If you are
in doubt, open the print file and compare the numbers.
23 Run ECLIPSE using EX3_PRED.DATA.
If you have any problems in running ECLIPSE with your files, a base file called
BASE_PRED.SCH is provided for comparison. This file was created following the
instructions given in this tutorial.

Exporting a SCHEDULE section for any period


If you want to generate a SCHEDULE section for a specific portion of the history match
(or prediction) period, you only need to define the start and end dates of the period of
interest in the Simulation Time Framework panel and export the Schedule section as
normal.

Discussion
We have explained in this tutorial how to effectively use Schedule for quality control
of model well connections using the 3D well visualization facility. We also explained
how to use macros and templates in the example for preparing prediction SCHEDULE
sections. Note that you can use macros and templates at any time in a Schedule project,
not just in the prediction phase.

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Tutorial 3: 3D visualization and predictions

121

Schedule combines all your historical well geometry, grid and production information
and converts it into a simulator-readable keyword file. It also allows you to insert any
ECLIPSE SCHEDULE section keyword and associated entries in your project at any
time, which will then be written to the exported file. Finally, SCHEDULE section files
can be created for any arbitrary period of the simulation run, just by specifying the start
and end dates.

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Importing data from OilField Manager and Finder


Introduction
The purpose of this tutorial is to describe how to import production, injection and
other data from OilField Manager and Finder into Schedule.

Stages

"Importing data from OilField Manager" on page 123

"Exporting from OilField Manager" on page 127

"Import to Schedule" on page 128

"Importing data from Finder" on page 131

Additional information provided includes:

"Notes on Finder production data load files" on page 132

"Notes on Finder deviation survey data load file" on page 133

Importing data from OilField Manager


This section of the tutorial describes how to transfer production/injection, deviation
survey and well event data from OilField Manager to Schedule. The procedure is
straightforward, and data files that were initially created for or by OilField Manager
can be used. Sometimes minor edits on the files are required.
Schedule can directly import production/injection, well deviation survey, and well
event ASCII format data files exported from OilField Manager 3.0. In earlier versions
of OilField Manager (version 2) only production/injection data files, together with an
external definition file, could be transferred directly to Schedule.

Transferring production/injection, well deviation survey


and well event data from OilField Manager 3.0 to Schedule
In OilField Manager 3.0 you can export data from your project in a format suitable for
direct import into Schedule. During the export procedure you are asked to perform a
data type mapping of the OilField Manager table data for use in Schedule.
1

To export data from OilField Manager to Schedule select File | Export | To


Schedule (Eclipse).
This opens the Schedule Export Option panel, which contains the Setup folder for
setting the data types to be exported, as well as the output file prefix for the
exported data files.

Click on the Setup tab to make it active.

Set the prefix for the exported files by clicking on Output File Prefix

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Tutorial 4: Importing data from OilField Manager and Finder

123

This opens a file browser dialog where you can navigate through the directories to
find the target directory for the exported files and then type in the export file
prefix.
Note

The export file suffix is added automatically by the program and the full
names of the files are shown on the Setup option tab:

.dev for the file containing the well position (deviation survey) with a
corresponding external header file with a suffix .cnt

.vol for production and injection data

.ev for well event data files.

Click on Save.

The next step is to decide which data to export to ASCII files for use in Schedule.
5

Put check marks against the data types you want to export.
Obviously your choice will depend on which data you have available in your
OilField Manager 3.0 project.

Once you have decided on the data types to export, select the corresponding tabs
on the top of the Schedule Export Option panel one by one, in order to perform the
data type mapping between OilField Manager 3.0 and Schedule.

Example

To perform the data type mapping for monthly production data, click on the
Monthly Production tab on the Schedule Export Option panel.

Perform the mapping of the Schedule data types with the data available in your
OilField Manager 3.0 project by selecting the appropriate OilField Manager table
names from the drop down menu.

Hint

If you click on the drop-down menu and then type in the first character of the
table name to select, the first table name in the list beginning with that
character will be highlighted and thus made available for selection. Keep
typing in the same character until the required table name is active.

Note

If you use tables in your mapping which do not contain valid data for the
export in the Schedule format, an empty file is generated on export.

The units of your OilField Manager 3.0 data are accounted for and translated into
appropriate units keywords which are included in the header of the exported files.
Schedule reads those units during the data file import and assign them to the data.
To import data files that have been previously exported from an OilField Manager 3.0
project in the way described above, use the following Schedule menu options:

124

Production/injection data
Import | Production History | Replace (or Merge)

Well event data (such as perforations, squeezes, welltests etc.):


Import | Events | Replace (or Merge)

Well position trajectory data:


Import | Well Locations | Deviation Survey

Tutorials
Tutorial 4: Importing data from OilField Manager and Finder

Note

The external header file with the extension .cnt must be selected on the import
of the deviation survey, which itself points to the location of the deviation
survey data file with the extension .dev. Do not use the Import | Well Locations
| Trajectory menu option for import of well deviation survey data exported
from OilField Manager 3.0, because this menu option only allows importing of
the so called trajectory file generated in a special exchange format in one of the
Schlumberger gridding applications, such as FloGrid or GRID.

Transferring production/injection data from OilField


Manager (version 2) to Schedule
A definition file, supplied from OilField Manager and describing the keywords and
units etc. in the production and injection files, is also understood by Schedule. It is used
in conjunction with the production or injection data files during the import of
production data into Schedule. The keywords used by the individual OilField Manager
user to describe his OilField Manager production/injection data can vary from case to
case. This variation is reflected in both the interface files exported from OilField
Manager (production/injection and definition file).
You may have to edit the content of the definition and/or production/injection data
file for import into Schedule, if the keyword nomenclature used in OilField Manager is
not compatible with that used within Schedule. During the import procedure, the
reader accepts the user-defined OilField Manager production/injection data
keywords, even if they are not compatible with the Schedule nomenclature, and the
data can be displayed on the well production data table and well production data
graph.
Hint

To make sure that the data has been recognized as production/injection data,
display them on the well production data table and/or graph, and check that
the columns on the production data table or View menu items on the
production data graph are those listed in "Production Data File Formats" on
page 301. Example: Production data must be Oil, Water, Gas.

Examples
Example 1
OilField Manager production data file header
*METRIC
*TABLENAME MONTHLY_PROD
*Date *GAS_DAYS *GAS_VOLUME *OIL_DAYS *OIL_VOLUME *WATER_DAYS
*WATER_VOLUME
*KEYNAME G1

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125

OilField Manager definition file content (section describing gas production data used
as an example)
*TABLENAME MONTHLY_PROD Monthly
GAS_DAYS DOUBLE
*pn "Monthly Gas Days On"
~~
GAS_VOLUME DOUBLE
*pn "Monthly Gas Volume"
*pa "Red" "Solid

" "None

" 4

Schedule imports data under *GAS_DAYS *GAS_VOLUME *OIL_DAYS *OIL_VOLUME


*WATER_DAYS *WATER_VOLUME for display, but does not recognize them as
production data because these keywords are not compatible with the production
data reader internal nomenclature.
So you have to tell the Schedule production data reader what the keywords mean,
in terms of Schedule production data keywords. You can do this by using an alias
in the definition file as shown below (changes to the original file contents are in
bold):
*TABLENAME MONTHLY_PROD Monthly
GAS_DAYS DOUBLE
*alias GIDAY
*pn "Monthly Gas Days On"
~~
GAS_VOLUME DOUBLE
*alias GAS
*pn "Monthly Gas Volume"
*pa "Red" "Solid

" "None

" 4

The changes in the definition file have to be made only in the sections which are
describing the production/injection data of the imported file. Schedule searches for
these sections and ignore the rest.
Example 2
For a header in the OilField Manager production data file *TABLENAME
MONTHLY_PROD Schedule will search for the appropriate section in the definition file
named *TABLENAME MONTHLY_PROD and read it. Edits that are required before the
import have to be made only in this section of the definition file.
Hint

126

Schedule reads by default the first four characters of a production data


keyword. If several keywords are present in your data which are longer than
four characters and these four characters are identical, Schedule produces an
error message during import and the reader stops. If this occurs, place the
*KEYLENGTH keyword in the header of the production data file.

Tutorials
Tutorial 4: Importing data from OilField Manager and Finder

Example 3
VOLUME_GAS and VOLUME_WATER are recognized as being the same keyword, because
the two expressions have identical first four characters. Place *KEYLENGTH nn in the
header of the production/injection data file, so that the entire keywords will be read:
*Keylength 12
*METRIC
*TABLENAME MONTHLY_PROD
*Date *VOLUME_GAS *VOLUME_WATER
*KEYNAME G1

You must specify an alias for these two keywords in the definition file, as explained
above.
For more information on what type of keywords are recognized by the Schedule
reader, please refer to "Production Data File Formats" on page 301.
For this tutorial and the procedure in general of transferring data from OilField
Manager to Schedule, two files are required, the production or injection data file (daily,
monthly, sporadic, etc) and a definition file.
The tutorial data files are included with your Schedule installation. They can be found
in the directory schedule/tutorial/ex4/.
7

Before proceeding with the tutorial, copy all the files from this directory to your
current working directory.
There are two files in the sub-directory ex4: EX4.VOL (production file) and
EX4.DEF (definition file).

Exporting from OilField Manager


1

To export the production data file, go to the main OilField Manager project
window and select File | Export | Table Data.
The Table To Export menu appears with options which represent the available
tables for the currently loaded definition file.

Select the type of file required and click OK.


This opens a file browser, which allows you to specify a file to save to. The default
extension is *.dat, although you can choose your own extension.
You will need to import the file you exported into Schedule later, so put it in an
accessible place.

Click on OK after naming the file to save to.


You can find an example of an exported data file in the Schedule directory:
ex4/EX4.VOL

An ASCII file has now been exported containing the type of data selected (production
or injection, daily or monthly, etc.). This file resides in the directory you named and is
ready for import into Schedule.
Before you can run Schedule, however, you also need to export the definition file that
describes the content of this file.

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Tutorial 4: Importing data from OilField Manager and Finder

127

To do this, select File | Export | Table Definition.


This opens a file browser, which allows you to specify a file to save to. The default
extension is *.def, although you choose your own extension.
When you have exported this file you will need to know where it is, as it is required
by Schedule.

Click OK after naming the file to save to.


An example of an exported definition file is in the Schedule directory:
ex4/EX4.DEF

Note

For most cases, Schedule can read the definition file. However, one known
exception exists: In the current version of the production data reader a
calculated or imputed variable that has a logical or represented by a single
bar (|) like in OIL|GAS|WATER, cause a calculation failure in Schedule, as
Schedule uses the C/C++/Java convention for logical or of two vertical bars
(||).
If you have a calculation with logical or you will need to edit it. Refer to
Figure 4.19 which illustrates a Definition file. Under the section ON you can
see the edited entry: OIL||GAS||WATER.

You are now ready to import these files into Schedule and you may now exit OilField
Manager. For this tutorial we will use the two files provided in the sub-directory, ex4.
For practice you may like to create your own files to use.

Import to Schedule
1

Start Schedule either by typing @schedule in your UNIX working directory or by


running it from the GeoQuest Simulation Software Launcher on your PC.

To import the production data file that was saved from the OilField Manager
project, select Import | Production History | Replace.
A file browser is displayed with the request Read Production History.

Select the EX4.VOL production file and click OK.


The progress monitor is displayed. However, as Schedule recognizes that this is an
OilField Manager file, importing is halted and Schedule returns to the file browser
to show it is waiting for the definition file associated with the *Tablename
keywords in the data file. Schedule needs to read the definition file in order to
process the data, so it displays on screen the request Specify Definition
Data File.

Select the file ex4/EX4.DEF


Schedule processes this file, then continues to read in the production data.

An example from the definition file is shown below. Schedule will process the
information given under *Tablename Monthlyprod Monthly. This defines the
keywords used in the associated production data file, their type, units and any input
multipliers. The Daily production and injection data tables are similar.

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Tutorial 4: Importing data from OilField Manager and Finder

Figure 4.19 A Definition Data file

*TABLENAME MONTHLYPROD Monthly


DAYS

INT4
*pn "Producing Days"
*pa "Black" "Solid

" "None

" 4

*u "days"
*mu "1" "1"
*id 0
*ma Yes None
*da 0 0 -9999
*rh "" "Producing" "Days"
*rf 10 0 Right
OIL FLOAT
*pn "Monthly Oil"

ON

CALCULATED*1

OIL||GAS||WATER

*pn "MONTHLYPROD.ON"
*pa "Gray" "Solid

Caution

Note

" "None

" 4

In versions prior to 99A, Schedule interprets the line in the above


definition file:
*da 0 0 -9999
as specifying the minimum for this data is 0, and the maximum is 0.
Schedule resets the values of the data read in to lie within this range, so it
is all zero, therefore no data appears in the production tables. Schedule
would accept the following:
*da * * -9999
to mean defaulted values.
Alternatively the *da should not be output. A work-around is to delete
any *da keywords of this form from the .def file, or to edit them into the
form *da * * * or similar.

In Schedule 99A and subsequent versions, Schedule ignores the line *da 0 0
-9999. The production data can then be correctly loaded in without further
editing by the user.

Schedule offers you the option to Replace or Merge data. Therefore, if you want to add
extra data to Schedule, repeat the same import procedure but instead of replacing, do
a merge.

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Tutorial 4: Importing data from OilField Manager and Finder

129

Once all the data has been transferred into Schedule, you can view it using the Item List
or Control Network. The Item List provides you with a list of all the wells that were
encountered on importing the data file. However, as you have only imported
production data, no control network is set up. You can easily create one and assign the
wells to groups. (Refer to "Creating a basic Schedule project" on page 23 for more
details on the use of the Control Network and Item List.)
5

Open the Item List window, Data | Item List.

Click the right mouse button on one of the wells and choose to view a table of the
imported data for that well.

Hint

Schedule defaults to show production data only. Other data read in can be
displayed at any time, by selecting Columns on the Production data table
menu bar.

Now open the production data graph for one of the wells.

Hint

Selecting View on the Production data graph menu bar and choosing from the
drop-down menu allows you to visualize all available data on the graph.

Note

In Figure 4.19, the keyword *TABLENAME MONTHLYPROD was specified as


Monthly. Notice that Schedule has moved any data that was specified on a
date other than the first of the month, to the first of the month. To prevent this
happening the keyword must be defined as Sporadic instead of Monthly.

Advanced use
Sporadic data
In the above exercise, when you imported the monthly data it was noted that Schedule
moved all the data to the first of the month. However, in the example file EX4.VOL the
data had been collected on the 15th of each month. Schedule translated this into data
for the first of each month.
To overcome this behavior the monthly data must be specified as sporadic and the
units should be changed from bbl to bbl/month (as the rate can now no longer be
inferred from the periodicity of the data). So, in the above definition file to represent
the data accurately, you should have:
*TABLENAME
Oil

MONTHLYPROD
FLOAT

Sporadic
*u

bbl/month

*mu 1 1

Missing data
If there is no data supplied for one of the months, Schedule, by default, assumes that
the previous months data applies, and carry it through to the next month. This may be
the desired result. If this is not what was required you can prevent this by inserting a
special keyword into the data file: *ZERO_MISSING. A full listing of the keywords and
file definitions is given in "Keywords" on page 304.

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Note

The *ZERO_MISSING keyword has no effect on sporadic data, which has no


defined interval with which to check for missing data.

Alternatively you can set up the configuration file so that Schedule will assume zero
for missing data. Refer to "SECTION SCHEDULE" on page 382

Discussion
This section of the tutorial has demonstrated how to transfer data from OilField
Manager to Schedule. Only a few alterations have to be made to the production or
injection files or the definition file exported from OilField Manager for import into
Schedule.
The procedure was straightforward, first making the files from OilField Manager
available by exporting both the production/injection data and the definition file as
ASCII files, and then saving them to your specified directory.
Once both files were stored, you imported them into Schedule.
When importing the production or injection data file Schedule asked you to specify the
location of the definition file before Schedule then imported all the data. You were then
able to view the data as a production data table or data graph.

Importing data from Finder


This section of the tutorial describes how to import data from Finder into Schedule.
There are no example data files attached to this part of the tutorial. You may wish to
use your own data.
You can export well production, well events, and well deviation survey data from
Finder using the Schedule Unloader. This makes the following files available for
import into Schedule (proposed Schedule file extensions are used):
1

Production data file (*.VOL) containing both production and injection data. This
file is imported using Import | Production History | Replace

Well events file (*.EV) containing well events like perforations, squeezes,
welltests, etc. This file is imported using Import | Events | Replace

Deviation survey data file (*.DEV) containing the well path information in terms
of X, Y, TVD and MD for all wells.

Control file (*.CNT) which is an external header file in the so-called GRID style
describing the format of the deviation survey data file (*.DEV).
The deviation survey data file (*.DEV) is imported using Import | Well Locations |
Deviation Survey and selecting the control file (*.CNT) for import. The name of the
well deviation survey data file is specified at the bottom of the control file and its
content will be read into the project when the control file is selected on import.

Once you have successfully loaded the available data from Finder into your project,
you can continue to work on your project as usual (importing grid and property files,
setting up a simulation time framework, etc.). Refer to "Importing data from OilField
Manager and Finder" on page 123, "Interactive data editing and validation" on page 44
and "3D visualization and predictive SCHEDULE file generation" on page 86 for more
details.

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131

Notes on Finder production data load files


Note

Schedule can load production data files generated by Finder 8.5 Schedule
Unloader. Sometimes modifications to the production data files exported from
old versions of Finder using the Schedule Unloader are necessary. The header
of the file may contain production data keywords which are not consistent
with the Schedule production data reader.

Examples
Example 1
*MONTHLY
*IGNORE_MISSING
*WELL

*date

/*

DD.MM.YY

Name1
Name1

*GAS

*WATER *OIL

*OIL_INJ *WATER_INJ *DAYS

MCF

BBL BBL

BBL

BBL

01.03.88

7984.2383 0

01.04.88

7923.7666 0

OIL_INJ and WATER_INJ (and also a possible GAS_INJ) are keywords which are not
recognized by the Schedule reader. They have to be replaced by OINJ, WINJ and GINJ
in the header of the production data file (changes to be made in the example files above
and below are in bold):
*MONTHLY
*IGNORE_MISSING
*WELL

*date

/*

DD.MM.YY

MCF

Name1

01.03.88

Name1

01.04.88

Note

132

*GAS

*WATER *OIL

*OINJ

*WINJ

*DAYS

BBL BBL

BBL

BBL

7984.2383 0

7923.7666 0

Duplicate production data may appear in the load file from Finder.

Tutorials
Tutorial 4: Importing data from OilField Manager and Finder

Example 2
*MONTHLY
*WELL

*Date

*OIL *WATER *GAS

Name1

01.01.83

100

20

Name1

01.02.83

200

25

Name1

01.02.83

220

26

Name1

01.03.83

100

20

The production data reader stops with an error message at the lines that have duplicate
dates, and indicates the line number. The reader expects only one entry per month for
MONTHLY production data. In the example above the reader cannot decide which
production data entry for February it should accept, and so it stops reading.
If the reader stops during the import of the Finder production data file on a duplicate
date entry, open the file with a text editor, decide which entry is the correct one, and
delete the duplicate line or comment it out (by inserting two dashes at the start of the
lines to be ignored). You may have to repeat this procedure several times.
*MONTHLY
*WELL

*Date

*OIL *WATER *GAS

Name1

01.01.83

100

20

Name1

01.02.83

200

25

--Name1
Name1

01.02.83
01.03.83

220
100

26
20

0
0

Notes on Finder deviation survey data load file


Note

Well names in the deviation survey data file (*.DEV) exported from Finder
may be different from those names in the exported production (*.VOL)
and/or well events (*.EV) data files loaded from Finder.

Schedule recognizes well names such as the examples below.

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133

Example
In the example deviation survey data file below, which has been exported from Finder,
110 is used as name of the well:
-- WELLNAME

TOPX TOPY
583785. 4621935.

110
--MD

XPOS

YPOS

TVD

0.000000

0.000000

0.000000

0.000000

366.666992

0.000000

0.000000

330.000000

In the example production data load file and events file from Finder
110:WCOMP_110a and 110:WCOMP_110b are used as names of the wells:
*MONTHLY
*IGNORE_MISSING
*WELL

*date

/*

DD.MM.YY

*GAS
MCF

110:WCOMP_110a 01/03/88

*WATER *OIL
BBL BBL
0

*OINJ

*WINJ

BBL

BBL

7984.2383 0

*DAYS

......
110:WCOMP_110b 01/03/88

7000.7666 0

UNITS METRIC
WELLNAME 110:WCOMP_110a
02/11/71

perforation 1000

1050

4.5

-1

......
WELLNAME 110:WCOMP_110b
05/11/71

perforation 1150

1200 4.5

-1

Schedule treats those wells as independent wells with the same well
trajectory/deviation survey data; that is, the wells have the same location and
trajectory but the flow is independent and they have their own production rate and
events. A similar example will be found for wells P1:01 and P1:02 in "Creating a basic
Schedule project" on page 23.
In the other cases, the well names in the deviation survey data file may have to be
edited so that they match the names used in the production and events file. Otherwise,
the well deviation surveys are not available within the project, for display on the 3D
Viewer or calculating well connections with a grid. They are only visually unavailable,
because the names of wells used in a Schedule project are derived from the production
data and/or events files, but not from the deviation survey data information. So they
have to be the same.

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Importing a SCHEDULE section from ECLIPSE data files


Introduction
Schedule can read the SCHEDULE section from an existing ECLIPSE DATA file. This can
be very useful if you already have a SCHEDULE section created for a project without
using Schedule before, and you want to continue with the project in Schedule.
In this tutorial we show the procedure for reading the ECLIPSE data file, visualizing
the historical production data, editing keywords, and exporting the updated Schedule
project information to a new SCHEDULE section file.

Stages
The tutorial stages are as follows:

"Importing an ECLIPSE data file" on page 135

"Extracting data from ECLIPSE keywords" on page 136

"Viewing and editing imported data" on page 138

"Discarding the keywords" on page 139

"Editing well connection data" on page 139

"Defining the simulation time framework" on page 140

"Exporting data files and SCHEDULE section file" on page 141

Getting started
The tutorial data files are included with your Schedule installation. They can be found
in the following directory: schedule/tutorial/ex5/.
1

Copy all the tutorial data files to your current working directory.

To start Schedule type @schedule in your working directory or run it from the
GeoQuest Simulation Software Launcher on your PC.

Importing an ECLIPSE data file


1

Import the ECLIPSE DATA file from your working directory using Import |
Schedule Section

In the file browser, select the file EX5.DATA

Note

Because Schedule understands the INCLUDE keyword, it is sufficient to


include the SCHEDULE section file in the ECLIPSE data file; the contents of the
SCHEDULE section need not be in the data file itself.

Tutorials
Tutorial 5: Importing SCHEDULE sections

135

Schedule reads some parts of the RUNSPEC section such as UNITS and START date of
the simulation. Then it searches for the SCHEDULE section and reads all keywords and
entries within it.
Alternatively, you can read the SCHEDULE section from the INCLUDE file directly.
3

Import | Schedule Section

In the file browser select the file BASE.SCH


A panel opens which asks you to enter ECLIPSE START date.

Enter 1.1.1970 and click OK.

Caution

Note

If you do not enter a date Schedule defaults the START date of the
simulation to 01 Jan 1900 and the units to project units.

A detailed list of ECLIPSE SCHEDULE section keywords that are understood


by Schedule is given in the appendix "ECLIPSE Import" on page 369. Those
keywords and entries that are not recognized by Schedule are treated as User
keywords and are still imported correctly into the project. For more details
refer to the appendix "ECLIPSE Import" on page 369.

Extracting data from ECLIPSE keywords


Create grid files by an ECLIPSE data set run (NOSIM)
Before extracting the data imported from the ECLIPSE DATA file, you need to import
the grid and property files. To generate the grid and property files, run a no-simulation
ECLIPSE data set (NOSIM). The NOSIM keyword performs data checking with no
simulation.
1

Open the ECLIPSE DATA file EX5.DATA

Add the NOSIM keyword to the RUNSPEC section

Run EX5.DATA on ECLIPSE.


This creates the GRID file EX5.FGRID and property file EX5.FINIT.

Note

If you are going to run your own ECLIPSE data set, ensure that the coordinates
(MAPAXES) and the units (GRIDUNIT) are defined in the GRID section of the
data file. Please refer to "Relationship between grid and map coordinate
systems" on page 345.

Importing the Grid files


4

Import | Grid | Single Porosity | EX5.FGRID

Import | Properties | EX5.FINIT

Note

136

Schedule needs to import the GRID file before extracting the well trajectory
data.

Tutorials
Tutorial 5: Importing SCHEDULE sections

Extract imported data


Trajectory, deviation, production history and event data can be derived from an
existing ECLIPSE data set. Schedule extracts the data from imported keywords that are
in Schedule style. Perforation and Squeezes are extracted from the COMPDAT/M/L
keywords.
6

Data | Extract Data from Keywords

Press Cancel on the message.


This opens the Extract Data from Keywords panel.
The top right box entry is defaulted to Extract Data for All Wells. You can also
specify the well name here for extracting individual well data.

Click on the Extract Trajectory button.


This opens a panel called Extract Trajectory for All Wells. There are options for the
determination of the measured depth (MD).

Leave the options as defaulted.

10 Click on the Build Trajectory button.


This builds the well trajectories.
11 Close the Extract Trajectory panel.
12 Click on the Build Deviation button.
This opens a panel called Build Deviation for All Wells.
13 Keep all options as defaulted.
14 Click on the Build Deviation button.
This builds the deviations.
15 Close the Build Deviation panel.
16 Click on the Extract Events button.
This opens a panel called Extract Events for All Wells.
17 Leave the default Use COMPDAT Skin Value option active.
18 Click on the Extract Events button.
This extracts the events.
19 Close the Extract Events panel.
20 Press the Extract Production Data button
This opens a panel called Extract Production Data for All Wells.
21 Keep the defaulted active keywords and click on the WELTARG Rates button to
activate it.
22 Click on Extract Production Data.
This extracts the production data.
23 Close the Extract Production Data panel.
Caution

Do not discard the keywords at this point. In the next section, you will
view the imported data. Discarding the keywords now prevents you from
viewing some of the imported well events.

Tutorials
Tutorial 5: Importing SCHEDULE sections

137

24 Close the Extract Data from Keywords panel.

Viewing and editing imported data


1

Open the Control Network and Item List windows.


The wells in the imported SCHEDULE section file are listed on the Item List window
and are displayed on the Control Network window. The control network is derived
from the GRUPTREE and WELSPECS(L) information in the imported SCHEDULE
section file.
There are special considerations when editing the control network and exporting
a new SCHEDULE section file before discarding the extracted keywords.

You can edit the imported control network in the Control Network window but
changes are only effective for edits made on the group level (for example,
making group SAT-2 a subgroup of FIELD instead of PLAT-A). Assigning wells
to groups other than those originally defined in the imported SCHEDULE
section has no effect because the imported WELSPECS(L) keyword and entries
(which contain the information about the group dependency of wells) are not
modified when exporting a new SCHEDULE section file, and therefore remain
unchanged.

To change group dependencies of wells you must edit the WELSPEC(L)


keyword on the well Event window. You can view and edit all the imported
keywords and entries on the Events window for the FIELD, groups and/or
wells. The original content and the edits are stored with the project.

Open the Events window for well G1.

To edit keyword entries, highlight the keyword on the events list on the left
side of the Events window and edit the event details displayed on the right
side of the window.

To add new keywords, use the options under the New menu on the Events
windows. Macros and templates are available at group and field levels.

To delete keywords, highlight the keyword and use Edit | Delete on the Events
window.

All keywords found in the imported SCHEDULE section file for a particular well are
listed on the Events List on the left side of the window. All of them have the status of a
keyword event, that is they are treated in the same way as if they had have been
introduced using the New | Keyword menu option on the Events window. Refer to
"Using templates, macros and keywords for predictions" on page 104 for explanations
of the different types of events.
3

Take note of the events included in the list at this point.


Discarding the extracted keywords later removes some of these events.

Note

138

All edits made on any keyword in the Events window are stored and can be
reversed using the Edit | Undo Edits menu option.

Open the Events window for FIELD and a GROUP and inspect the listed keywords.

Open the production data graph and table for a well to view the imported data.

Tutorials
Tutorial 5: Importing SCHEDULE sections

Again, you have to be careful when editing the production data and exporting a
new SCHEDULE section file before discarding the extracted keywords. Specifically,
you need to edit the production data from the well Events window. Edits done on
the production data table are not applied in the exported SCHEDULE section. This
is because the imported production data keywords are treated as Keyword events
and have precedence over those keywords which might be created as Internal
events during the export of a new SCHEDULE section.
Note

If you cannot view the production graph properly, or you find the production
time region on the graph is incorrect, check the Simulation Time Framework.
Reset the date if necessary. Refer to the section on "Defining the simulation
time framework" on page 140.

Discarding the keywords


Discard the extracted keywords.
1

Data | Extract Data from Keywords | Extract Events

Click on Discard Connection Keywords.

Close the Extract Events panel.

Data | Extract Data from Keywords | Extract Production Data

Click on the Discard Production Keywords button.

Close the Extract Production Data panel.

Alternatively you can discard all the keywords as follows:

Data | Extract Data from Keywords...

Press the Discard All Keywords button.

Close the Extract Data from Keywords panel.

This will remove all the well production data keywords leaving just the keywords for
engineering events such as perforations, squeezes, etc.
7

Open the Events panel for a well.


You will see only Schedule events are displayed on the panel. You can view and
edit the schedule now as a standard Schedule project.

Discarding the keywords not only cleans up the Events panel for wells, but also allows
Schedule to regenerate the well connection data based on the imported information.
This adjusts the well head locations, updates the Transmissibility factor for connection
(CF) and the Effective Kh value of the connection (KH) on COMPDAT, and so on.
In general, after the data has been extracted, the exported SCHEDULE section cannot be
exactly the same as the imported one.

Editing well connection data


Schedule extracts only simple top and bottom perforation and squeeze data from
COMPDAT/L/M, COMPVE and WELSPECS/L, etc. You need to input the rest of the
keyword entries manually.

Tutorials
Tutorial 5: Importing SCHEDULE sections

139

Note

Extraction of full connection information with the intention of regenerating the


connection model from an ECLIPSE data set cannot currently be done.

Open the Events window for Group SAT-3, select New | Template

Select keyword WELSPECS under Define Wells, Groups & Connections option.

Select WATER as the Phase from the drop-down menu.

Apply and Close the Event panel.


This supplies the missing entry from the WELSPECS keyword for water injection
wells.

Defining the simulation time framework


5

Setup | Time Framework


SPH and EPH have been defined from the extracted production history.

Click on the Dates button.


Schedule has created the Time Framework Date List from the DATES keywords in
the imported ECLIPSE file.

Close the Time Framework Date List window by clicking on OK.

Set the time step length to 3 months (Step By: 3 Months) and change Event Shifts
to Apply. Click on OK in the Time Framework window.

Export | Schedule Section and name the file test.sch.

10 Open test.sch in a text editor and examine the file.


Note

The production data is still being reported monthly, sometimes even more
frequently. The time step size is thus smaller than the 3 months that was
specified in the Time Framework window. This is because the keywords
(corresponding not only to production data and but also to other events) that
have been read from the imported SCHEDULE section were assigned dates in
the original SCHEDULE section file, and these dates are not affected by the
settings on the Simulation Time Framework panel.

The imported keywords are treated as keyword events, that is, they are of the same
type as those introduced interactively on the Events window using the New |
Keyword menu option. These keyword events always generate a timestep at the
date they were assigned, and they are not moved to overall timestep boundaries
when other events are moved.
11 Change the Time Framework settings back to the original values (Step By:
1 Month, Event Shifts to Ignore).

140

Tutorials
Tutorial 5: Importing SCHEDULE sections

Note

You cannot apply time steps larger than those used in the original SCHEDULE
section but you can use smaller time steps. Also, you may use any time step
size for simulation periods that occur after the time period covered in the
imported SCHEDULE file. You can, for example, extend the simulation period
to include a prediction section; and, you can apply any time step size to this
extended period.

Exporting data files and SCHEDULE section file


Exporting data files
The data derived from the imported keywords can be exported to ASCII text files. This
may prove useful if the ECLIPSE DATA file is your only source of data and you want to
use the data in another Schedule project or another program. To export the data files,
use:

Export | Events
Events, perforation and squeezes with geometrical well and grid information are
extracted from corresponding keywords and exported to the designated file.

Export | Production History


Daily rates are reported monthly in the exported file.

Export | Trajectories

Export | Deviations
The exported file allows you to edit the well deviation in the 3D Viewer at a later
time.

Export | Layer Table

Export | Control Network

Exporting a SCHEDULE section file


1

To export a new SCHEDULE section file, use Export | Schedule section

Save the file as EX5.SCH

Open the file in a text editor and compare it with BASE.SCH.

Discussion
This tutorial has explained how to import SCHEDULE section data from ECLIPSE data
files. We have described how a limited but useful amount of Schedule data can be
extracted from the imported ECLIPSE keywords, and how this data can be viewed and
edited as well as how the editing affects the keywords. We then explained how to set
up the simulation time framework and finally, how to export the data again for use in
other projects.

Tutorials
Tutorial 5: Importing SCHEDULE sections

141

Creating and editing a multi-lateral multi-segment well


model
Introduction
The goal of this tutorial is to show you how to build a typical multi-lateral well, and
how to define the well bore segments in a multi-segment well model in Schedule.
Note

Before working on this tutorial, you should first complete tutorial 1, "Creating
a basic Schedule project" on page 23, tutorial 2, "Interactive data editing and
validation" on page 44, and tutorial 3, "3D visualization and predictive
SCHEDULE file generation" on page 86.

The Multi-segment well option in ECLIPSE gives you increased accuracy and
flexibility in modeling fluid flow within the well bore; especially, in multi-lateral wells.
In a multi-segment well model the well bore is divided into a number of segments.
Each segment has its own set of four independent variables: the local fluid pressure,
the total flow rate and the flowing fractions of water and gas.
Hint

If you are not confident about working with the interactive data editing
facilities, please read and complete tutorial 2, "Interactive data editing and
validation" on page 44, before you start this tutorial.

Stages
The tutorial stages are as follows:

"Creating a new project" on page 143

"Building a multi-lateral well" on page 143

"Building a multi-segment well model" on page 153

"Adding more well components" on page 162

"Running ECLIPSE" on page 172

"Discussion" on page 173

Getting started
The tutorial data files are included with your Schedule installation. They can be found
in the following directory: schedule/tutorials/ex6/.

142

Copy all the tutorial data files to your current working directory.

Ensure your configuration file is right for running Schedule.

Tutorials
Tutorial 6: Editing a multi-segment well model

This tutorial uses feet as the map unit. Before you start Schedule you may need to
edit the SCHEDULE section of your configuration file CONFIG.ECL in the macros
directory to change the default setting of the map units from METRES to FEET.
3

To start Schedule type @schedule in your working directory or run it from the
GeoQuest Simulation Software Launcher on your PC.

Creating a new project


When you start Schedule, a new project opens automatically and the main Schedule
window appears on the screen.
Save your new project:
1

File | Save As

Name the project MULTSEG.PRJ

Setup | Units | Field

Importing the grid and property files


ASCII Schedule files containing grid geometry, grid properties, historical production,
well events, and control network data have been prepared for this tutorial. To build a
new Schedule project, you need to import the corresponding data files.
4

Import | Grid | Single Porosity (EX6.FGRID)

Import | Properties (EX6.FINIT)

Import | Control Network (EX6a.NET)

Data | Control Network


There are two wells under the group named G, one production well named PROD
and one water injection well named WINJ.

Building a multi-lateral well


As with unilateral wells, there are two ways to build the trajectory of a multi-lateral
well in Schedule:

using the well editor on the 3D Well Viewer window, or

using a Well Trajectory table.

Creating and editing multi-lateral wells on 3D viewer


1

Select the well PROD and click on the 3D well viewer button
Network window.

on the Control

You will see a full grid display without any wells displayed in it.
Hint

It is always useful to switch the display style to outlines


how the well intersects the grid blocks.

in order to see

Tutorials
Tutorial 6: Editing a multi-segment well model

143

Note

Before editing the well, you may need to look at the front view
to make
sure the grid layers are clearly distinguishable and editable. You can stretch
them in the vertical direction by clicking on the Vertical Stretch button

Building the main stem


2

Click on the Top View button

on the tool bar of the 3D Well Viewer window.

3D Well Viewer | Edit | Wells | Edit Wells


This opens a panel displaying the List of Wells.

Highlight PROD and click on the Edit button.


This opens PROD: Edit Table.

Hint

You can position the Table and the 3D Well Viewer window so that they are
both accessible.

The 3D Well Viewer and Table are linked, and any change made in one of them is
seen in the other.
5

The origin of the grid in this example is at bottom left. You can confirm this by
switching on the Axis. 3D Well Viewer: Scene | Axes

Check the Axes and Tick Marks buttons.

Position the axes to the bottom, left and front of the image.
You should see that the X-axes values increase from left to right and the Y-axes
values increase from the bottom to top.

Hint

You can adjust the Axes scale by changing the Tick Marks options in the Axes
panel.

Ensure that the Digitize mode is switched on, 3D Well Viewer: Editor | Digitize.

Place the well head in the center of the top left cell, (I=1 from the left, J=5 from the
bottom of the grid) by clicking once on the cell.
A white square appears on the selected cell, and the corresponding data is shown
as reference point (first point of the stem) in the Edit Table panel.

Hint

The coordinates of the mouse cursor is continuously reported in the status bar
at bottom right of the 3D Well Viewer. This aids in the accurate placement of
wells.

10 If you did not place the point in the exact position that you wanted, you may delete
the point and re-digitize. To delete the current point (in white) press delete.
Reposition the point by clicking again on the desired cell.
11 Edit the data point in the Edit table panel, change the entries to X = 50 ft, Y = 950 ft
and press Update View.

144

Tutorials
Tutorial 6: Editing a multi-segment well model

12 Click on the Front View button

You will see a cross section of I-K on the grid with I increasing from left to right and
K increasing negatively from top to bottom.
13 Complete the main stem of the well by clicking on the centre of the cell at K=9.
14 Edit the entries on the Edit Table as follows:
Reference point (First point of the stem).
X

50 ft

950 ft

7000 ft

MD

0 ft

Subsequent points below...


Point

X (ft)

Y (ft)

Z (ft)

Dist. (ft)

50

950

7250

250

Note

You can change any values in the table and click on the Update View button to
update the data entry and the corresponding well view. You can also cancel
the current edit by selecting Editor | Cancel Edit on the 3D Well Viewer.

Note

You can edit the value of MD on the Edit Table panel. This is particularly useful
if you want to set the starting MD to correspond to the actual top depth rather
than zero.

15 Change the MD in the first point of the stem from 0 to 7000.


16 Click on Update View.
The Edit Table now contains the following values:

Reference point (First point of the stem)


X

50

ft

950

ft

7000

ft

MD

7000

ft

Subsequent points below...


Point X (ft)

Y (ft)

Z (ft)

Dist.Offset (ft)

950

7250

7250

50

17 Close the Edit Table panel.


18 3D Well Viewer: Editor | Commit Edit.

Tutorials
Tutorial 6: Editing a multi-segment well model

145

This updates the 3D view to display a well completed through the grid; only
the active grid blocks intersected by the well are displayed on the 3D Viewer
window.

Hint

Building the well branches


19 3D Well Viewer: Editor | Wells | Edit Wells.
20 Highlight PROD and click on Add Lateral button.
This opens a panel where you can enter a well branch name.
21 Enter Branch1 in the box and click on OK.
This creates a branch well named PROD%Branch1 and opens the Branch1: Edit
Table panel.
You can specify a branch on a well, by appending a '%' character to the well
name followed by the name of the branch. You only need to enter the branch
name, and Schedule creates a full name of the well branch for you. If you create
a sub-branch to the main branch in the same way, it is specified as
wellname%branchname%subname. You should use these complete names in
deviation surveys, trajectory files and event files.

Hint

22 Click on the Front View button

23 3D View | Full Grid.


You will see a cross section of I-K of the full grid.
Setting the full grid display on can help you easily select the well trajectory
points that you want.

Hint

24 Switch on Digitize mode, and click on the center of the main stem at cell K=2.
This sets the first point of Branch1 connected to the main stem of the well PROD.
When setting the first point of a branch, you can click anywhere in the grid
block where you want to set the point and Schedule places the first point
exactly on the main stem, in line with the point you clicked.

Hint

25 Click on the center of cell I=5, K=2 to make a horizontal branch.


The Edit Table panel should now look similar to:
Branch 1: Edit Table
Reference point (First point of the stem)

146

50

ft

950

ft

7030

ft

Tutorials
Tutorial 6: Editing a multi-segment well model

MD

7030

ft

(The parent of 'Branch 1' extends from 7000ft to 7250 ft in measured depth.)
Subsequent points below...
Point X (ft)

Y (ft)

Z (ft)

Dist.Offset (ft)

950

7030

7430

450

26 Edit the data and update view if necessary then close the Edit Table panel.
27 3D Well Viewer: Editor | Commit Edit.
28 Repeat the same procedure to create Branch2, which is connected to the main
stem at the center of the cell in layer K=5, as follows:
Connection point on parent
The parent of 'Branch 2' extends from 7000ft to 7250 ft in measured depth.
X

50 ft

950 ft

7170 ft

MD

7170 ft

Subsequent points below


Point

X (ft)

Y (ft)

Z (ft)

Dist.Offset
(ft)

50

650

7170

7470

350

650

7170

7770

This horizontal branch, Branch2, has a well trajectory in both the X and Y
directions at layer K=5.

The first point in the subsequent points is at I=1 from the left and J=2 from the
bottom.

The second point in the subsequent points is at I=4 from the left and J=2 from
the bottom.

29 Create a branch named Branch3 connected to the main stem at the center of the
cell in layer K=7, as follows:
Connection point on parent
The parent of 'Branch 3' extends from 7000ft to 7250 ft in measured depth.
X

50 ft

950 ft

7210 ft

MD

7210 ft

Tutorials
Tutorial 6: Editing a multi-segment well model

147

Subsequent points below


Point

X (ft)

Y (ft)

Z (ft)

Dist.Offset
(ft)

250

950

7210

7410

350

950

7230

7511.9804

450

950

7230

7611.9804

550

950

7230

7711.9804

550

850

7230

7811.9804

This horizontal branch, Branch3, has a well trajectory both in X and Y directions
starting at the layer K=7 and extending to layer K=8.

The first point in the subsequent points is at I=3 from the left and J=5 from the
bottom.

The second point in the subsequent points is at I=4 from the left, J=5 from the
bottom and K=8 from the top.

The third point in the subsequent points is at I=5 from the left and J=5 from the
bottom.

The fourth point in the subsequent points is at I=6 from the left and J=5 from
the bottom.

The fifth point in the subsequent points is at I=6 from the left and J=4 from the
bottom.

You have now created a multi-lateral well with one vertical main stem and three
horizontal branches. You can edit/delete the wellbore or any of its branches by
highlighting the well name, and then clicking on the Edit/Delete button. You can add
more branches in the main stem or in any of the existing branches by highlighting the
well name, and then clicking on the Add Lateral button in the Well Bores panel. If you
click on Delete, a warning panel opens. Click on OK to confirm or Cancel to leave the
well as it is.
Figure 4.20 displays the well completions of PROD on the 3D Well Viewer window in
User view.

30 You may need to refresh the 3D Viewer at this point, 3D Well Viewer | Controls |
Refresh.
Hint

148

The grid has an inactive grid block in layer 3. Schedule displays the well bore
in that grid block with a thin well diameter to distinguish it from the sections
in active grid blocks.

Tutorials
Tutorial 6: Editing a multi-segment well model

Figure 4.20 Well trajectory on 3D Viewer

You can edit the well, again, by opening the Edit Table by Editor | Wells | Edit Wells
You may also edit the deviation in a different way:
31 3D View | Deviation to operate on the well deviation display.
The well path is shown in purple.
32 Select Controls | Well Edit Deviation
33 Click on the center of the well bore you want to edit.
This opens a confirm panel.
34 Click on the OK button to confirm edit of well bore.
This opens the Edit Table.
35 Close the 3D Well Viewer and press No to editing message.

Creating and editing multi-lateral wells on


trajectory table
You can create Multi-lateral wells using the Well Trajectory table. Again, you first need
to build the main stem of the well.

Building the main stem


1

Select well WINJ on the Control Network.

Click on the View well trajectory button

This opens a table for you to enter the trajectory data.

Tutorials
Tutorial 6: Editing a multi-segment well model

149

Enter the first row I, J, K values as 10, 5 and 9; and the last row I, J, K values as 10,
5, 10.

Click on the Create button.


Schedule calculates a well trajectory through the grid from the top to the bottom of
the grid blocks based on the input data; and, displays the calculated trajectory in a
table, as follows:

Edit LGR Cell I Cell J Cell K MD Entry MD Exit Perm X Perm Y Perm Z NTG Entry X Entry Y
10

7000.00

7020.00 50.00

50.00

5.00

1.00 950.00 450.00

10

7020.00

7040.00 50.00

50.00

5.00

1.00 950.00 450.00

10

7140.00

7160.00 50.00

50.00

5.00

1.00 950.00 450.00

10

7160.00

7180.00 50.00

50.00

5.00

1.00 950.00 450.00

10

7180.00

7200.00 50.00

50.00

5.00

1.00 950.00 450.00

10

7200.00

7220.00 50.00

50.00

5.00

1.00 950.00 450.00

10

7220.00

7240.00 50.00

50.00

5.00

1.00 950.00 450.00

10

7240.00

7260.00 50.00

50.00

5.00

1.00 950.00 450.00

10

10

7260.00

7280.00 50.00

50.00

5.00

1.00 950.00 450.00

Building a well branch


Branch wells can be created on the Trajectory Table panel.
5

Trajectory-WINJ: Well Deviations | Add


This opens a panel for you to enter the branch well name.

Enter well branch name in j1 and click on OK.


This opens a Trajectory Table similar to the one you used to create the main stem.

Enter the first row I, J, K values as 10, 5 and 10, and the last row I, J, K values as
5, 5, 10.

Click on the Create button.

Display the Inj1 trajectory. Well Deviations | WINJ%Inj1


The branch well WINJ%Inj1 gives a Trajectory Table as follows:

Edit LGR Cell I Cell J Cell K MD Entry MD Exit Perm X Perm Y Perm Z NTG Entry X Entry Y
10

10

7270.00

7320.00 50.00

50.00

5.00

1.00 950.00 450.00

10

7320.00

7420.00 50.00

50.00

5.00

1.00 900.00 450.00

10

7420.00

7520.00 50.00

50.00

5.00

1.00 800.00 450.00

10

7520.00

7620.00 50.00

50.00

5.00

1.00 700.00 450.00

10

7620.00

7720.00 50.00

50.00

5.00

1.00 600.00 450.00

10

7720.00

7770.00 50.00

50.00

5.00

1.00 500.00 450.00

This horizontal branch extends the main stem in the X direction in the bottom of
the grid block (Z=10 layer).
10 Use the scroll bar to inspect the rest of the data.

150

Tutorials
Tutorial 6: Editing a multi-segment well model

Note

You can add more branches to the main stem or to any existing branches by
opening the trajectory window of the main stem or branch, and selecting Well
Deviations | Add.

Note

You can delete any wells or branches you do not want by opening the
Trajectory window of the well, then selecting Well Deviations | Delete. You can
also select Edit | Re-specify to re-edit the well trajectory.

Saving the well deviation data


You have now built a set of multi-lateral wells:

A production well PROD with three horizontal branches.


Top branch PROD%Branch1 in layer 2.
Middle branch PROD%Branch2 in layer 5.
Bottom branch PROD%Branch3 in layers 7 and 8.

A water injection well WINJ with one horizontal branch


WINJ%Inj1 in layer 10.

To save the deviation survey data, select Export | Deviations

Save the control file as TEST.CNT.


Schedule also automatically creates a deviation survey data file named TEST.DEV.

Caution

It is important to save a deviation file from your well deviation survey


data so that you can view and edit the well deviations in the 3D Well
Viewer window at a later time. You should do it before you exit this
project, otherwise you will lose the deviation data.

To save a well trajectory file for the above wells, select | Export | Trajectories

Save the file as TEST.TRJ.

For this tutorial the deviation data file (control file EX6.CNT and deviation survey file
EX6.DEV) and the well trajectory file (EX6.TRJ) are supplied.
5

Open both data files and compare them with your exported TEST.DEV and
TEST.TRJ.

If the data files you have created are different from the ones supplied, import the
standard data files now before continuing with the tutorial.
6

Import | Well Locations | Deviation Survey

Select the file EX6.CNT from the pop-up file browser.

Import | Well Locations | Trajectory File

From the file browser select the file EX6.TRJ.

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Tutorial 6: Editing a multi-segment well model

151

Importing the rest of the data files


10 Import | Production History | Replace (EX6a.VOL)
11 Import | Events | Replace (EX6a.EV)
We need also to set up the simulation time framework.
12 Setup | Time Framework
13 Input the following entries:
(Note: you need to click on New to add another line in the top half of the frame).
Figure 4.21 Time framework settings.

14 Click on OK to apply and close the Time Framework panel.

Viewing the multi-lateral well model


1

To view the wells on 3D Well Viewer, highlight the wells PROD and WINJ (hold
down the Shift key to select both wells).

Select View 3D Well

This open the 3D Well Viewer window.


3

3D Well Viewer: 3D View | Connections

Select AutoNormalize

Select only Outlines

to get a better view.

Figure 4.22 shows the well perforations on the 3D multi-lateral wells.

152

Tutorials
Tutorial 6: Editing a multi-segment well model

Figure 4.22 Well connections on 3D Viewer

Exporting a schedule section


6

File | Save.

Export | Schedule Section

Save the file as TEST.SCH.

Building a multi-segment well model


In order to generate a multi-segment well model you must read in a description of the
tubing for the well. This description includes information about casing/liner
diameters and roughness; internal tubing locations, diameters and roughness; and,
locations of packers, chokes and inflow control devices. It is not necessary to put all of
the features in one model. In most cases, you only need to specify the wells with multisegment casing features.
The basic format for the tubing input file is described below.

Tubing description file format


The basic tubing description file holds information about the casing or lining for wells.

To specify the type of units used in the file use the UNITS keyword.
Choices following the UNITS keyword are FIELD or METRIC.
For example UNITS FIELD

To specify a casing/liner on the well (or a well branch) use the CASING keyword.

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Tutorial 6: Editing a multi-segment well model

153

The CASING keyword is followed by the well (or branch) name on the same line.
For example CASING PROD

On the lines following the CASING keyword and name, the characteristics for the
casing are specified. Each line contains, in order:

a measured depth point on the casing

the internal diameter of the casing starting at the previous MD

the internal roughness of the casing starting at the previous MD.

For example:
CASING PROD
-- START

INTERNAL

-- MD

ROUGHNESS

DIAMETER

0.00

0.5

0.001

7250.00

The first line should specify the MD of the start of the casing (0 for the main
stem).

A new line specifies when the diameter or the roughness changes.

The last line should contain only the measured depth at the end of the casing.

Creating a basic tubing file


1

Open a blank text editor window.

Type UNITS FIELD.

Type the following casing information for the main stem of the well PROD.
You need to set the casing MD as specified in the deviation survey of the well.

CASING

PROD

0.00

0.5

0.001

7250.00

which gives the well PROD a starting MD = 0, an internal diameter = 0.5


feet, and an effective absolute roughness of the tubing = 1 throughout. The MD at
the end of the casing is 7250.00 feet.
4

Add casing information for the top branch of the well PROD:

CASING
7030.00

PROD%Branch1
0.45

7430.00

154

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Tutorial 6: Editing a multi-segment well model

0.001

which gives the top branch of well named PROD%Branch1 a starting


MD = 7030.00, an internal diameter = 0.45 feet, and an effective absolute
roughness of the tubing = 1 throughout. The MD at the end of the casing is
7430.00 feet.
5

Repeat the above procedure for the middle branch of the well PROD by typing:

CASING
7170.00

PROD%Branch2
0.45

0.001

7770.00

For the bottom branch of the well PROD, type:

CASING

PROD%Branch3

7210.00

0.45

0.001

7400.00

0.45

0.002

7810.00

Add casing information for the water injection well WINJ:

CASING

WINJ

0.00

0.5

0.001

7280.00

CASING
7270.00

WINJ%Inj1
0.45

0.001

7770.00

Save the tubing file as TESTa.TUB.


There is an example tubing file in this tutorial named EX6a.TUB, which contains
similar information.

Open EX6a.TUB and compare it with TESTa.TUB.

Generating the multi-segment well model


10 Import | Tubing.
11 From the file browser select the file EX6a.TUB or use TESTa.TUB that you have
just created.

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Tutorial 6: Editing a multi-segment well model

155

12 Click, with the right mouse button, on the well PROD in the Control Network
window, and select the Edit Segments option.
This opens an Editor window for generating a multi-segment well model for well
PROD.
Alternatively, click on the View multi segment well model button

on the

tool bar of the Control Network window.


13 Click on the Build button.
This creates a multi-segment well model from the tubing description and the
perforation locations.
14 Resize the Table window to view the full data as shown in the following table.
If you have imported the standard installation deviation survey data then your
table should be similar to the one below.
Segment Branch
1

(1) PROD

(1) PROD

Outlet

MD

Depth

Dia
meter

Rough Area
-ness

Volume

Type

7000.00 7000

0.5

0.19635

7030.00 7030

0.5

0.001 0.19635

5.89049 Branch
Inflow

(1) PROD

7170.00 7170

0.5

0.001 0.19635

27.4889 Branch
Inflow

(1) PROD

7210.00 7210

0.5

0.001 0.19635

7.85398 Branch
Inflow

(1) PROD

7230.00 7230

0.5

0.001 0.19635

3.92699 Perforation

(2)
PROD%Branc
h1

7055.00 7030

0.45

0.001 0.159043 3.97608 Perforation

(2)
PROD%Branc
h1

7130.00 7030

0.45

0.001 0.159043 11.9282 Perforation

(2)
PROD%Branc
h1

7230.00 7030

0.45

0.001 0.159043 15.9043 Perforation

(2)
PROD%Branc
h1

7330.00 7030

0.45

0.001 0.159043 15.9043 Perforation

10

(2)
PROD%Branc
h1

7404.00 7030

0.45

0.001 0.159043 11.7692 Perforation

11

(2)
PROD%Branc
h2

7195.00 7170

0.45

0.001 0.159043 3.97608 Perforation

12

(3)
PROD%Branc
h2

11

7270.00 7170

0.45

0.001 0.159043 11.9282 Perforation

13

(3)
PROD%Branc
h2

12

7370.00 7170

0.45

0.001 0.159043 15.9043 Perforation

156

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Tutorial 6: Editing a multi-segment well model

1374.45 BHP REF

Segment Branch

Outlet

MD

14

(3)
PROD%Branc
h2

13

15

(3)
PROD%Branc
h2

16

Depth

Dia
meter

Rough Area
-ness

Volume

Type

7470.00 7170

0.45

0.001 0.159043 15.9043 Perforation

14

7570.00 7170

0.45

0.001 0.159043 15.9043 Perforation

(3)
PROD%Branc
h2

15

7670.00 7170

0.45

0.001 0.159043 15.9043 Perforation

17

(3)
PROD%Branc
h2

16

7745.00 7170

0.45

0.001 0.159043 11.9282 Perforation

18

(4)
PROD%Branc
h3

7235.50 7210

0.45

0.001 0.159043 4.0556

19

(4)
PROD%Branc
h3

18

7310.00 7210

0.45

0.001 0.159043 11.8487 Perforation

20

(4)
PROD%Branc
h3

19

7386.50 7212.52 0.45

0.001 0.159043 12.0078 Perforation

21

(4)
PROD%Branc
h3

20

7400.00 7213.96 0.45

0.001 0.159043 2.30613 Tubing


Change

22

(4)
PROD%Branc
h3

21

7636.49 7230

0.45

0.002 0.159043 37.6121 Perforation

23

(4)
PROD%Branc
h3

22

7687.49 7230

0.45

0.002 0.159043 8.1112

Perforation

Perforation

This table includes information on segment number, branch name, measured depth
(MD), true depth, and well bore data. The Type column also includes the reason for
creating the segment which aids in editing segments.

Editing segments
Once the multi-segmented well model has been built you can edit it.
Entering a value in the Minimum Segment Length field reorganizes segments to ensure
no segment has a shorter length than the supplied value. This removes perforation
segments if they are shorter than the value entered and are adjacent to another
perforation segment
1

Enter 100 in the Min. Segment Length box.

Click on the Build button.

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Tutorial 6: Editing a multi-segment well model

157

The minimum segment length is now limited to 100 feet. Perforation locations that
would result in a segment length less than this threshold are ignored, as shown in the
next table:
Min. Segment Length

100

Zero Tubing MD
Segment Branch

FEET

Max. Segment
Length

FEET

FEET
Outlet

MD

Dept Diah
meter

Rough- Area
ness

7000.00 7000 0.5

Volume

Type

(1) PROD

0.19635

1374.45 BHP REF

(1) PROD

7030.00 7030 0.5

0.001

0.19635

5.89049 Branch
Inflow Perf.

(1) PROD

7170.00 7170 0.5

0.001

0.19635

27.4889 Branch
Inflow Perf.

(1) PROD

7210.00 7210 0.5

0.001

0.19635

7.85398 Branch
Inflow Perf.

(2)
PROD%Branch1

7130.00 7030 0.45

0.001

0.159043 15.9043 Perforation

(2)
PROD%Branch1

7230.00 7030 0.45

0.001

0.159043 15.9043 Perforation

(2)
PROD%Branch1

7330.00 7030 0.45

0.001

0.159043 15.9043 Perforation

(3)
PROD%Branch2

7270.00 7170 0.45

0.001

0.159043 15.9043 Perforation

(3)
PROD%Branch2

7370.00 7170 0.45

0.001

0.159043 15.9043 Perforation

10

(3)
PROD%Branch2

7470.00 7170 0.45

0.001

0.159043 15.9043 Perforation

11

(3)
PROD%Branch2

10

7570.00 7170 0.45

0.001

0.159043 15.9043 Perforation

12

(3)
PROD%Branch2

11

7670.00 7170 0.45

0.001

0.159043 15.9043 Perforation

13

(4)
PROD%Branch3

7400.00 7213 0.45


.96

0.001

0.159043 30.2182 Tubing


Change Perf

14

(4)
PROD%Branch3

11

7636.49 7230 0.45

0.002

0.159043 37.6121 Perforation

Entering a value in the Maximum Segment Length field adds extra segments to ensure
no segment has greater length than the supplied value. Segment nodes are inserted
between any two nodes which exceed the value entered. This only affects the operation
of the algorithm which inserts segments for perforations.

158

Enter 200 in the Max. Segment Length box.

Click on the Build button.

Tutorials
Tutorial 6: Editing a multi-segment well model

The maximum segment length is now limited to 200 feet. One extra segment is inserted
in Branch3:
Min. Segment Length

100

FEET

Zero Tubing MD
Segment Branch

Max. Segment
Length

200

FEET

Roughness

Area

Volume

Type

FEET
Out- MD
let

Dept Diah
meter

(1) PROD

0.19635

1374.45 BHP REF

(1) PROD

7000.00 7000 0.5


7030.00 7030 0.5

0.001

0.19635

5.89049 Branch
Inflow Perf

(1) PROD

7170.00 7170 0.5

0.001

0.19635

27.4889 Branch
Inflow Perf

(1) PROD

7210.00 7210 0.5

0.001

0.19635

7.85398 Branch
Inflow Perf

(2)
PROD%Branch1

7130.00 7030 0.45

0.001

0.159043 15.9043 Perforation

(2)
PROD%Branch1

7230.00 7030 0.45

0.001

0.159043 15.9043 Perforation

(2)
PROD%Branch1

7330.00 7030 0.45

0.001

0.159043 15.9043 Perforation

(3)
PROD%Branch2

7270.00 7170 0.45

0.001

0.159043 15.9043 Perforation

(3)
PROD%Branch2

7370.00 7170 0.45

0.001

0.159043 15.9043 Perforation

10

(3)
PROD%Branch2

7470.00 7170 0.45

0.001

0.159043 15.9043 Perforation

11

(3)
PROD%Branch2

10

7570.00 7170 0.45

0.001

0.159043 15.9043 Perforation

12

(3)
PROD%Branch2

11

7670.00 7170 0.45

0.001

0.159043 15.9043 Perforation

13

(4)
PROD%Branch3

7400.00 7213 0.45


.96

0.001

0.159043 30.1282 Tubing


Change Perf

14

(4)
PROD%Branch3

11

7518.25 7225 0.45


.67

0.002

0.159043 18.8061

15

(4) PROD%Branch3

12

7636.49

0.002

0.159043

7230

0.45

18.8061

Perforation

Splitting segments
5

Click on the arrow button at the left end of Segment 10.

Click on Split Segment.

This generates a new segment with a nodal depth midway between the previous and
current segments.

Deleting segments
7

Click on the arrow button on Segment 3.

Click on Delete Segment.

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Tutorial 6: Editing a multi-segment well model

159

This deletes the segment. Segment numbers and outflow relationships are
recalculated when a segment is split or deleted. Note the resulting changes to the
above table.

Reverting to the original segments


9

Click on the Build button to reverse split segments and restore deleted segments.

Editing segment data


10 Change the MD and Depth on Segment 2 to 7100 and the Roughness on
Segment 3 to 0.002.
11 Click on the Calculate button.
This recalculates the volume for the modified segments. Compare the values to
those in the above table.
Note

Clicking on Build again removes the changes.

Changing the data back to the initial data


12 Delete the values in Min. Segment Length and Max. Segment Length field.
13 Click on the Build button.
This re-creates the 23 Segments originally calculated.

Setting the zero tubing point


In the ECLIPSE Multi-segment well model option, the zero tubing length reference
point from which all the tubing length values are measured is unlikely to be set at the
point of the ECLIPSE tubing head (MD = 0). It is always somewhere close to the top
segment.
Schedule adds an entry field to the Multi-segment Edit dialog that allows you to specify
the measured depth, which should be taken as zero for tubing lengths.

Viewing the tubing table


By default the multi-segment well table shows MD, but there is an option to show the
modified tubing values instead.
1

Click on View in the Edit Segments panel and select Tubing Depth from the dropdown menu.
This replaces the measured depth (MD) column with the tubing depth (TD) column
in the table.

Hint

160

If the entry field for tubing zero MD is left blank or set to 0, the zero tubing
length reference point will be at MD = 0. The TD column is exactly the same as
the MD column in this case.

Tutorials
Tutorial 6: Editing a multi-segment well model

Setting the tubing length reference point


2

Enter 6980 in the Zero Tubing MD box.

Click on the Build button.


This resets the tubing depth (if you switch the view to the measured depth you will
see that the MD column does not change). The tubing zero point for this well now
starts the casing at MD = 6980 feet. Since the nodal point of the top segment is at
7000 feet, the Zero tubing length reference point from, which all the tubing length
values are measured, is 20 feet above the nodal point of the top segment.

Caution

The Zero Tubing MD cannot be set greater than the top depth. The zero
tubing length reference point cannot be below the nodal point of the top
segment (the BHP reference point).

Click on the Close button to close the Multi-segment table window.

Generating a multi-segment well model for well


WINJ
1

Click, with the right mouse button, on well WINJ in the Control Network window
and select Edit Segments from the pop-up menu.

Set Zero Tubing MD to 7220.

Click on the Build button in the Editor window.


The Multi-segment Tubing table should resemble the following table:

Min. Segment Length


Zero Tubing MD
Segment Branch

Outlet

FEET
7220

FEET

TD

Depth

Diameter

0.00

7220

0.5

Max. Segment
Length

Roughness

FEET

Area

Volume

Type

0.19635

1.78579e
-013

BHP REF

(1) WINJ

(1) WINJ

30.00 7250

0.5

0.001

0.19635

5.89049

Perforation

(1) WINJ

50.00 7270

0.5

0.001

0.19635

3.92699

Branch
Inflow

(2)
WINJ%Inj1

75.00 7270

0.45

0.001

0.159043 3.97608

Perforation

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Tutorial 6: Editing a multi-segment well model

161

Min. Segment Length


Zero Tubing MD

FEET

Max. Segment
Length

FEET

7220

FEET

(2)
WINJ%Inj1

150.0 7270
0

0.45

0.001

0.159043 11.9282

Perforation

(2)
WINJ%Inj1

250.0 7270
0

0.45

0.001

0.159043 15.9043

Perforation

(2)
WINJ%Inj1

350.0 7270
0

0.45

0.001

0.159043 15.9043

Perforation

(2)
WINJ%Inj1

450.0 7270
0

0.45

0.001

0.159043 15.9043

Perforation

(2)
WINJ%Inj1

525.0 7270
0

0.45

0.001

0.159043 11.9282

Perforation

The zero tubing length reference point from, which all the tubing length values are
measured, is at the same level as the nodal point of the top segment.
4

Close the Multi-segment Table window.

Saving the project and exporting a schedule


section
1

To save the project File | Save As

Save with the project name TESTa.PRJ.

Export | Schedule Section

Save the file as TESTa.SCH.

Compare TESTa.SCH with the previously created TEST.SCH.

Hint

When the SCHEDULE section is created, any well which has a segmental model
will have appropriate WELSEGS, COMPSEGS and/or COMPSEGL keywords
with entries generated using the tubing lengths.

Adding more well components


This part of the tutorial explains how to generate a more complex well. The examples
use the well PROD.

Building a new Schedule project

162

Import | Production History | Replace (EX6b.VOL)

Import | Events | Replace (EX6b.EV)

Import | Control Network (EX6b.NET)

Save your current project using the File | Save As option and call it TESTb.PRJ.

Data | Control Network

Tutorials
Tutorial 6: Editing a multi-segment well model

Handling multiple completion multi-lateral wells


Schedule can handle multiple completion multi-lateral wells if you supply
descriptions of the casing and tubing. Multiple completion wells are specified by
appending a ":" and the completion identifier to the well name. For an example, a well
with multiple completions was used in the first tutorial, "Creating a basic Schedule
project" on page 23.
The deviation survey or trajectory of a multiple completion well is input in the same
way as for a corresponding single completion well. But the production data and well
events could depend on the individual completions of the well.

The well structure


In the current example, the structure of well PROD is similar to the previous one except
it has two completion intervals (equivalent to two ECLIPSE wells). The well could be
specified as:

PROD, flow from the annulus of the well stem.

PROD:01, flow from one internal tubing.

The tubing description contains a field that allows you to specify which stem/tubing
is involved in providing flow to the individual completions.
6

Open EX6a.TUB or TESTa.TUB that you have just created.

To specify the location and characteristics of internal tubing, use the TUBING
keyword and enter the following information:

TUBING

Tubing1
0.00

PROD
0.35

PROD%Branch2
0.001

PROD:01
0.375

0.002

7770.00

The above defines an internal tubing named PROD:01 for branch 2, flowing to surface
through internal tubing.
The TUBING keyword is followed (on the same line) by:

The name of the tubing (this should be unique across all wells)

The name of the branch the tubing starts in.

The name of the branch the tubing ends in.

The name of the completion the tubing is providing flow to. (This should be left
blank if the tubing does not flow to the surface. If this field is blank the tubing flows
to the first MD point in the branch in which the tubing starts.)

On lines following the TUBING keyword the characteristics for the tubing are specified.
Each line contains, in order:

A measured depth point

The internal diameter of the tubing starting at the previous MD

The internal roughness of the tubing starting at the previous MD

The external diameter of the tubing starting at the previous MD

The external roughness of the tubing starting at the previous MD (this defaults to
the same value as the internal roughness if not specified).

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Tutorial 6: Editing a multi-segment well model

163

The first line should specify the MD of the start of the tubing (0 for tubing which
flows to the wellhead) and a new line specified when the diameter or the
roughness changes. The last line should contain only the measured depth of the
end of the tubing.
8

Save the current tubing description file as TESTb.TUB.

Adding packers, chokes and inflow control


The tubing description file can include information about the locations of packers,
chokes and inflow controls.
To specify the location of a packer use the PACKER keyword. The PACKER keyword is
followed, on the same line, by:

The name of the packer.

The name of the branch where the packer is located.

The measured depth of the packer.

You may enter any number of lines of records to specify different packers.

Open TESTb.TUB.

Note

You may need to view the Trajectory table and the Events perforations on
PROD%Branch2 to determine the locations of the parkers.

Specify a series of packers in well PROD, Branch2. After the TUBING description
in TESTb.TUB, enter the following information:

PACKER Packer1 PROD%Branch2

7170

PACKER Packer2 PROD%Branch2

7314

PACKER Packer3 PROD%Branch2

7512

PACKER Packer4 PROD%Branch2

7712

To specify the location of an inflow control device/valve on an inner tubing use the
INFLOW keyword. The INFLOW keyword is followed, on the same line, by:

164

The name of the inflow control device/valve

The tubing on which the device/value is located (this must be an interval tubing)

The measured depth of the device/valve.

You may enter any number of lines of records to specify different inflow control
devices/valves on an inner tubing.

Note

We recommend you set at least one inflow control device/valve between two
packers.

Note

You may need to view the PACKER description in TESTb.TUB to determine


the locations of the inflow control devices/valves.

Tutorials
Tutorial 6: Editing a multi-segment well model

Specify inflow control devices/valves on inner tubing Tubing1; after the PACKER
description in TESTb.TUB, enter the following information:

INFLOW Ic1

Tubing1 7242

INFLOW Ic2

Tubing1 7413

INFLOW Ic3

Tubing1 7612

INFLOW Ic4

Tubing1 7737

Schedule creates special, very short segments to model the inflow control device. This
segment is given a name which is derived from the name of the inflow control device
and the name of the surrounding casing.
To specify the location of a choke use the CHOKE keyword. The CHOKE keyword is
followed, on the same line, by:

The name of the choke

The name of the branch where the choke is located

The measured depth of the choke.

You may enter any number of lines of records to specify different chokes in the well
bores.
Note

You may need to view the Trajectory table on PROD%Branch1 to determine


the locations of the chokes.

Specify a choke in Branch1; after the INFLOW description in TESTb.TUB, enter the
following information:

CHOKE

Choke1

PROD%Branch1 7030

This creates two segment nodes which result in a very short segment.
Hint

The intention is that you use the table to identify the segment node number,
and use the ECLIPSE multi-segment keywords to define the properties of the
short segment to model the actions of the choke. For example, to set a pressure
drop across the choke. In future releases we will look at adding automatic
methods/events to control the choke behavior without user intervention. You
are expected to use the same method to model the activities of inflow control
valves/devices.

Save the TESTb.TUB file and compare it with the file named EX6b.TUB.

Summary of well components


We have completed a more complex well named PROD with

A multi-lateral well in three horizontal branches.

Multi-segment well model covers all branches.

Tutorials
Tutorial 6: Editing a multi-segment well model

165

Multiple completion well with internal tubing Tubing1 for branch 2 flowing to
surface.

Four packers on branch 2 to protect flow from the annulus of the well stem of
branch 2.

Four inflow control devices on interval tubing Tubing1.

A choke on branch 1 to restrict flow into the main well stem.

A schematic of the well PROD (two ECLIPSE wells PROD and PROD:01) is shown in
Figure 4.23.
Figure 4.23 Schematic of the complex multi-segment well

Perforation

Branch1

Segment
Choke

Branch2
PROD:01

Inflow Control

Packer

PROD

Branch3

Generating a multiple-completion multi-lateral


multi-segment well model
1

Import | Tubing (EX6b.TUB)

Data | Control Network


This shows three ECLIPSE wells as in Figure 4.24.

166

Tutorials
Tutorial 6: Editing a multi-segment well model

Figure 4.24 Control Network of ECLIPSE wells

Editing segments
Well PROD:01
3

Select well PROD:01 and open Edit Segments.

Click on the Build button.


This generates an Edit Well Segments table for well PROD:01 similar to the
following table:

Min. Segment Length

FEET

Zero Tubing MD

FEET

Segment

Branch

(1) Tubing1

(1) Tubing1

Out
let

TD

Depth Diameter

7140.00 7140

0.35

7242.00 7170

0.35

(1) Tubing1

7413.00 7170

(1) Tubing1

(1) Tubing1

Max. Segment
Length

Rough- Area
ness

FEET

Volume

Type

0.0962 686.948
113

BHP REF

0.001

0.0962 9.81355
113

Annulus
Inflow

0.35

0.001

0.0962 16.4521
113

Annulus
Inflow

7612.00 7170

0.35

0.001

0.0962 19.146
113

Annulus
Inflow

7737.00 7170

0.35

0.001

0.0962 12.0264
113

Annulus
Inflow

(1) Tubing1

7770.00 7170

0.35

0.001

0.0962 3.17497
113

Tubing End

(2) Ic1 Tubing1<PROD%Branch2

7195.00 7170

0.075

0.0015 0.0485 2.29375


965

(2) Ic1 Tubing1<PROD%Branch2

7242.20 7170

0.075

0.0015 0.0485 0.0097193 Inflow


965
Control

(3) Ic1 Tubing1<PROD%Branch2.lower

7267.00 7170

0.075

0.0015 0.0485 1.20519


965

Perforation

10

(4) Ic2 Tubing1<PROD%Branch2

11

7317.00 7170

0.075

0.0015 0.0485 2.57561


965

Perforation

Perforation

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Tutorial 6: Editing a multi-segment well model

167

Min. Segment Length

FEET

Zero Tubing MD

Max. Segment
Length

FEET

Perforation

FEET

11

(4) Ic2 Tubing1<PROD%Branch2

12

7370.00 7170

0.075

0.0015 0.0485 2.09937


965

12

(4) Ic2 Tubing1<PROD%Branch2

7413.20 7170

0.075

0.0015 0.0485 0.0097193 Inflow


965
Control

13

(5) Ic2 Tubing1<PROD%Branch2.lower

12

7466.00 7170

0.075

0.0015 0.0485 2.5659


965

Perforation

14

(6) Ic3 Tubing1<PROD%Branch2

15

7516.00 7170

0.075

0.0015 0.0485 2.62421


965

Perforation

15

(6) Ic3 Tubing1<PROD%Branch2

16

7570.00 7170

0.075

0.0015 0.0485 2.05077


965

Perforation

16

(6) Ic3 Tubing1<PROD%Branch2

7612.20 7170

0.075

0.0015 0.0485 0.0097193 Inflow


965
Control

17

(7) Ic3 Tubing1<PROD%Branch2.lower

16

7666.00 7170

0.075

0.0015 0.0485 2.61449


965

Perforation

18

(8) Ic4 Tubing1<PROD%Branch2

19

7716.00 7170

0.075

0.0015 0.0485 1.03025


965

Perforation

19

(8) Ic4 Tubing1<PROD%Branch2

7737.20 7170

0.075

0.0015 0.0485 0.0097193 Inflow


965
Control

20

(9) Ic4 Tubing1<PROD%Branch2.lower

19

7745.00 7170

0.075

0.0015 0.0485 0.379053


965

Perforation

21

(10) PROD%Branch2

22

7716.00 7170

0.075

0.0015 0.0485 1.4093


965

Perforation

22

(10) PROD%Branch2

7745.00 7170

0.075

0.0015 0.0485 1.21491


965

Perforation

Hint

You can widen the Branch or the Type column to view the full description of
the segments.

Set Zero Tubing MD as 7140 and click on the Build button.

Select View | Tubing Depth to view the Tubing Depth table.


In the above table, for well PROD:01, Schedule generates a segments branch for the
annulus inflow of internal tubing Tubing1. Schedule creates a number of very short
segments to model the inflow control devices. The total segments are 22 in 10
branches.

Hint

168

Schedule calculates the roughness of tubing in the inflow control region to be


the average of the corresponding internal roughness of the casing and external
roughness of the tubing.

Close the Edit Segment table.

Tutorials
Tutorial 6: Editing a multi-segment well model

Well PROD
8

Repeat the above processes.

Select well PROD from the Control Network and open Edit Segments.

Set Zero Tubing MD as 6980.

Click on the Build button

Hint

If you continued this work from the last data set you worked on in the project,
the segment editing table on PROD may still display the data at the last setting.
You need to click on the Build button to update the data.

View the tubing depth by selecting View | Tubing Depth


You will see an Edit Segments table on well PROD as shown below:

Min. Segment Length

FEET

Zero Tubing MD
Segment

Branch

(1) PROD

(1) PROD

6980
Outlet

Max. Segment
Length

FEET

FEET

TD

Depth Diameter

Rough Area
-ness

Volume

Type

20.00

7000

0.125

0.085902 1.71806
9

50.00

7030

0.125

0.001 0.085902 2.57709


5
9

Branch
Inflow

(1) PROD

190.00 7170

0.125

0.001 0.085902 12.0264


5
9

Branch
Inflow
Tubing

(1) PROD

23.00

7210

0.5

0.001 0.19635

7.85398

Branch
Inflow

(1) PROD

250.00 7230

0.5

0.001 0.19635

3.92699

Perforation

(2)
PROD%Branch1

50.20

7030

0.45

0.001 0.159043 0.031808 Choke


6

(2)
PROD%Branch1

75.00

7030

0.45

0.001 0.159043 3.94427

Perforation

(2)
PROD%Branch1

150.00 7030

0.45

0.001 0.159043 11.9282

Perforation

(2)
PROD%Branch1

250.00 7030

0.45

0.001 0.159043 15.9043

Perforation

10

(2)
PROD%Branch1

350.00 7030

0.45

0.001 0.159043 15.9043

Perforation

11

(2)
PROD%Branch1

10

424.00 7030

0.45

0.001 0.159043 11.7692

Perforation

12

(4)
PROD%Branch3

255.50 7210

0.45

0.001 0.159043 4.0556

Perforation

BHP REF

Tutorials
Tutorial 6: Editing a multi-segment well model

169

Min. Segment Length

FEET

Zero Tubing MD

Max. Segment
Length

FEET

6980

FEET

13

(4)
PROD%Branch3

12

330.00 7210

0.45

0.001 0.159043 11.8487

Perforation

14

(4)
PROD%Branch3

13

405.50 7212. 0.45


52

0.001 0.159043 12.0078

Perforation

15

(4)
PROD%Branch3

14

420.00 7213. 0.45


96

0.001 0.159043 2.30613

Tubing
Change

16

(4)
PROD%Branch3

15

656.49 7230

0.45

0.001 0.159043 37.6121

Perforation

17

(4)
PROD%Branch3

16

707.49 7230

0.45

0.002 0.159043 8.1112

Perforation

In the above table on well PROD, Schedule generates segments for Branch inflow.
Schedule creates very short segments in the entry area of Branch2 to place a choke
control.
10 Close the Edit Segment table for PROD.
11 To view the multi-segment well model on a 3D Well Viewer window, open the 3D
Viewer
Note

on wells PROD and PROD:01.

Since the wells PROD and PROD:01 have the same well trajectory, only one
well bore (the major well PROD) is shown. However, if you choose to view a
single well (PROD or PROD:01), the 3D Well Viewer shows the different
completions or connections depending on the well events and tubing
description.

12 Select Outline

and resize the window to obtain a better view as shown in

Figure 4.25.

170

Tutorials
Tutorial 6: Editing a multi-segment well model

Figure 4.25 Multi-segment wells in the 3D Viewer

The 3D Well Viewer shows that there are more well segments added in branch 2
for inflow control modeling, and one more segment added in the entry of branch 1
for choke control.
13 Close the 3D Well Viewer window.

Segment diameter and area calculations


The segment diameter and area in a multiple completion well are calculated using the
following rules:

The annulus segment area is the area of the casing minus any area taken up by
tubing

The diameter for the segment (hydraulic diameter) is


4 times the annulus area / wetted perimeter
For example, a node in the annulus of PROD:01 is given here with the following
tubing description:

Casing Internal Diameter = 0.45 ft


Tubing External Diameter = 0.375 ft

Segment area = Casing Area - Tubing Area


Casing Area = 0.1590431
Tubing Area = 0.1104466

Tutorials
Tutorial 6: Editing a multi-segment well model

171

Segment Area = 0.0485965


Segment Diameter (WELSEGS Tubing internal diameter) = 4 times the Segment
area / wetted perimeter
Wetted perimeter = Casing internal circumference + Tubing external
circumference = PI*0.45 + PI*0.375 = 2.5918139
Segment Diameter = 4 * 0.0485965 / 2.5918139 = 0.075

Generating a SCHEDULE section


1

File | Save

Setup | Time Framework

Make sure the Time Framework screen is filled in as in the table below.
Simulation Time Framework
Step by

To:

Event shifts

From:

SOH

Month(s) 1

Ignore

To:

01 Apr 1990

Month(s) 1

Ignore

To:

EOP

FIrst Production (SPH) = 01 Jan 1990

Last Production (EPH) =

01 Jan 1997

History Start: (SOH) =

History End: (EOH) =

SOP - 1 DAYS

SPH

Prediction Start (SOP) = EPH + 1 MONTHS Prediction End (EOP) =

SOP + 1 YEARS

Export | Schedule Section

Enter file name TESTb.SCH and click on OK.

Compare TESTb.SCH with the previously created TESTa.SCH for a single


completion multi-segment well model.

Running ECLIPSE
An ECLIPSE DATA file, EX6.DATA has been created for this tutorial that runs the
simulator using the SCHEDULE section file you have exported from Schedule.
Note

172

A multi-segment well model created by Schedule can be used on ECLIPSE.


However, you may need to enter additional keywords in the User events for
the SCHEDULE section to be fully compatible with ECLIPSE 300.

Summary of SCHEDULE sections

Tutorials
Tutorial 6: Editing a multi-segment well model

Four ECLIPSE SCHEDULE sections have been created in this tutorial:

TEST.SCH
Multi-lateral well model in two wells with horizontal branches.

TESTa.SCH
Multi-lateral multi-segment well model in two wells with horizontal branches
and multi-segments.

TESTb.SCH
Multiple-completion multi-lateral multi-segment well model in three
ECLIPSE wells with horizontal branches, internal tubing, packers, choke,
inflow control devices and multi-segments.

BASE.SCH
Made for the tutorial, similar to TESTb.SCH.

Before running the simulator make sure that the directory where you run ECLIPSE
contains the SCHEDULE section file you want, and the data file (EX6.DATA). Also
ensure that the Schedule section file name (TEST.SCH or whatever you have
chosen) has been correctly included in the data file, using the ECLIPSE INCLUDE
keyword at the end of the data set EX6.DATA.

Run the simulator.


(By typing @eclipse on a UNIX platform or clicking on the GeoQuest Simulation
Software Launcher on a PC)

Specify the EX6 file as the data file.

After the run finishes, look at the simulation results.

Note

Files written by ECLIPSE contain the grid data file EX6.FGRID and the initial
and solution data file EX6.FINIT. It should be the same as the corresponding
files supplied with the tutorial. If you do not want to overwrite the original
grid and property files, change the data set name (for example, rename it
TEST.DATA) before you run the simulation.

Discussion
We demonstrated in this tutorial the interactive data editing and data validating
facilities of Schedule on a multi-segment well model. It gives a good example of how
Schedule performs the more complex well modeling work. We showed that it is
possible to create a complete project interactively within Schedule, by importing a grid
and property file created in another program, and specifying the rest of the required
input interactively in the Schedule windows.
Also we guided you through a complete typical Schedule project, starting with
building a basic multi-lateral well, continuing with creating a tubing description file
and generating a multi-segment well model, and finally completing a more complex
well model which handles multiple-completion, multi-lateral, multi-segment
description.

Tutorials
Tutorial 6: Editing a multi-segment well model

173

174

Tutorials
Tutorial 6: Editing a multi-segment well model

Reference Section
Chapter 5

Introduction
This chapter provides useful reference material on each of the modules within
Schedule. It is organized into the following sections:

"Main window" on page 177 - provides access to the main menu options and also
contains a log window.

"Item list window" on page 184 - shows a list of the wells or groups present in the
current project.

"Control network window" on page 186 - allows you to view and edit the defined
control networks (GRUPTREE).

"Alias list window" on page 191 - shows the current list of group and well name
aliases.

"Layer table window" on page 192 - shows the currently defined layer names and
the grid K range.

"Generate Framework Dates window" on page 193 - allows dates to be generated


for the Time Framework.

"Time framework window XYZ" on page 194 - defines the basic time framework
for the generated SCHEDULE section.

"Simulation options window" on page 197 - controls how Schedule generates the
SCHEDULE section.

"Events viewer window" on page 200 - allows you to edit, create and delete events
or keywords.

"Production history graph window" on page 203 - shows a graph of well or group
production history.

"Production history table window" on page 226 - shows a table of the production
and injection history for a well.

Reference Section
Introduction

175

176

"Completion diagram window" on page 227 - shows the perforations in a well


against time and/or the connections to the grid.

"Multi-segment well window" on page 230 - shows the current multi-segment well
information for a well.

"Extract data panel" on page 233 - selects which types of data should be extracted
from imported keywords.

"3D viewer" on page 238 - defaults to a view of the well trajectory with well flow
controls such as perforations, squeezes, barefoots and plugs displayed.

"Editing in the 3D Viewer" on page 285 - you can edit wells that exist or new ones
created on the Command Network in the 3D Viewer.

"Trajectory definition window" on page 287 - appears when you choose to edit a
trajectory for a well without an existing trajectory definition, or when you choose
to re-specify a well trajectory in the Trajectory Viewer/Editor.

"Trajectory viewer/editor" on page 288 - shows the path of the well through the
grid.

"Input file list window" on page 290 - shows a list of all the files that have been read
by Schedule.

Reference Section
Introduction

Main window
This window provides access to the main menu options and also contains a log
window. The Log window displays messages that provide status reports and feedback
on various operations.

Menus
File menu
New
This option creates a new project. Schedule prompts you to save the current project if
it contains any unsaved data.

Open
This option opens an existing project file. Schedule prompts you to save the current
project before it is discarded.

Save
This option saves the current project to disk. All data is saved except:

GRID section.
To prevent duplication, the path name to the original file, which contains the GRID
section is saved.

PROPS section.
To prevent duplication, the path name to the original file, which contains the
properties is saved.

Deviation survey data.


This is ignored.

Note

This option is only available if Schedule knows what filename to use. You can
save new projects using the File | Save Asoption.

Save As
This option allows you to save the current project under a new name.

Exit
This option closes Schedule. You can save any unsaved changes in the project, if you
wish.

Reference Section
Main window

177

Import menu
Production History
Replace
Use this option to replace existing production history with data stored in a file on a well
by well basis. Whenever a well name is found in the input file any existing production
history for that well is replaced. If a new well name is found in the input file, Schedule
creates the well, and inserts the imported data. This item has a + character following
its name if data has been read in.
Merge
Use this option to merge data from a production history file with existing production
history data. The data in the input file overwrites or merges with existing data (that is,
the data from the input file replaces existing data with the same date and phase).

Events
Replace
This option replaces all non-keyword events (for each well) in the current Schedule
project with data stored in the input file. This item has a + character following its
name if data has been read in.
Merge
This option merges all non-keyword events in the input file with the existing events in
the current Schedule project, and adds them to the events list.

Grid
This option imports a GRID file. Grid data already imported into the current Schedule
project is replaced. This item has a + character following its name if a grid has been
read in.
Single Porosity
Use this option to read a single porosity grid.
Dual Porosity
Use this option to read a dual porosity grid.

Well Locations
Trajectory File
This option reads a trajectory data file (in the format output by the Schlumberger
programs GRID and FloGrid), and replaces existing data on a per wellbore basis or
creates new wellbore data if no prior data exists.
Deviation Survey
This option reads deviation survey data (see "Well geometry data from deviation
survey data file" on page 338). The new data for an existing deviation survey is read
into the project or replaces any existing deviation data.

178

Reference Section
Main window

Tubing
This option reads a tubing description file (see "Tubing description file format" on
page 350). This file contains information needed by Schedule to construct multisegment well keywords and contains information about casing and tubing diameters
and roughness, as well as locations of packers, chokes and inflow control devices.

Control Network
This option reads a network information file (see "Creating a control network of wells
and groups of wells" on page 46). Existing networks that have the same date as
networks in the input file are replaced with the data in the input file, and new networks
are created to include any new data. This item has a + character following its name if
data has been read in.

Time Framework
Replace
This option replaces the Time Framework in the current Schedule project with data
stored in the input file. This item has a + character following its name if data has been
read in.
Merge
This option merges the Time Framework in the input file with the existing Time
Framework in the current Schedule project. (See "Time framework window XYZ" on
page 194.)

Alias List
Replace
This option replaces the Alias List (see "Inspecting and editing the alias list" on page 82)
in the current Schedule project with that in the input file. This item has a + character
following its name if data has been read in.
Merge
This option merges the Alias List in the input file with the existing Alias List in the
current Schedule project.

Layer Table
This option reads a layer information file ("Entering geological layer data" on page 70).
The new data is read in and any existing information is replaced. This item has a +
character following its name if a layer table has been read in.

Properties
This reads property data (.FINIT or .INIT files). The new data is read in and any
existing property data is discarded. This item has a + character following its name if
data has been read in.
Schedule section
This option reads SCHEDULE section data. Event data is added to event data already
defined in the current Schedule project. Production history data is then extracted from
the keywords and stored as part of the production history for wells.

Reference Section
Main window

179

Summary file
This option reads ECLIPSE SUMMARY data. Oil, Water and Gas flow are extracted from
the summary data, and you can view them in the graphs with historical production
data.

Restart file
This option reads ECLIPSE RESTART data. You can view the information in this file in
the 3D Viewer.

Plot layouts
This option reads a Schedule plot layout file.

Setup menu
Time Framework
This option edits the simulation time step model. The panel also allows you to choose
whether to shift events to time boundaries or to create new time steps at the event
times. You can also see the dates associated with the date macros Initial and Final. Extra
user specific dates can be added or generated using the Generate Framework Dates
panel.

Options
This option allows you to select various options governing how the SCHEDULE section
is built and output.

Simulator
This option chooses the simulator for generation and reading of keywords. This option
must be set as the first action after starting Schedule or after selecting File | New as it
controls the form of keywords used for all subsequent operations. The default is to use
the ECLIPSE keyword set which is compatible with previous releases.

Transmissibility
This option allows you to choose which algorithm is used to calculate connection
factors. The names indicate the algorithm that corresponds to the defaults of various
simulators or to specially developed algorithms (see also "Using non-default
transmissibility options" on page 366).

Units
This option allows you to choose the unit set used for display and when outputting the
SCHEDULE section. This unit set also acts as the default unit set when importing files
that do not specify units.
Field
This option specifies the use of ECLIPSE FIELD units.
Metric
This option specifies the use of ECLIPSE METRIC units.

180

Reference Section
Main window

Fonts
This option allows you to select the font used in the display. This font is saved as part
of the project.

Data menu
Item List
This option displays a window showing the names of the wells and groups in the
current Schedule project. You can display data specific to a well or group by clicking
on the name of that well or group with the right mouse button, and selecting an option
from the pop-up menu.

Control Network
This option allows you to view and edit the time varying control network. You can
display data specific to a well or group by clicking on the name of that well or group.

Alias List
This option allows you to view and edit the alias list. Refer to "Inspecting and editing
the alias list" on page 82

Layer Table
This option allows you to view and edit the layer table. Refer to "Entering geological
layer data" on page 70

Input Files
This option displays the names of files read into the current Schedule project.

Recalculate trajectories
Use this option to ask Schedule to recalculate trajectory data for any wells in the current
project which have deviation survey information. You can use this to rebuild the
trajectory after changing any of the following:

grid properties

the grid itself, or

the deviation survey for a well.

Generate Framework Dates


This option generates dates for the Time Framework for various user specified criteria.
These comprise percentage change in production, changes from production to injection
or vice versa, injection phase change, when a rate changes to or from zero and changes
in BHP and THP if imported as part of history data.

Analyse Production History


This option inspects the production history data and event data for all wells, and
produces a report showing the total production/injection as well as indicating
potential problem times when the well is producing or injecting; but it has no
perforated intervals.

Reference Section
Main window

181

Extract Data from Keywords


This option extracts production history, well position and perforation information
from ECLIPSE keywords. You can use this option after importing existing ECLIPSE
SCHEDULE sections to help rebuild a production history model.

Export menu
Schedule Section
This option exports all the SCHEDULE section data. Schedule builds a simulation model
from the perforation and history data (and the grid, trajectory and property data) and
exports it as a SCHEDULE file.

Events
This option exports events for all wells.
Note

This option does not export keywords, only the events that can be imported
using the Import | Events menu option.

Production History
Monthly
This option exports monthly production histories for each well.
All
This option exports the production histories for each well where a change occurs.
TimeFrame
This option exports the production histories averaged onto the current settings for the
Time Framework.
Hint

You can import this data by using Import | Production History

Trajectories
This option exports trajectory data for each well. You can import this data using Import
| Trajectories.

Deviations
This option exports deviation data for each well. You can import this data using Import
| Deviation Survey.

Layer Table
This option exports the layer table. You can import this data using Import | Layer Table.

Control Network
This option exports the control network data. You can import this data using
Import | Control Network.

182

Reference Section
Main window

Time Framework
This option exports the Time Framework data. You can import this data using
Import | Time Framework.

Alias List
This option exports the Alias List. You can import this list using Import | Alias List.

Plot Layouts
This option exports the current plot layouts. You can import this data using Import |
Plot Layouts.

Utilities menu
Text Editor
This option opens a general text editor window.

Window menu
Minimize Children
This option minimizes all Schedule windows except the main window.

Restore Children
This option restores any minimized Schedule windows to their previous size and
location.

Help menu
Search
This option displays the on-line help for Schedule.

ToolTips Enabled
This option toggles the use of fly-by help when the mouse is at rest over a toolbar
button.

About SCHEDULE
This option displays the version and week number of Schedule.

Reference Section
Main window

183

Item list window


This window shows a list of the wells or groups present in the current project. You can
use it to select wells or groups and place them in the control network. Items can be
selected using the mouse or by typing a name (which can include wild card characters)
in the text area and clicking on the
items.

button. Clicking on the

button deselects

You can add selected items to the control network (by dragging them onto a network
group). Items that have already been added to the current control network cannot be
selected, and are shown with a small black square to the left of their name. In this way,
Schedule prevents you from including the same well more than once in the control
network. To select wells that are in the current control network close the Control
Network window. This removes the definition of the current control network and
makes all wells available for selection in the List window.
Hint

Clicking on any item with the right mouse button displays a context sensitive
pop-up menu providing access to data display panels.

The Item List | Export option allows you to export event and history data for selected
wells.

Menus
View menu
WellBores
This option displays a list of well names in the list window.

Groups
This option displays a list of group names in the list window.

Export menu
Export Events
This option exports the events for the selected items. Refer to "Defining well events" on
page 71.

Export History
This option exports a monthly production history file for the selected wells. Refer to
"Entering, editing and analyzing well production and injection data" on page 51.

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Item list window

Data
Check Production History
This option checks the production and perforation history of the selected wells. A
report is generated in a separate window showing the total production and injection
for each well, and indicating potential problem time periods where production or
injection is recorded but the well has no perforations.

Fix Production History


This option performs the same check as the Check Production History option but will
move production and injection into time periods where a perforation exists if
necessary. A new version is automatically created for any fluid which is modified by
this process. You can restore the old version in the Production Table window.

Reference Section
Item list window

185

Control network window


This window allows you to view and edit the defined control networks (GRUPTREE).
You can also view the associated data for all of the items in the network.
The left portion of this window shows the times at which networks are defined. The
times are displayed from top to bottom with the oldest at the top. The current network
is highlighted with a blue triangle. A new network can be made current by clicking on
the date with the mouse button.
The menu options (described below) allow you to add and delete networks by time.
The right side, of this window, shows the current network. The items in the network
can be reorganized by dragging them to their new position in the network. Several
items can be selected at once using the mouse:

Ctrl-click
toggles selection state.

Shift-click
selects all items between previous selection and the item under the mouse.

Click
deselects others and selects this.

All of the selected items can be moved by dragging them to their new location. If a
3D Well Viewer is open wells may also be dragged and dropped on it. This is the only
way to add more wells to an existing 3D view.

Context sensitive menus


Clicking on any item, with the right mouse button, displays a context sensitive pop-up
menu. This menu allows you to view and edit data and includes options that can create
new members of the network.

Field items
Show events
This option displays events for the field.

Graph completions
This option displays the completion display window with all of the wells available for
viewing.

Graph history
This option displays a graph showing the summed production and injection history for
all the wells in the field

Create group
This option creates a new group attached to the field. You must enter the new groups
name.

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Control network window

Group items
Show events
This option displays events for the group.

Graph completions
This option displays the completion display window with all of the groups wells
available for viewing.

Graph history
This option displays a graph showing the summed production and injection history for
all the wells in the group.

Create group
This option creates a new group attached to the current group. You must enter the new
groups name.

Rename group
This option allows you to change the current groups name.

Create well
This option creates a new well attached to the current group. You must enter a name
for the new well.

Well
Show events
This option displays events for the well.

Graph completions
This option displays the completion display window with the completion history for
the current well and the corresponding grid connections.

Graph history
This option displays a graph of the production and injection history for the current
well.

Table history
This option displays a table of the production and injection history for this well.

Edit trajectory
This option displays the table of trajectory data for the current well. If trajectory data
has not yet been defined, you can enter the definition of a well path through the grid;
Schedule then calculates the trajectory. (You must have already read in the grid and
properties.)

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Control network window

187

Edit segments
This option displays the Multi Segment Well Data Editor for the current well. This
editor will create multi-segment well data for the well (you must have already read in
or created the grid, trajectory, perforation and tubing data). It also allows editing of the
multi-segment model. If you create a multi-segment model in this editor Schedule
generates the appropriate multi-segment well ECLIPSE keywords.

View 3D well
This opens a new 3D display of the well and the surrounding grid and allows creation
or modification of the well path. This view can display the perforations, squeezes,
connections in the grid, etc. It is also possible to animate the well over time. To add
more wells to the same 3D display, use drag and drop from the network to the
3D Well Viewer.

Toolbar buttons
The toolbar at the top of the control network window provides an alternate way of
accessing data viewing and editing panels. Clicking on the toolbar buttons displays a
viewer for any selected well or group in the network.

View well events table


This button displays an event viewer for the selected items. If more than one item is
selected, Schedule displays an event viewer for each item.

View completions with well trajectory


This button displays a completion display graph for the selected items. If more than
one item is selected, Schedule displays a completion display graph for each item.

View production data graph


This button displays a production history graph for the selected items. If more than
one item is selected, Schedule displays a production history graph for each item.

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Control network window

View production data table


This button displays a production history table for the selected items. If more than one
item is selected, Schedule displays a production history table for each item.

View well trajectory table


This button displays a trajectory table editor for the selected well. If more than one
item is selected, Schedule displays a well trajectory table for each item.

Add a new group


This button adds a new group to the group or field that is currently selected.

View completion with 3D viewer


This button opens a new 3D display viewer/editor for the wells that are currently
selected. This button has no effect if a group is selected.

View multi segment well data


This button displays the multi segment well data viewer/editor for the wells that are
currently selected. This button has no effect if a group is selected.

Menus
Edit
Add time
This option allows you to enter a date and create a new control network at the new
time. The new control network is created as a duplicate of the previous control
network.

Delete time
This option removes the control network at the currently selected time.

New group
This option creates a new group attached to the current group. You must enter the new
groups name.

Remove items
This option removes the selected items from the control network. The items are not
deleted but they no longer appear in the control network. If these items do not appear
in a control network at a different time, they do not appear in the generated SCHEDULE
section.

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Control network window

189

Export
Selected events
This option exports the events for the selected wells. Refer to "Defining well events" on
page 71.

Selected history
This option exports a monthly production history file for the selected wells. Refer to
"Entering, editing and analyzing well production and injection data" on page 51.

Selected schedule
This option generates the SCHEDULE section file for the selected wells or groups of
wells.

Selected plots
This option produces hardcopy printouts (or postscript files for later printing) for the
selected wells. The files are named <wellname>_PH.ps.
Note

Before using this option you should open a plot window for any well and set
the print file type. Refer to "Defining well trajectories interactively" on page 64

Selected deviations
This option exports deviation survey data files for the selected wells.

Data
Check production history
This option checks the production history and perforation history of the selected wells.
A report is generated in a separate window showing the total production and injection
for each well, and indicating potential problem time periods where production or
injection is recorded but the well has no perforations.

Fix production history


This option performs the same check as the Check Production History option but
moves production and injection into time periods where a perforation exists if
necessary. A new version is automatically created for any fluid that is modified by this
process. The old version can be restored in the Production Table window.

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Control network window

Alias list window


This window shows the current list of group and well name aliases. The list is empty
until you export a SCHEDULE section. You can edit the aliases if necessary. Schedule
uses the aliases instead of the original names when generating the SCHEDULE section.
Schedule generates aliases of the same name as the original well or group name if they
are acceptable to ECLIPSE; otherwise it generates a legal ECLIPSE name as the alias.

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Alias list window

191

Layer table window


This window shows the currently defined layer names and the grid K range which the
layer name defines. You can import layer definitions using the Import menu or entering
them in this window.
To enter a new layer definition, left mouse click on the
button at the top right of
the table; this inserts a new table row. Enter the new layer name and the new K range
to which this name refers. The top layer number should be smaller than the bottom
layer number. You can use the layers to shift perforations, squeezes, etc up or down
the wellbore so that they fall in the defined range.

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Layer table window

Generate Framework Dates window


This window comprises six check items allowing dates to be generated for the Time
Framework with different criteria:

The first selection is for the percentage change in production or injection by the
specified amount excluding changes to or from zero.

The second selection is for changes in production to or from injection.

The third selection is for injection phase changes, this includes changes to or from
zero which are considered to be changes in the injected phase to or from nothing.

The fourth selection is for changes in the production flow to or from zero.

The fifth selection is for any changes in THB.

The sixth selection is for any changes in BHP.

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Generate Framework Dates window

193

Time framework window XYZ


This window defines the basic time framework for the generated SCHEDULE section.
Each line in the table defines a starting date and the time interval for a simulation
report time step. You can add more time steps for events depending on the choices
made in the Event Shifts column.
You can add more lines using the Insert Period button. The intervals and event time
choices range from the date specified on the new line until the date specified on the
next line.
You may use symbolic dates in place of actual dates. The actual dates that will be
substituted for these macro dates are shown in the bottom half of the time framework
window. These dates represent the earliest and latest dates in the events and
production history records.

Event shifts column


This column allows you to choose when Schedule will add additional time steps if
certain events occur.
If Apply is chosen, all the time shift criteria associated with the events are applied. This
can add time steps at the event time or have the event shifted to an earlier or later
existing time step.
If Ignore is chosen, all the events create a time step at the event time.
If Custom is chosen, a new panel is displayed that allows you to determine the
behavior based on event type.

Panel buttons
New
This option inserts a new row in the time framework table.

Delete
This option removes the current row from the table.
Hint

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Based on event type.

Reference Section
Time framework window XYZ

Panel date fields


First production history [SPH]
This field indicates the first data where production history occurs. It is not editable and
is set as the production history is imported.

Last production history [EPH]


This field indicates the last data where production history occurs. It is not editable and
is set as the production history is imported.

History start [SOH]


This field allows you to define the date associated with the symbol SOH. By default it
is set to the start of production history [SPH].

History end [EOH]


This field allows you to define the date associated with the symbol EOH. By default it
is set to the start of the prediction period, minus 1 day.

Prediction start [SOP]


This field allows you to define the date associated with the symbol SOP. By default it
is set to the last date where production history is recorded, plus 1 month.

Prediction end [EOP]


This field allows you to define the date associated with the symbol EOP. By default it
is set to the start of the prediction period, plus 1 year.
Note

You can use the acronyms in square brackets after each field wherever a date
must be entered in Schedule. For example, a Perf can be given the date SOH.
You can, also, use the acronyms in conjunction with a simple date offset
expression. Date acronyms and offsets have the following form: ACRONYM
+/- NUMBER YEAR/MONTH/DAY

Note

Two additional date acronyms are defined by the first and last rows of the time
framework table. They are SOS (start of simulation) and EOS (end of
simulation). You can, also, use these acronyms in the date fields.

At the bottom of the panel there are the usual OK, Apply, Cancel and Help buttons.
Amongst them there is the additional button DATES. This opens the Framework Dates
panel.

Reference Section
Time framework window XYZ

195

Framework dates panel


This panel has a table listing additional time framework dates together with an
associated description string for each date. You can enter extra dates and descriptions
with a mouse click on the
button at the top right of the table; this inserts a new
table row. These dates are added to the dates generated by the Time Framework panel.
You can generate these additional dates automatically from the Generate Framework
Dates panel, obtained from the main menu with Data | Generate Framework Dates.

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Time framework window XYZ

Simulation options window


You can use the Simulation Options window to control how Schedule generates the
SCHEDULE section.

Eclipse version
This option controls the way Schedule generates keywords. The keywords are
generated for the indicated ECLIPSE version. The ? choice means to use the most
recent ECLIPSE version.

Layer shifting
This option controls how Schedule implements layer shifting. The three choices are:

Simple shift
Each event is shifted into its designated layer. Any portion of the event that extends
outside of the layer is then removed. The program makes no attempt to keep the
relative positions of different events.

Relative shift
All of the well events for the designated layer are examined before any event is shifted.
The lengths and relative positions of the events are then maintained when any event is
shifted.

Linear scaling
All of the well events for the designated layer are examined and the total range is
determined. This range is then mapped on to the range of the layer and all events are
scaled into the layer range. This preserves the relative location of events but the length
of the event may change.

Suppress CF
If this option is set to Yes, the connection factor is not included in COMPDAT* keywords.

Suppress skin
If this option is set to Yes, the pseudo skin (taking into account partial penetration,
deviation and mechanical skin) is not included in keywords.

Suppress history
If this option is set to Yes, no WCONHIST or WCONINJE keywords are generated.

Suppress history after SOP


If this option is set to Yes, no WCONHIST or WCONINJE keywords are generated after
the Start of Prediction (SOP) date.

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Simulation options window

197

Suppress connections
If this option is set to Yes, no COMPDAT* keywords are generated. It also suppresses
error messages that warn that a well has production flow but has no connections to the
grid.

Suppress comments
If this option is set to Yes, comments are not generated in the output file.

Suppress warnings
If this option is set to Yes, warning messages are not generated in the output file.
Warnings result when data are modified (for example by layer shifting), or when some
potentially significant situation is detected.

Suppress errors
If this option is set to Yes, error messages are not generated in the output file. Errors
are considered to result from detecting a situation where ECLIPSE is unable to run with
the produced SCHEDULE section.

Use trajectory perms


If this option is set to Yes, the permeabilities for the connection factor are taken from
the trajectory data. If it is set to No, the permeabilities in the INIT properties are used.

Use WEFAC
If this option is set to Yes, the WEFAC keyword is generated and production rates are
modified accordingly.
If this option is set to No, WEFAC is not generated and the rates are the daily average for
the current time period.

Ignore NTG
If this option is set to Yes the NTG term is not used in calculating the connection factor;
an NTG of 1 is used instead.

Perf% threshold
If defined (0 < threshold 100), any perforation which is smaller than this percentage
of block size is ignored. A warning is generated in the output file when a perforation
has been ignored.

Perforation length threshold


If defined, any perforation which is less than this length is ignored. A warning is
generated in the output file when a perforation has been ignored.

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Simulation options window

Generate COMPVE
If this option is set to Yes, the COMPVE keyword and associated data is generated. Refer
to "SCHEDULE section file using simulation option COMPVE" on page 364.

COMPVE min. Z delta


COMPVE data is not generated for any connection that covers less than this Z distance.
You can use this setting to prevent Schedule generating COMPVE keywords for
horizontal wells.

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Simulation options window

199

Events viewer window


This window displays the list of events and keywords associated with an item. It
allows you to edit, create and delete events or keywords.
The left side of this window shows a time-ordered list of events associated with the
item. The contents of this list are controlled with the View menu options (see "View
menu" on page 202. If you move the mouse over this portion of the window the status
line (at the bottom of the window) indicates the event name and the date.
A keyword name is preceded by a (T) if it is a template, or an (M) if it is a macro. Macros
and templates are described below.
Clicking on an event displays the event details in the right side of the window. The
contents of this panel vary depending on the event or keyword, but all allow entry of
the date when the event becomes active and all have a comment field that you can use
to enter any explanatory data. The comment field is included as an ECLIPSE comment
in the generated SCHEDULE section.

Event status
The top line of each panel shows an event description and an indication of the status
of the event or keyword. Possible values for the status are:

Template.

Macro.

Internal.

Template
Templates are keywords that are used to fill in any missing data for internallygenerated keywords. The FIELD item has default templates for several keywords.
When a template is created, you may enter as many or as few values as you wish. The
Name Pattern field in the template can be used to match the well names where the
template applies. A wild card (the * character) in the name pattern matches any
sequence of one or more characters in the well name.

Macro
Macros are keywords that are propagated to items lower down the network. Entering
a well keyword as a macro in the FIELD item results in the keyword occurring in all
wells on the date specified. The Name Pattern field in the template can be used to
match the well names where the macro applies. A wild card (the * character) in the
name pattern matches any sequence of one or more characters in the well name.

Internal
This keyword is generated internally by Schedule. It is deleted and regenerated the
next time the SCHEDULE section is exported. Internal events are not saved with the
project. If you edit an internal event, it loses the internal status and becomes a normal
keyword.

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Events viewer window

Note

This could generate a keyword conflict the next time the SCHEDULE section is
generated.

Menus
New menu
The options available under this menu vary depending on the selected item type. In
general this menu allows you to create a new event or keyword. Completion events
(perforations, squeezes, etc.) appropriate to the type of item selected are listed here.
All events have a Shift Direction field with choices of Earlier, Later or None. This choice
controls the direction in which the event shifts if event shifting is applied in the Time
Framework panel. The None choice means that the event should not shift; a time step
should be created at the event time instead.
If the event has a Branch field the specific branch of a multi-lateral well that the event
occurs on may be specified. If the event occurs on the main stem leave this field blank.
Enter only the branch portion of the lateral. For example, if a perforation occurs on
Well1%Branch1, enter only Branch1 the part of the name referring to the stem is
assumed.
The Top Depth or Bottom Depth fields in events may be defaulted (left blank). The
default is to use the point where the well enters and leaves the grid. If you specify a
layer with the event, the defaults are the minimum and maximum values for the layer.
The layer field may be specified as a name or as a grid cell K range. For example, the
layer may be either SAND_1 (where SAND_1 is defined in the layer table as 2-3) or as
2-3 - both would restrict the event to lie in layers two to three inclusive.
If the Keyword choice is selected, a panel is displayed listing all of the available
keywords for the selected item.
If keywords for the FIELD item are being viewed the option to create a WLIST keyword
will be present. Selecting this option allows the selection of any of the well keywords
and the resulting Keyword Entry panel includes a field to allow the name of the WLIST
which the simulator should use with this keyword.
The User event is available for all types of items. Text entered as a user event is inserted
verbatim into the generated SCHEDULE section on the specified date. The user event
has three fields:

Date
This field indicates when the text is copied to the output file.

Identifier
This field defaults to User but may be changed to reflect the purpose of the
event. The new identifier is shown in the Event List in the left window.

Text
This field is copied to the output file.

For the FIELD and groups, there are options to create both macros (see "Macro" on
page 200) and templates (see "Template" on page 200).

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Events viewer window

201

View menu
Completion
This option allows you to choose whether or not to display completion events (such as
perforations, squeezes, etc.) in the Event List.

Keywords
This option allows you to choose whether or not to display keyword events (such as
WCONHIST, COMPDAT) in the Event List.

Internal
This option allows you to choose whether or not to display internally generated
keywords in the Event List.

Description
This option allows you to choose between showing the keyword name or a short
description in the Event List.

Edit
Undo edits
This option tracks most events so that the changes can be undone. This menu option
displays a list of edits for the currently displayed event. Clicking on an unwanted edit
and pressing the Undo button undoes that edit. Clicking the Undo-To button undoes all
edits more recent than the one selected, and also the selected edit itself.

Delete
This option deletes the currently displayed event.

Sub-keys
This option is only available if the current keyword has a list of associated keywords
(for example ACTION). Selecting this option allows you to enter and edit the associated
keywords.

Help
Event editor
This option displays on-line help for the Events Viewer window.

Current event
This option displays on-line help for events. If the currently displayed event is an
ECLIPSE keyword, online help is not displayed.

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Events viewer window

Production history graph window


Introduction
This window shows a graph of well or group production history.
Figure 5.1 Example plot

Graph title

Status line

Menu Bar

Navigation graph

Tool bar

Main graph

Resize bar

Legend: Plot

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Production history graph window

203

Toolbars
Toolbars contain small buttons containing pictures that represent an operation, for
example a magnifying glass for zooming. A line of text describing the action of the
button is displayed as fly-by help on the bottom of the window containing the toolbar
whenever the mouse passes over the toolbar.
To use the toolbar, simply click on one of the toolbar buttons. Some buttons have an
immediate, once-only effect. Others put the graph into a specific mode, such as editing.
In these cases the button remains depressed until it is clicked on again. In one of these
modes, when the mouse enters an area of the screen where the mode has some
meaning (for example over a graph when in rubberband zoom mode) the cursor
changes to indicate the mode. The cursor has a hotspot, usually near the top left corner,
that corresponds to the mouse position.
Toolbars are usually drawn along the top of the graphical area.

Graph attributes
You can control the properties of the graphical lines, text, axes etc. using various dialog
panels described later. These are invoked in various ways, for example by doubleclicking on an item in a legend to bring up the style panel for that data plot.

Status line
The status line has two fields where messages, mouse positions and the current plot
mode are reported. It is normally positioned at the bottom of the window.

Graph title
The graph title annotates the graph. You can edit the title by double-clicking on the title
text. This will display an edit text box containing the current title. To change the title,
type the new title into the text box and press Enter.

Navigation area
This graph shows the position of the zoomed data relative to the complete data range.
You can zoom, unzoom or pan the main graph using the navigation graph.

Legend
The legend indicates the active plot and labels it. A copy (clone) of the legend may be
placed on the graph by dragging the legend title and releasing the mouse in the
required position. The copy may then be moved, resized or deleted by dragging it to
the dustbin. The copy keeps up to date with the master legend. Also some main graphs
may have a fixed legend between the title and the grid area.

Active plot
Clicking on a legend item makes the corresponding plot the active plot. Double-click
to display a panel for changing various attributes such as line and plot style.

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Production history graph window

Resizing items
The main graph, navigation graph, legend, caption and small graphs are resizable
using the grey resize bars separating them. Mouse down on a bar, drag to the new
position and release.

Deleting items
You can always use the dustbin to delete captions, legends navigation graphs, and
small graphs. Simply drag the item by its title to the dustbin and release. In fact this
only removes these objects from the display - they can be brought back into view via
the Graph Configuration panel, if available.

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Production history graph window

205

Menu options
This section describes the standard menu functions. These appear under the File, Edit,
View, Graph or User menubars. The more frequently used functions also have
associated toolbar buttons, which are shown next to the functions.
Options that can result in changes to the data appear on the Edit menu. Options related
to display of data are on the View menu. The Graph menu has controls for interacting
more generally with a plot, and the User menu contains several user configuration
options.
Menu items corresponding to a plot mode often have special cursors associated with
them. This gives a visual clue as to what functionality the plot is supporting. The
current mode is also displayed in the status line.

File menu
Most of the usual file control operations are performed from this menu item, the most
important of which are the various Print options.

Print Preview...
This opens a preview window showing approximately the final appearance of the
printer output using the current settings.

The Change Mode button selects one of two modes, one to print just the main
workspace, and the other to print all of the window.

The Edit Layout button opens the Print Layout panel.

The Print button starts print using the mode, layout, type and printer selected.

Print Setup... (PC only)


This is the standard Windows setup dialog, allowing selection of the default printer
and also paper orientation.

Print Layout...
This opens the Print Layout panel, which is used to specify various aspects of the print
output, especially the datestamp appearance. There are also controls for aspect ratio
and scaling of fonts.
See "Print layout panel" on page 212.

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Menu options

Print Type...
This opens the Printer Drivers panel, which allows selection of the type of printer or
driver the graphics image is sent to. The various output options are specified in the
ECL.CFG file.
See "Select Printer Type panel" on page 213.

Print
Print Window
Print Window prints all the contents of the plot window, that is the main graph plus all
information windows and small graphs.

Print Graph
Print Graph prints just the contents of the main plot window.

Print Pictures
Print Pictures prints the contents of the main plot window and of each of the small
graphs, on separate sheets.

Save to Bitmap
Graph
On a PC, this copies the main workspace image to a bitmap file.

Active Graph
On a PC, this copies the active graph to a bitmap file. The active graph is the one
highlighted by a yellow border, if there is more than one graph in the main workspace.
Often there is only one graph.

Whole Picture
On a PC, this copies the whole of the graphics window to a bitmap file. Navigation
graphs, small graphs, legend and caption windows are included in the file.

Close
Closes the graph viewer.

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Print preview

207

Edit menu
Copy to Clipboard
Main Graph
On a PC, this copies the main workspace image to the clipboard, and this can then be
pasted into any suitable application (for example Word, PowerPoint, etc).

Active Graph
On a PC, this copies the active graph to the clipboard. The active graph is the one
usually highlighted by a yellow border, if there is more than one graph in the main
workspace. Often there is only the one graph.

Whole Picture
On a PC, this copies the whole of the graphics window to the clipboard. Navigation
graphs, small graphs, legend and caption windows are included in the saved picture.

View menu
This menu contains options specific to the look of the current graph, such as zooming
options.

Grids
Turns on and off the grid selected with the "Grid Property Editing panel" on page 218
selected with the Options | Grid Settingsmenu item or by double-clicking on an axis.

Current point
Choose the current point - it is marked by a circle. Often used in conjunction with a
table and the grid setting of showing the current point. If a table is displayed at the
same time then the current point corresponds to the table row with focus. This is a
useful way of quickly scrolling a table to a particular data item.

Zoom in
Zooms in one step into the center of the plot area. The size of the zoom depends on the
settings in the Zoom Preferences panel. Plots may also be zoomed and panned using
the zoom box on the navigation graph.

Zoom out
Unzoom the complete plot area into a rectangular portion of the plot. The zoom goes
out one step for each time the button is pressed, or the menu item selected, the size of
the step being adjustable through the Zoom Preferences panel.

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Print preview

Rubberband zoom in
Zoom into the current plot using a dragged box. To use this, select the menu option,
place the cursor (which changes into a magnifying glass symbol) over the grid, click on
one corner of your desired zoomed area, and drag the mouse with the button held
down to the opposite corner of the area.

Unzoom completely
Completely unzoom the plot. This displays the complete data range on the main graph.

Zoom preferences...
This invokes the Zoom Preferences panel, from where the default zoom in and out
behaviour can be changed.
See "Zoom preferences panel" on page 220.

Refresh
Forces a redraw of the window.

Invert
Inverts the color scheme of the graph window so that, for example, dark foreground
graph colors on a light background become light on a dark background.

Plots menu
The Plots menu lists all of the available quantities that can be displayed in the main
graph. Selecting a quantity will add it as the top plot in the main graph. If the quantity
already has a check mark beside it, selecting it removes it from the main graph.

Cumulative
Superimposes the cumulative production or injection over the selected quantities
where possible.

Averages
Superimposes a graph of the rates as they appear in the generated keywords, that is,
the rates are re-averaged to the simulation report time framework.

Table
The choice Table is only available if the history for a well is in the graph. Selecting this
choice opens the tabular view of the well data.

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Print preview

209

Layout menu
The layout menu offers choices for saving and switching between user defined choices
of the quantities displayed in the graph and their color and style choices. As layouts
are created they are saved in the Schedule project. You can export them from the project
using Export | Plot Layouts, and you can then import them into other projects.

Save
This choice saves the current selections for visible plots and the various color and style
selections under the current layout name (shown in brackets in the window title).

Save as
This choice saves the current selections for visible plots and the various color and style
selections under a new name.

Default
The default selection for visible plots and styles. Various additional names appear here
as the Save As option is used to create more plots.

Options
Add/Remove Components...
This invokes the Graph Configuration panel. From this, you can add or remove
components, such as toolbars and small plots from the window.

Main Title Settings...


This displays the Main Graph Title Settings panel for the main graph or workspace. The
attributes of the title bar font, size, background and foreground color are modified
from here.
See "Title Settings panels" on page 220.

Small Title Settings...


This displays the Small Graph Title Settings panel for the rest of the frames on the
window, small graphs, captions, etc. As with the main settings, the title bar attributes
are modified from here.

Modify graph title...


This brings up a simple panel in which you can edit the title of the main graph active
at the time.
See "Graph title panel" on page 219.

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Plot style settings...


This opens the Data Style panel for the currently active plot. Various style settings for
the appearance of the data (line, marker style and color) are modified through this
panel.
See "Data Style panel" on page 216.

X/Y Axis Settings...


This opens the Axis Property Editing panel for the axis displaying the current active
data, either X or Y, depending on menu option chosen. The many axis style attributes
are modified from this panel.
See "Axis Property Editing panel" on page 213.

Grid Settings...
The Grid Property Editing panel is opened using this menu option. The grid has settings
to turn the grid on or off and change its color, and to turn the current point on or off
and change its color, if defined.
See "Grid Property Editing panel" on page 218.

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Print preview

211

Standard graph panels


Many settings are available for the styles of plot data, axis, titles and labels. Most of the
options for such objects are set through various dialog panels, which have already been
referred to above. In this section the standard panels are described as well as some
detail about how the various settings affect the look of the graphs you see on the screen
and in print. The method for obtaining each of these panels is also described.

Print layout panel


This panel controls the font and datestamp used to label the hard-copy version of the
plot. There are also some other settings that control the overall look of the hard-copy
output and font. Once you have opened it, you will have to close this panel before
being able to interact with the rest of the application.
The settings are described below:

Font
To select a font, click on the font name from the selection list in the top left corner of
the Print Layout panel. The currently-selected font name is in reverse video.

Datestamp position
A datestamp can be printed on the plot, at either the top or bottom of the page. The
position, usually defaulted to bottom, is selected with the switch at the top right corner
of the panel.

Text sizing
Underneath the Datestamp control is the text sizing control.
This will affect sizing not of only the datestamp, but also the rest of the text in the hardcopy version. This can be used if the default scaling is causing problems such as a text
overlap.

To define the height, click in the Height text entry box and enter a value.

To define the width, click in the Width text entry box and enter a value.

Aspect ratio
This is another control that affects the look of the whole picture. The on-screen aspect
ratio of the graph or window can be preserved by checking the Preserve on Hardcopy
option (the default). However, if you would like the hard-copy output to fill the whole
page, then de-select the option to stretch the output to fit the page.

Margin size
The hard-copy output will have a margin around the actual material - its size can be
set using this text box.

Datestamp
The form of the datestamp is controlled by selections in the Datestamp selection lists
which appear at the bottom of the Print Layout Panel.

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There are four selection lists. The current selection in each list is indicated by reversed
text. An example of the datestamp that will appear on the plot is displayed below the
selection lists. Note that any of the fields can be left blank by selecting None.
Note

No field can appear twice in the datestamp. Where duplicate fields are selected
the left-most occurrence takes precedence.

Obtaining the print layout panel


The panel can be invoked by selecting the Print Layout option in the File menu, or by
its equivalent tool bar short-cut (if displayed). It can also be obtained from the Print
Preview panel, by clicking on the Edit Layout button.

Select Printer Type panel


This panel allows you to select the type of printer you would like to send the output to.
This can be anything from directly to a Windows printer, if running under Windows,
to a PostScript file for various devices, or CGM file, also useful for importing into other
packages.
Selection is made by clicking on the printer driver required, the selected driver being
highlighted by text inversion. The panel will not allow access to the rest of the
application until it is closed. Note that the exact properties of the printer driver can be
altered through the GRANULE section of the ECL.CFG file.

Obtaining the Select Printer Type panel


The menu option to invoke this panel is File | Print | Print Type... It can also be opened
by clicking on the Print Type icon in the tool bar, if displayed.

Axis Property Editing panel


The caption reports information of interest. A copy (clone) of the caption may be
placed on the graph by dragging the caption title and releasing the mouse in the
required position. The copy may then be moved, resized or deleted by dragging it to
the dustbin. The copy keeps up to date with the master caption.
This panel controls the look of axes. Each axis has its own set of properties which can
be set individually via one of these panels. There are many settings, separated onto five
tabs, each dealing with one aspect of the axis appearance. A sample axis, showing
approximately what the axis would look like with the current settings is present to the
right of the tabs for vertical axes, and below the tabs for horizontal axes.

Axis labels
There are six settings on this tab dealing with how the axis title and units appear.
Title
The title of the axis can be changed by editing the text in this box.
Units
A drop down list of possible units for the axis is available by clicking on the right hand
box. Selecting a different unit will change the units displayed on the axis, and
transform the data to be shown in this unit system.

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Standard graph panels

213

Labels, show title


The display of the axis title can be switched on or off via this option.
Labels, show unit
As above, only for the Units.
Labels, axis sizes...
This option controls whether the sizing is entirely determined by this axis, or whether
it is tied to be the same as other axes on display.

Axis plots
This tab just displays the plots attached to the axis being edited. Another way to bring
up the Data Style panel for these plots is by selecting the required plot, and clicking on
Edit Selected Plot.

Axis ticks
This tab controls the appearance of tick marks on the axis, and their associated labels
at major intervals. Note that the appearance of ticks also affects the appearance of the
grid, if the grid lines are visible. So, for example, switching the minor ticks off would
also remove the closely spaced grid lines associated with these ticks.
There are two versions of this tab, one for normal numerical data, and one for dates.
The common elements are described below, followed by the different settings for
numeric and date axes.
Label the ticks
This controls whether the major ticks are given numerical labels, or left blank.
Show major
This controls the appearance of the heavier ticks at larger intervals.
Show minor
This controls the appearance of the lighter ticks at smaller intervals.
Note

All three of the above selections are usually defaulted to ON.

Elements seen only in numeric panels


Major spacing
The spacing of the major ticks is usually set automatically, but can be set to manual via
this option. Once manual mode has been set, a number can be entered into the text box.
Only sensible values will be accepted, for example, if the setting would result in too
many tick marks, it is rejected.
Format
The appearance of the numbers labelling the ticks can be altered between normal and
scientific (that is including an exponent). Also the number of decimal places shown can
be set via the up and down buttons controlling the number. A sample format is shown
below the option selection area.

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Standard graph panels

Elements seen in date panels


Time format
For times varying over less than a day, the time will be shown, and this controls its
label appearance. There is the possibility to control the display of seconds, and the
separator used between hours, minutes and seconds via a drop-down list, as with the
units
Date format
The exact format of the date can be varied to a great degree via this set of drop-down
selections. The final format will be of the form xx:xx:xx where each of the xxs could be
day, month or year in several formats, and the separator can also be one of several
options. Each field can also be blank to allow shortened dates (for example 11/9, Sept,
99 or 1999). A sample date is shown to help choose a format.

Axis range
This controls the range shown by the axis and some other related properties, such as
its linear/logarithmic setting. The complete data range of the plots attached to the axis
is displayed for information, and the various automatic ranging options can be overridden at any time by explicitly typing the required range into the Visible Range text
boxes.
The various settings are:
Round range
When set the range will be automatically rounded down at the bottom and up at the
top rather than being set at the exact data cut-off.
Limit range
When set, the range will never go beyond the data range (allowing for rounding if set).
However, if the data changes to include data points outside the original range, then the
limit will also change to match.
Log
This switches the axis between log and linear display. In log display, data at or below
zero is ignored.
Invert
The axis can be inverted from the usual left/right and bottom top orientation of
increasing data.
Margin
This forces the axis range to allow a margin around the actual data range. When
selected, the Data Margin (%) box becomes available, and the required margin should
be typed into this box.
It should be stressed that the ranging options only apply when you have not applied
some other ranging device to the plot, such as explicitly typing the range, or using one
of the zoom options. In order to get back to the automatic behavior, the Unzoom
Completely under the View menu must be applied.

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Standard graph panels

215

Axis style
Various miscellaneous settings appear in this tab, the most important being the color.
It is easy to select the required color for the axis by clicking once on that color. This will
affect all of the elements of the axis - labels, title, tick marks.
The other options are rarely required, but are nevertheless described below:
Grid lines
This can be used to switch off grid lines in one direction if required, rather than the Grid
Panel setting, which switches off X and Y grid lines at once. Switching this off just
removes the grid lines associated with the ticks for this axis.
Bar
This controls whether to draw the axis line itself.
Endbars
This allows control over the end of the axis line, which will probably only be seen if the
major ticks are off.
Border
This draws a border round the complete axis.

Obtaining the axis panel


There are several ways to invoke this panel for a particular axis:

Double-click on the required axis.

Click on the axis with the Shift key held down.

Right-click on the axis, and choose the Show Edit Box option.

Use the X Axis Settings or Y Axis Settings under the Options or User menu option,
if available. This will bring up the appropriate axis panel for the active
(highlighted) plot.

Data Style panel


This panel mostly controls the look of the plot trace on a graph. For each data trace, you
can use it to set the exact appearance of the line, data markers and general plot style.
There are four tabs, each of which controls a different aspect of the data style.

Line style
There are four attributes of the way the data line is plotted which can be set via this tab.
The current appearance will be illustrated in the highlighted Line Style box.
Line draw
This controls whether the line is drawn at all. For some data sets, it may be preferable
just to show the data as marked points. In this case, the line drawing can be switched
off via this option.
Line thickness
A slider bar allows control over the desired line thickness.

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Line style
There are currently three possible settings - solid, dotted or dashed. The required
setting is selected by clicking once on the illustration of the style, and will be
highlighted by a red box.
Line color
A simple tablet of possible colors is given, the selected color being highlighted. Simply
click once on the required color to select.

Marker style
This tab is similar to the Line Style except that it controls the appearance of the marker
that is drawn at each data point. The current appearance will be illustrated in the
highlighted Marker Style box.
Marker draw
This controls whether the marker is drawn at all. For some data sets, it may be
preferable just to show the data as a line with no marker. In this case, the markers can
be switched off via this option.
Marker Fill
This controls whether the marker (if drawn) is filled.
Marker size
A slider bar allows control over the desired marker size.
Marker style
There are currently sixteen possible marker shapes, illustrated in the panel of options.
The required setting is selected by clicking once on the marker, and will be highlighted
by a red box.
Marker color
A simple tablet of possible colors is given, the selected color being highlighted. Simply
click once on the required color to select.

Plot style
This allows control of the overall appearance of the plot.
Plot type
The method of connecting the data points can be selected from the usual simple
straight line to various histogram-like options. The options are illustrated in a tablet,
and selected by clicking on the required style.
Fill
By default, plots are not filled, but this option can be switched on by checking the Fill
Graph box. Note that the fill usually works by filling upwards from the X axis, but the
zero point of the fill can be moved via the Filled Y Val option in the Options menu,
if available.

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Standard graph panels

217

Fill Color
A simple tablet of possible colors is given, the selected color being highlighted. Simply
click once on the required color to select.
Fill Style
By default, if the plot is filled, a solid fill color is used, but this can be changed by
selecting the required fill pattern.
Fill style
Usually plots are not filled, but this option can be switched on by checking the Fill
Graph box. A selection of fill styles then becomes available, the current selection being
highlighted in the usual way. Note that the fill usually works by filling upwards from
the X axis, but the zero point of the fill can be moved via the Filled Y Val option in the
Graph menu, if available.

Data
This tab can be used to edit the legend text for the plot. The settings are separated into
three editable text fields, to reflect the default setting of Y title vs. X title. However, it is
not necessary to have text in all three of the fields. Note, the legend text is also editable
from the Legend Text panel. This tab also displays the X and Y data range for
information.

Obtaining the data style panel


There are several different ways to invoke this panel:

Double-click on a data point.

Double-click on the name of the plot in a legend list.

Right-click on the legend list and choose Properties For...

Choose Plot Style Settings from the Options or User menu item - this brings up the
panel for the currently active plot.

Select the plot in the Plots tab on a connected Axis panel, then click on Edit Selected
Plot.

Grid Property Editing panel


This panel controls the appearance of the grid for a particular plot or set of plots.
There are four attributes of that can be adjusted:
Draw grid
This controls whether the grid is actually visible or not.
Current point
This controls whether the current point will be highlighted. This is usually done with
a red circle. The current point can be selected using Current from the Graph menu, or
via table interaction.
Select Grid Color
The required color is selected by clicking in the palette of colors, the currently selected
one being highlighted by a red box, and shown in the box below.

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Search Radius for Points (pixels)


Relevant for finding the nearest point when you double click in the graph area - see
below.

Obtaining the grid properties panel


This panel can be invoked in two ways:

Double-clicking on the grid at a point not close to any data points. The search
radius will be relevant for whether the grid or data style panel is shown.

Using the Grid Settings... option in the Options or User menu. This will give the
panel for the grid containing the active plot.

Graph title panel


This is a very simple panel allowing you to modify the graph title. There is just one text
editing box, which can be modified to the required title, including none. The rest of the
application will be unavailable until this panel is closed.

Obtaining the graph title panel


This panel can be invoked in two ways:

Double clicking on the graph title to be modified.

Choosing the Modify Graph Title... option under the User menu. This will bring up
the edit panel for the currently active graph.

Legend text panel


This panel controls the content and font style of the legend that was used to invoke it.
There are three settings available via this panel:

Legend text
This is similar to the Data tab of the Data Style panel. You can type any text in here to
replace the default text, to distinguish the plot.

Font size
The size can be adjusted to one of four sizes defined in the ECL.CFG file.

Font type
This lists the font options available. Selection is via a simple button click, and a scroll
bar is provided to scan through the list.

Obtaining the legend text panel


There is only one way to invoke this panel for a particular legend. Right click in the text
area of the legend, and select the Edit Text... item in the popup menu.

Color selection panel


This panel is a generic color panel, and is used to control the color of such things as
graph titles and legend backgrounds. If invoked, it must be closed before any other
interaction with the application will be allowed.

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Standard graph panels

219

To select a new color, simply click on the required color and then OK or Apply. Also,
double clicking on the color will select and close the panel in one action. The currently
selected color is highlighted with a red box, and also shown in the Selected Color
region.

Obtaining the color selection panel


As stated above, this is a generic panel, used for different purposes depending on how
it is obtained. There are two major ways of invoking the panel:

Double clicking on the non-title area of a Legend, Caption or Navigation graph. In


this case it will control the background color of the region.

Invoking one of the Title Settings panels from the Options or User menu item, then
clicking on Foreground or Background. In this case it will control the drawing of
the titles.

Title Settings panels


These panels control the appearance of the frame titles, both for the main graph and for
any small graphs, legends, etc, that may be part of the graph window layout. There is
one set of styles for the main graph, the Main Graph Title Settings panel, and one for
all the others, the Small Graph Title Settings panel. They look the same apart from their
title.
There are four main settings for titles.
Text Position
The title text can appear at the left, right or in the middle of the title bar. A radio button
selection gives you control over this setting.
Font Selection
The standard sets of fonts are listed, and you may select any of them by a single click.
The currently selected font is highlighted in inverted text.
Colors
There are two colors to select: the foreground and the background for the text. Also,
you may choose to have no background using the check box. This is the default for the
main graph. Clicking on the foreground or background buttons will bring up a
separate Color Selection panel, which must be closed before continuing.
Font Size
There are five possible sizes to select for the title. Four of them are fixed in size, but
relate to the settings in the ECL.CFG file. The other setting is automatic. In this setting,
the size will be chosen appropriately to the overall size of the frame it is labeling.

Obtaining the title settings panels


The two possible panels are invoked from the User menu by choosing the Main Title
Settings... or Small Title Settings... option.

Zoom preferences panel


This panel controls the zooming behavior when Zoom In or Zoom Out is selected. It
must be closed before control is handed back to the main application. There are
currently only two settings for this panel.

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Standard graph panels

Scope of zooms
Select one of the radio button options, they control how many of the plots are affected
by a particular zoom. This can vary from none, through just the axes attached to the
currently active graph, and right up to all the plots visible in the application at the time.

Zoom step size


The actual amount zoomed in or out can be adjusted, as a percentage of the total axis,
via this radio button selection

Obtaining the zoom preferences panel


This panel can be invoked using the Zoom Preferences option in the User menu, or by
clicking on its equivalent tool bar button, if available.

Color legend panel


This panel allows a limited interaction with the properties of a color legend. Copies of
the legend title and units are provided for information, and the start and end values of
the color range can be adjusted by editing the Visible Range fields. Currently there is
no way to change any other properties of the color mapping, the choice of colors is
fixed, and you can just adjust the value range.

Obtaining the color legend panel


The panel is invoked either by double clicking on the legend itself, or by clicking the
mouse with the Shift key held down.

Graph configuration panel


This panel controls the overall look of the graph window, and which layout and
behavior components it contains.

Layout components are frames such as the main graph, small graphs, legends and
navigation graphs.

Behavior components mostly control whether the menu and tool bar options
appear, but also more fundamental parts of the window, such as the status bar.

There are two tabs to this panel, one for the layout (Layout Components) and one for
the behavior (Window Components).

Layout components
Small graphs, legends, navigation graphs etc. can be displayed or hidden via this tab.
Simply select the item that is going to be changed, and click on the appropriate Show
or Hide button. Note that multiple selection by Shift or Ctrl clicking is possible in
the standard manner. Changes are immediately reflected in the window layout
without the need for applying the changes.

Window components
Again a simple selection and Show/Hide mechanism is used to adjust the properties of
the window. The majority of the options control toolbar and menu options. Others
include Cursors which switches on the cursor changing shape behavior; Resize Bars
which switches on the bars between frames which can be adjusted by dragging, and
also Status Bar and Toolbars which can be used to switch these features on and off.

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Standard graph panels

221

Obtaining the graph configuration panel


There is only one way to invoke this panel. This is via the Add/Remove Components...
option.

Axis property panel see "Axis Property Editing panel" on


page 213

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Standard graph panels

Configuration (ECL.CFG)
The parts of the ECL.CFG file that are relevant for graph displays are the GRAPHICS2D
and GRANULE sections. The GRANULE part is mostly concerned with printer drivers,
and should not require many changes. The GRAPHICS2D section has more options that
you may want to alter to taste.

Reference Section
Configuration (ECL.CFG)

223

Typical GRAPHICS2D settings


---------------------------------------SECTION

GRAPHICS2D

----------------------------------------

SUBSECT

FONTS

FIXEDFONTS

TRUE

TITLE

ROMAN

LEGEND

ROMAN

TICKLABEL

ROMAN

AXISLABEL

ROMAN

HUGE

15

LARGE

12

MEDIUM

SMALL

TINY

DATE

DD/MM/YY

TIME

HH:MM

SUBSECT

HARDCOPY

HCPRESASP

TRUE

DATEPOS

BOTTOM

DATESTAMP

DATE TIME USER HOST

MARGIN

25

HEIGHT

0.9

WIDTH

0.9

FONTNAME

ITALIC_TYPEWRITER

Description of settings
There are essentially two main sub-sections, one dealing mostly with default font type
and sizing, and the other to do with the default print layout. Many of the settings can
be adjusted interactively when running the application, but the ECL.CFG settings
affect the default options.

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Configuration (ECL.CFG)

Font types
It is possible to have different settings of font type for different types of text seen in a
graph window. For example the graph titles can appear in a different font to the axis
titles and graph legends. The main fonts available are: HELVETICA, FIXED, TIMES,
SYSTEM, ROMAN, ITALIC, CARTOGRAPHIC, SCRIPT, SANSERIF, TYPEWRITER. There
are others, which you can select from various text editing panels (for example Print
Layout panel), and these too can be used in the ECL.CONFIG file.

Font sizing
There are five settings for font sizes, and all text within the application will try to use
one of these sizes when writing text, depending on which one is most appropriate. For
example, main titles will usually try to use the Large setting, whereas axis titles will try
to use Medium. Depending on your machine, you may need to adjust these settings to
create a well proportioned font layout.
The FIXEDFONTS setting is a more general control over the way text is sized. With the
FIXEDFONTS setting TRUE, any text will try to stay at the appropriate size, and if
necessary and possible, it may force other components to resize in order to attain the
required size. With the FIXEDFONTS setting FALSE, text will change size (shrink or
expand) to fill the space available.

Date and time format


The DATE and TIME settings provide a way of adjusting the default display of dates etc
on axes. With the setting shown above (DD/MM/YY) then the date will appear as in
20/7/99. However reversal of day and month can be easily set, or more complex date
display achieved by altering this setting. For example, MMM DDTH, YYYY would
give July 20th, 1999. A good way of finding out what is available is by experimenting
with the date and time settings in the Axis Style panel for a date axis.

Hardcopy subsection
The controls here correspond exactly with the controls on the Print Layout panel, and
set the defaults for printing. These can be overridden at any time when printing a
specific graph. See the relevant dialog description for the meanings of all the settings.
The table and graph are linked so that clicking on a point in the graph will scroll the
table to that sample (this assumes that the graph menu choices for Set Curr Pt. and
Show Curr Pt have been set). This allows both identification of anomalous data points
in the graph and accurate correction in the table display

Reference Section
Configuration (ECL.CFG)

225

Production history table window


This window shows a table of the production and injection history for a well. The dates
for history samples are shown in the left column. A new sample is shown for any date
where there is a change in one of the viewed phases. The default display shows oil,
water and gas rates for production wells and water and gas injection rates for injection
wells. Schedule remembers the types of data selected for viewing and subsequent
attempts to display the production history table display the same types of data. For
example, if you choose not to display water data in the table - subsequent production
history tables open showing only oil and gas.

Edit
Add date
This option allows you to add a new date into the sample list. A new row will be
inserted in the table for the date entered. The new row will have the same history
values as the previous date.

Delete date
This option deletes the current row (the row with the blinking cursor in one of the
cells). All samples on this date are discarded. The deletion happens immediately and
is not reversible.

Columns
The options available in this menu depend on what data is available for the well. The
menu lists all phases for which there is historical data.

Data
Create version
This option creates a version of a selected flow type. Creating a version copies the
existing data to a new name with a version number extension. This allows you to edit
the data without losing the original data.

Revert to
This option restores a previous version of the data.

Delete sample
This option deletes data types - you can use this option to delete versions of the data if
you no longer wish to keep them as part of the project.

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Production history table window

Completion diagram window


This window shows the perforations in a well against time and/or the connections to
the grid. The X axis depicts time and the Y axis depicts MD in the well. The Y axis can
be annotated with either MD or with I, J, K grid indices.
The diagram shows the path trajectory through the grid for all branches if the well is a
multi-lateral. The perforations and connections are only shown on the branch or
branches associated with the selected simulation well model.
The production history for the well is usually shown below the perforation diagram.
The production history indicates the total volume of oil, water and gas in the time
period. Oil is shown in black, water in blue and gas in red. If injection exists for the
well, the production is shown above the X axis and injection volumes below. The X axis
is placed at the bottom of the graph if no injection exists, and at the top if only injection
exists.
Note

There must be enough data present in the project to calculate grid connection
information, to make annotation of the Y axis using I, J, K grid indices possible.

Perforations are shown as cyan rectangles, squeezes as magenta rectangles.


Grid connections are displayed as colored vertical lines drawn at the date the
connection is changed. Open connections are drawn in green and closed connections
are drawn in red. Small yellow boxes are drawn to indicate the time and top MD of
various events (if the event does not have a top MD the box is drawn at the top of the
wellbore). Clicking on the box displays the event window for the chosen event.

Toolbar buttons
The toolbar on this window contains only one button,

, which may or may not be

active. If the parameters controlling the grid connection model are changed, this button
becomes active and turns green. Click on the button to trigger recalculation of the
connection information for the displayed well and refresh the graph with the new
information.

Menus
File menu
Plot all
This option is only present if the completion display window has been opened for a
group. Choosing this option produces a plot file for each well in the group. The plot
files are named <wellname>_CD.ps.
Note

You should first set the print type using the Print | Print Type option

Reference Section
Completion diagram window

227

Print preview
Shows a preview of the print.

Print layout
Allows text fonts and size to be altered.

Print setup
Allows the printer and paper to be altered.

Print
There are three options:
Print window
Prints the all the window contents to the currently selected printing device or file.
Print graph
Prints the graph image in the window to the currently selected printing device or file.
Print type
Allows the output format to be changed. You can set this option to be a printer or to
print to a file. If a file type is selected then the Print menu option requests a filename
using the standard file dialog panel.

View menu
Perforations
This option removes the connection information from the display, leaving only MD
and perforation information.

Connections
Choosing this option adds connection information to the display wherever possible.
The Y axis changes from MD to I, J, K and red/green lines are added to show
connection locations in the grid.

Internal events
This option allows you to choose whether or not to display times where internally
generated keywords occur. These internal events are displayed as small black
rectangles on the graph.

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Reference Section
Completion diagram window

Flow diagram
This option toggles a simple graph of well production and injection history below the
completion diagram. Oil (black), Water (blue) and Gas (red) are displayed in a bar
graph that shows the total volume of each component. Production occurs above a
center line while injection is drawn downwards from the line. The center line may be
shifted if production or injection is not present. All components are drawn in simple
volume units so gas tends to dominate the flow display. However, you can use the
menu item Flow Diagram Factors to multiply the oil, water and gas volumes in the
display so as to make them comparable. You can also use these to view only the oil,
water or gas in the flow diagram.

Update
This option triggers recalculation of the connection information for the currently
displayed well. The option is only available if the display is out of date with respect to
other well information. This can occur if an event is edited while the completion
display is open.

Flow diagram factor


This option sets the multipliers for the oil, water and gas in the flow diagram. This
allows oil, water or gas to be displayed alone, or any combination of the three. You can
use the gas multiplier to reduce the gas volume in the display to a fraction nearer to
reservoir conditions.

Wellbore menu
This option is only present if the completion display window has been opened for a
group.
The menu consists of the well names in the group (and in subordinate groups).
Selecting a well name changes the display to show the completion diagram for that
well. If more than 10 wells are present, the menu item, More wells pops up a list of
all the wells.

Reference Section
Completion diagram window

229

Multi-segment well window


This window shows the current multi-segment well information for a well. It allows
you to create and edit the multi-segment well model data. If a well has multi-segment
data available when the SCHEDULE section is generated, WELSEGS and COMPSEGS
keywords are written to the SCHEDULE section.
Note

There must be enough data present in the project to calculate the multisegment data. The required data are: tubing information, well trajectory data
and perforation locations.

When the Segment Create panel is first opened the table either contains previously
built segment data or is empty. To build the initial data click on the Build button in the
top left corner, Schedule examines the tubing, trajectory and perforation data and
builds a default segment model. You can edit this model by:

Inserting or deleting segments

Changing the measured depth of the segment nodes.

To insert or delete a segment click on the edit tab at the left of each table row.
A small menu appears that allows you to split a segment into two equal length
segments or to delete the segment. When a segment is inserted or deleted the
characteristics of surrounding segments are recalculated.

If you change the measured depth of a segment you can have the characteristics for
the segments recalculated by pressing the Calculate button. This results in the
volumes for the segments being updated to reflect the edit locations.

Pressing the Clear button in the top left corner deletes the segment data. Schedule
no longer generates WELSEGS or COMPSEGS keywords for this well if the data is
cleared.

Reading the table columns


The multi-segment data table contains 10 data columns. They contain the following
information:
Table 5.1

230

Multi-segment data table contents

Column
heading

Column contents

Segment

Segment number for the segment node.

Branch

Branch number on which the segment number occurs and, a textual description
of the branch made up from the names of any inflow devices and tubings around
the segment node.

Outlet

Outlet segment node for this segment

MD/TD

Measured depth of the segment node (or the tubing depth if the tubing zero point
has been offset from the zero MD point)

Depth

True vertical depth of the segment node.

Reference Section
Multi-segment well window

Table 5.1

Multi-segment data table contents (Continued)

Column
heading

Column contents

Diameter

Hydraulic diameter of the segment - this is a function of the diameter of the outer
tubing and the diameters of any internal tubing.

Roughness Roughness for the segment. This is a function of the inner roughness of outer
tubing and outer roughness of inner tubings.
Area

Cross sectional area for the segment.

Volume

Volume of the segment

Type

Information giving a reason why Schedule placed a segment node at this


position. This column can be blank for user-created segments and short
segments created to model chokes. The outflow node of a choke is not
annotated.

Entry fields
There are three numeric data entry fields at the top of the window which condition
how the segment model is built. All three can be left blank if desired. The three fields
are:

Min. segment length


This field controls the minimum segment length created by Schedule to honor
perforation locations. Segments shorter than this minimum may be created for other
reasons, but segments created to honor cell connections are amalgamated into longer
segments.

Max. segment length


This field controls the maximum segment length in the model. After the default model
is built each segment (except the first BHP reference segment) is examined. If it is
longer than the maximum length entered here, the segment is split in two. This
continues until all segments are less than the maximum length.

Tubing zero MD
This field allows you to set the zero length tubing reference point with respect to the
measured depth system.

Menus
File menu
Close
This closes the Segment Editor window.

Reference Section
Multi-segment well window

231

View menu
Measured depth
The option displays the measured depth of each segment node.

Tubing depth
Select this option to display the tubing depth of each segment node in the table - it is a
simple offset from the measured depth.

Panel buttons
Close
Click on this button to close the Segment Editor window.

Help
Click on this button to bring up this page in the online help viewer.

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Multi-segment well window

Extract data panel


This panel allows you to choose which types of data should be extracted from
keywords imported using the Import | Schedule Section menu choice. The panel
contains one text entry field and five buttons which determine the data extraction
activities.

Extract data for field


This field allows you to select which wells are examined when data is extracted. The
default is to extract data for all wells, but you can enter a well name to extract the data
for that well only.

Extraction buttons
Extract trajectory
This button opens the Trajectory Extraction Control panel.
Note

Note that this button choice is only available if a grid has been imported. The
title of the window is the name of the well to extract.

The IJKs for the trajectory are obtained from the COMPDAT/M/L keywords. The Well
top is obtained from the WELSPECS/L keyword. As the order of keywords in a
SCHEDULE section is date order, the IJKs must be re-ordered in terms of depth. The
grid is used to order the IJKs by trying to locally minimize the length of the trajectory.
This ordering may lead to ambiguities and you should examine the trajectory in the
3D Viewer and in the Trajectory Editor to confirm that the ordering is correct.
To correct errors, extract a deviation survey from the trajectory (see "Build deviations"
on page 234), and then edit it in the 3D Viewer. You can also edit the trajectory in the
Trajectory Editor table and the geometry re-calculated. As there are three methods that
you can select to perform the ordering, when a failure occurs you should try an
alternative method. Different wells may respond better to different methods.
Schedule initially extracts the trajectory as a faithful representation of the ECLIPSE
data. Thus the direction of the trajectory is entirely specified by the direction in the
COMPDAT keyword. You can then use this trajectory to extract the events (see "Extract
events" on page 235). If you then use these events to generate keywords, the COMPDATs
should be the same, although the connection factors may differ, as there is no attempt
in this version to reproduce them. Alternatively the trajectory may be smoothed
See "Generate new measured depths/Use previous measured depths" on page 233).

Generate new measured depths/Use previous measured depths


This toggle button allows the trajectory to be rebuilt or smoothed with or without
recalculating the measured depths stored in the trajectory. This may be useful if the
trajectory is being altered after the extraction of events (see below).

Reference Section
Extract Data panel

233

Measured depth zero at grid entry/Measure depth grid TVD at entry


This toggle button allows the specification of the initial measured depth reference
point for the case when the measured depths are being generated.

Measure depth offset


This is available when Measured depth grid TVD at entry is selected. This adds the
specified amount to the generated measured depths.

Ordering IJks
There are three options for the method that is used to order the IJKs as obtained from
the COMPDAT list to produce a trajectory.
Closest faces ordering method
The distance from the exit face of the cell to the entry face of the next cell is minimized
to obtain the next cell.
Centre distance ordering method
The distance from the center of the cell to the center of the next cell is minimized to
obtain the next cell.
Nearest IJK ordering method
The distance from the center of the cell to the center of the next cell, assuming a cubic
grid with unit cell length, is minimized to obtain the next cell.

Build trajectory
This button builds the trajectory. If measured depths are being calculated then these
are the sums of the lengths of the well segments within the grid cells.
Note

The Re-Calculate Trajectory choice is not available unless a trajectory already


exists.

Re-calculate trajectory
This button may be used to re-calculates the entry and exit points from the grid cells
for use in the case when you have edited the trajectory in the Trajectory Edit panel.
Note

The Smooth Trajectory choice is not available unless a trajectory already exists.

Smooth trajectory
This button applies a form of smoothing that only changes cell faces in cells that
contact, so that they exit from one cell on the same face that they enter the next. Cells
that are more than one cell apart are not changed. Cells that are ambiguous are not
changed. Cells with NONE for a face have that point set to the cell center.

Build deviations
This button opens the Build Deviation Control panel.

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Reference Section
Extract Data panel

Note

Note that this choice is not available unless a trajectory exists, though not
necessarily one extracted from keywords. The title of the window is the name
of the well to extract

Follow trajectory/Join centre points


This toggle button causes the build process below either to follow the path of the
trajectory exactly or to join the centers of the trajectory segments within the grid cells.
Note

Note that the centers of the trajectory segments are not necessarily the same as
the grid cell centers if the trajectory has been smoothed or otherwise altered.

Interpolate measured depths from trajectory/New measured depths after


first trajectory point
This toggle button causes the measured depths of the deviation either to be those of the
original trajectory (which may be those previously calculated in the trajectory
extraction process), or to calculate from the distance travelled along the deviation
taking the reference point as the first point in the trajectory.

Build deviation
This button starts the build of the deviation.

Extract events
This button opens the Event Extraction Control panel.
Note

This choice is not available unless a trajectory or grid is present. The title of the
window is the name of the well to extract. Schedule extracts only simple top
and bottom perforation and squeeze data from COMPDAT/L/M and COMPVE.

Caution

Extraction of full connection information with the intention of


regenerating the connection model in an ECLIPSE data set cannot
currently be performed.

Use COMPDAT skin value


This toggle button causes the skin from the keyword to be used in the perforation event
that is extracted.

Extract events
This starts the extraction.

Discard connection keywords


This discards all connection keywords. All the keywords that Schedule can use in the
extraction process are removed, other keywords that affect connections are left in
place.

Reference Section
Extract Data panel

235

Remove old perfs and squeezes


This removes all perforations and squeezes encountered in the well before extracting
new perforations and squeezes. This prevents duplication if the extraction procedure
is repeated.

Extraction from keywords


The extraction from the keywords is performed in the following way, where the format
of the COMPDAT keyword is:
COMPDAT/L/M Well-Name I J K1 K2 Flag Saturation-Table CF Diam KH
DF
Dir

and the Flag = OPEN/SHUT/AUTO, and Dir = X/Y/Z


Then if Flag = OPEN, a perforation event is generated such that the top depth is at
the top of I,J,K1 for the grid and the bottom depth at the bottom of I,J,K2. The diameter
is Diam and the skin is either S, or zero dependent on the choice above for the Use
COMPDAT skin value option.
If Flag = SHUT a squeeze is generated for the range of IJK, in a similar fashion to the
perforation.
If Flag = AUTO there is no extraction.

Extract production data


This button opens a secondary panel that allows you to determine which keywords are
inspected to rebuild a production history for the chosen wells. The title of the window
is the name of the well to extract.

End of history date


This tells the extraction process when to stop. The End of History date in the panel
specifies the date in the ECLIPSE file at which to stop extracting rate information. This
is to account for the switch from history to prediction. The switch cannot always be
automatically detected because, while WCONHIST and WCONPROD separate into history
and prediction, WCONINJE and WELTARG do not, and may be used for both history and
prediction.
Note

WCONPROD is not extracted even if the date is set later than the first WCONPROD.

WCONHIST rates
This extracts the rates on these keywords into the Schedule history data.

WCONINJE rates
This extracts the rates on these keywords into the Schedule history data.

WELTARG rates
This extracts the rates on these keywords into the Schedule history data.

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Reference Section
Extract Data panel

Extract production data


This starts extraction of the data from the selected keywords.

Discard production keywords


This removes only those keywords that are used for rate extraction plus any WCONPROD
keywords. Other keywords that affect the flow rates are not removed.
Note

Note that WEFAC is always processed.

Discard all keywords


This button removes all the keywords for the specified wells, but not the Schedule
engineering events such as perforation etc.

Reference Section
Extract Data panel

237

3D viewer
The 3D Viewer in Schedule defaults to a view of the well trajectory with well flow
controls such as perforations, squeezes, barefoots and plugs displayed. Only the grid
cells that the well trajectory passes through are displayed. You can animate this view
throughout the history of the well. You can also select a view of the well deviation data
and the ECLIPSE connection.

File menu
Save Image
PostScript
Creates a vector PostScript file of the current image.
Figure 5.2 PostScript panel

As well as allowing a choice between Landscape and Portrait and Color and Grayscale,
you can choose between Default Quality and High Quality. The difference between these
options is the way a decision is made to see if an object is in front of, or behind, another
object.
The default quality option produces Postscript at the screen resolution, high quality at
twice this.
The Width and Height may only be entered for encapsulated PostScript. For the other
sizes, these sliders are disabled and are used to show the page size selected.
When you click on Write Postscript File, a check is first made to see if the aspect ratio
of the 3D window matches the aspect ratio of the output. If it does not match, you are
presented with three choices:

238

Reference Section
3D Viewer

Resize
An attempt is made to reduce the 3D window to match the aspect ratio, or to increase
the 3D window if the reduction would make it smaller than the minimum size. The
output file is then created.
Create
No change of window size is made, and the output file is created.
Cancel
The process is stopped and no output file is created.
Note

The program may be unable to resize the window correctly if it is near to its
minimum size. If this occurs, you are asked to resize the window manually.

The next stage is to check if the directory entered here (or from the config.file)
exists. If not, you are asked if the current working directory should be substituted
instead, in which case the file is not written.
The last stage is to check if the requested filename already exists. You may either
overwrite the file or cancel the operation. If, however, the filename is the default
filename, this check does not take place.
Limitations

If the aspect ratio of the 3D window and the PostScript output are not the same, the
image is centered on the page.

The center triangle of the ternary color legend is colored gray.

The appearance of cell outlines may not be the same as on screen, and may also
differ from one printer to another.

Transparency is a not a supported feature of PostScript, therefore all surfaces


appear opaque.

VRML
Provides an option for creating a VRML file for viewing of the 3D model with an
Internet Web browser.
Figure 5.3 VRML panel

Reference Section
3D Viewer

239

When the Write VRML File button is pressed, a check is first made to see if lighting is
turned on (this is essential if surfaces are to be seen in VRML browsers). If lighting is
not turned on, you are presented with three choices:
Yes
Turn lighting on and then proceed.
No
Proceed anyway.
Cancel
The process is halted and no output file is produced.
The next stage is to check if the directory entered here (or using the config.file)
exists. If not, you are asked if the current working directory should be substituted
instead, in which case the file is not written.
The last stage is to check if the requested filename already exists, and you may either
overwrite the file or cancel the operation. If, however, the filename is the default
filename, this check does not take place.

Image File
This menu item allows the 3D image to be saved in various file formats.
Figure 5.4 Write Image panel

The quality of the JPEG image can be changed; a higher quality (higher value) is likely
to mean larger file sizes. This parameter has no effect for the other formats.

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Reference Section
3D Viewer

When you click on the Write Image button, a check is made to see if the requested file
name already exists. You may either overwrite the file or cancel the operation. If,
however, the filename is the default filename, this check does not take place.
Table 5.2

Configuration file settings

SECTION

3D

SUBSECTION

WRITE_IMAGE

FILENAME

$TMPDIRgrtframe.jpg

FILETYPE

JPEG

WIDTH

500

HEIGHT

500

SUBSECTION

WRITE_IMAGE

FILENAME is the name of the file entered on the dialog panel (note that if a name is
entered without a suffix this is added automatically). The config. file name does
not alter the default file name.
FILETYPE determines the type of image selected. Choices are:

JPEG (JPG is also accepted)

TIFF (TIF is also accepted)

FILETYPE determines the 3-letter suffix that is automatically added to the file name.

Choice of type of image


The advantage of JPEG over TIFF is the size of the files, due to the compression
techniques used. However JPEG is better suited to photographic images than to
computer generated images. TIFF files as generated here use the lossless run-length
encoding method; the compression used for JPEG is a lossy compression.

Hardcopy Colors
There is no dialog panel associated with this option.
This menu item switches colors between black and white for various objects, and is
primarily intended for switching between screen colors and hard copy.
If the menu option is selected (that is, hardcopy colors are requested), then the
background color is set to white and the foreground color is set to black. If the option
is not selected (or screen colors are selected) then the background color is set to black
and the foreground color is set to white.
The various objects changed are as follows:

The background of the 3D window changes to the background color.

Cell outlines change to the foreground color.

Text used for Wells, Axes, Titles, Color Legend and 3D Text changes to the
foreground color.

Reference Section
3D Viewer

241

Commands
Play commands
A log of your operations is written to a command file with the suffix .CMDLOG. These
files can be replayed to restore the program to a previous state.
The file from the previous run is renamed to
<application_name>_prev_run.CMD and can be replayed using the Play
Commands option. Alternatively, command log files can be renamed as required with
the suffix .CMD, and then replayed in future sessions. If a command file is renamed
<application_name>.startup, or appended to the command line with the -play
option, it is run automatically on startup.

Record 3D Position
This option writes commands containing details of the current 3D position of the object
in the view. The 3D position may be recorded in this way at any time.

Add Pause Commands


The Add Pause dialog allows you to write a Pause command into the current log file.
You may enter a text message of your choice that is associated with the Pause
command.
When the command file is played back the Pause command interrupts execution of
the program and displays a panel containing the text message. Three possibilities are
then available:
Continue
Process all commands until the next Pause when another panel appears.
Continue to End
Process all commands until the end of the command file. If any further Pause
commands are found, they do not generate a panel.
Cancel
Immediately stop all processing of the command file.

Exit
Select this option to close the 3D Viewer window.

Edit menu
Wells
Edit Wells
Displays a panel listing the wells that are currently in the 3D Viewer.
Select one of the wells and click on OK. The list box closes automatically, and the Well
Bores panel displays, giving the stem and lateral side track well bores, if any, that
comprise the well.

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Reference Section
3D Viewer

If there is only one well currently in the viewer the Well Bores panel automatically
opens.
Figure 5.5 Well Bores panel

Well Bores for [Q13]


Q13

Add Lateral

Q13%Q18

Delete

Q13%Q18%Q29

Edit

Close

Help

The Well Bores panel for the well comprises a list of the well bores, three buttons for
performing operations on the stem and laterals, and the usual Close and Help buttons.
The first well bore name listed is the stem that reaches the surface. The subsequent well
bores are laterals of this stem. They use the naming convention of the stem name, then
a % symbol, then the name of the lateral well bore. Thus Q13%Q18%Q29 would
represent a lateral well bore Q29, that is a side track from Q18, where Q18 is a lateral
of the stem Q13. The button choices are:

Add Lateral requests a name for the lateral to be added then create that lateral and
activate the Editor on the new lateral.
For example, to add Q33 to Q13%Q18:

select Q13%Q18 in the list

click Add Lateral

enter Q33 as the name.

The well bore Q13%Q18%Q33 will be added to the list.

If the lateral Q33 was already attached to something within this well a pop-up
message requests whether to move that lateral here or create a new lateral.

If Q33 was the name of a stem of any well, not necessarily in the 3D view, a
similar choice to that for an existing lateral of this well is displayed.

Delete removes the selected lateral and all laterals attached to it.

Edit enters edit mode for the well bore highlighted.

Edit Table
The Edit Table is displayed for the well you are editing.
Figure 5.6 Edit Table

Q13: Edit Table


Reference Point (First point of the stem)
X 164.042

ft

Y 164.042

ft

Z 0

ft

Reference Section
3D Viewer

243

Q13: Edit Table


MD 0

ft

Subsequent points below


Point X (ft)

Y (ft)

Z (ft)

Dist. Offset

1 164.04199 164.04199 984.25195 984.25195


2 656.16797 164.04199 1476.3779 1680.2232
3 1640.4199 164.04199 1476.3779 2664.4751
4
5
Update View

Close

Help

It contains the Reference Point, which cannot be deleted, and which for a multilateral
is fixed to lie on the parent deviation. Subsequent points that are in the well are in the
table, and you can delete and move these freely. The fourth column in this table is the
Distance offset along the deviation from the Reference Point. It is not the actual
measured depth associated with the data unless this is a deviation being digitized for
the first time.
Note

If a point is subsequently inserted its Measured Depth (MD) is assumed to be


that of the next point down. The last point (or points if several have been
inserted) no longer have an MD associated with it. The MD is recalculated
when you next click on the Commit button.

The second section in the Editor menu contains the editing modes such as digitizing
new points, or moving and deleting existing ones. Once a well is selected for editing,
the relevant edit modes are enabled.
The third section of the Editor menu contains options that apply to all features and edit
modes. These options mainly serve to control the edit process.
Hint

Many of the edit modes and options are duplicated on a special toolbar which
appears during editing.

Boundaries
Boundaries are 2D polygons or rectangles that are used to define 3D volumes. This
option displays an editing panel, which lists the currently defined boundaries and
allows boundaries to be created, copied, edited or deleted.
Boundaries may be added to a variety of groups that are listed in the Boundary list.
Different groups are relevant to different Schlumberger applications and so the list
varies from a single item (all boundaries are added to this group) to many groups
representing structural models, structured grids, and unstructured grids. A boundary
used for a specific kind of group, like structural models, must be in the structural
model list. A boundary from one group may be copied into any other groups list.

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3D Viewer

Figure 5.7 Edit Boundaries panel

Boundary list
The list of Boundary groups given by this list varies between applications. Some have
just one entry and so all boundaries are added to this one list. Other applications may
have various lists such as Structural Model Boundaries, Structured Gridder Boundaries,
or Unstructured Grid Boundaries. Each list has its own set of boundaries.
If any boundaries have been created for the chosen list, they are listed in the table
below.

Create
This opens the Create Boundary panel to allow you to create a new boundary.
Boundary name
This text box allows you to enter a name for the new boundary.
Boundary type
These radio buttons allow you to select the boundary type (polygon or rectangle).
Projection plane
These radio buttons allow you to set the orientation of the boundary.
Selecting OK puts the 3D Viewer into Edit mode allowing nodes to be digitized, moved
and deleted.

Copy
This opens the Copy Boundary panel to allow you to select an existing boundary as a
template for the new boundary.
Boundary name
This text box allows you to enter a name for the new boundary.

Reference Section
3D Viewer

245

Boundary type
These radio buttons allow you to choose the boundary type (polygon or rectangle).
Projection plane
These radio buttons allow you to set the orientation of the boundary.

Copy From
This opens the Select Boundary to Copy panel and allows you to select both the
boundary list to copy from and the specific boundary to be copied.

Edit
This opens the Edit Boundary panel and allows you to edit a selected existing
boundary. The options on this panel are the same as for Create, and Copy above. The
3D Viewer changes to Edit mode allowing nodes to be moved, deleted or added. See
"Toolbar buttons" on page 188 for more information.

Delete
This option allows you to delete an existing boundary by highlighting it then clicking
on Delete.

Import
This option opens a file browser to allow you to import a boundary from a file.

Export
This option opens a file browser to allow you to export a selected boundary to a
specified file.

+ View
This option allows you to add a selected boundary to the 3D Viewer for viewing.

- View
This option allows you to remove a selected boundary from the 3D Viewer.
Copying and editing a boundary are similar to creating one, except that you must first
highlight the boundary to act on before choosing the Copy or Edit buttons. When the
editor is enabled, the existing polygon or rectangle appears, ready for editing.
It is not possible to change the plane in which the boundary is defined when copying
or editing a boundary. It is, however, possible to change the viewing direction and
convert polygons into rectangles and vice-versa.
When digitizing boundaries for structural models or grids, four corners, or major
points, are required. Major points are used to indicate corners and minor points are
used for points on the segments between them.
When it comes to gridding, the boundary is split into segments so that a
boundary/boundary intersection occurs a each corner. This ensures that the corner
point is honored exactly. Minor points along the boundary segments are not honored
exactly.
Import and Export read and write boundary information from and to ASCII files.

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Close
Select this option to close the dialog.

Digitize
When an object is created, Digitize is the default mode. Points forming the object (or
nodes) are created by clicking on the left mouse button.

Digitizing major and minor points


Digitized points can be major or minor. Major points are points with special
significance. For example, when digitizing a structured grid boundary, major points
are used to identify the four corners of the boundary. Similarly, when digitizing a fault
polygon, major points identify the ends of upthrown and downthrown sections.
(Minor points, marked by smaller squares, are digitized by simply clicking the left
mouse button. Major points, marked by larger squares, are digitized by holding down
Shift while clicking on the left mouse button. It is not possible to commit an edit
unless at least two major points exist in a polygon.
Note

When creating a polygon the first point digitized defaults to major,


irrespective of the Shift key position.

Note

When the creation of an object does not require any distinction between major
and minor points (that is vertical fault traces, rectangular boundaries and so
on) all digitized points are visualized as major, displayed as larger squares.

Digitizing new points on an existing line or polygon


In order to digitize one or more new points on an existing line or polygon, you must
first select a line segment to which the new points are to be added. This is done by
clicking with the middle mouse button over the desired line segment. The selected
segment is highlighted. Once a segment is highlighted, further picks with the left
mouse button digitize new points. Each time a point is digitized, the display is updated
to indicate the new active segment to which the next digitized point is added.

Digitizing new points at the end of an existing line or open polygon


To extend an already digitized open line (that is to add a point past either end of an
open line) you must first select the end point to which new points are to be connected.
This is done by clicking with the middle button beyond the end of the line. The selected
point is highlighted. Once a point is highlighted, further picks with the left mouse
button digitize new points. Each time a point is digitized, the display is updated to
mark the new point as the active point to which the next digitized point is connected.

Z values of digitized points


If digitized points are added to an existing line or polygon, Z values for new points are
determined as follows:

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If the line or polygon was imported with Z values set, Z values for new
intermediate points are interpolated from the Z values of the selected line segment
end points. Interpolation is not done between different sides of a fault polygon.
Similarly, Z values for new end points are set to the Z value of the previous end
point.

If the line or polygon is a fault and has been associated with a map, Z values of new
points are also computed from the map.

Z values of moved points


Z values of any moved points are left unchanged unless the line or polygon is a fault
and has been associated with a map. In this case Z values of moved points are
recomputed from the map when the edit is committed.

Deleting points while digitizing


The Backspace (or Delete key) deletes the currently selected point. This can be done
in and out of Digitize mode.
Note

As the most recently digitized point is typically highlighted, successive


digitized points can be deleted (undone) using Backspace or the Delete
key.

Select/Move
When an edit session of a pre-existing object starts, this is the default mode.
Nodes and segments of an object can be repositioned by selecting and dragging the
nodes or segments with the mouse holding the left button down.
Note

By dragging with the middle mouse button held down and the Ctrl key
pressed, the whole object being edited moves in a rigid translation.

When editing a rectangle, for example, the left mouse button selects either a corner of
the rectangle or a side. By dragging the mouse with the left button held down, the
corner or side can be moved. By dragging with the middle mouse button held down,
the whole rectangle can be moved and repositioned.

Delete
When the editor is in this mode, you can delete points by clicking on them with the left
mouse button. By holding down the Shift key as the mouse is clicked, all points
between the last deleted point and the current point are deleted.
When deleting points from a closed polygon, the choice of which points to delete when
Shift is used is ambiguous. This is because points could be deleted in the clockwise
or anti-clockwise directions. In this case, the section with the fewest points is deleted.
Hint

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The Delete key (or Backspace) can be used to delete the currently selected
point.

Set Major/Minor
When this mode is active, points can be toggled between major and minor by clicking
on them with the left mouse button. Minor points are marked by smaller squares.
Major points are marked by larger squares. Major points are points with special
significance. It is not possible to commit an edit unless at least two major points exist
in a polygon.

Boundary major and minor points


When digitizing a structured grid or structural framework boundary, major points are
used to identify the four corners of the boundary.

Select Pick Items


When creating or editing objects in Digitize mode, it may be useful to include points
from other objects in the new object. This can be done by selecting objects, known as
pick items, which are added to the display as pick guides when digitizing. Pick guides
appear as small dots (pick points), joined by white lines.
Boundaries, Fault Traces, Control Lines and Contour Lines (that is elements of Contour
Maps) can all be selected as pick items to create pick guides. The selection of objects to
use as pick items is made from the cascade menu Select Pick Items. Several objects
(and of different types) can be selected for an edit session.
Note

A pick guide is not fully updated in the current 3D Viewer session. If the object
which formed the pick guide is edited, the pick guide still represents the
original points of the pick item. Deselecting and reselecting the object as pick
items updates the XY values of the pick guide. However, to correctly update
the Z values of pick guides that represent items with edited Z values, you must
shut down and restart the 3D Viewer.

Pick Points
This is an option that can be used when in digitize mode. When active (checked entry)
any point digitized in the proximity of a point from a pickable object is snapped to that
point.

Digitizing using multiple pick points


To insert consecutive points from a single pickable object, select the first pick point to
be added with the left mouse button and then the last point with Shift held down.
This adds all the selected pick points as minor points to the object being digitized.
Shift selection of pick points cannot be done across different pickable objects. To add
pick points from multiple pickable objects in a single operation, select or Shift select
the desired pick points from one pickable object, then select the first desired pick point
on the next pickable object, then Shift select the remaining desired pick points on the
second pickable object (and so on).

Setting major points when using pick points


If Ctrl is held down, the selected pick point is added as a major point. If the Ctrl and
Shift keys are held down, the last selected pick point is added as a major point.

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Constrain Drag
Constrains the movement of a point in drag mode to one of the three principle axes.

Close Line
The option closes an open polygon. Alternatively, a polygon can be closed by double
clicking when adding a point.

Edit On
Once the editor has been enabled, this option allows to toggle between editing mode
and normal 3D viewing.

Export
This allows the polygon or rectangle currently being edited to be exported to an ASCII
file. The Export Feature panel allows to export the file in one of two formats:

Export XY
This option opens a file browser that allows the file to be exported with only XY
coordinates.

Export XYZ
This option opens a file browser that allows the file to be exported with XYZ
coordinates using.

Clear Edit
This option removes all points from the current feature, including previously digitized
and saved points.

Reset Edit
This option resets the current feature to its state before editing began. The default edit
mode, Digitize, is reselected.

Cancel Edit
The current edit operation is cancelled, and the editor is disabled.

Commit Edit
The current edit operation is committed, and the editor is disabled.

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View menu
Object Appearance
This opens the Object Appearance panel, which contains a list of all objects that have
been requested for display in the 3D Viewer. On this panel you can select which objects
to view at any one time.
Figure 5.8 Object Appearance panel

Objects
This column displays the names of the objects that have been sent to the viewer.

Visibility
The drop-down menus in this column allow you to either Hide or Show the object.

Render mode
The drop-down menus in this column allow you to select how the objects are
visualized in the viewer. The choices are dependent on the type of objects. Most objects
have the following options:

Lines - This shows the objects as a framework of lines.

Surfaces - This shows the objects as solid surfaces.

Cell outlines - This shows the objects with the cell outlines superimposed
on the surfaces.

Other objects have more specific options; for example, wells have the following:

Wells - This shows the wells without well labels.

Wells and labels - This shows both the wells and the well labels.

Level of detail
The drop-down menus in this column allow you to specify the level of detail required
in the viewer. If Level of Detail is not applicable for a given object, the entry only shows
All.

View/Picking mode
These radio buttons reflect the current 3D Viewer mode of operation. With the Open
Inventor mouse buttons you can be in one of two modes - viewing or picking.

Selecting the arrow changes the view into pick mode.

Selecting the hand changes to viewing mode.

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Hint

The mode can be toggled by pressing the <Esc> key, or by pressing the V key
for view mode or the P key for pick mode.

If you use any other mouse button settings (OIFloViz, RTView or GeoFrame, see
the Preferences | Mouse Buttons menu option), the View/Picking buttons simply reflect
the current viewer mode since view/pick mode is determined by which mouse button
is depressed.

Timesteps
Note

All timesteps for all time varying objects in the view are listed. It is therefore
possible to select a timestep for which there is no data for one of these objects.
If this happens you are warned and the objects closest previous timestep used.

Individual timesteps can be chosen to display from a list showing sequence number,
timestep and date. Animation of the timesteps is controlled with buttons similar to
those on a video recorder.
Figure 5.9 The Animate Time panel

The timesteps can also be chosen from the timestep buttons on the 3D Viewers toolbar.
The animation buttons let you single step forwards, single step backwards, stop the
animation and play the animation from current step to the end. Additional buttons on
the 3D Viewers toolbar let you snap directly to the first (rewind) or last (fast forward)
timestep.
On the Animate Time panel it is possible to select timesteps directly from the list, so the
panel does not have the icons for first/last timestep.

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The Circular Animation button sets the Play Mode to continuously loop. When Play is
pressed and the last step is reached we return to the first step where the animation
starts again. By default the loop is played 99 times before stopping automatically. This
may be configured through the use of the MAX_CONTINUOUS entry in the config file.
Figure 5.10 The timestep control buttons

First Timestep

Last Timestep

Previous Timestep
Stop

Next Timestep
Play

Select Options to define the minimum and maximum timesteps, the timestep
interval, and the delay between timesteps.
Figure 5.11 The Animate Time Options panel

Normalize
The View | Normalize menu item opens a dialog allowing various parameters for
normalization to be entered.

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Figure 5.12 Normalization panel

The first button Normalize View is a push-button and performs normalization (using
the values of the other parameters) once only.
AutoNormalize turns normalization on continuously. It can be useful when selecting
individual slices of a model to ensure each slice fills the 3D Viewer. With this option
turned on, the contents of the view are automatically scaled to fill the window. This
happens every time the contents of the view changes. With this option off, no rescaling
takes place when the view contents change.
Note

Rotation is always about the center of the screen.

Seek to point
This option interactively zooms and centers the model on a point you pick. Click on the
Seek to point button (the cursor changes to a Target) and then click on a point of
interest on the model. The view interactively zooms by a factor of 2 so that the picked
point is in the center of the screen. You can repeatedly pick on the model during the
zoom operation. Each time you pick the zoom continues from the new pick point.
Note

The S key provides a short cut to the Seek to point button

Note

You must pick a point on the model for the seek mechanism to work.
Streamlines can be picked more easily by displaying them as Tubes (Scene |
Streamlines | Streamline Display, then refer to the Line Display section of the
Attributes folder). Picking on the viewer background will simply turn off the
Seek to point behavior.

Perspective
This option toggles the perspective projection on and off.

Set View
This option allows a choice from a list of six predefined viewpoints of the model.
Hint

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The button colors correspond to the display colors of the axes.

User
This view is defined as the last view of the model defined by the mouse. The default is
30 degrees above the horizontal, 60 degrees to the left and with the model rotated
8 degrees around the Z axis.

Top
A view from above the model in the negative Z direction.

Bottom
A view from below the model in the positive Z direction.

Front
A view of the model from the front or positive Y direction.

Back
A view of the model from the back or negative Y direction.

Left
A view of the model in the left or positive X direction.

Right
A view of the model in the right or negative X direction.

Rubber Band Zoom


This option allows an area of the 3D Viewer to be "lassoed" with the mouse in order to
zoom in on a particular area.
When Rubber Band Zoom is invoked, the mouse cursor changes to a magnifying glass;
you define the first corner of the zoom box by clicking and holding the mouse down,
and then dragging the mouse to define the other corner. You can perform further
rubber band zooms if you wish. To exit rubber band zoom mode, click on the toolbar
button again or re-select the menu item Rubber Band Zoom.
Each zoom is stored in a list, and it is possible to undo the zooms one at a time click
on the second toolbar button, or select the Undo Rubber Band Zoom menu item or
completely click on the third toolbar button, or select the Reset Rubber Band Zoom
menu item. The Undo and Reset are available during a zoom, as well as when zoom
mode has finished.
When in Rubber Band Zoom mode some functions are disabled, such as Cell picking,
Set View, Normalization, etc. However, rotation and translation are still possible.

Object Rotation
This panel allows the object to be rotated about the center of rotation in the 3D Viewer.
The buttons in the single step box allow for horizontal and vertical rotation by the
rotation angle. The buttons in the animation box rotate the object through 360 degrees,
using the specified number of iterations.

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Note

When one or more slave viewer is active, only the models in one viewer can be
set in continuous rotation (using the mouse) at any one time.

Object rotation is not the same as camera rotation performed with the camera rotation
panel. Firstly, object rotation is always about the center of rotation/zoom and not the
center of the object. Secondly, when an object is rotated it continues to be lit from the
front.
Note

View | Object Rotation is not available with Windows 98.

Figure 5.13 Object Rotation panel

Lights
Turns directional lights on or off. Lighting the model with several lights "shining" from
different directions produces highlights and shadows, creating a more realistic view
and emphasizing topological features such as faults. Ambient lighting is always on.
Caution

The use of lighting can increase the time taken to display the model. This
decrease in performance can be very significant when working with large
models.

The Lighting panel controls the directional lights. The directional lights are arranged
relative to the viewing position at Top Left, Top Right, Bottom Left and Bottom Right.
Turning on for example the Bottom Right light illuminates the bottom and right hand
sides of the model, which may help in viewing points of interest in that area.
The display becomes brighter as more lights are turned on.

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Figure 5.14 Lighting panel

XYZ Exaggerate
This option allows the application of a scale factor to the X, Y, and Z (height) directions.
Vertical exaggeration can be quickly applied to the model by clicking on the Vertical
Stretch

and Vertical Shrink

buttons in the toolbar.

Stereo
This option opens a dialog panel with extra control over stereoscopic viewing
parameters.
Figure 5.15 Stereo Panel

Checking the Stereo On box turns stereo mode on.

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Various different stereo modes exist to suit the available hardware. To define the stereo
mode, set the OIV_STEREO_TYPE environment variable to the appropriate mode.

For Red/Green glasses:


ANAGLYPH_RED_CYAN (default)
ANAGLYPH_GREEN_MAGENTA
ANAGLYPH_BLUE_YELLOW
Each view is rendered using the given colors.

For systems employing mirror glasses (that show one half of the screen to one eye
and the other half to the other eye):
HALF_SCREEN_OVERUNDER_FILL
HALF_SCREEN_OVERUNDER
HALF_SCREEN_SIDEBYSIDE_FILL
HALF_SCREEN_SIDEBYSIDE

For systems using light polarizing glasses. RAW uses OpenGL stereo and requires
that your graphics card support quad buffered stereo.
INTERLACED_HORIZONTAL_BEST
INTERLACED_VERTICAL_BEST
INTERLACED_HORIZONTAL_FAST
INTERLACED_VERTICAL_FAST
RAW

The Balance control determines how much an object appears to protrude in front of
the screen, versus how much it appears behind the screen ("negative parallax"). At 1,
the object should be behind the screen, and at 0 (the default) it should be in front of the
screen. The slider provides a range from 0 to 2.
The Separation Offset controls how strong the stereo effect is. As the value gets higher,
the images appear farther apart. The default value is 1, and a value of 0 produces no
stereo effect. The slider allows a range from 0 to 4.
The stereo effect alternatively displays the left and right images. To view these it is
necessary to use a system such as StereoGraphics CrystalEyes. This consists of glasses
containing LCD shutters and an infra-red transmitter to synchronize the opening and
closing of the individual lenses with the image.

Refresh View
If the image does not rotate when it should or the screen goes black, select View |
Refresh View to update the image. This is to overcome problems with some Graphics
cards and their drivers. If problems continue please ensure the latest graphics drivers
are installed on your machine.
Note

Note that this command has no effect if VIEW FROZEN has been selected.

Hardcopy Colors
There is no dialog panel associated with this option.

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This menu item switches colors between black and white for various objects, and is
primarily intended for switching between screen colors and hard copy.
If the menu option is selected (that is, hardcopy colors are requested), then the
background color is set to white and the foreground color is set to black. If the option
is not selected (or screen colors are selected) then the background color is set to black
and the foreground color is set to white.
The various objects changed are as follows:

The background of the 3D window changes to the background color.

Cell outlines change to the foreground color.

Text used for Wells, Axes, Titles, Color Legend and 3D Text changes to the
foreground color.

Flip Axis
X
This option reverses the X axis. It should only be used for non-ECLIPSE grids with a
different origin.

Y
This option reverses the Y axis. It should only be used for non-ECLIPSE grids with a
different origin.

Scene menu
Grid
Property
This opens the Property Display panel, which is used to select the simulation property
to color the cells of the active grid. Initial and Recurrent properties are grouped into two
families. Only one of these is shown in the list at a time. If both are available, selection
may be toggled from one to the other by use of the radio buttons.

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Figure 5.16 Property Display panel

If water, oil and gas saturations are available, a Ternary property is created. This
property exists at all timesteps where the three saturations are available. The Ternary
property is found in the list of Recurrent properties and is available for display just like
any other property.

Cell Probe
The Cell Probe allows you to investigate a cells properties. The cell is selected by
clicking on it in the 3D Viewer with the left mouse button. If the Paint Cell option is on,
the cell is painted white. By default the I JK location of the cell, and the grid it belongs
to, are reported.
To examine the cells property values select a property from the All Properties list and
transfer it to the Probe Properties by either double clicking on the property or by
selecting the property and clicking on the

button. The property name and the

corresponding cell value are then shown in the Cell Properties box. More properties
may be selected in the same way.
To remove a property from the Probe Properties either double click on the property
name in the list or select it and click on the

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button.

Figure 5.17 Cell Probe panel

The cell values update as you animate the simulation through time. Also note that the
probe can be used in sweep mode by holding the left mouse button down and moving
the pointer over the grid. The effect is to get a continuous trail of property values for
the cells that have been swept by the mouse cursor.
The Cell Geometry option displays the coordinates of the corners and the center of the
currently selected cell. The nodes are listed in an anti-clockwise direction, top face first
followed by the bottom face. For Cartesian cells we list from the top back left node, for
radials from the min. r - min. theta node.
The Always On Top option can be used to prevent the cell probe panel from being
hidden by the 3D Viewer if the two windows are overlapping.
The Print button prints the contents of the text window to your default printer.

Threshold
The Threshold panel allows you to limit the cells displayed to those that have a
property value inside a given range. You can threshold on multiple properties, so that
the cells displayed are those whose property values are within the intersection of the
supplied ranges. As you animate through time different cells fall into and outside of
this property range so giving a visual indication of fluid flow.

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Figure 5.1 Threshold Properties

The list of properties featured in the All Properties list can be toggled between the
Initial and Recurrent property list by the buttons at the top of the panel.
Select properties for thresholding from the All Properties list either by double-clicking
on them, or by single-clicking them and then clicking on the
button. Selected
properties are then listed in the Active Properties list. The currently selected propertys
details are listed on the folder below. The layout of the folder differs for integer and
real properties. The integer thresholding folder allows multiple discrete ranges to be
selected whereas the real threshold folder allows just one floating point range to be set
per property. Selecting a property from the Active Properties list displays that
propertys details on the folder below. Properties may be removed from the Active
Properties list (and have their threshold range reset) either by double-clicking on it or
by single-clicking it and clicking on the

button.

The following two sections describe the different interfaces presented for integer and
real properties.

Integer properties
The Integer properties interface is as follows:
Figure 5.18 Integer Threshold panel

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Select values
The Select Values list allows multiple selection of integer values to be included in the
threshold range. The selected ranges are listed in the Edit Selection field below. This
text list may be edited directly. To select more than one individual integer from the list
depress the Ctrl key whilst selecting values with the mouse button; to select a
continuous range select the first in range with the mouse, scroll to the last in range and
depress the Shift button whilst selecting it with the mouse.
Move selection
This increments or decrements all selected values by the given amount. Selected values
wrap from the end of the list to the beginning and vice-versa.
Edit Selection
The complete selection is shown in this field. You may also edit it here.
Disable
When selected, this temporarily disables the selected propertys threshold range.
Reset
Resets the selected properties threshold ranges.

Real properties
The Real Properties panel is as follows:
Figure 5.19 Real Threshold panel

Threshold range
Allows selection of a Min and Max value that delimit the property values. Only cells
with property values within these limits are displayed.
Move range
Allows the Min and Max range values to be incremented or decremented by the given
amount. The buttons are only available when there is sufficient range to move the
range values without ending up outside of the property Min and Max values.
Disable
When selected, temporarily disables the selected propertys threshold range.

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Reset
Resets the selected properties threshold ranges.
The Control buttons act on all the properties in the panel:
Figure 5.20 Control buttons

Disable all
Disables all active threshold ranges.
Enable all
Enables all active threshold ranges.
Reset all
Resets all active threshold ranges.
Apply
Applies all changes made to the panel. Not available if AutoApply is on.
If AutoApply is on, then changes to the panel take place immediately; if AutoApply is
off, then changes made in the panel do not happen until Apply is chosen. When
AutoApply is on, the Apply button is disabled (grayed out).
The status of AutoApply can be altered from the drop-down menu accessible with the
right mouse button; releasing the button over the AutoApply option changes the state
of AutoApply.
Close
Closes this panel. You are asked whether you wish to Apply any unapplied changes.
Help
Opens the online help pages.

IJK Slice
Note

This option applies only to the grid selected in Set Active Grid.

The IJK Slicer panel allows you to view restricted slices or blocks of the grid based on
the grids IJK structure. Structured grids have a single global domain and domains for
each LGR created. LGRs can be sliced independently of the global cells.
Unstructured grids are made up from several domains around features like wells,
faults and boundaries. Each of these domains has its own IJK structure and can be
sliced independently. There is also a top level, or global domain that does not have an
explicit IJK structure. It is an internally constructed, virtual IJK grid that can be used to
view the unstructured grid in a more conventional manner.

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The Global domain is sliced by default. To slice a particular domain either select it from
the Select Domain drop-down list box or simply pick on the domain in the 3D Viewer
with the left mouse button. This automatically selects the chosen grid for slicing.
Existing slicing of other domains are remembered.
Figure 5.21 IJK Slicer panel

Note

When slicing sub-domains, it may be useful to display only the cells in that
particular sub-domain. Use Grid | Volume of Interest | Domains to limit the
domains viewed.

The effects of slicing are cumulative in that the global domain and any or all subdomains can be sliced at the same time. The union of the slices is displayed. The
buttons Reset Domain and Reset All Domains can be used to cancel slicing if this is not
desired.
The rest of the IJK Slice panel provides three folders for controlling the slicing. The
IJ Slicing folder allows a selection of rows and columns to be displayed. These rows
can be combined with a selection of K layers set in the K Slicing folder. The Honor IJ
Slicing check-box on the K Slice folder toggles the combination between union and
intersection with the IJ slices. The IJK Extents folder allows the range of I,J and K cells
displayed to be restricted to a smaller block.

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Several numbers in a row can be chosen by highlighting the first value then holding
the Shift key and highlighting the last value. All numbers in between are
highlighted. Multiple IJK numbers can be chosen by pressing the Ctrl key while
selecting the appropriate numbers - using the Ctrl key on an already selected row
deselects it. The full combination of selected rows is shown in the horizontal box in a
short-hand form such as 1-7,13,15-20. This box can be edited.
Use Every Nth to choose regularly spaced row or layer numbers.
If AutoApply is on, then changes take place immediately; if AutoApply is off then any
changes made in the panel are not applied until Apply is chosen. When AutoApply is
on, the Apply button is disabled (grayed out).
The status of AutoApply can be altered from the drop-down menu accessible with the
right mouse button - releasing the button over the AutoApply option changes the state
of AutoApply. The drop-down menu only changes the status of AutoApply on the
currently selected folder, so each folder can be set as required.

Volume of Interest
Note

This option applies only to the grid selected in Set Active Grid.

Grid Cells
This option restricts the volume of the displayed model. Only cells in the new
restricted range will be available to the IJK Slicer. Volume of Interest may only be set
on the global grid.
Changes made to the Volume of Interest panel are applied automatically. The
AutoApply option can be toggled off by pressing the right mouse button anywhere in
the window and clicking on AutoApply is On.
Figure 5.22 VOI Grid Cells panel

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Domain Selection
A domain is a named group of cells within the grid. Structured grids have a global
domain and a sub-domain for any available LGRs.
In unstructured grids, reservoir features such as wells, faults and regions are grouped
into individual domains. Each domain has an independent IJK numbering system.
(This collection of IJK numbers is mapped to a single, regular IJK grid for ECLIPSE
internally by the unstructured gridder.) There is also an unstructured global domain
that does not have an explicit IJK structure. It is a virtual IJK grid created by the
unstructured gridder that allows the model to be displayed and sliced in a more
conventional manner.
From the Domain Selection window one or more domains can be chosen for display.
Choices made in Domain Selection are not applied until Apply is chosen. The
AutoApply option can be toggled on by pressing the right mouse button anywhere in
the window and clicking on AutoApply is Off.
Figure 5.23 VOI Domain Selection panel

Boundaries
Boundaries are used to define areal limits for structural models and grids. They can
also be used to assign properties and aquifers to particular sections of the grid.
Boundaries can be created in Edit | Boundaries. Boundary boxes may be displayed or
removed from the viewer in Edit | Boundaries.
The window Create VOI From Boundary allows you to select cells inside or outside of
a boundary for display.

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Figure 5.24 Create VOI From Boundary panel

The Union and Intersection buttons display the union or intersection respectively of the
cells defined by the boundary with the cells currently selected in the 3D Viewer.
When assigning properties or creating aquifers in the 3D Viewer, this option offers a
method to define which cells are used for assigning the new property or aquifer.

Show
Cells
This option allows the display of the cells to be toggled.
Outlines
This option allows the display of the cell outlines to be toggled. Along with the Cells
option this enables four different display modes, from cells with outlines (good for
checking geometry), to no cells or outlines for viewing the wells.
Note

Note that these buttons affect all grids in the display, not just the currently
active one. Use the Object Appearance panel to set the visual characteristics of
individual grids.

Faces
This option opens the Cell Face Selection panel, which gives you control over which
faces of the cells are displayed or not. This is useful for visualizing the grid with the
wells in situ, at the same time, gaining insight into the fluid flow through the interior
and viewing the exterior of the model.

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Figure 5.25 The Cell Face Selection panel

You can turn the I, J and K + and - faces on or off using the check boxes.

The Clear button removes all selections and the Reset button selects all faces.

Note

With all six faces selected, the model behaves as it does by default, by only
displaying the external faces of the model (since the interior faces are no longer
visible).

Caution

Displaying many faces at once dramatically increases the number of


polygons to be displayed, and will therefore have a marked effect on the
speed of your display. It is unwise to display back-to-back faces at the
same time.

Cell face selection can of course be used in conjunction with any other display option,
but is particularly effective when used with IJK slicing.

Transparency
The Grid Transparency panel allows you to change the opacity of the displayed grid so
that you can see the wells in position. A value of 1.0 makes the grid fully transparent,
a value of 0.0 fully opaque.

Wells
The Wells panel allows you to modify the appearance of the wells. The height of the
well stem and the well width may be changed using the Height and Width sliders. The
Display radio buttons toggle what is displayed between no wells, just the wells, and the
wells and their labels.

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Figure 5.26 Wells panel

The Connections check-box toggles the display of the simulation to well connections.
These are represented by spheres at the center of cells that the well is connected to and
may be green (open) or red (closed) depending on their current status.
The Status check-box toggles the display of the wells status. This is represented by an
icon that appears at the top of the well stem. The icon is either:
1

An upwards pointing cone indicating the well is currently producing. The cone is
colored purple.

A downwards pointing cone indicating the well is currently being used as an


injector. The cone is colored according to the colors associated with the saturations
by the TERNARY_LEGEND ORDER config file entry (by default red for gas, green
for oil, blue for water).

Two opposing cones indicate that the well is closed.

A flat gray disk indicates the well is shut in.

The Show All Wells check-box toggles between displaying all wells and just those
connected to the currently displayed cells.
The Level Of Detail radio buttons allow selection of low, medium or high resolution.
The higher the level of detail the better the wells look, but they take longer to draw.
Note

Changes in the Display state of the wells is reflected on the Object Appearance
panel.

The Connections check-box toggles the display of the simulation to well connections.
These are represented by spheres at the centers of cells that the well is connected to and
may be green (open) or red (closed) depending on their current status.

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Note

Unless the ECLIPSE keyword COMPORD was set to INPUT, ECLIPSE computes
the order in which the connections occur along the well bore. This can generate
strange results culminating in the zig zagging of the wells in the 3D Viewer.
If this occurs, either rerun the simulation with COMPORD set to INPUT or set the
CONFIG option USE_ECLIPSE_CONNECTION_ORDERING (SECTION 3D,
SUBSECT WELLS) to FALSE.

The Status check-box toggles the display of the wells status. This is represented by an
icon that appears at the top of the well stem. The icon is either:
1

An upwards pointing cone indicating the well is currently producing. The cone is
colored purple.

A downwards pointing cone indicating the well is currently being used as an


injector. The cone is colored according to the colors associated with the saturations
by the TERNARY_LEGEND ORDER config file entry (by default red for gas, green
for oil, blue for water).

Two opposing cones indicate that the well is closed.

A flat gray disk indicates the well is shut in.

Color Legend
These options control the appearance of the color legend. Switching between the
normal horizontal legend and the ternary legend is automatic as you choose the
property to display.
Figure 5.27 Ternary legend

Figure 5.28 Color legend

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Show Color Legend


This option toggles the color legend on or off.

Color Legend Editor


The Color Legend Editor allows you to edit the position and size of the legend and also
allows access to the individual property Color Map Editors. These allow editing of the
colors, markers and method used to generate the colormap and are discussed in detail
later.
Horizontal Position
Slider moves the color legend horizontally across the screen.
Vertical Position
Slider moves the color legend vertically across the screen.
Ternary Legend Size
Sets the size of the Ternary property legend.
Length of legend
Sets the length of the color legend on the screen.
The Color Map to Edit list allows selection of the property type color map to be edited.
Simply select the property type and then click on Edit
Hint

Click on the Color Legend in the 3D Viewer to display a pop-up menu. Select
Edit to open the current Property Types color map editor.

You are presented with one of the following editors depending on the property data
type:

Integer color map editor


The Integer Color Map Editor provides controls for editing the color map used for a
particular integer property type. The color map may be continuous or discrete.
Min./Max. Override
Normally the minimum and maximum values for a property type are calculated over
all objects in the view and all timesteps containing the property. The Min./Max.
Override allows these values to be changed. If the minimum and/or maximum values
are set inside the calculated values, then a light gray color is used for the underflows
(values less than the min. value set) and a dark gray color is used for the overflows
(values greater than the max. value set). Overriding the Min./Max can be useful for:

272

Highlighting small property variations by reducing the coloration range to values


close to the variations.

Pinpointing data anomalies by reducing coloration range to show cells that are
outside the normal range for that property.

Identifying groups of cells that fall inside or outside a particular range of interest,
especially whilst animating that property through time.

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Continuous Colormap
A continuous color map is shown as a smooth gradation of colors from the start to the
end. The Edit Colorbutton may be used to change the color for the start and/or end
and the interpolation method used to change the way the gradation occurs.
RGB interpolation works by providing a smooth gradation between the red, green and
blue components of the Start and End colors. RGB interpolation is useful for providing
color maps from light to dark blue etc.
HSV interpolation works by providing a smooth gradation between the hue,
saturation and value components of the Start and End colors. HSV interpolation is
useful for providing rainbow color maps.
Discrete Colormap
Discrete color maps may have from 2 to 16 steps. If the integer property has 16 or fewer
values, the default color map is discrete.
The number of steps may be altered. If there are fewer steps than values, then several
values will be shown together. For example, if JINDEX ranges from 1 to 20 and four
steps are chosen, then the steps contain values of 1-5, 6-10, 11-15, and 16-20
respectively.
The color and bounds of each step may be altered. Clicking on the Edit Color button
will bring up a new panel with 48 predefined colors that may be used to change the
color of the selected step. The bounds may be altered using the Lower Bound and
Upper Bound sliders, and these automatically change the adjacent step.
Classifier Colormap
Classifier color maps allow coloring of the property by user defined classifications.
You add new classification rows to the table by clicking the Add Row button. You may
then name the classification, set the min and max range and select an associated color
from the drop down list. The Delete Row button removes the currently selected row
from the table.

Real Color Map Editor


The Color Map Editor provides controls for editing the color map used for a particular
floating point property type. The color map may be continuous, discrete, logarithmic
or reverse logarithmic.
Min./Max. Override
Normally the minimum and maximum values for a property type are calculated over
all objects in the view and all timesteps containing the property. The Min./Max.
Override allows these values to be changed. If the minimum and/or maximum values
are set inside the calculated values, then a light gray color are used for the underflows
(values less than the minimum value set) and a dark gray color are used for the
overflows (values greater than the maximum value set). Overriding the Min./Max can
be useful for:
1

Highlighting small property variations by reducing the coloration range to values


close to the variations

Pinpointing data anomalies by reducing coloration range to show cells that are
outside the normal range for that property

Identifying groups of cells that fall inside or outside a particular range of interest,
especially whilst animating that property through time.
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273

Continuous Colormap
A continuous color map is shown as a smooth graduation of colors from the start to the
end. The Edit Color button may be used to change the color for the Start and/or End,
and the interpolation method used to change the way the gradation occurs.
RGB interpolation works by providing a smooth graduation between the red, green
and blue components of the start and end colors. RGB interpolation is useful for
providing color maps from light to dark blue, etc.
HSV interpolation works by providing a smooth graduation between the hue,
saturation and value components of the start and end colors. HSV interpolation is
useful for providing rainbow color maps.
Discrete Colormap
Discrete color maps may have from 2 to 16 steps. The number of steps, the color and
the bounds of each step may be altered.
Clicking on the Edit Color button opens a new panel with 48 predefined colors that
may be used to change the color of the selected step. The bounds may be altered using
the Lower Bound and Upper Bound sliders, and these automatically change the
adjacent step.
Logarithmic Colormap
Selecting this option creates a discrete log10 color map with boundaries at decades.
The decades will overlap the property range at either end. If a property contains values
<1e-5 they will be colored grey. The number of steps will correspond to the number
of decades the property range encompasses and is fixed as are the step bounds. The
color associated with each step may be altered by clicking on the Edit Color button
as for the "Discrete Colormap" on page 273.
Classifier Colormap
Classifier color maps allow coloring of the property by user defined classifications.
You add new classification rows to the table by clicking the Add Row button. You may
then name the classification, set the min and max range and select an associated color
from the drop down list. The Delete Row button removes the currently selected row
from the table.

Ternary Color Map Editor


The Ternary Color Map Editor presents you with the three components and their
Min./Max. values that will be used to generate the Ternary diagram. Ternary cell colors
are derived by applying amounts of red, green and blue coloration according to the
percentage of each component within the cell. The first component (usually GasSat) is
red, the second (usually OilSat) is green and the third (usually WaterSat) is blue.
By default we override the components real Min./Max. and assume that each
component occupies 0 - 100% of a cell somewhere in the model, in other words that
their Min./Max. saturations are 0 to 1. This gives a balanced view of the percentage of
each component within each cell, but can make it hard to see small amounts of gas in
the reservoir, for example. The Override switch can therefore be used to toggle between
this and using the Min./Max. of the individual components.

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Object for Color Legend


You may import many displayable objects into the 3D Viewer at once, several of which
may have color legends associated with them. This option allows you to select which
objects color legend to display.
Hint

Click with the left mouse button on the Color Legend to display a pop up
menu. This menu lists all colorable objects in the display and allows you to
select the object the color legend represents.

Titles
Show Titles
This option toggles the titles on or off.

Edit Titles
This option allows you to add titles and annotation to your 3D view. You may add as
many titles as you like by using the Add Title button. The currently selected title may
also be removed by pressing the Delete Title button.
The position, size and alignment to start position for the currently selected title may be
changed using the Position, Font and Align Text to Position sections respectively. The
position sliders have extents of -1.0 to 1.0. Fonts and text heights may be machinedependent.
The Contents section displays the selected title text. The contents of the title may be
edited by simply typing into the text box. The drop-down list holds keywords that are
translated on screen to the value they represent. Select an entry point in the title text
with the cursor and select a keyword to add it to the title.
Titles may be defined in advance within the config file. See the section on configuring
the application for more details.

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275

Figure 5.29 Edit Titles panel

If AutoApply is on, then changes take place immediately; if AutoApply is off then any
changes made in the panel do not happen until Apply is chosen. When AutoApply is on,
the Apply button is disabled (grayed out).
The status of AutoApply can be altered from the drop-down menu accessible with the
right mouse button: release the button over the AutoApply option to change the state
of AutoApply.

Font Options
The Font Options panel is a generic panel used to tailor font representations for a
variety of text within the 3D Viewer.

Font family
Provides a list of fonts to choose from. The fonts available depend on the host
computers operating system.

Height
Allows the font height to be set in pixels. The sizes available depend on the host
computers operating system.

Statistics
This panel displays information about objects currently in the 3D Viewer in three
folders:

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Property
This panel displays statistical information about the currently displayed property.
Information from the sum of the selected cells to the mean, median and standard
deviation are given. All data is for the current report step only.
Note

Use the Scene | Grid | Property menu option to change the displayed
property.

Note

Information can be shown for the whole model or just for the currently
selected cells by selecting either the Whole Model or the Current Selection
buttons.

Grid
This panel displays information about the numbers of selected grid cells.
Note

With Whole Model selected the information displayed includes the global,
LGR and LGR host cells.

Note

With Current Selection selected you can identify inactive cells by turning on
the Scene | Grid | Show | Inactive Cells option. The information then lists the
number of cells displayed (inactive + active) and the number of these that are
active.

Wells
This panel displays information about the grid wells at the current date. Information
includes how many wells are connected to the selected cells and, of those open, which
are producers and which are injectors. The number of connections attached to the
selected cells is also given.
Note

Information can be shown for the whole model or just for the currently
selected cells by selecting either the Whole Model or the Current Selection
buttons.

Axes
The Axes panel allows you to configure the display of model axes in the 3D Viewer.
The axes displayed around the model have their origin at (0,0,0) in the grid model
coordinate system. You can set the axes to be colored and labeled using the Axes check
boxes. The axes colors directly correspond to the colors on the View buttons found on
the left side of the 3D Viewer, namely red for the X axis, green for the Y axis and blue
for the Z axis. A full model Bounding Box can be turned on, which fully contains the
grid and axes.

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277

Figure 5.30 Axes panel

The axes locations can be set to the Bounding Box limits with the Position radio buttons.
The Axes Extents option allows you to toggle the axes extents between that of the
current selection and the whole model. The axes update as the selected extent changes,
for example by changing threshold or slicer values.
Tick Marks and Tick Labels can be placed on the axes using the check boxes and tick
mark folders. Primary and Secondary Tick Marks can be set at defined intervals on each
axis from drop-down menus. Tick Labels can be displayed at regular intervals along
the Primary Tick Marks, set with the Label Every: drop-down menu. Control of the
number of decimal places, and whether to use scientific notation, is also possible.
The Primary Tick Marks can be extended to cover the full extent of the model by
selecting the Grid Lines box. Grid line color can be changed with the Grid Color
option. The Grid (and Primary Tick Marks) position are affected by the Position radio
buttons.
The Axes settings can be applied to the model view automatically. This can be set by
clicking anywhere within the Axes panel area with the right mouse button then
releasing the mouse button on the AutoApply is Off button. The Apply button is then
grayed out and any edits in the Axes panel are immediately reflected in the model
view. To turn the automatic axes settings off, click in the Axes panel area with the right
mouse button then release the mouse button on the AutoApply is On button.
Axes AutoApply options can be preset on or off at program startup by editing the 3D
section of the CONFIG.ECL configuration file, or its local copies ECL.CFG or ECL.CFA.

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Wells menu
This menu provides a list of the wells in the current model. You can choose whether or
not to display a well by checking the menu item associated with that well. Wells
currently displayed have their menu item checked. After the last well name menu item
is the item Multiple Selector. This switches to More Wells if there are more than 10
wells the menu list. The function of this is to pop up a box listing all the wells in the
3D Viewer. This allows a more versatile selection of the wells that are to be displayed
in the 3D Viewer.

Controls menu
Well Show Table
This option displays the table for the well object picked on, either a trajectory table or
the event table, that is, perforation, squeeze etc. If a connection is clicked on the IJK an
LGR name is listed in the 3D Viewer status display.
Note

If there is no well trajectory at a pick point but there is a perforation or squeeze,


as might happen if there is a gap in the grid or the trajectory was extracted
from keywords, then the pick may give ambiguous results.

Well Edit Deviation


This option enters edit mode see "Editing in the 3D Viewer" on page 285.

Pick Segmentation
This option displays the Segmentation table, or first pops up a list of segments in a list
near the pick. The size of this list can be set below in the Radius/Height panel.

Refresh
Refresh display is enabled if the model data in the 3D Viewer has been altered, and a
refresh of the display is required. This option is unavailable (grayed out) if the display
is current and a refresh is not required. The display may be out of date for several
reasons including editing of an event, recalculation of trajectories, alteration of a time
framework, etc.
These are the timesteps as set in the Simulation Time Framework panel, which you can
open by selecting Data |Time Model.

Z plane/Segment Pick
This option displays the Z Plane/Segment Pick panel, similar to that shown in
Figure 5.31. This allows you to change the height in true vertical depth of the Z clipping
plane. The option removes from the display any part of the well above the plane.
Whenever this panel is opened the clipping plane is removed; click Apply to re-apply
the current settings or to introduce the clipping plane for the first time.

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A second slider specifies the Segment Threshold Pick Distance. As segments may be
very close together, this specifies the distance the segments may be from the pick that
are listed together in a pop-up list. A value of zero lists all the segments attached to a
particular well bore.
Note

The blue projection of the well above the grid is purely for visualization
purposes. It is not part of the trajectory, which can only exist in the grid. It is
colored differently to the body of the trajectory, which is gray to clarify this.

Figure 5.31 The Z Plane/Segment Pick panel

Toggle Cell Columns


This option displays the cells for all values of K for each cell the well goes through; that
means the grid cells from a curtain view along the well trajectory. This allows the
properties above and below the immediate cells that the well passes through to be
viewed, which can be useful for creating a well for sensitivity analysis. See "Editing in
the 3D Viewer" on page 285.

Move well points to cell centers


This option is only available in edit mode. It moves cells in the edited deviation to the
centre of grid cells. See"Editing in the 3D Viewer" on page 285.

3D View menu
This menu allows you to control the various display options associated with well
completions, well connections and well deviation as well as the complete grid.

Completions
This option displays wells with:

280

the well trajectory shown in grey

the top projection shown in light blue

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3D Viewer

perforations and barefoots on the well shown in green

squeezes and plugs displayed in red

if segmentation is available then segment nodes are shown as pale yellow discs

Note

There is also a blue core within the well, which is not usually seen. This core is
present to show how disconnected sections of a wells trajectory are joined
together. Disconnected well trajectory sections can occur when there are gaps
in the grid.

Connections
This option displays wells with:

the well trajectory displayed in grey

the top projection shown in light blue

well connections with a transmissibility greater than zero are spheres shown in
green

well connections with a transmissibility of zero are spheres shown in red

but for coarsened cells:

well connections with a transmissibility greater than zero a tube through the
region shown in yellow and

well connections with a transmissibility of zero a tube in orange

The well is joined from cell center to cell center. The transmissibility values are shown
as text attached to the relevant cells.

Deviation
This option displays the deviation survey data for the well in magenta. This is the
actual well track that can exist outside the grid therefore the top projection is not
displayed. This option is only available if deviation data have been read into the
current project. The data is not saved with the project.

View Segment
If segmentation has been calculated for the well then this option toggles it on or off in
the display.

Branch Names
Names of branches for multilateral wells are placed at the end of the well bore. This
option can be used to toggle these names on or off.

Perf Names
Names of the event type, perforate, squeeze, plug, etc that appear beside an event on
the date that it occurs can be toggled on or off.

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Segment Names
The segment numbers of the segments are given beside the segments. These numbers
can be toggled on or off.

Full Grid
The default view is to show only the grid cells that connect with the wells. This option
allows you to display the full model.

Preferences menu
Toolbars
This option shows or hides the toolbars.

Graphics Option
There is a choice between two renderers:

The hardware renderer uses the workstation platforms native graphics libraries
and hardware to draw objects on the screen.

The software renderer implements its own graphics model, drawing objects into
an X Window System image.

In general, the hardware renderer is faster. However, the native graphics facilities on
many workstations do not support all rendering features. If the hardware renderer
does not support a rendering feature such as lights, switch to Software Renderer.
The software render may be slower to draw, but it implements more rendering
features than all but the most expensive color graphics workstations. On some
platforms, such as a simple color X terminal, the software renderer may be the only
renderer available.

Rotation style
While you are translating, rotating and/or zooming objects in the 3D Viewer, you can
use different methods to display the object before the final display. The less the amount
of processing to be done during these operations, the faster they are executed.

Unchanged
All objects in the 3D Viewer are displayed and moved during translating, rotating
and/or zooming. No objects are hidden. Cell outlines are especially time-consuming
to translate, rotate and zoom in the Unchanged mode.

Wireframe
Rather than displaying and moving all objects in the 3D Viewer, wire frames for each
grid are displayed during translation, rotation and zooming. Wells are displayed as
simple lines without well labels. Streamlines are displayed as lines. The Wire frame
option is less demanding on the software than the Unchanged mode.

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Bounding Box
All objects are hidden from view during translation except for a bounding box around
each grid. This is the least demanding style.

Rotation Caching
When enabled, this option stores an image of the model in RAM during translation,
rotation and zooming. This provides much smoother movement of the model during
manipulation in the 3D Viewer.

Mouse buttons
The Mouse Buttons option allows you to select a mode of interaction with the 3D
Viewer that suits the way in which you work. Options are OpenInventor(default),
OIFloViz, GeoFrame and RTView. All are described in detail below. Primarily, these
options just set which mouse buttons control picking, rotation, translation and
zooming. The one exception is OpenInventor which has two distinct modes for
picking and viewing.
Slave viewers use the same mode as the master viewer.
For continuous rotation, keep the mouse moving when releasing the appropriate
mouse button.
Note

A two button mouse is no longer supported.

The following tables give details of which mouse buttons do what in each mode.
Table 5.3

Open Inventor settings

Interaction

Mouse / key combination

Select (Picking)

LEFT (only in pick mode)

Rotate

LEFT (only in view mode)

Translate

MIDDLE (only in view mode)

Zoom

<CTRL>MIDDLE (only in view


mode)

When in pick mode, the model cannot be moved. Only picking is available. To toggle
between modes, either use the buttons at the top left corner of the viewer (hand and
arrow), select with the P and V keys, or toggle using the <Esc> key.
In viewing mode, left mouse button rotates the model, the middle button translates,
and <Ctrl> key with middle mouse button zooms.
Table 5.4
Interaction

OIFloViz settings
Mouse / key combination

Select (Picking)

LEFT

Rotate

LEFT and move mouse

Translate

MIDDLE

Zoom

<CTRL>MIDDLE

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283

OIFloViz is similar to Open Inventor except that there is only one mode. A pick is
registered by a left mouse button click, if the mouse button is depressed and the mouse
is moved, the pick turns into a rotate. In this way, both modes are available at once
using the mouse.
Table 5.5

GeoFrame settings
Mouse / key combination

Select (Picking)

LEFT

Rotate

MIDDLE

Translate

RIGHT

Zoom

LEFT and move mouse

A pick is registered by a left mouse button click, if the mouse button is depressed and
the mouse is moved, the pick turns into a zoom.
Table 5.6

RTView settings
Mouse / key combination

Select (Picking)

LEFT

Rotate

MIDDLE

Translate

RIGHT

Zoom

<SHIFT>MIDDLE

These settings are the same as the Schlumberger program RTView.


To zoom into an object (make it appear bigger), keep the appropriate button depressed
and move the mouse upwards or to the right.

Outline Control
When cell outlines are displayed, the lines are lifted slightly above the surface towards
the eyepoint to make them visible. If, however, the model contains very thin cells, some
lines may show through from the bottom surface. This option allows you to control a
scale factor for the lift. Using a smaller value will reduce the tendency for lines to show
through, although the lines may then appear dashed when viewed at an oblique angle.

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Editing in the 3D Viewer


You can edit wells that exist or new ones created on the Command Network in the 3D
Viewer. The wells are selected and viewed in the "3D viewer" on page 238 in the usual
way.

Editing wells
To edit a well you may select the well in either of two ways:

If the well already exists, click on the Edit Well button


, then pick from the
3D Viewer the well you wish to edit. The 3D Viewer then goes directly into Edit
mode.

Select Edit | Wells


This displays a list box of the wells in the 3D Viewer if there is more than one well.
If you wish to edit a new well, this is the only way to select that well for editing, as
there is no option to pick on an object that does not exist. Selecting a well from the
list opens a second panel, giving the stem and lateral side track well bores, if any,
that comprise the well. See Figure 5.5. The list box for all the wells in the view is
automatically closed; if there is only one well the panel opens without first going
to the Well list. The Well Bores panel for the well comprises a list of the well bores,
three buttons for performing operations on the stem and laterals, and the usual
close and help buttons. The Editor can be entered from here. See the full description
of the menu items concerned in "Edit menu" on page 242 and following pages.

Edit mode
When the window is in Edit Mode, a table of the points to edit appears, and the
3D Viewer is initially in a view from above. If the well is a new well the Editor is in
digitize mode, otherwise it is in Select/Move mode.
Note

This Z plane sits just above the grid. Once the points have been drawn, use
Select/Move to move the points and flip to one of the other views from the side, or
rotate the view. You can now drag the points down to the desired depth.

Note

You must initially digitize the points for new wells on a Z edit plane.

During this procedure the table automatically updates with the edit.

You may type in this table, and the points snap to the new location.

Tools
There are some rudimentary tools to aid the drawing of wells within particular layers.
You can import INIT and RESTART properties, and select appropriate properties
using the various cell selection methods in the Scene | Grid | Properties menu.

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285

The Vertical Columns button


displays the vertical column of cells, from the top
of the grid to the bottom, for the cells that have a digitized point whose X,Y lies within
the XY projection on the Z plane of that cell from the surface layer of grid cells.
Note

The effect of the Vertical Columns button


is slightly different from that
outside the Edit mode, where the columns of intersected cells are displayed.

The Horizontal wells button


moves horizontal wells into a particular grid layer.
When the button is first clicked, all the points starting from the end that occupy a grid
cell to themselves (as seen from the top in 2D) are shifted to the centers of the grid cells
in which they sit. If more than one point occupies a single cell then neither those points
nor any points prior to them in the direction of the head of the well is shifted. All points
after them are shifted.
A second click moves these points to the layer below. Points in LGRs are moved to the
middle layer of the LGR.
Hint

To find out which layer the points have been moved to, position the cursor
over the button. The help message states the layer number.

Finally, you may commit the edit. If the Vertical Columns button
is on then
switch it off to return to the usual view. The view is now back to the ordinary Schedule
3D well view.

286

Note

Immediately after the edit the well name is not shown, nor are the blue
connection core and blue well marker at the well head in the connection view.
This allows you to examine the result of the edit without these other items in
place. To recover these, click on the GO button
to update the view.

Note

When a well edit is committed the measured depths for each of the points is
recalculated from the measured depth of the initial point. The old measured
depths for the well are therefore discarded, except for the first point. The new
measured depths are calculated as the sum of the lengths between the
deviation survey points and are shown in the Edit Table below.

Reference Section
Editing in the 3D Viewer

Trajectory definition window


This window appears when you choose to edit a trajectory for a well without an
existing trajectory definition, or when you choose to re-specify a well trajectory in the
Trajectory Viewer/Editor.
Note

You must import a grid before you can define the trajectory of a well.

The top portion of this window lists maximum I, J and K values for the grid and for
any LGRs in the grid. The table in the center of the window is used to enter a path
through the grid from cell center to cell center. Use the Add segment button to create
new rows on the table. When the path is complete, click on the Create button, just
below the table, to construct the trajectory. Once you have defined the trajectory, this
window becomes the Trajectory Viewer window. See "Trajectory viewer/editor" on
page 288 for more information.
Note

A temporary deviation survey is constructed on a path that is extended


upward from the first cell to a point just outside the grid, through the center
points of the cells listed in the table and downward from the center point of the
last cell to a point just outside the grid. The trajectory that is created has a
measured depth equal to the true vertical depth at the entry to the first cell.

Reference Section
Trajectory definition window

287

Trajectory viewer/editor
This window shows the path of the well through the grid with:

An LGR name for an LGR which starts in this cell.


This column (Labelled Edit LGR) is not blank if an LGR starts in the cell described
on the row. Clicking on the button changes the table to show the LGR cells.
A button at the bottom of the window appears, which you can click on to switch
the display back to the global cells. This column is blank if no LGR starts in the cell,
although an LGR starting in some other cell may extend into the cell.

The cell intersected.

The measured depth where the well enters and exits the cell.

The permeabilities for the cell.


If any of these are negative they are all considered to be undefined in the trajectory
and permeabilities. from the initial properties are used. A simulation option can
also be set to ignore these permeabilities. (See "Simulation options window" on
page 197 for more details)

The Net To Gross value for the cell.


If this value is negative the NTG from the initial properties are used.

Entry and Exit X,Y,Z locations.


These are used by Schedule to take account of a deviated well path in calculating
the connection factor.

The cell faces for entry and exit.


These are used by Schedule in conjunction with the cell geometry and the angle of
the well through the cell to pick the predominant direction for the well, X, Y or Z.

The LGR name of this cell.


If this is blank the cell is a global grid cell.

The values shown in the trajectory are used to determine which cells are affected when
an event such as a perforation is mapped onto the grid. The measured depth values for
an event are used to select the affected cells and the other fields are used to calculate
the connection factor for the perforation in the affected cells. Editing the values in the
trajectory can change the connection factor. See "Calculation of Kh and connection
factor" on page 291 for details on how this value is calculated.
Note

Editing of the IJKs in a trajectory generated from an unstructured grid is not


permitted due to the complex nature of the IJK structure. This is caused by the
need for a mapping between the unstructured IJKs, which do not lie in a
logical cubic IJK space as required by ECLIPSE and the structured version of
these, for ECLIPSE, which are the ones shown in the Editor table.

File menu
Close
This choice closes the 3D Viewer panel.

288

Reference Section
Trajectory viewer/editor

Edit menu
Re-specify
This option deletes the existing trajectory and deviation survey for the well or branch,
and allows you to re-specify the location by defining a path through the grid.
See "Trajectory definition window" on page 287.

Well deviations menu


The menu allows you to switch the view to show the trajectories for the main stem or
individual well branches. The menu lists the known branches for the well; clicking on
the branch name changes the view to show the trajectory for that branch.
This menu also allows you to create or delete branches. Choosing Add from the menu
opens a dialog allowing you to name the new branch. It then changes the view to the
Trajectory Definition window to allow specification of the branch path. The branch is
created as a branch of the current trajectory. That is, it creates a branch if the current
view is of the main stem, but creates a sub-branch if the current view is of a branch.
The last choice on the menu allows you to delete branches from the well. The branch
currently viewed is deleted. If the branch has sub-branches these are deleted as well.

Panel buttons
Apply
This button applies any edits made in the Trajectory table. If other viewers are open
which show the trajectory, they update to reflect the modified trajectory information
or provide and indication that the view should be updated.

OK
This button applies any edits made in the trajectory table and closes the Trajectory
Viewer.

Exit LGR
This button only appears when LGR cells are displayed. It switches the display to the
enclosing grid, usually the global grid but possibly an enclosing LGR.

Reference Section
Trajectory viewer/editor

289

Input file list window


This panel shows a list of all the files that have been read by Schedule, along with the
type of data read from the file and time the file was read.

290

Reference Section
Input file list window

Technical Description
Chapter 6

Calculation of Kh and connection factor


Grid connections are affected by events, and the connections affected by a particular
event are determined by the measured depth of the event. When any event affects a
completion, Schedule calculates a connection factor.
The connection factor calculated by Schedule is based on a three-part Peaceman
formula which takes into account the following factors:

the wells orientation

the grid blocks permeabilities

the portion of the grid block which is perforated

the effective wellbore diameter in each of the orthogonal X, Y and Z directions

In addition, you may specify damage skins.


This approach allows Schedule to accurately model situations, such as deviated wells,
partially penetrating wells, and multiple perforations within a given cell, by directly
incorporating these effects into the connection factor (due to the full vector
representation). Many simulators just model these effects by adjusting the skin value.
Cell entry and exit points are supplied through the well trajectory data. Schedule uses
this information to define a trajectory vector that represents the straight line between
the entry and exit points. The perforation length is defined in the event file, so the
measured depth of the start and end of the perforation are known. With these two
pieces of information, the length of the perforation within each grid block that lies
along the trajectory vector is known.
The trajectory vector is split into its three components in the local X, Y, and Z directions,
and scaled to the measured perforation length. The axes for these local directions are
defined by lines joining the centre points of opposite cell faces.
Thus, defining

h x as the magnitude of the perforation vector in the local x direction.

Technical Description
Calculation of Kh and connection factor

291

Dx as the magnitude of the local x vector.


Kh in the X direction becomes:

K h x = ( Ky Kz ) hx

[EQ 6.1]

and the Peaceman radius in the X direction is:

K y
K z
D z2 ------ + D y2 ------
K z
K y
r o x = 0.28 --------------------------------------------------------- K y K z
4 ------ + 4 ------
K z K y

[EQ 6.2]

Similarly for the Y and Z directions.


Thus:

cKh x
Tx = -------------------------- r ox
ln ------- + S
rw

[EQ 6.3]

where

Tx

is the connection transmissibility in the X direction

is the damage skin

equals 2

is 0.001127 in field units, 0.008527 in metric units

The cell connection factor (CCF, and Kh, that are output to the COMPDAT statement) are
defined by:

CCF =
Kh =

T x2 + T y2 + T z2
2

Kh x + Kh y + Kh z

[EQ 6.4]

[EQ 6.5]

The net-to-gross term


The NTG term can be ignored (that is, assumed to be 1) by setting the Ignore NTG
option in the Setup Options panel. If the NTG term is not ignored, the way it is used by
Schedule depends on the Transmissibility Options chosen in the main Setup menu. The
three choices are:

292

Technical Description
Calculation of Kh and connection factor

For ECLIPSE 100


The net to gross value is used as a multiplier on the height of the grid block (Dz) and
on the z component of the well penetration vector through the cell (hz).

For ECLIPSE 300


The net to gross value is used as a multiplier on the z component of the well
penetration vector (hz) through the cell but not on the grid block height.

For scaled permeabilities


The net to gross value is used as a multiplier on the X and Y direction permeabilities.

Pseudo skin calculation


If the cell connection factor is suppressed (in the Simulation Options selections)
Schedule calculates a pseudo skin, which, when applied by ECLIPSE, results in the
same CCF as would have been calculated by Schedule.
Therefore knowing the CCF from [EQ 6.5], [EQ 6.4] we can use this to determine S:

cKh
CCF = ------------------------ ro
ln ----- + S
r w

[EQ 6.6]

Where:

Kh
ro

is obtained from the ECLIPSE default (that is the grid cell Kh).

equals 2

is 0.001127 in field units, 0.008527 in metric units.

is obtained from the grid cell dimensions in the direction of


penetration listed.

Thus the pseudo skin contains all the information required for vector positioning of the
completion within the grid.
Suppressing the cell connection factor in the simulation options changes the values
that are inserted in the COMPDAT keyword. There are four different scenarios for
generating the COMPDAT:

Include both cell connection factor and skin


The cell connection factor is the one described in [EQ 6.4], the Kh is that described in
[EQ 6.5] and the skin is the mechanical skin for the perforation. (If more than one
perforation occurs in a single cell, the mechanical skin is the weighted average of the
perforations.)

Technical Description
Calculation of Kh and connection factor

293

Suppress skin
As above but with the skin defaulted in the COMPDAT.

Suppress cell connection factor


The Kh is the ECLIPSE value (that is assuming full penetration of the cell along only
one axis). The skin is the pseudo skin described in "Pseudo skin calculation" on
page 293. In this case only is the direction of penetration selected by Schedule to output
in the COMPDAT/M important. Schedule selects the direction, as that with the longest
projection of the well onto the grid cell vectors. The entry face takes preference over the
exit face. If they are opposite faces Schedule only selects a different direction, if the total
length of the well in the cell is greater than 1.5 the grid cell height in that direction;
effectively an angle slightly greater than 45 degrees. This choice ensures that the
pseudo skin is not, in general, negative, or at least large and negative.

Suppress cell connection factor and skin


The Kh is also suppressed and ECLIPSE calculates all values assuming full penetration
of the cell along only one axis.

Welltest event
If the WELLTEST keyword is followed by a value greater than or equal to 0 this value
is taken as the Kh for the whole well (h = the sum of the lengths of all connections).
Schedule scales the Kh for each connection, and also their cell connection factors
produced for the COMPDAT keyword as shown below:

Kh w
h 1 = Kh 1 ------------------- ( Kh )

[EQ 6.7]

where

i = 1 to n

(n is the number of well connections)

Kh1

is the Kh for completion interval 1

Khw

is the Kh supplied by the welltest event

This is done instead of producing a WPIMULT keyword, so that non-Darcy flow is


handled correctly in ECLIPSE.
The ratio shown in [EQ 6.8] is inserted in the Schedule export file as a comment.
A negative number specified for the well test Kh results in no scaling; that is, it resets
the Kh to that calculated by Schedule from trajectory data.

Kh w
------------------(
Kh
)

294

Technical Description
Calculation of Kh and connection factor

[EQ 6.8]

Multiple perforations in a single cell


When there is more than one perforation in a single cell, Schedule calculates the
connection factors separately, taking into account the separate radius and skin for each
one. Schedule, then, sums the connection factor to give a single cell connection factor
for the cell.
In calculating the pseudo skin Schedule uses this connection factor, together with the
ECLIPSE calculation, to give the result. The pseudo skin thus reflects the overall effect
in the cell.
Schedule also outputs a weighted average of the well radii in the cell in the COMPDAT
keyword. This is only used by ECLIPSE if the connection factor is suppressed on export
from Schedule.
When the connection factor and Kh are exported by Schedule in a COMPDAT keyword,
the mechanical skin for the cell is also exported. As the separate perforations may have
different skins, this export value is also a weighted average with respect to the length.

Technical Description
Calculation of Kh and connection factor

295

Grid intersection with deviation survey


Cell surface covering
The intersection algorithm, within Schedule, selects points from the deviation survey
and joins them with a straight line. The measured depths associated with each point
are imported with the deviation data. This straight line can be regarded as being
intersected by a bilinear surface stretched between the four corners on the face of the
grid cell.
Such a bilinear surface has the following properties:

The diagonals across the surface describe quadratic curves.

The average of the coordinates of the four corner points represent a point which
lies on the surface.

The surface lies within the tetrahedron formed with the four cell corners as its
apexes.

The equations shown in [EQ 6.9] are for a bilinear surface with corners numbered as
shown in Figure 6.1.

x = x 1 + ( x 2 x 1 ) + ( x 3 x 1 ) + ( x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 )
y = y 1 + ( y 2 y 1 ) + ( y 3 y 1 ) + ( y 4 y 3 y 2 y 1 )
z = z 1 + ( z 2 z 1 ) + ( z 3 z 1 ) + ( z 4 z 3 z 2 z 1 )
where

x1

is the x co-ordinate of corner 1 as shown in Figure 6.1.

and

have values between 0 to 1

x, y, z

are the coordinates of the point on the bilinear surface.

Figure 6.1 A bilinear surface

296

Technical Description
Grid intersection with deviation survey

[EQ 6.9]

Measured length preservation


As the intersection point is a new point along the length of the deviation survey, it has
no measured depth intrinsically associated with it. The measured depth used for this
point is a weighted mean of the measured depth of the two points on the deviation
survey that it lies between. The weighting is in proportion to the distance of the new
point from these end points. Thus the measured length inside a grid block traversed by
the deviation survey is preserved.
The trajectory data stored in Schedule is only the entry and exit points to the grid cell.
The direction of the well in the cell is fixed by these two points; changes in direction of
the deviation survey within the cell are not stored. However, as mentioned above, the
measured length within the grid cell is preserved.

Well crossing a fault


There are some useful properties in using bi-linear surfaces to cover the grid cells that
do not apply to a triangulation. Cells can move down relative to their neighbor, as in a
fault, and it is reasonable to assume that the surfaces are not flat, that is, the four points
at the corners of the touching grid cells do not lie on a plane. If a triangulation of the
points is used there are gaps or overlaps between the neighboring surfaces that should
in reality be in contact. If a bilinear surface is used this phenomenon is greatly reduced.
This can be appreciated from the fact that there exists at least one type of downward
slide for a bi-linear surface where (with the points arranged as above) contact is
preserved between the surfaces. In general any gaps or overlaps in Schedule are very
small, as it uses bi-linear surfaces. It is always the case that the gap/overlap is smaller
than that in the equivalent triangulation.
Where a gap of this nature occurs between grid cells, it is neglected. Where an overlap
occurs it is replaced by the average of the two points. These effects are always expected
to be very small as most shifts are close to those that preserve full contact.

Layer shifting choices


Schedule offers three choices for shifting events from their described measured depth
positions into specific, named, grid layers.

Simple shift
Each event is shifted into its designated layer. Any portion of the event that extends
outside of the layer is then removed. No attempt is made to keep the relative positions
of different events. Each event is shifted independently of other events.

Relative shift
All of the well events for the designated layer are examined before any event is shifted.
The lengths and relative positions of the events are then maintained when any event is
shifted.

Technical Description
Grid intersection with deviation survey

297

Linear scaling
All of the well events for the designated layer are examined and the total range is
determined. This range is then mapped on to the range of the layer and all events are
scaled into the layer range. This preserves the relative location of events but the length
of the event may change.
The three choices are illustrated below.
Figure 6.2 Simple shift of three events to layer Sand_1

Sand_1

Sand_1

Both events above Sand_1 shift to the top of the layer, and end up overlapping; the
event below the layer is shifted up to the bottom of the layer.
Figure 6.3 Relative shift of two events to layer Sand_1

Sand_1

298

Technical Description
Grid intersection with deviation survey

Sand_1

The sizes and relative positions of the events are maintained.


Note

If an event had been present below Sand_1 some events would have been lost
as not all could have been shifted into the layer with sizes and spacing intact.

Figure 6.4 Linear scaling shift of three events to layer Sand_1

Sand_1

Sand_1

The total range of the events to be shifted to Sand_1 has been used to scale and shift
the events. All events are represented, but the size and spacing changes.

Technical Description
Grid intersection with deviation survey

299

300

Technical Description
Grid intersection with deviation survey

Production Data File Formats


Appendix A

Production data
You can enter well production and injection history data for oil, water and gas or you
can import from an ASCII file. You can view and edit the production data table, by
clicking on the Table button

on the tool bar in the Control Network window, or

by clicking on a well with the right mouse button, and selecting the menu item Table
History.
Schedule supports a subset of the Production Analyst and OilField Manager input file
format, with extensions as described in "Production data format" on page 301.
Production data files generated with the Finder Schedule Unloader are supported.
You can easily convert data in other data base formats, or from spreadsheets, to the
Production Analyst format. Write the data to an ASCII file with the appropriate Free
Format keywords listed in "Keywords" on page 304, across the top of the data columns.
You can add any other special keywords you require above these using any text editor.
Other methods exist for data entry but these are not be described here. If required
please consult Schlumberger Support.

Production data format


Schedule can read the Production Analyst and OilField Manager ASCII file format for
input data. It does not respond to alterations made to the Production Analyst file
DBPRDDEF.STD where the standard keywords and units may be redefined.
In OilField Manager, input variables are defined using monthly, daily or sporadic
definition tables. Schedule, also, recognizes yearly definition tables. Schedule makes
no use of the master table and has no static table data.
Schedule can only process one frequency for data at a time, therefore monthly
production and daily injection should not be put in the same input file.

Production Data File Formats


Production Data

301

Schedule does not read the OilField Manager multiplier table MULT.DEF. It uses the
default settings listed below, instead:
Metric Scientific Field(Imperial)

Factor

100

E3

1000

E6

MM

1000,000

E9

MMM

1000,000,000

1/k

E-3

1/M

0.001

1/M

E-6

1/MM

0.000 001

1/G

E-9

1/MMM

0.000 000 001

Where an ambiguity exists for the multiplier (M), Schedule looks at the units of the
quantity and selects the appropriate factor from the table.
Schedule does not read the parser table, so functions cannot be defined. Calculated
values can be passed to Schedule, though, using the period tables.
Keywords are significant for the first four characters as in Production Analyst, though
this can be altered for non-special keywords. Schedule provides extensions to the
Production Analyst keyword list and some of these keywords may be the same as
existing Production Analyst keywords for the first four characters. In this case the
whole Schedule keyword should be used. If a keyword has an underscore (_) as the
fourth character, the keyword is significant for the first three characters only.
A comment line is indicated by /* at the start of the line, but Schedule recognizes - at the start of the line as a comment line in common with the ECLIPSE convention.
Blank lines are ignored.
The production data is supplied in an ASCII file that can be either a free or a fixed
format. A fixed format is denoted by the use of the *FORMAT keyword set on a line by
itself followed by the list of keywords, which specify the format for the individual well
data records, each set on separate lines and the list then terminated by the
*END_FORMAT keyword. A free format is treated in a similar way. Refer to "Keywords"
on page 304 below.
Some of the Production Analyst keywords for production and injection are defined by
Schedule. These are listed below:
*OIL, *WATER, *GAS, *DAYS, (*UPTIME)
*OINJ, *WINJ, *GINJ, *OIDAY, *WIDAY, *GIDAY

These keywords must be used to input data into Schedule, although their
characteristics may be altered through the appropriate definition table entries. Other
keywords include:
*PRESS, *OIPR, *WIPR, *GIPR, (*THP), (*BHP)

() indicates a Schedule extension.


There are two keywords in the Configuration file that affect Schedules default
behavior for missing and un-ordered data:

302

Production Data File Formats


Production data

*ZERO_MISSING which can be set so that Schedule defaults any missing data to
zero. The default is to assume the previous months data.
*SKIPDUPLICATE which can be set so that the Schedule default is to ignore any
rate data that is out of date order. Cumulative data not in date order is always
ignored. The default is to re-order the rate data.

Production Data File Formats


Production data

303

Keywords
Special production data
These keywords belong to the set of special keywords that specify properties of the
data (daily records, metric units, etc.) rather than describing the type of data that is
present in each record (oil rate, gas rate, etc.).

304

Table A.1

Special keywords

Keyword

Description

Default

*METRIC*

Denotes that rates are provided in metric units, that


is the units numerator is sm3 for liquid and gas.

Units specified in
Schedule

*FIELD

Denotes that the rates are provided in field units,


that is the units numerator are STB for liquid and
MSCF for gas.

Units specified in
Schedule

*MSTB

Denotes that liquid volumes are provided in 1000


STB, that is the input rates are multiplied by 1000.
This keyword may be used in conjunction with the
*FIELD keyword but not with *METRIC.

STB

*MMSCF

Denotes that gas volumes are provided in 1000


MSCF, that is the input rates are multiplied by 1000.
This keyword may be used in conjunction with the
*FIELD keyword but not with *METRIC.

MSCF

*MSM3

Denotes that all volumes are provided in 1000 sm3,


that is the input rates are multiplied by 1000. This
keyword may be used in conjunction with the
*METRIC keyword but not with *FIELD This
keyword also has a modifier that allows just gas or
just oil volumes to be considered as provided in
1000sm3.

sm3

*MSM3 GAS

Gas volumes are provided in 1000sm3

*MSM3 LIQUID

Liquid volumes are provided in 1000sm3

*DAILY

Specifies daily production and injection rates, that is Monthly


it causes the units denominator to be days. This
keyword sets the frequency of the data samples. This
is used internally to error-check the input and to set
periods of missing data to zero production (or
injection).

*MONTHLY

Specifies monthly production and injection rates (the Monthly


default). Similar to *DAILY above, this causes the
units denominator to be months. This keyword may
not be shortened, as this would conflict with *MONTH.

*YEARLY

Specifies yearly production and injection rates. As


with *DAILY above, this causes the units
denominator to be years. This keyword may not be
shortened as this would conflict with *YEAR.

Production Data File Formats


Keywords

Monthly

Table A.1

Special keywords (Continued)

Keyword

Description

Default

*HRS_IN_
DAYS

Indicates that the time units for production and


Days in Month
injection keywords (*DAYS, *WIDAYS, etc.) are set to
hours in the day, that is the *DAYS, *WIDAYS, etc.
keywords are change to indicate the hours in the day
rather than the days on in the month.

*MNS_IN_
YEARS

Sets all uptime keywords (*DAYS, *OIDAY, etc.)


to months in years.

*UPTIME_
FRACTIONS

Sets all uptime keywords (*DAYS, *OIDAY, etc.)


to uptime fractions.

*CUMULATIVE

Changes all rate keywords (*OIL, *WINJ, etc.) to


Not cumulative
specify cumulative volumes. Schedule converts
these to daily rates. RATE production data cannot be
specified if this keyword is used.

*UCRATES

This causes the rates read in to Schedule to be


multiplied by the uptime to get the full time period
daily rates. Thus if the production for February is 28
bbl with an uptime of 14 days (or 0.5), this means
that the rate is 14 bbl/month or 0.5 bbl/day.

*UUCRATES

Uncompensated
This causes the rates read in to Schedule to be
converted directly to the full time period daily rates.
Rates,
Thus if the production for February is 28 bbl with an (*UUCRATES).
uptime of 14 days (or 0.5), this means that the rate is
given as 28 bbl/month or 1 bbl/day.

*FORMAT

This keyword begins the format block for data input in


fixed format data files. It is used in conjunction with
*END_FORMAT. Keywords within this block begin with
an asterisk (*) and beginning and ending column
numbers are required.

*END_
FORMAT

Ends the format block.

*FREE_
FORMAT

This keyword begins the format block for data input in


free format data files, and is used in conjunction with
*END_FORMAT. Keywords within this block begin with
an asterisk (*). This special keyword allows each
keyword in a free format file to be placed on a line by
itself, thus allowing easy conversion from fixed format
to free format input. Free format keywords are
otherwise placed all on the same line, if
*FREE_FORMAT is not used.

*FILE

This keyword can be used within both the production


and event data files to input data from other files at
the same time. It has the optional attachment,
WELLNAME, which attaches the wellname to the data
contained in the file. In the production data file only,
this attachment can be shortened to NAME, and is
overwritten by any *NAME keyword contained within
the file.

Uncompensated
Rates,
(*UUCRATES)

This *FILE keyword must appear after the *FORMAT


or *FREE_FORMAT specifiers, and the files named
must not contain any keywords except *NAME.

Production Data File Formats


Keywords

305

Table A.1
Keyword

Special keywords (Continued)


Description

Default

*ZERO_MISSING This keyword can be used to modify only the data


associated with the file in which it is included.
However, if included in the configuration file it affects
all input data. (See page 382)
*IGNORE_MISSI This keyword prevents the action of the
NG
*ZERO_MISSING keyword if it is present in the
configuration files.
*REPORT_MISSI This keyword causes a message to be sent to the log
NG
window whenever a record does not appear at an
expected time.
*READOFF

Tells Schedule to ignore the following lines in the


input data file until the *READON keyword is
encountered.

*READON

Tells Schedule to resumes reading lines stopped by


the *READOFF keyword.

*KEYLENGTH

Sets the number of characters recognized in a format 4


block keyword. In OilField Manager the whole
keyword is read unless this is set. To set the OilField
Manager default, change *KEYLENGTH to a very
large number.

*TABLENAME

This is followed by the name of a definition table.


When Schedule encounters this name it opens a file
dialog box asking for the location of the file
containing the definition table.
Schedule allows two extra keywords to follow
*TABLENAME: INLINE and FILE.
For INLINE Schedule reads the following lines up to
the keyword *END as being the appropriate table.
The INLINE keyword may be followed by the period
keywords, DAILY, MONTHLY, SPORADIC.
For FILE there should follow a file name for the
location of the definition file, then the name of the
definition table. Schedule reads the definition file
automatically without requesting a name.

*.
.

If *METRIC is specified and the project units in Schedule are set to field, the data will be converted
from metric to field units.
If *FIELD is specified and the project units in Schedule are set to metric, the data will be converted
from field to metric units.

OilField manager definition file keywords


These keywords are used to control data input and to define the attributes (for example
units) of keyword variables (for example *OIL, *WINJ in OilField Manager.)

306

Production Data File Formats


Keywords

The variable should appear in the table after the *TABLENAME heading and should be
followed by its type: string x, int1,2 or 4; uint1,2 or 4; float; double; calculated*1,4 or 8.
Schedule, however, translates all types to float. Schedule does not import strings.
Specifying the *2, *4 or *8 has no effect in Schedule as it does not truncate the variables
but reads them as they are. After the TYPE keyword, the keywords specified in
Table A.2 follow, possibly on a new line. For example:
*TABLENAME prd MONTHLY
DAYS float *U none
OIL float *U stb *MU M
WATER float *U scm
WUSER

float *U stb/day

*DA 12.0 82.0 15.0

WCOMP calculate*4 WATER/DAYS *U stb


ON calculate*1 OIL|GAS|WATER
CUMULATE float *U stb
CUMULATE calculate OIL*DAYS_IN_MONTH+CUMULATE

In this example the DAYS keyword has the units defined as none. This signifies that
uptime fractions are to be used. This is an alternative to using the
*UPTIME_FRACTIONS keyword.
OilField Manager refers to calculated variables such as WCOMP in the example above as
Imputted variables. In Schedule there is no distinction between these and other
variables once they have been read in.
Schedule is strict in the way units are handled: units in the calculations must be
consistent or all the calculation fails, that is:

The units in part of a logical or must be the same.

Units that cannot be converted uniquely into MKS units are not allowed.

Thus, bbl/month is not allowed as there is no unique transform due to the changing
number of days in a month. These units can, however, be read into Schedule through
the mechanism of specifying monthly data. It is only calculations with them that are
invalid.
It may be desired to display cumulative volumes in the table. If the rate data was
DAILY there would be no problem, but for monthly data Schedule divides by the
number of days in a month. To obtain the actual monthly volumes the CUMULATE
calculation in the example above multiplies the OIL rate by the number of days in a
month, so that when Schedule converts this to a rate the month cancels out. Schedule
still reports this number as a rate in the table. (Later versions of Schedule may address
this issue.)
Schedule has an extension to the mathematical constants in the usual Calculator
definitions which may be used in calculations as in the example above, namely:
DAYS_IN_MONTH, the number of days in the month on which the data was specified.
DAYS_IN_YEAR, the number of days in the year on which the data was specified.
DAYS_FROM_LAST, the number of days to the current record from the last record. The
dates are those as altered by the setting of the DATARANGE keyword, (see below). The
initial value is determined from the setting of the period, days/months/years and is
guaranteed not to be zero.

Production Data File Formats


Keywords

307

CURRENT_DAY, CURRENT_MONTH, CURRENT_YEAR of the current record date. The date


is that obtained from the DATARANGE keyword setting.
PREVIOUS_DAY, PREVIOUS_MONTH, PREVIOUS_YEAR to the current record date. The
date is that obtained from the DATARANGE keyword setting, (see below). The initial
previous date is determined from the setting of the period, days/months/years, and is
guaranteed to be less than and not equal to the current date.

Errors in calculations
On encountering an error in units or some other error in the calculation, such as a
division by zero (the most common user error), Schedule stops reading, indicates that
the calculation has failed and gives a line number. If the error occurs on the first line of
data being read (so this is the first time the calculation has been performed), then you
should check the consistency of the units of the calculation expressions and if the units
are incompatible. For example, whether any logical or or and expressions have
mixed units.
If the calculation has progressed beyond this first line, the error cannot be in the units.
The error is therefore in the calculation that is being performed. You should look on
the line indicated to see if there has been a division by zero caused by the data.
However, if the calculation is more complex you may have to check it on a calculator
to see where it has failed.

Definition file keywords


Table A.2 shows the keywords which are recognized by Schedule.

308

Table A.2

Definition keywords

Keyword

Description

*TABLENAME

Followed by the name of the table (not if INLINE is used).

*DA

Defines the minimum and maximum, and also the default value if the
data is missing.

*DATELABEL

Changes the date label from *DATE to *string

*MU

Indicates the input data is the specified multiple of the unit type.
Schedule does not use the output multiplier.

*U

Specifies the units for the variable.

*ALIAS

An alternative name for the quantity that may appear in the FORMAT
block.

*UPTIME

If the quantity is a rate or volume, the associated uptime can be


specified for this quantity so that Schedule can use this for the WEFAC
keyword.

*END

Specifies that this is the end of an INLINE block.

*EOF

Any data left in the file after this keyword appears is not read.

*READOFF

Skips all the lines after this keyword until a *READON is encountered.

*READON

Resumes reading lines after this keyword when *READOFF has


stopped the input.

Production Data File Formats


Keywords

Data type keywords


The following keywords indicate the type of data (text or numeric) entered in the file
and must be entered across the record (line), unless the *FORMAT or *FREE_FORMAT
keywords are used, in which case each keyword must have a separate line. If *FORMAT
is used, then each keyword must be followed by two numbers that indicate the first
and last columns in which the data is stored. For example:
*OIL

25 36

This indicates that the oil rate is to be found in columns 25 through 36 of the file. See the
examples in "Data handling in Schedule" on page 317.

Table A.3

Data type keywords

Keyword

Description

*WELL

This indicates a well identifier that has an Text


optional completion extension after a
colon (:) However, Schedule ignores this.
These well completion names appear in
the well/group panel in Schedule. For
example: WELL01:COMP02.

Required
unless *NAME
is used

An alternative keyword for specifying the Text


well identifier. The well names must
appear after the keyword on a separate
line; it indicates that the following data
applies to the wells named. This keyword
may occur on any line throughout the
data. As with *WELL, there can be a
completion extension but Schedule
ignores this.

Required
unless *WELL
is used

This indicates the date the production


record applies. If a month value of 00 is
entered it defines the associated data as
the starting cumulative for the year.
However, if this is not the first record in a
year an error is flagged.

YYYMM or
YYYYMM or
YYMMDD or
YYYYMMDD.
If YY then 1900
is added to the
year

Required
unless *YEAR
and *MONTH
or *YY/MM are
used

DD (numeric)

Optional and
not if *DATE
or *YY/MM

*KEYLABEL
*UNIQUEID

*NAME
*WELLNAME
*KEYNAME

*DATE

Type

Schedule is capable of reading the date


format in various ways: day/month/year,
day-month-year, day.month.year, where
month may be numeric or the first three
letters of the month name and the year
may be YY or YYYY, for example,
20/Aug/93 or 20/08/1993.The date may
also be entered numerically as indicated
below.
*DAY

This indicates the day digits for the


production record. The default date is 01
(1st of the month)

Required

Production Data File Formats


Keywords

309

Table A.3

Data type keywords (Continued)

Keyword

Description

*MONTH

This indicates the month digits for the


MM (numeric)
production record. If a month value of 00
is used this defines the associated data
as the starting cumulative for the year.
Schedule ignores this unless it is not the
first record in a year, in this case an error
is flagged

Required
unless *DATE
or *YY/MM are
used. Must be
accompanied
by the *YEAR
keyword.

*YEAR

This indicates the year digits for the


production record

YY or YYYY
(Numeric) If YY
then 1900 is
added to the
year.

Required
unless *DATE
or *YY/MM are
used.

*YY/MM

This indicates the year and month digits


for the production record with an
embedded slash separating the two sets
of characters (for example 93/01).

YY/MM or
YYYY/MM or
YY/MM/DD or
YYYY/MM/DD
(Numeric). If
YY then 1900 is
added to the
year.

Required
unless *DATE
or *YEAR and
*MONTH are
used.

*YYMMDD or
*YY#MM#DD

where # or a series of # can represent


any character (for example 95.01 ..01
would require YY #MM # #DD). All
entries should be in the same format and
YY,MM,DD can be specified in any order
(for example *DDMMYY or *MMDDYY).
This can be used to indicate the Year and
month and day digits for the production
record. MMM can also be used in which
case the month is assumed to be the first
three characters of the month name. JLY
is also acceptable for JUL. YYYY may
also be used instead of YY but if YY is
used then 1900 is added to the year. It is
also permissible to omit DD.

310

Production Data File Formats


Keywords

Type

Required

Required
unless one of
the other date
specifiers is
used

Table A.3

Data type keywords (Continued)

Keyword

Description

Type

Required

*SKIP

Skips over a numeric or text field.

Optional (only
used in free
format)

*DATARANGE

This keyword tells Schedule when the


rate or cumulative volume was acquired
for the MONTHLY and YEARLY data. It
can take one of three modifiers: BEGIN,
END, or NULL:

Optional

BEGIN- the sample was obtained at the


beginning of the period, END- obtained at
the end of the period, NULL- obtained on
the date indicated.
The default value for this keyword
depends on the type of data which is
being read in. For rate data the default is
DATARANGE BEGIN. This means that
the rate applies from the beginning of the
specified period. For cumulative volume
the default is DATARANGE END. This
means that the cumulative value
specified includes production to the end
of the specified period. See "Data range
examples" on page 311.

Data range examples


If the monthly data gave a value for Feb. 1995 of 200 bbls this is interpreted as follows:

Example 1
With *DATARANGE END:
The rate 200 starts to apply on 1st Feb. and if the rate datum for March was missing this
rate is carried over. The cumulative volume is calculated from 1st Feb., up to but not
including 1st March. Thus the rate, that Schedule calculates from this cumulative
value, applies from 1st Feb.

Example 2
With *DATARANGE BEGIN:
The rate 200 starts to apply on 1st Feb. and if the rate datum from March is missing the
rate is carried over. The cumulative volume is calculated from 1st Jan. up to but not
including 1st Feb. Thus the rate that Schedule calculates, from this cumulative value,
applies from 1st Jan.

Example 3
With *DATARANGE NULL:
The rate 200 starts to apply from 1st Feb. The cumulative volume is calculated from
the date specified in the previous record, up to but not including 1st Feb. The first date
specified must provide a starting cumulative value, usually zero. Thus the rate that
Schedule calculates, from this cumulative value, applies from the date specified in the
previous record.
Production Data File Formats
Keywords

311

Production field keywords


The production keywords are used to indicate the volumes, rates, and production days
per month of the three phases gas, oil and water for a specified well at a particular date.
Table A.4

312

Production field keywords

Keyword

Description

*DAYS

This indicates the number of


Numeric
days on producing each month
but can be modified by the use
of other keywords. The default
units are days per month, that is
the uptime = producing days/
days in month and the default
value for producing days is the
number of days in the month. If
*HRS_IN_DAYS was specified
then the units for this keyword
are hours per day, that is the
uptime = producing hours/ 24
and the default value for
producing hours is the number
of hours in a day. If *YEARLY
was specified then this keyword
means days on producing in the
year, and the default is the
number of days in the year, that
is uptime = producing days/
days in year.

Days in
month (that
is the full
time period
or uptime =
1).

*UPTIME_FR
ACTION

The uptime fraction for the


Numeric
current time period as indicated
above. Only the first four
characters are significant
unless KEYLENGTH is changed.

Production Data File Formats


Keywords

Type

Default

Required

Has to be used
with *DAYS

Table A.4

Production field keywords (Continued)

Keyword

Description

Type

Default

*OIL

This specifies the oil production Numeric


rate, default units stb/month, but
this can be changed by the use
of the keywords *DAILY,
*MONTHLY, *YEARLY,
*METRIC, *FIELD, *MSTB and
*MSM3.
If *CUMULATIVE is used this
keyword specifies the volume
accumulated up to the present
date, default units stb. Schedule
converts these to project units.

*GAS

This specifies the gas


production rate, default units
Mscf/month, but can be
changed by the use of the
keywords *DAILY, *MONTHLY,
*YEARLY, *METRIC, *FIELD,
*MSTB and *MSM3.
If *CUMULATIVE is used this
keyword specifies the volume
accumulated up to the present
date, default units Mscf.
Schedule converts these to
project units.

Numeric

*WATER

This specifies the water


Numeric
production rate, default units
stb/month, but can be changed
by the use of the keywords
*DAILY, *MONTHLY, *YEARLY,
*METRIC, *FIELD, *MSTB and
*MSM3.
If *CUMULATIVE is used this
keyword specifies the volume
accumulated up to the present
date, default units stb. Schedule
converts these to project units.

Required

Production Data File Formats


Keywords

313

Oil injection field keywords


The oil injection keywords are used to indicate the volumes, rates, and injection days
per month of the oil phase for a specified well at a particular date.
Table A.5

Oil injection field keywords

Keyword

Description

Type

Default

*OIDAY

This specifies the days on oil


Numeric
injection per month, default units are
days per month.
If *HRS_IN_DAYS was specified
then this keyword means hours of oil
injecting per day.
If *YEARLY was specified then this
keyword means days on producing
in the year.
If this keyword is not specified, the
*DAYS field is used instead. If *DAYS
is also not specified then injection is
taken to be over the full period.

*DAYS field used


or full period.

*OINJ

This specifies the oil injection rate,


Numeric
default units stb/month, but can be
changed by the use of the keywords
*DAILY, *MONTHLY, *YEARLY,
*METRIC, *FIELD, *MSTB and
*MSM3.
If *CUMULATIVE is used this
keyword specifies the volume
accumulated up to the present date,
default units stb. Schedule converts
these to project units.

Gas injection field keywords


The gas injection keywords are used to indicate the volumes, rates, and injection days
per month of the gas phase for a specified well at a particular date.

314

Production Data File Formats


Keywords

Table A.6

Gas injection field keywords

Keyword

Description

Type

Default

*GIDAY

This specifies the gas injection days per month.


The default units are days per month. If
*HRS_IN_DAYS was specified then this keyword
means hours of gas injecting per day.
If *YEARLY was specified then this keyword
means days on producing in the year. If this
keyword is not specified the *DAYS field is used
instead. If *DAYS is also not specified then
injection is taken to be over the full period.

Numeric

*DAYS field
used or full
period

*GINJ

This specifies the gas injection rate, default units Numeric


Mscf/month, but can be changed by *DAILY,
*MONTHLY, *YEARLY, *METRIC, *FIELD, *MSTB
and *MSM3 keywords. If *CUMULATIVE is used
this keyword specifies the volume accumulated to
the present date; default units Mscf. Schedule
converts these to project units.

Water injection field keywords


The water injection keywords are used to indicate the volumes, rates, and injection
days per month of the water phase for a specified well at a particular date.
Table A.7

Water injection field keywords

Keyword

Description

Type

*WIDAY

This specifies the water injection days per month; Numeric


default units are days per month.
If *HRS_IN_DAYS was specified then this
keyword means hours of water injecting per day.
If *YEARLY was specified then this keyword
means days on producing in the year.
If not specified, the *DAYS field is used instead. If
*DAYS is also not specified then injection is over
the full period.

*DAYS field
used or full
period

*WINJ

This specifies the water injection rate, default


units stb/month, but can be changed by *DAILY,
*MONTHLY, *YEARLY, *METRIC, *FIELD, *MSTB
and *MSM3 keywords.
If *CUMULATIVE is used this keyword specifies
the volume accumulated to the present date,
default units stb. Schedule converts these to
project units.

Numeric

Default

Production Data File Formats


Keywords

315

Unsupported production analyst keywords


Below is a list of production analyst keywords that are ignored by Schedule:
*STATUS *GIPR *GIST *WIPR *WIST

This is a list of Production Analyst keywords not defined in Schedule:


*CIPR *CIST *SIPR *SIST *NIPR *NIST
*CIDAY *CINJ *SIDAY *SINJ *NIDAY *NINJ

316

Production Data File Formats


Keywords

Data handling in Schedule


For each well, you must supply the cumulative volume data in chronological order,
but the rate data may by unordered. Rates and volumes are converted to daily rates in
Schedule. These may be in either metric or field units and their equivalence is shown
in Table A.8:
Table A.8

Rate units used by the Metric and Field unit sets


Metric

Field

Liquid

sm3/day

stb/day

Gas

sm3/day

Mscf/day

Using OilField Manager definition tables, other units may be used.


By default Schedule reads data so that the rate data applies from the beginning of the
specified period. For example, a monthly rate is converted by Schedule to a daily rate
effective from the first of the month. Missing rate data is ignored and the rate carried
forward to the next month.
Cumulative volume data is taken as the volume accumulated up to the end of the last
day in the specified period so for a cumulative volume sampled at monthly intervals
Schedule converts this to a daily rate effective from the first of the month. Missing
cumulative data results in a zero rate being inserted.
These behaviors can be overridden using the keywords: *DATARANGE,
*ZERO_MISSING, *IGNORE_MISSING.
Events that are imported and have the same date as a rate apply before the rate so that,
for example, the perforation event and the well flowing can occur on the same day.
If in any period injection and production both take place, the uptimes for injection and
production are summed, and taken as the uptime for the well in that period.
All dates refer to the first possible moment of the date described (that is, 00.00hrs).
The last rate value applies to the end of the time model period in which it falls, as set
in the Schedule Time model. Subsequent periods up to the Final Time are set to a zero
rate.
If only injection rates are given, and their uptimes are specified using *WIDAY, *GIDAY
and *OIDAY, then the uptime for the period is taken preferentially to be the injection
uptime specified in *WIDAY. If this is zero it is taken as that specified in *GIDAY. If this
is also zero, then it is that specified in *OIDAY. All dates refer to the first possible
moment of the date described.

Production Data File Formats


Data handling

317

To describe a rate of 100 stb/day valid through the month of January and changing to
50 STB/day on the first of February the following dates and rates are used (for monthly
production samples):
*MONTHLY
*FIELD
*DATE

*OIL

*NAME WELL_1
01.01.1990
01.02.1990

3100
1400

Examples
Example 1
A sample production ASCII file using the *NAME keyword.
Here data for each well is introduced by the *NAME keyword, followed by the well
name on the same line. Rates are monthly rates as this is the default.
*date
/*
/* data

*oil

*gas

STB/MONTH

*water

STB/MONTH

STB/MONTH

*name WELL_011
9001
34500
9002
14500

45004
35003

450
1250

*name WELL_02
9001
16500
9002
18520

22530
25800

2100
2200

Example 2
A sample production ASCII file using the *Well keyword
Here the *WELL keyword is used and so the well name appears in each record (line).
Rates are daily as the use of the keyword *DAILY signifies. The Schedule keyword
*UPTIME_FRACTION is used (but as only four characters are significant *UPTIME is
sufficient) and the date has the Schedule format.
*DAILY
*WELL *DATE

318

*OIL

*GAS

*SKIP

*WINJ

*UPTIME

--- data

STB/DAY

MSCF/DAY

well1
well1
well1

01.01.90
02.01.90
03.01.90

100
100
100

200
200
200

999
999
999

300
300
300

0.5
0.8
1.0

well2
well2
well2

01.01.90
02.01.90
03.01.90

100
100
100

200
200
200

999
999
999

300
300
300

0.3
0.4
0.5

Production Data File Formats


Data handling

STB/DAY

Example 3
A sample production ASCII file using a Fixed Format.
Here the *FORMAT keyword is used. The meaning of the *DAYS keyword in this
example is altered by the use of *HRS_IN_DAYS to mean the number of hours on in a
day (for example in the first record this is 16 hours). The indentation after the *FORMAT
keyword is optional and only used to improve readability.
*DAILY
*HRS_IN_DAYS
*FORMAT
*DAY

*MONTH

*YEAR
*OIL

11 20

*GAS

21 30

*WINJ

31 40

*DAYS

41 50

*END_FORMAT
-1
2
3
4
5
--345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890
*NAME well3
04 01 90 100
05 01 90 100
06 01 90 100

200
200
200

300
300
300

16
24
8

Example 4
A sample production ASCII file using the *FILE keyword.
Here two files are loaded under the common header shown and a separate wellname
associated with each file.
*DAILY
*FORMAT
*DATE 1 10
*OIL 11 20
*END
*FILE file.name1 WELLNAME well.name1
*FILE file.name2 WELLNAME well.name2

Production Data File Formats


Data handling

319

320

Production Data File Formats


Data handling

Event File Formats


Appendix B

Introduction
Well event data
Well event data has the following properties:

You can enter well events into the Events panel, or import them from an ASCII
file, which describes the events in terminology familiar to a reservoir engineer.
Schedule maps the events on to the appropriate ECLIPSE keywords and generates
report timesteps for each event.

You can view the well events by either selecting a well on the control network and
clicking on the Event button,

, on the tool bar of the Control network window,

or by selecting a well with the right mouse button, and choosing Show Events from
the pop-up menu.

Keyword events are ECLIPSE keywords with their associated data. The date on
which the keyword is to be inserted into the SCHEDULE section must be supplied.

Schedule only stores keyword events are only stored in the project if you have
edited or created them.

Internal keyword events are keywords generated by Schedule on export. You can
edit these (in which case they become external events) and the SCHEDULE section
is re-exported.

You can also import keyword events from an ECLIPSE data set or a Schedule
project.

Event File Formats


Well event data

321

322

Well events that have associated measured depth to a layer name, are restricted to
a defined grid K range, by having their depths adjusted to lie within the range if
necessary. First the event is moved up or down the trajectory to try to fit the
measured depths into the specified range. If this is not successful, a portion of the
measured length for the event is trimmed to force the event to lie within the layer
range. A warning is inserted in the Schedule output file if this occurs. If no layer is
defined with the event and a measured depth is found to lie outside of the grid,
then depths are trimmed to lie within the grid. A warning is again inserted in the
export file.

The welltest event causes all the completions within a well to have their Kh values
scaled such that their sum equals the given Kh value in the welltest event. This Kh
holds until the next welltest event for the well, even if the well is re-completed,
plugged etc. Any changes to the completion information are rescaled to the
welltest Kh value. A welltest event is made inactive by specifying another welltest
event with a Kh=(-1) at a later date. Schedule then uses the original Kh derived
from cell properties and cell geometry again.

Event File Formats


Well event data

Event file UNITS keywords


Table B.1

Event file UNITS keywords

UNITS FIELD

This keyword allows the events data to be input in FIELD units.


These units need not be the same as the units used within the
project.

UNITS METRIC

This keyword allows the events data to be input in METRIC units.


These units need not be the same as the units used within the
project.

UNITS DEPTH units

This keyword sets the input units for depth information.


See Table B.2 for recognized length units.

UNITS DIAMETER units

This keyword sets the input units for the well diameters.

See Table B.2 for recognized length units.


UNITS PRESSURE units

This keyword determines the input units for pressure information.

See Table B.3 for recognized pressure units.


If the UNITS are not specified for some or all data in the header of the event file,
Schedule assumes that these data are in project/display units, which can be setup
using Setup | Units.
The UNITS DIAMETER and UNITS PRESSURE keywords take precedence over the
UNITS keyword. If UNITS DIAMETER and/or UNITS PRESSURE is not set, the units
set with the UNITS keyword (or project units if UNITS is not set) are applied to the
data.
Note

The use of upper and lowercase is important for the units symbol.

Table B.2

Recognized event file length UNITS (units)

Recognized length
units

Conversion Factor from


units to metres

Name of length unit

1.0000E+00

metre

METRES

1.0000E+00

metre

dm

1.0000E-01

decimetre

cm

1.0000E-02

centimetre

CM

1.0000E-02

centimetre

mm

1.0000E-03

millimetre

km

1.0000E+03

kilometre

mi

1.6093E+03

mile

NauMi

1.8520E+03

nautical mile

yd

9.1440E-01

yard

Event File Formats


Event file keywords

323

Table B.2

Recognized length
units

Conversion Factor from


units to metres

Name of length unit

ft

3.0480E-01

foot

FEET

3.0480E-01

feet

in

2.5400E-02

inch

Note

The use of upper and lowercase is important for the units symbol.

Table B.3

324

Recognized event file length UNITS (units) (Continued)

Recognized event file pressure UNITS (units)

Recognized pressure Conversion Factor from


units
units to Pa

Name of pressure unit

atm

1.0133E+05

atmosphere

ATMOS

1.0133E+05

atmosphere absolute

ATMOSA

1.0133E+05

atmosphere absolute

psi

6.8948E+03

pounds per square inch

psia

6.8948E+03

pounds per square inch


absolute

PSIA

6.8948E+03

pounds per square inch


absolute

Pa

1.0000E+00

pascal

kPa

1.0000E+03

kilopascal

Mpa

1.0000E+06

megapascal

bar

1.0000E+05

bar

BAR

1.0000E+05

bar

BARS

1.0000E+05

bar

BARSA

1.0000E+05

bar absolute

kbar

1.0000E+08

kilobar

Mbar

1.0000E+11

megabar

inHg

3.3864E+03

inches of mercury

mmHg

1.3300E+02

millimetre of mercury at zero


degrees Celsius

feetwat

2.9900E+03

feet of water 4 degrees Celsius

kg/cm2

1.0000E+04

kg per sq cm

Event File Formats


Event file keywords

Well event file format


You can list well events in any date order within the input ASCII file. The file reader
re-orders the dates as necessary. Wells can also appear in any order in the input file. It
is recommended that the event data for each well is grouped together, and in date
order, to make the ASCII file more readable.
A group of events for a well is introduced by the WELLNAME keyword, which is
followed by a name for the well. The events for the well should follow the WELLNAME
keyword with each event specified on a single line. The format for the event
specification is:
DATE

EVENT-NAME

EVENT-RELATED DATA

This format repeats for all events relating to the well. Blank lines are allowed at any
point and lines that have '--' as the first two characters are ignored. See "Example 1"
on page 329 which shows this format.
Well event names may be in either upper or lowercase (or mixed). However, if any
entry has been made for a layer (for example SAND_1) this name is case sensitive.
Layer names must be contained in brackets. See "Example 2" on page 329. Event related
data must also be provided in a specified order that is determined by the event name.
Event shifting in time can be specified in the file if the event shift direction is different
from the default. See "Time framework window XYZ" on page 194. The event time shift
direction is specified after the layer name within the brackets and has the form:
(LAYER shift=-) or (LAYER shift=0) or (LAYER shift=+),
the layer name LAYER may be omitted.
Event names that are recognized by Schedule, and the event related data, are shown in
Table B.4:
Table B.4

Event names and associated event related data


Top
Bottom
Wellbore
Table
Measured Measured
Kh Skin
BHP
Diameter
Number
Depth
Depth

perforation

barefoot

squeeze

acidize

plug

welltest
user
bhp

vfp
rework

stimulate

Event File Formats


Well event file format

325

Table B.4

Event names and associated event related data (Continued)


Top
Bottom
Wellbore
Table
Measured Measured
Kh Skin
BHP
Diameter
Number
Depth
Depth

frac

wag
cf-multiplier

The following describes the action of the above events:

Perforation and barefoot


These both open connections and are required for an ECLIPSE COMPDAT statement to
be produced in the output SCHEDULE section.

Perforation opens connections within a certain specified measured depth range.

Barefoot opens up connections from a given measured depth to the bottom of the
well trajectory.

Acidise, stimulate, and frac


These all have the same effect. These modify the damage skin used in the connection
factor calculation over a specified measured depth.

Rework
This is similar, but also allows the wellbore diameter to be changed.

Plug and squeeze (cement squeeze)


These both act to close connections, with squeeze closing them over a specified range
and plug closing all connections below a given measured depth.

User, VFP and BHP


These events are not so intuitive.

326

Event File Formats


Well event file format

User event
Allows insertion of arbitrary text in the SCHEDULE section. The text associated with the
User event will be inserted into the SCHEDULE section on the date specified by the User
event. If the text to be inserted in the SCHEDULE section is a comment, it must have two
dashes (--) in front of each line, otherwise it causes an ECLIPSE error. Other data
included in the text field of the User event such as Keywords do not require these two
dashes.

VFP event
Allows you to change the VFP table number in use by a well, so that the simulated
values can be compared with those that have been observed. For details, please refer
to the "ECLIPSE Reference Manual".

BHP event
Allows recorded BHPs to be placed into the output WCONHIST statements that can later
be plotted against the simulated BHPs by using the ECLIPSE summary vector WBHPH.

Wag
Wag allows entry of alternating injection flow types for a prediction well. The data
following the event name and start date for the first injection time are:

End Date: final date for any injection

First injection type: one of WATER, OIL or GAS

First type duration: number of days to inject the first type

First flow rate: surface flow rate for injection

Second injection type: one of WATER, OIL or GAS

Second type duration: number of days to inject the second type

Second flow rate: surface flow rate for injection

The well starts injecting the first type on the date of the event. The first type is injected
at the first flow rate for the first duration number of the day. It then switches to the
second type for the second duration number of days. The cycle repeats until the end
date is reached. You cannot specify a layer restriction for this event.

Cf-multiplier
This allows specification of a multiplier that is applied to the calculated connection
factor and Kh values. Use a second cf-multiplier event with a value of 1.0 to cancel a
previous value. The data following the event name and start date are:

optional layer name

Top measured depth: the multiplier is only applied below this depth

Bottom measured depth: the multiplier is only applied above this depth

Multiplier: the value to use as a multiplier on the CF and Kh values

Event File Formats


Well event file format

327

If Schedule encounters any other event name that it does not recognize, the line
containing the unrecognized name is ignored and an error message generated in the
log window.
For the welltest event, a Kh value of -1 indicates that Kh values calculated by Schedule
should be used.
The event file format is:
Column 1:

Date (day/month/year)

Column 2:

Well Name

Column 3:

Event Name (List above - not case sensitive)

Column 4:

Layer Name (Optional - case sensitive, in brackets e.g. (SAND))

Column 5:

Top-measured Depth for event (if required by event)

Column 6:

Bottom-measured Depth for event (if required)

Column 7:

Wellbore diameter for event (if required) or multiplier value for the
cf-multiplier event.

Column 8:

Damage Skin value associated with event (if required)

The data format for the wag event is listed above.


The User event varies slightly from the above format. Items in columns 1, 2 and 3 are
the same, but the text associated with it must start on a new line, may run over many
lines and must be terminated by a # symbol, set at the beginning of a new line as
illustrated below:
01.08.1992

Q13

user

--This is a user comment, below is a WEFAC to be inserted.


WEFAC 0.5
#

The events file also contains data for TEMPLATE, MACRO and KEYWORD events. The
format for these events requires more than one line in the input file. The first line holds
the date, the type identifier (TEMPLATE, MACRO, KEYWORD), a wellname pattern if
required, and any comments associated with the events. The following line (or lines if
required) hold the keyword information in the same order as required by ECLIPSE.
Schedule can only read in TEMPLATE, MACRO and KEYWORD information that can be
created in the Event Viewer panels. An example of a TEMPLATE and a KEYWORD entry
follows:
GROUPNAME FIELD
SOS TEMPLATE WELSPECS *
4* OIL 7*
WELLNAME WELL1
01.01.01 KEYWORD WLIFTOPT
YES 1.0. 2.0 3.0

Other points to consider are:

328

A User event can be used to insert text in the output, or to place an additional user
defined timestep in an exported SCHEDULE section.

Event File Formats


Well event file format

You can generate DATES statements at the time of each event by requesting that
Schedule honors both a time framework and event times in generating the
SCHEDULE section.

A further event, PROD/INJ, is generated internally when Schedule recognizes a


well changing from a producer to an injector. A User event with an associated
timestep is created when the well changes its status. This has to be forced by
selecting Data | Add Prod/Inj Change Events.

The BHP event does not effect the simulation as it is only used for comparing
simulated values with the values given in the event.

Examples
Example 1
-- This is a comment line
UNITS FIELD
WELLNAME WELL-1
01/01/1990
01/12/1990
01/04/1992
01/11/1992

perforation
plug
welltest
perforation

4000
4000
15000
4100

4020

.5

4200

.5

-- undo the previous welltest Kh and let Schedule calculate


-- the kh
01/11/1992

welltest

-1

WELLNAME WELL-2
01/01/1990
01/04/1990

barefoot
plug

3790
4000

Example 2
-- Next line is also a comment line
-- DD.MM.YYYY WELLNAME
EVENT
DIAM SKIN
01.08.1992
0
01.09.1992
0
12.10.1992
01.10.1992
.55
-2

DEPTH1

DEPTH2

Q13

perforation (SAND_1)

10

30

.5

Q13

perforation

30

500

.5

Q18
Q13

welltest
acidise

-1
30

500

Event File Formats


Well event file format

329

330

Event File Formats


Well event file format

Sources and combinations of


grid, property and well data files

Appendix C

Introduction
Schedule needs information on grid geometry, grid property, well geometry and timedependent well events in order to calculate time-dependent well connections for a
simulation run.
You can import grid, property and trajectory files generated by any gridding
application or simulator into Schedule as long as the format and content are consistent
with the Schedule requirements. In this appendix the GRID and the FloGrid programs
are used as examples of a gridding package, and ECLIPSE as an example of a
simulator.
In the first part of this appendix, "What is a well trajectory?" on page 332, the sources
for grid, property and well geometry files are discussed together with various
combinations of file sources. Details of the generation of import files in related
applications and input file formats and import procedures are discussed. Also
discussed in detail is how you can quickly update well geometry and well connections
in a project to reflect changed grid geometry and grid properties.
The second part, "Well geometry data from deviation survey data file" on page 338
deals with the sources of grid files, and "Grid file format and contents" on page 345
their required content for proper use within Schedule.
The last part, "Tubing description file format" on page 350, describes the tubing
description file format needed to generate a multi-segment well model.
The contents and format requirements for event data files are discussed in "Event File
Formats" on page 321.

Sources and combinations of grid, property and well data files


Introduction

331

What is a well trajectory?


Within Schedule, well geometry data is defined in terms of so-called well trajectories.
A well trajectory contains geometrical information about how the wells intersect the
simulation grid, (that is, the grid block IJK, the entry and exit XYZ coordinates, and
measured depth information) as well as its properties, (the permeabilities and NTG) of
the intersected grid blocks, as shown below for a well trajectory through a cartesian
grid:
TRAJECTORY_COLUMN_ORDER
MD_ENTRY GRID_I GRID_J GRID_K WELL_ENTRY ENTRY_FACE MD_EXIT WELL_EXIT
EXIT_FACE KI KJ KK NTG
-- Data for GLOBAL grid EX1
WELLNAME

G1

WELLHEAD_I 14
WELLHEAD_J 2
TRAJECTORY
7979.05 14 2 1 8039.35 608.83 7979.05 Z- 8034.94 8039.35 608.83
8034.93 Z+ 106.964 90.393 32.520 .900
8034.94 14 2 2 8039.35 608.83 8034.93 Z- 8126.31 8039.35 608.83
8126.30 Z+ 106.964 90.393 32.520 .850
8126.31 14 2 3 8039.35 608.83 8126.30 Z- 8148.62 8039.35 608.83
8148.61 Z+ 5.000
3.000 4.000 .880
8148.62 14 2 4 8039.35 608.83 8148.61 Z- 8165.30 8039.35 608.83
8165.29 Z+ 106.964 90.393 32.520 .800
8165.30 14 2 5 8039.35 608.83 8165.29 Z- 8356.28 8039.35 608.83
8356.28 Z+ 106.964 90.393 32.520 .750
8356.28 14 2 6 8039.35 608.83 8356.28 Z- 8556.28 8039.35 608.83
8556.28 Z+ 106.964 90.393 32.520 .700
END_TRAJECTORY

8556.28

8039.35

608.83

8556.28

The file format allows multilateral wells to be constructed by encoding the relationship
of the well bores in the well name. The main stem well bore, being the well bore that
runs up to the well head, has the usual well name. Lateral side tracks attached to it have
their name modified by appending them to the name of the stem, a % symbol is used
as a separator. Thus a trajectory with its own name of branch1 that represents a side
track off from a main stem called stem0 would have the name stem0%branch1 in the
file. There should be no spaces on either side of the %. For a branch off from branch1
with name branch2 the name in the file would be stem0%branch1%branch2.
A trajectory file for a well trajectory through an unstructured grid (for example PEBI
grid) looks different.

332

Sources and combinations of grid, property and well data files


Well trajectory

The well trajectory is generated by intersecting the well deviation survey with a
simulation grid. The well deviation survey itself contains the geometrical information
about the path of the wellbore in XY coordinates, true vertical depth (TVD) and
measured depth (MD) as shown below:
--

WELLNAME

TVD

MD

G1
8605.78 8548.83 7979.05 7979.05
8605.78 8548.83 8034.93 8034.94
8605.78 8548.83

8126.3 8126.31

8605.78 8548.83 8148.61 8148.62


8605.78 8548.83 8165.29

8165.3

8605.78 8548.83 8356.28 8356.28


8605.78 8548.83 8556.28 8556.28

Once the well trajectory is available for a Schedule project, you can view and edit it by
selecting a well on the Control panel and clicking on the Trajectory button

on the

tool bar. Or, by selecting a well with the right mouse button and choosing Edit
Trajectory from the pop-up menu.
The trajectory table contains the following trajectory information about the wellbore
through the grid:

Measured Depth

Entry and exit X, Y and Z measured from the grid origin

Permeabilities in the I, J, K, directions and NTG values

Grid I, J, K values

These quantities may be edited if necessary.


If a well trajectory is available, Schedule then maps well events (that is, perforations,
squeezes or any other well event that affects the completion state of a well) on to the
well trajectory, and calculate the well Connection Factors and Kh (permeability
porosity product) for each intersected and completed cell. The well Connection Factor
and Kh is included in the COMPDAT keyword, which is generated during the export of
a SCHEDULE section file, for inclusion in the simulator data file.
The Kh and Connection Factor for every event that affects a completion are only
calculated by Schedule if trajectory and permeability data are present; otherwise, the
values are set to the simulator default calculation. To account for the time dependence
in the completion status of the well, Schedule creates time-dependent openings and
closings for the wells that can be used in the ECLIPSE simulation run.
There are three methods of specifying well trajectory data in a Schedule project:
1

Import of a well trajectory file produced by a gridding application

Input of a well deviation survey data and internal calculation of well trajectory

Interactively editing the trajectory table within a Schedule project

In this appendix we discuss methods 1 and 2. The third method is discussed in


"Interactive data editing and validation" on page 44.

Sources and combinations of grid, property and well data files


Well trajectory

333

Grid, property and well geometry file sources, and


combinations
There are different ways to define grid properties and well trajectory information in a
Schedule project; here we discuss some of the possibilities.

Grid and well trajectory file from gridding application


The simplest way of defining well geometry and grid information for a Schedule
project is to export a grid and well trajectory file directly from a gridding application,
for example, from the GRID or FloGrid program.

Grid and well trajectory files from the GRID program


1

To export a grid geometry file from GRID, use the menu option P.3.9.2 called
Out grid

Type in the keyword GRID when prompted for a list of keywords.

To export a trajectory file from GRID in a Schedule-readable format, select the


option P.6.4.3 called Out grd conn

Note

334

For this to work, well deviation survey data must have been loaded into GRID
using P.6.4.2 Input well trj and a model made available containing the
grid to be intersected by the wells.

Specify output for Schedule and include global grid data for wells connected in
LGRs.

If the grid contains radial LGRs, select wells to be moved to the centre of the radial
LGRs during the export.

Sources and combinations of grid, property and well data files


File sources and combinations

On selecting Schedule, a series of questions are asked to define the output, as in the
table below:
Do you wish to output well exit data for grid blocks Y
Do you wish to output grid block permeability and NTG data Y
Current grid properties are
PERMX etc.
Enter property for I-direction permeability or RETURN for PERMX
Enter property for J-direction permeability or RETURN for PERMY
Enter property for Z-direction permeability or RETURN for PERMZ
Enter property for Net-to-Gross NTG
Do you wish to output well entry and exit faces Y
Output all connections (including inactive cells) Y/N: Y
Enter minimum connection length or RETURN for 0
Grid contains local refinements
Output options are A - write all data G - Global grid only
L - write all LGRs S - Select required grids
Enter output option (A/g/l/s) A
*Exclude Global grid data for wells connected to LGRs N

Note

For permeabilities and NTG to be output to the trajectory file, the properties
must already be defined in GRID.
Radial LGRs must be output with wells moved to grid block
centres as Schedule requires this and assumes it on reading the file. If
Schedule is used to calculate the trajectory from a well deviation survey, the
well is always moved to grid block centres for radial LGRs.

GRID then exports a .TRJ file that contains all the connection information for the
defined wells. You can, then, import this file into Schedule.

Grid and well trajectory files from the FloGrid program


1

To export a grid geometry file from FloGrids Unstructured Gridder, select


Unstructured Gridder: File | Export Grid Geometry

To export a trajectory file, select Unstructured Gridder: File | Export Trajectory

To generate a grid geometry file from the current version of FloGrids Structured
Gridder, export first the simulator grid keyword file using the Export panel, select
Structured Gridder: File | Export
You can then include this file in the GRID section of an ECLIPSE DATA file and a
data set run performed to generate the grid geometry file for Schedule.

Trajectory files cannot be generated with the current version of the FloGrids
Structured Gridder. The trajectory has to be generated within Schedule by loading the
well deviation survey data, grid and property files.

Import of grid and trajectory files into Schedule


1

You can import grid and trajectory files into Schedule, using Import | Well
Locations | Trajectory File

Sources and combinations of grid, property and well data files


File sources and combinations

335

Import | Grid

The information from these two files is sufficient for calculating the well Connection
Factors in a Schedule project (subject to the events having been defined). This is
because a well trajectory file contains the path information of wells through the
simulation grid as well as the properties (permeabilities and NTG) of those grid blocks
that are intersected by the wells. In this case, no property file (that is an *.INIT file
from ECLIPSE) is required.
If the grid geometry file from the gridding application is not available, but the grid
geometry has been defined in the simulator include file (that is the grid geometry
keyword file is available for inclusion in the GRID section of an ECLIPSE DATA file),
then you must perform a simulator data set run produce a grid geometry file for import
into Schedule. In any case, it is mandatory to have a grid file available in a Schedule
project.

Updating SCHEDULE section files for changed grid geometry/properties


After the Schedule project has been completed, a SCHEDULE section file exported and
a simulator run performed, it may be necessary to update the properties and/or grid
geometry, for example during history match runs. Different actions must be done in
Schedule to update the well data, depending on whether the properties only or both
the grid geometry and the properties have been updated (for example during the
history match procedure).
If only the grid properties have been edited you have two options for updating the well
data in the Schedule project, depending on where the properties have been changed:
1

If the properties have been updated in the gridding application itself, you can
export a new trajectory file from the gridding application, and import this file into
the existing Schedule project before generating a new SCHEDULE section file. No
property file (INIT file) is required in this case.

If the properties have been updated in the EDIT section of the simulator data file,
then you must perform an ECLIPSE data set run to create a new property file
(INIT file) which contains the updated properties.
Schedule allows you to use the properties from the property file instead of from the
trajectory file for calculating the Connection Factor during the export of the
SCHEDULE section file, even if the well trajectory file has been loaded and used
before to generate a SCHEDULE section file. This can prove useful if, after running
the simulator and investigating the simulation results, you decide to update the
properties by editing them directly on the simulator data file, instead of going back
to the gridding application.
In that case you have to perform the following steps after the simulator data set
run:

First import the new properties, Import | Properties


Then in order to force Schedule to use the properties from the imported property
file instead of those from the previously imported well trajectory file, you have to
specify the proper ECLIPSE simulation option

336

Setup | Options

Set Use Trajectory Perms to NO.

Sources and combinations of grid, property and well data files


File sources and combinations

The main advantage behind this is that the well trajectories do not have to be updated
using the trajectory file every time the properties are changed.This would involve
exporting the properties from the gridding application every time the properties
changed. Instead the well trajectories are updated in the Connection Factor
calculations when exporting a new SCHEDULE section file.
If the grid geometry has also been changed, for example if an attempt has been made
to make a history match, then we recommend that you export a new grid and well
trajectory file from the gridding application; then import the files into Schedule. This
updates the well trajectories both to the changed grid geometry and the property
information).

Sources and combinations of grid, property and well data files


File sources and combinations

337

Well geometry data from deviation survey data file


You can define well geometry by importing a well deviation survey data file containing
the path information of the wells into Schedule so that it calculates the well trajectories.
In this case, you must provide both a grid and a property file for a complete Schedule
project. The property file is required to obtain the permeability and NTG information
for those grid cells that are intersected by the wells.
If the ECLIPSE simulator is used, a property file with the extension *.INIT can be
produced with a data set run by defining the NOSIM keyword (or no simulation) in the
RUNSPEC section and the INIT keyword in the GRID section of the simulator data file.
The NOSIM keyword performs data checking with no simulation. Grid geometry and
property information must still be available in the GRID section of the simulator data
file when running the simulator.
If a property file created by a simulation run is imported into Schedule, we recommend
you also use the grid file that is produced at the same time during the simulation run,
even if another grid file is available from a gridding application. Using both the grid
and property file produced by the simulator avoids possible inconsistencies between
the grid file from the gridding application and the property file from a simulator run.
Note

The grid file is produced by ECLIPSE when the GRIDFILE keyword is placed
in the RUNSPEC section. The GRIDFILE keyword must be set equal to two
(extended output) for generation of a proper grid file for Schedule.

To import grid and property files use:

Import | Grid

Import | Properties

Import of well deviation survey data


You can generate a well trajectory in Schedule instead of having to go through the
gridding application. You can import the well deviation data into Schedule, using
Import | Well Locations | Deviation Survey.
Schedule calculates the trajectories internally (if a grid is present) when you carry out
an operation that requires a trajectory. For example, displaying a well on the 3D Viewer
or exporting a SCHEDULE section.
Note

The deviation data are not stored with the project, but the trajectory calculated
from them is stored and may be exported later if required. If you saved and
exited the project before calculating the trajectories, the data must be reimported when you open the project again.

Schedule automatically fills in the properties for the permeability and net-to-gross if
you imported properties. You may enter these properties manually if you prefer.
Note

338

Re-importing properties does not over-write the trajectory properties unless


they have been set to -1 in the Trajectory table.

Sources and combinations of grid, property and well data files


Well geometry data from deviation survey data file

For Schedule to be able to read a deviation data file, you must have a CONTROL file
containing a description of the deviation data file format, and a list of the files this
format belongs to. The control file is of the same format as used in the GRID and
FloGrid programs for importing well deviation data. Schedule reads this control file,
and then reads the deviation data files it refers to.
The following parameters are required in a deviation data file, and should be present
in this order:
FILETYPE

SINGLEWELL: each deviation survey data file contains data for one
well MULTIWELL: files may contain data for several wells, separated
by markers or with the number of data points specified for each well.

FILETYPE SINGLEWELL

FILETYPE MULTIWELL

The null value used for data in the file (not usually required).

NULL

XYOFFSET

MDOFFSET

TVDOFFSET

START

NULL numeric

XYUNITS
The units used for X,Y position data (FEET or METRES).

XYUNITS units

YES if the X,Y positions in a deviation survey are offsets from the
wellhead position
NO if the X, Y positions are absolute values.

XYOFFSET YES

XYOFFSET NO

In order to offset the internally calculated measured depths by the


specified quantity, if MD is not a defined attribute in the control file.

MDOFFSET +REFVALUE

MDOFFSET -REFVALUE

MDOFFSET +REFDEPTH

MDOFFSET -REFDEPTH

In order to offset the TVD attribute read from the input file. The
alternative method is to define a calculation. This method is faster if
there are no other calculations.

TVDOFFSET +REFDEPTH

TVDOFFSET -REFDEPTH

The position of the first line of data (number of lines from top of file or
from start of current well).

START

Sources and combinations of grid, property and well data files


Well geometry data from deviation survey data file

339

ENDPOINT

WELLNAME

For MULTIWELL files the end of data for a well must be indicated by a
MARKER value after the last valid data for the well, or by the number
of points for the well being given in the header data.

ENDPOINT MARKER numeric

ENDPOINT HEADER LINE n ITEM m

ENDPOINT n

For MULTIWELL files, the name of the well is read from the file
HEADER (you specify LINE and ITEM position). For SINGLEWELL
files, you may choose to enter the well name associated with each file.
If no well names are given, you can enter a default name root, to be
used to set up well names.

WELLNAME HEADER LINE n ITEM m

WELLNAME name

Multilateral wells can be constructed by encoding the relationship of


the well bores in the well name. The main stem well bore, being the
well bore that runs up to the well head, has the usual well name.
Lateral side tracks attached to it have their name modified by
appending them to the name of the stem, with a % symbol used as a
separator. Thus a deviation with its own name of branch1 that
represents a side track off from a main stem called stem0 would have
the name stem0%branch1 in the file. There should be no spaces on
either side of the %. For a branch off from branch1 with name
branch2 the name in the file is stem0%branch1%branch2.
TOPX, TOPY X,Y positions of the wellhead. These may be read from the file
HEADER, entered as actual positions (for SINGLEWELL files), or
defaulted to the first X,Y position read from the file. These offset the
well coordinates if XYOFFSET it YES.

REFDEPTH

REFVALUE

340

TOPX HEADER LINE n ITEM m

TOPX numeric

TOPX DEFAULT

Reference depth for depth values. This may be read from the file
HEADER, or defaulted to zero. You must specify your own calculations
to use this; otherwise it has no effect. If the units of the reference depth
cannot be determined from its use in a calculation, its units are set to
the TVD units, or MD if not present.

REFDEPTH HEADER LINE n ITEM m

REFDEPTH numeric

REFDEPTH DEFAULT

Reference value for use by the user in calculations. This is, either, read
from the file HEADER, or defaulted to zero. If the units of the reference
depth cannot be determined from its use in a calculation its units are
set to the MD units.

REFVALUE HEADER LINE n ITEM m

REFVALUE numeric

REFVALUE DEFAULT

Sources and combinations of grid, property and well data files


Well geometry data from deviation survey data file

Once these values are defined you should enter the names of the data attributes to be
read, their file positions, and the units used. By default the program expects four
special attributes to define the well trajectory: XPOS, YPOS, MD and TVD. These define
the X,Y position, Measured Depth and True Vertical Depth. If XYOFFSET is YES then
XPOS/YPOS are offsets from the wellhead X/Y position, if NO then they are the exact
wellhead X/Y locations.
Other named attributes can also be read in for use in calculations. These attributes can
be any name which the numbers read from the trajectory file are associated. However,
XPOS, YPOS, MD, and TVD must be defined by calculation from these attributes. If no MD
is supplied it is calculated as the direct distance between the individual data points
summed along the trajectory.
You can also define the well trajectory in terms of three attributes: AZIMUTH,
INCLINATION, and MD. You can define angles as either DEGREES or RADIANS, with the
INCLINATION of each data point being defined as the bearing from the preceding
point measured from the vertical, and the AZIMUTH as the bearing from the preceding
point measured from North. To use this, you must specify the location of the well head
using TOPX, TOPY and REFDEPTH. In this case REFDEPTH is the TVD of the first point
in the well. The MD of the first point is set to be the same as REFDEPTH unless
REFVALUE has been specified, then the MD of the first point is taken to that value. If
neither is specified the value is zero.
ATTRIBUTE

Attributes can be defined in the following manner:

ATTRIBUTE name POSITION n UNITS units

ATTRIBUTE name CALCULATE UNITS units


The word CALCULATE may be omitted:

ATTRIBUTE name UNITS units


Units can be FEET, METRES, DEGREES or RADIANS.

If an attribute is defined with no position in the data file, it can be


defined using a CALCULATE command. Variables used for calculation
may include input data attributes and also the keywords REFDEPTH
and REFVALUE.
CALCULATE name BY expression
Finally, you must enter a list of the input files to be loaded. If these are
SINGLEWELL files they should all be in the same format. If not, the
WELLNAME, TOPX, TOPY or REFDEPTH values must be entered for each
well data file.

FILE name

FILE name WELLNAME name

Unsupported GRID control file features


The following GRID control keywords are ignored by Schedule:

STORAGE is not supported.

RECLEN is not required

FORMAT is not required

TOPX and TOPY or XPOS and YPOS for latitude and longitude are not supported.

Sources and combinations of grid, property and well data files


Well geometry data from deviation survey data file

341

Updating changed grid geometry/properties in SCHEDULE section files


After the Schedule project has been completed, a SCHEDULE section file exported and
a simulator run performed, it may be necessary to update the properties and/or grid
geometry. See the previous section,"Updating SCHEDULE section files for changed
grid geometry/properties" on page 336.
Note

If the grid geometry has also been updated, both the grid and property file
must be re-generated with a simulator data set run. You then import the files
into Schedule, and the trajectories are re-calculated. This updates the well
trajectories, with both the changed grid geometry and the property
information.

Note

If a changed grid file is imported into Schedule, an updated property file must
be imported to ensure consistency between the files. If not, the properties
remain empty when the trajectories are re-calculated, and no Connection
Factors are calculated.

Interactive input of well positions


In some cases, well geometry data is not available either from a gridding application
or from a well deviation survey data file. This might be true for example when creating
hypothetical wells to be placed on a simulation grid during parametric studies. These
wells can be defined interactively within a Schedule project by specifying their path
through the grid (IJKs of the intersected grid cells) on the Trajectory table. Schedule
then calculates the trajectory for those wells, if grid and property information is
supplied. See "Interactive data editing and validation" on page 44 for more details.

342

Sources and combinations of grid, property and well data files


Well geometry data from deviation survey data file

Examples
Example 1
Control file
-- Well data file description
FILETYPE
MULTIWELL
NULL
1000000.
XYUNITS
METRES
XYOFFSET
YES
START
3
ENDPOINT
MARKER
-999
WELLNAME
HEADER
LINE 2
TOPX
HEADER
LINE 2
TOPY
HEADER
LINE 2
REFDEPTH
20.0
-- Attributes in well
ATTRIBUTE XPOS
ATTRIBUTE YPOS
ATTRIBUTE MD
ATTRIBUTE DEPTH
ATTRIBUTE TVD

ITEM 1
ITEM 2
ITEM 3

data file
POSITION 1
POSITION 2
POSITION 3
POSITION 4
CALCULATE

UNITS
UNITS
UNITS
UNITS
UNITS

METRES
METRES
FEET
FEET
FEET

-- Attribute calculations
CALCULATE TVD
BY
DEPTH - REFDEPTH
-- List of input files for well data
FILE test.data
END

Example 2
Trajectory file: test.data
-- Well trajectory information
WELL1 100.23 145.65
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
10.0 0.0 500 498
12.0 1.0 1000 990
40.0 8.0 2000 1950
-999
WELL2 2500 3000
0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
1.0
2.0 2000 2000
400.0 8.0 2500 2100
-999

If necessary, XPOS and YPOS can be calculated from the input data instead of being
loaded directly. Data in (R, THETA) form can be processed where THETA takes an
angular value using the special units ANG_DEG (for degrees) or ANG_RAD (for radians).

Sources and combinations of grid, property and well data files


Well geometry data from deviation survey data file

343

Example 3
The following options can be used for the case where THETA is measured as an
azimuthal angle increasing clockwise from the X-axis:
-- Define X/Y position as offset from wellhead
XYOFFSET
YES
.....
-- Attributes in well data file
ATTRIBUTE
ATTRIBUTE
ATTRIBUTE
ATTRIBUTE
.....

R
XPOS
YPOS
THETA

POSITION 1
CALCULATE
CALCULATE
POSITION 2

UNITS
UNITS
UNITS
UNITS

METRES
METRES
METRES
ANG_DEG

-- Calculations for XPOS, YPOS


CALCULATE XPOS
CALCULATE YPOS

BY
BY

R*COS(THETA)
R*SIN(THETA)

Example 4
The following options can be used for the case where the bearing of one point from the
previous is known, the first point is specified through the header information:
.....
START
2
.....
WELLNAME
HEADER
LINE 1 ITEM
TOPX
HEADER
LINE 1 ITEM
TOPY
HEADER
LINE 1 ITEM
REFDEPTH
HEADER
LINE 1 ITEM
REFVALUE
HEADER
LINE 1 ITEM
-- Attributes in well data file
ATTRIBUTE AZIMUTH
POSITION 1
ATTRIBUTE INCLINATION POSITION 2
ATTRIBUTE MD
POSITION 3
.....

344

1
2
3
4
5
UNITS DEGREES
UNITS DEGREES
UNITS FEET

Sources and combinations of grid, property and well data files


Well geometry data from deviation survey data file

Grid file format and contents


Schedule needs a grid geometry file for a complete project. The grid file can be
formatted or unformatted. If formatted, the first character of the file name extension
must be f or F, for example EX1.FGRID. This tells Schedule that the imported file
is formatted. Any other extension is treated as unformatted, for example EX1.GRID. If
a formatted grid file has an unformatted extension an error message is created when
you import it. Upper and lowercase are allowed, but note that interactive programs are
case-sensitive for file names.

Relationship between grid and map coordinate


systems
When well deviation survey data are imported for internal well trajectory calculations,
Schedule must know the relationship of the grid coordinates to the map coordinates.
This allows it to calculate the intersections of the wells with the grid.
When a simulation grid is generated in the gridding application, geological,
geophysical and possibly, well position data are loaded from maps. The coordinate
system (UTM coordinates, for example) of these maps is specified in the gridding
application. When the grid is generated, it is given its own coordinate system, which is
usually different from the map coordinate system. Schedule has to know about the
relationship between both coordinate systems to be able to calculate the intersections
correctly.
Gridding applications like the GRID or FloGrid programs can include such
information in their exported files; they write the relationship between map and grid
coordinate systems to a keyword called MAPAXES.
The grid units are also very often different from the map units (for example, UTM maps
in METRES and the grid in FEET). Schedule has to know about this relationship in order
to do the calculations.
The grid geometry file can be exported either directly from the gridding application or
be produced by a simulator run. In the latter case, a keyword file containing the
geometrical information is exported from the gridding application for inclusion in the
simulator data file. It has the extension *.GRDECL if exported from the GRID program
and it contains the MAPAXES keyword in its header:
MAPAXES
-- Grid axes with respect to map coordinates
.0000000E+00 .0000000E+00
.0000000E+00

5000.000

500.0000

5000.000

Sources and combinations of grid, property and well data files


Grid file format

345

ECLIPSE reads this data during a simulation or no-simulation (NOSIM data set) run
and writes it to the GRID file:
'MAPAXES '

6 'REAL'

.00000000E+00

.00000000E+00

.50000000E+04

.50000000E+04

.00000000E+00

.50000000E+04

If a GRID file is directly exported from the GRID program, you are asked if MAPAXES
should be included in the file. Say YES, because the information is required if the well
trajectory is calculated in Schedule from imported well deviation survey data. It is
automatically included in a FloGrid GRID file.
MAPAXES is not relevant if a trajectory file generated in the gridding application is used
for specifying the well geometry in Schedule.
The format of the MAPAXES keyword and entries is the same, regardless of whether
they are generated by the simulator or by the gridding application program. Following
the MAPAXES keyword line, there is a single record containing six items of data:
X1 Y1 The X and Y coordinates of one point of the grid Y-axis relative to the map
X2 Y2 The X and Y coordinates of the grid origin relative to the map origin
X3 Y3 The X and Y coordinates of one point of the grid X-axis relative to the map
Figure C.1 Meanings of the MAPAXES keyword entries
Grid Origin
Y
X2
y

X1
1

Y2

3
Y1
Y3
X
X3

Map Origin

346

Sources and combinations of grid, property and well data files


Grid file format

The units of the MAPAXES entries are the same as the map units used in the gridding
application. Unfortunately, GRID files produced with the pre 99B versions of GRID and
FloGrid do not contain a unit flag for these units, so they are initially unknown to
Schedule. As the units of the map, and therefore the units of the MAPAXES keyword
entries, are usually METRES, Schedule assumes these units by default. However, if
these units are different from the default ones, they can be configured in the SCHEDULE
section of the configuration file (CONFIG.ECL or ECL.CFG). Refer to "Importing a
grid" on page 29.
---------------------------------------SECTION SCHEDULE
---------------------------------------MAPUNITS METRES
--MAPUNITS FEET

Schedule displays a message in the Log window during the grid import stating
defaulted map units to METRES if the map units are not set in
the configuration file or Map units from config file set to
METRES/FEET if set.
Otherwise the file containing the MAPUNITS keyword and the following message is
displayed, Map units from Grid file set to METRES/FEET
Schedule searches for the MAPAXES keyword during the importing of the grid file. If
not specified, default values are applied, which are:
'MAPAXES '

6 'REAL'

.0000000E+04

-.50000000E+00

.50000000E+04

.00000000E+00

.00000000E+00

.00000000E+00

Figure C.2 Meanings of default values of MAPAXES keyword


Y

Grid Origin

X2=X1=0
x
3

2
y
Y2=Y3

Y1=0

X
X3

Map Origin

The default MAPAXES values as shown in Figure C.2 mean that the grid is located with
its bottom left corner at the origin of the map, with the map y-coordinates increasing
towards the top (left-handed coordinate system). The x and y axes of both grid and
map are parallel.

Sources and combinations of grid, property and well data files


Grid file format

347

The grid coordinate system in this figure has its coordinate origin at the top left corner
and y-coordinates increasing from top to bottom (right handed coordinate system).
Note

The grid coordinates can also be left handed with the origin in the bottom left
corner. Schedule extracts this information from the MAPAXES entries in the grid
file.

Well deviation survey data can be imported, using Import | Well Location | Deviation
Survey
Schedule uses the MAPAXES information to map the location of the wells on to the
simulation grid, and calculates the well to grid connections.
Hint

If no connections of the wells with the grid are found, check whether the
MAPAXES keyword was included in the header of the grid file, or whether the
correct map units are specified in the configuration file.

If the map units are set incorrectly in the configuration file and a grid has already been
loaded into the project, save and close the project, exit the program. Then set the proper
map units in the configuration file (CONFIG.ECL or ECL.CFG). You can now restart
Schedule and re-load the grid into the existing project.
Well deviation survey data units can differ from the grid units and/or specified map
units. As long as the proper unit flag is placed in the header of the data files, Schedule
recognizes the flag and converts the data if necessary.
The GRID file can also be prepared in any units, which are recognized by Schedule
during import if the proper units flag is placed:
'GRIDUNIT' 2 'CHAR'
'FEET

' ' '

This is normally done automatically by the gridding application. If the units flag is
unset, you are prompted by the program during the import to specify them. The grid
units can differ from the well data map units.
If a grid file for Schedule is produced by specifying grid geometry data in the ECLIPSE
simulator data file rather than by using a gridding package and including a keyword
file exported from the gridding package to the simulator data file, ensure that the
MAPAXES and the GRIDUNIT keywords are defined in the GRID section of the data file
as shown below:
-- Defining relationship between Grid and Map coordinate system
MAPAXES
.0000000E+00 .0000000E+00
5000.000 /

.0000000E+00

5000.000

-- Defining Grid units


GRIDUNIT
FEET /

348

Sources and combinations of grid, property and well data files


Grid file format

5000.000

You can export a grid file, also, in map coordinates from the GRID program by
specifying MAP when the GRID program asks for the units of the exported grid during
the export procedure. The following flag is set in the header of the GRID file:
'GRIDUNIT' 2 'CHAR'
'FEET

' 'MAPFT

'

In this case, MAPAXES is not relevant any more, because the grid geometry data are
written in the coordinates of the map itself. Schedule is now able to calculate the
connections between wells and the grid if the coordinate systems of the map used in
GRID and the coordinate system of the well deviation survey data are the same (for
example if they are both in UTM coordinates).
Note

If well geometry data are specified by importing a well trajectory file from
either the GRID or FloGrid program instead of inputting the deviation survey
data itself, then the MAPAXES information in the grid file is not relevant.
Schedule does not have to calculate the intersections of the wells with the grid,
as these have already been calculated in the gridding application.

When a GRID file for Schedule is produced by an ECLIPSE simulator data set run, the
GRIDFILE keyword in the GRID section of the ECLIPSE data file has to be set equal to
2, which means extended grid file output, as shown below:
-- Output of an Eclipse Grid file (extended output)
GRIDFILE
2 /

If the extended GRID file output is not set, Schedule misses important information, and
you are warned during import that the GRID file cannot be read and needs to be
re-created using the extended output option.
If a grid contains local grid refinements, the extended GRID file output is defaulted by
ECLIPSE.

Sources and combinations of grid, property and well data files


Grid file format

349

Tubing description file format


The tubing description file provides information about the characteristics of well
casing and tubing as well as locations of packers, chokes and inflow control devices.
Schedule uses this information, along with perforation data, to construct a multisegment well description which includes the volumes and roughness of various
sections of the well.
The first line of the tubing file should specify the units used in the remainder of the file.
This is done with the UNITS keyword. Choices for units are FIELD or METRIC
indicating a choice of feet or meters for measured depth and other length
measurements.
-- Specify length units
UNITS FIELD

The next section of the tubing file should list the casings/linings for the well and
various branches. Use the CASING keyword to introduce the description and name the
stem or branches. The CASING keyword is followed by the well (or branch) name on
the same line. On lines following the CASING keyword the characteristics for the casing
are specified. Each line contains, in order:

A measured depth point on the casing.

The internal diameter of the casing starting at the MD.

The internal roughness of the casing starting at the MD.

The final line contains only the last measured depth for the casing. Specify a new line
whenever the diameter of the casing/lining changes or whenever the roughness
changes.
-- Specify well casing characteristics
CASING WELL1
0

.5

.01

7251.28

The next part of the tubing file should list any internal tubings. Use the TUBING
keyword to introduce each tubing description.
The TUBING keyword is followed, on the same line, by:

The name of the tubing

The casing in which the tubing starts

The casing in which the tubing ends

Optionally, the name of the simulation well that is used to model flow from this
tubing. If this field is blank the flow from this tubing drains into the starting casing.

On lines following the TUBING keyword the characteristics for the tubing are specified.
Each line contains, in order:

350

A measured depth point for the tubing (the measured depth of a tubing is the same
as the measured depth of the surrounding casing)

Sources and combinations of grid, property and well data files


Tubing description file format

The internal diameter of the tubing at the MD point

The internal roughness of the tubing at the MD point

The external diameter of the tubing at the MD point

The external roughness of the tubing at the MD point. If this is not specified it
defaults to the same value as the internal roughness:

-- Specify Tubing Characteristics


TUBING Internal1 WELL1 WELL1%BRANCH1 WELL1:02
0 .16 .01 .20 .01
10000

The last line of each tubing description should contain only the measured depth where
the tubing stops.
In the remainder of the tubing file the locations of packers, chokes and inflow control
devices/valves are specified.
To specify the location of a packer, use the PACKER keyword followed, on the same line,
by the name of the packer, the name of the casing in which the packer is placed and the
measured depth of the packer:
-- Specify Packer locations
PACKER Packer1 WELL1%BRANCH1 5000
PACKER Packer2 WELL1%BRANCH1 7000
PACKER Packer3 WELL1%BRANCH1 8000

To specify the location of a choke, use the CHOKE keyword followed, on the same line,
by the name of the choke, the casing in which the choke is placed and the measured
depth of the choke:
-- Specify CHOKE locations
CHOKE Choke1 WELL1%BRANCH1 4300

To specify the locations of inflow control valves/devices, use the INFLOW keyword
followed, on the same line, by the name of the inflow device, the tubing in which the
device occurs and the measured depth of the device:
-- Specify INFLOW locations
INFLOW ICD1 Internal1 6000
INFLOW ICD2 Internal1 7000

Sources and combinations of grid, property and well data files


Tubing description file format

351

352

Sources and combinations of grid, property and well data files


Tubing description file format

SCHEDULE Section File


Appendix D

Exporting SCHEDULE section files


It is one of the main purposes of Schedule to produce the SCHEDULE section file for
inclusion in an input data file of ECLIPSE or another reservoir simulator. A SCHEDULE
section file for the whole control network, as shown on the Control Network panel, is
exported using Export | Schedule Section
Note

The units of the exported SCHEDULE section file are defaulted to the project (or
display) units. To export the file in units different from those used in the
project for display, change these units before exporting the file using Setup |
Units. Changing the project units only effects the display of data on the panels
and tables.

You can export a SCHEDULE section for selected well(s) or group(s) of wells only, by
first selecting the well(s) or group(s) of wells on the Control Network panel with the
mouse (using the Shift key for multiple selections and the Ctrl key for noncontiguous selections) and then, selecting Control Network: Export | Selected
Schedule.
Note

Multiple well selections on the control network can only be made within one
group. Well(s) and group(s) cannot be selected together.

This generates the SCHEDULE section file only for the selected wells or wells in the
selected group. The recommended extension for a SCHEDULE section file is *.SCH. You
can edit the SCHEDULE section file, if necessary, and you can also import it into other
Schedule sessions.

SCHEDULE Section File


Exporting SCHEDULE section files

353

Specifying start and end date for generation of


SCHEDULE section file
SCHEDULE sections can be exported for any start and end date as set in the Simulation
Time Framework panel, Setup | Time Framework
Exporting a SCHEDULE section between required start and end dates may prove useful
if, for example, you want to break up the history match data into intervals in order to
make a history match of only one period; or, if you want to export a SCHEDULE section
for the prediction period of a simulation project only.

Configuring simulation options


Before exporting the SCHEDULE section, make sure that the proper simulation options
have been set on the Eclipse Options panel, Setup | Options
Default settings for all the simulation options for generation of SCHEDULE section files
exist. These default settings are sufficient for most cases. The defaults are as follows:

354

Skin entry in the COMPDAT keyword will be suppressed (Suppress Skin = Yes),
because the skin is not required primarily by the simulator if the Connection Factor
is specified.

Trajectory permeabilities will be used for Connection Factor calculations (Use


Trajectory Perms = YES) instead of those in the property file.

Compensated rates are entered in WCONHIST, that is no WEFAC used for historical
production data (Use WEFAC = NO).

COMPVE keywords not generated for completion data (Generate COMPVE = NO).

Production history keywords WCONHIST generated (Suppress History = NO).

Well connection keywords COMPDAT generated (Suppress Connections = NO).

Comments, warnings, errors not suppressed.

Threshold perforations length percentage under which connections should be


suppressed in a grid cell is defaulted to 5% (Perf.% Threshold = 5). You can specify
an absolute perforation length threshold value instead.

SCHEDULE Section File


Exporting SCHEDULE section files

Figure D.1 Default Eclipse Options settings

Content of a typical SCHEDULE section file


A SCHEDULE section file exported for the ECLIPSE reservoir simulator with the default
ECLIPSE Options settings, looks like the file shown below. The file has been split into
sections with explanatory notes in between.
-- FILE GENERATED ON 1 'SEP' 1997 8:48
-----------

INPUT FILE LIST


30 Jun 1997: 'GRID FILE' /ecl/tutorials/ex3/EX3.FGRID
30 Jun 1997: 'GRID PROPERTIES' /ecl/tutorials/ex3/EX3.FINIT
30 Jun 1997: 'PRODUCTION HISTORY' /ecl/tutorials/EX3.VOL
30 Jun 1997: 'WELL EVENTS' /ecl/tutorials/ex3/EX3a.EV
30 Jun 1997: 'WELL EVENTS' /ecl/tutorials/ex3/EX3b.EV
30 Jun 1997: 'DEVIATION SURVEY' /ecl/tutorials/EX3.CNT
30 Jun 1997: 'HIERARCHY FILE' /ecl/tutorials/ex3/EX3.NET
01 Jul 1997: 'WELL TRAJECTORY' /ecl/tutorials/EX3_PRED.TRJ
01 Jul 1997: 'WELL EVENTS' /ecl/tutorials/ex3/EX3_PRED.EV

The top of the file contains the date when the file was produced and a list of the files
that have been imported into the Schedule project with their original path and date of
import. This might help you to find the original sources of the data file if you want to
edit the Schedule project at a later date. This file list is also stored with the project and
you can view it, using Data | Input Files

SCHEDULE Section File


Exporting SCHEDULE section files

355

If an older data file has been replaced by importing a newer one into the project,
another line is added to the files list but the entry of the older file is not deleted. Thus
the complete history of imported data files is available.
-- FIELD UNITS
-- SIMULATION START DATE 1 'JAN' 1970
--

: OUTPUT GENERATED BY SCHEDULE 97A - Week 9731, Build 320

Next in the example SCHEDULE section file is a comment that indicates the units in
which the SCHEDULE section was output. This is a reminder to check if the units in the
RUNSPEC section are the same.
The comment on the simulation start date reflects the initial (start) date set in the
Simulation Time Framework panel for starting to generate the exported SCHEDULE
section file, which you can view, using Setup | Time Framework
This is a reminder to check if the simulation start date in the RUNSPEC section is the
same. It also helps to coordinate SCHEDULE section files if they are exported for distinct
time periods (for example if a history match has been broken up into intervals).
-20
--Skin
-----

: SLANTW1 Perforation Top 1200.00 Bottom 1840.50 Damage Skin


:
:
10
:
:
:
:

SLANTW1 Connection 5 10 1 Perf. Len 640.50 ( 58.2%)


SLANTW1a Perforation Top 1841.00 Bottom 2400.00 Damage
SLANTW1a
SLANTW1a
SLANTW1a
SLANTW1a

Connection
Connection
Connection
Connection

3
3
3
2

2
2
2
2

2
3
4
4

Perf.
Perf.
Perf.
Perf.

Len 194.76 ( 64.0%)


Len 259.24 ( 87.6%)
Len 33.51 ( 11.7%)
Len 71.49 ( 24.9%)

Just after each DATE entry (and after the simulation start date), just before WELSPECS
and COMPDAT keywords appear, a list of comments, warnings and error messages (if
any) are written to the file.
The comments summarize the well events that occurred at this timestep and that affect
the completion data (for example, perforations, squeezes, welltests etc). As all the
comment lines start with a double dash, they are ignored by the simulator.
Quantitative data are provided for the connections that result from these events:

IJK of perforated block in global or local coordinates, depending on where the well
is completed (that is, either in a global or in an LGR block).

Perforation Length of the well in the block (in project units)

Percentage of the grid block being perforated in brackets. This is the length of the
perforation divided by the length of the grid cell measured in the major direction
of the well penetration, multiplied by 100.
It is the perforated percentage (PP), as calculated by [EQ D.1]:
100 h
PP = --------------Dx

[EQ D.1]

and illustrated in Figure D.2.


This value can be greater than 100% if there is a highly deviated, fully perforated,
well that penetrates the grid block with entry and exit phase on opposite sides of
the grid block.

356

SCHEDULE Section File


Exporting SCHEDULE section files

Figure D.2 Well position leading to a perforation percentage greater than 100%

|h|
Dx

Error messages are written when Schedule encounters a situation that makes the
resulting SCHEDULE section invalid.

Warnings are generated to draw attention to potential problem situations.

Note

When you have to deal with very large projects, it is useful to extract possible
ERROR messages from the exported SCHEDULE section files in order to get an
overview. On UNIX, you can use the command below to obtain a shortened
list of error messages sorted by well name:
grep ERROR SCHEDULE_FILE | sort +2 | uniq

sort +2 sorts the output by well names.


uniq extracts only those lines that are different from each other. Thus
avoiding the same error message appearing hundreds of times on the
extracted list, as well as well has flow but no grid connections
that appears every time a production rate is specified for a well that is not
perforated.
A listing and explanations of Schedule advisory messages (errors and warnings) is
given in "Schedule Advisory Messages" on page 371 in this manual.
WELSPECS
'SLANTW1'
'G_1'
'VW4'
'G_2.2'
2
'VW5'
'G_3'
3
/
WELSPECL
'SLANTW1a'
1* 1* 1*
'SLANTW2'
1* 1* 1*
/

5
8
1

10 1*
1*
1*

'G_1' 'LG1_SL1A'
1* /
'G_1' 'LGR1_SL2'
1* /

'OIL' 1* 1* 1* 1* 1* 1* 1* /
'OIL' 1* 1* 1* 1* 1* 1* 1* /
'OIL' 1* 1* 1* 1* 1* 1* 1* /

3
2

2
2

1*

'OIL'

1*

1*

1*

1*

'OIL'

1*

1*

1*

WELSPECS and WELSPECL keywords summarize well specification data. For details,
please refer to the "ECLIPSE Reference Manual".

SCHEDULE Section File


Exporting SCHEDULE section files

357

Hint

Item 6 in WELSPECS and item 7 in WELSPECL in the "ECLIPSE Reference


Manual" specify the preferred phase for the well. Within Schedule, it cannot be
decided based on the available production data, whether the
produced/injected well phase is oil, water or gas. Therefore, the preferred
phase is defaulted to OIL by introducing a template for
WELSPECS/WELSPECL on the FIELD Events panel. You can alter this template,
if necessary, or reset for specific wells or groups of wells by introducing
another template on a lower level in the control hierarchy. For details of how
to use a template, please refer to "Using templates, macros and keywords for
predictions" on page 104 of this manual. If the default OIL is used, but it does
not apply to the well, ECLIPSE resets it during the simulation run, and gives a
proper warning message.

COMPDAT
-- WELL
I
Kh SKIN ND
'SLANTW1'
5
17519.836 1* 1*
'VW4'
2
565.685 1* 1*
/

J
DIR
10
8

K1

K2

1
1
'X' /
1
1

Sat.

CF

'OPEN'
'OPEN'

COMPDATM
-WELL
LGR
I
J
K1
DIAM
Kh SKIN ND
DIR
'SLANTW1a' 'LG1_SL1A'
3
2
2
0.656
5374.926 1* 1*
'X' /
'SLANTW1a' 'LG1_SL1A'
3
2
3
0.656
7154.448 1* 1*
'X' /
'VW8'
'LG1_VW78'
5
1
1
0.656
1088.944
3.000 1*
'VW8'
'LG1_VW78'
5
1
2
0.656
1088.944
3.000 1*
'VW8'
'LG1_VW78'
5
1
3
0.656
1088.944
3.000 1*
'VW8'
'LG1_VW78'
5
1
4
0.656
1088.944
3.000 1*
'VW8'
'LG2_VW78'
7
2
1
0.656
989.949
3.000 1*
'VW8'
'LG2_VW78'
7
2
2
0.656
989.949
3.000 1*
/

1
1

4.724
0.353

K2

Sat.

DIAM
0.656
0.656

CF

'OPEN'

1*

2.516

'OPEN'

1*

3.350

'OPEN'
/
'OPEN'
/
'OPEN'
/
'OPEN'
/
'OPEN'
/
'OPEN'
/

1*

0.908

1*

0.908

1*

0.908

1*

0.908

1*

0.873

1*

0.873

1
'Z'
2
'Z'
3
'Z'
4
'Z'
1
'Z'
2
'Z'

COMPDAT/COMPDATM contain well completion specification data for wells completed


in global cells/LGRs. COMPDATM is also used for well connections to single LGRs, not
only for those connected to amalgamated LGRs. This is consistent with the ECLIPSE
formal requirements.
Note

In the above example, COMPDAT(M) the skin factor is suppressed (that means
defaulted). This is the Schedule default export option. Only entries for
Connection Factors (CF) and Kh are made in COMPDAT(M).

In ECLIPSE, the skin factor in COMPDAT(M) is not used for calculations, as the CF is
present. However, if not suppressed, the skin is a mechanical skin.

358

SCHEDULE Section File


Exporting SCHEDULE section files

Export options can be changed on the Eclipse Options panel. You can open this by,
selecting Setup | Options
Schedule provides you with the simulation options to suppress Connection Factor (CF)
and/or Skin factor in COMPDAT(M). If the CF is suppressed but not skin, the value of
skin is taken as a pseudo skin.
The Kh values placed in COMPDAT(M) change depending on whether CF is suppressed
or not:

If CF is not suppressed, an accurate Kh is written, which is a Kh taking into account


effects like partial penetration and the deviation of the well.

If CF is suppressed, an ECLIPSE type Kh is written, which is an ideal Kh that


assumes full penetration and ideal positioning of the well in the grid block.
ECLIPSE uses the same calculation as Schedule to obtain CF from Kh and Skin
values, and wellbore diameter.

Note

An ECLIPSE type Kh has to be written, because for CF suppressed a pseudo


skin is written. The CF is calculated from Kh and skin values, but only one of
these two variables is allowed to account for the effects like partial penetration,
etc, for a correct calculation of CF.

If both CF and Skin are suppressed in the ECLIPSE Simulation window, the Kh is also
suppressed. In this case ECLIPSE then applies a default calculation, based on grid
geometry and grid cell property information, to calculate a CF for the simulation run.
Below is a summary showing the possible combinations of CF, Kh and Skin using the
ECLIPSE Simulation Options and the type of entries made in the COMPDAT(M) in the
SCHEDULE section (1* means the field is suppressed via the Simulation Options, and
therefore defaulted in the COMPDAT(M)):
Table D.1

Possible combinations of CF, kh and Skin

CF

Kh

SKIN

Peaceman Radius

accurate

accurate

1*

accurate

accurate

accurate

mechanical

accurate

1*

eclipse

pseudo

1*

1*

1*

1*

1*

For more details of the CF, Kh and skin items of the COMPDAT(M) keyword and
simulation options, as well as of the nomenclature used, please refer to "Calculation of
Kh and connection factor" on page 291.
GRUPTREE
'G_1' 'FIELD'
'G_2' 'FIELD'
'G_3' 'FIELD'
'G_4' 'FIELD'
'G_2.1' 'G_2'
'G_2.2' 'G_2'
/

/
/
/
/
/
/

SCHEDULE Section File


Exporting SCHEDULE section files

359

The GRUPTREE keyword describes the group hierarchy on the control network used in
the project. It contains the dependencies of groups to the FIELD or to other groups.
Information about dependencies of the wells to the groups are specified within the
WELSPEC(L) keyword.
WCONHIST
'SLANTW1' 'OPEN' 'ORAT' 0.000
'SLANTW2' 'OPEN' 'ORAT' 255.380
/
/

0.000
0.290

0.000 2 1* 1* 4974.591 /
453.300 3 1* 1* 5081.354

WCONHIST contains the historical observed production data of the oil, water and gas
phases for the wells. The data are loaded from ASCII files into Schedule, using Import
| Production History | Replace
These are averaged depending on the overall time framework settings on the
Simulation Time Framework panel and report frequency specified on the Field Events
panel (see below for Schedule report output). Item 7 may contain the VFP table number
and item 10 the observed BHP if specified as event for that well. (See the "ECLIPSE
Reference Manual".)
RPTSCHED
1 1 1 1/
-- 1.000000 days from start of simulation ( 1 'JAN' 1970 )
DATES
2 'JAN' 1970/
/
-: SLANTW1 Perforation Top 3450.00 Bottom 3800.00 Damage Skin
20
-- WARN: SLANTW1 Perf interval 3531.850830 to 3696.000000 outside all
cells, discarded
-: SLANTW1 Connection 5 10 1 Perf. Len 640.50 ( 58.2%)
-: SLANTW1 Connection 5 10 4 Perf. Len 58.87 ( 15.6%)
-: SLANTW1 Connection 6 10 4 Perf. Len 22.98 ( 6.1%)
-: SLANTW1 Connection 6 10 5 Perf. Len 104.00 ( 46.5%)
RPTSCHED
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0/

You can specify Schedule reports as events on the Field Events panel, by selecting Field
Event: New | Schedule Report Style

360

SCHEDULE Section File


Exporting SCHEDULE section files

For every report in a Schedule project, a start and end date as well as frequency of
reporting can be specified in addition to the content of the report. First Schedule writes
the RPTSCHED keyword to the exported file at the specified Initial date; this switches
on the reporting of the selected items. It then writes another RPTSCHED keyword with
all items set to zero at the following timestep; this switches off the reporting for the
following timesteps. This is repeated at the intervals specified (for example quarterly
or yearly).
-- 4.000000 days from start of simulation ( 1 'JAN' 1970 )
DATES
5 'JAN' 1970/
/
-: SLANTW1 Perforation Top 1900.00 Bottom 2400.00 Damage Skin
10
-: SLANTW1 Squeeze Top 3000.00 Bottom 3850.00
-- WARN: SLANTW1 Squeeze interval 3531.850830 3850.000000 Top changed
to 3696.000000
-: SLANTW1 Connection 5 10 1 Perf. Len 640.50 ( 58.2%)
-: SLANTW1 Connection 4 10 1 Perf. Len 500.00 ( 55.6%)
-: SLANTW1a Squeeze Top 3000.00 Bottom 3800.00
-: SLANTW1a Connection 3 2 2 Perf. Len 194.76 ( 64.0%)
-: SLANTW1a Connection 3 2 3 Perf. Len 259.24 ( 87.6%)
-: SLANTW1a Connection 3 2 4 Perf. Len 33.51 ( 11.7%)
-: SLANTW1a Connection 2 2 4 Perf. Len 71.49 ( 24.9%)
WELOPEN
'SLANTW1' 'SHUT' 1* 1* 1* /
'SLANTW1a' 'SHUT' 1* 1* 1* /
/

SCHEDULE Section File


Exporting SCHEDULE section files

361

If a change in the well completion state occurs (for example another perforation,
squeeze etc), Schedule closes first all connections for that well with the WELOPEN
keyword as shown above (the IJKs are defaulted, which means all open connections are
SHUT). Then a new COMPDAT is written to account for the changes in the completion
state (see below).
COMPDAT
-- WELL
Kh SKIN ND
'SLANTW1' 5
1* 1*
'SLANTW1' 4
1* 1*
/

J
DIR
1

10
'X' /
10
1
'X' /

K1

K2

Sat.

CF

DIAM

'OPEN' 1

4.724

0.656

17519.836

'OPEN' 1

6.000

0.656

13759.208

COMPDATM
-WELL
LGR
I
J
K1
DIAM
Kh SKIN ND
DIR
'SLANTW1a' 'LG1_SL1A' 3
2
2
2
5374.926 1* 1*
'X' /
'SLANTW1a' 'LG1_SL1A' 3
2
3
3
7154.448 1* 1*
'X' /
'SLANTW1a' 'LG1_SL1A' 3
2
4
4
924.875 1* 1*
'X' /
'SLANTW1a' 'LG1_SL1A' 2
2
4
4
1967.406 1* 1*
'X' /
/

K2

Sat.

CF

'OPEN' 1*

2.516

0.656

'OPEN' 1*

3.350

0.656

'OPEN' 1*
'OPEN' 1*

0.433
0.922

0.656
0.656

-- 31.000000 days from start of simulation ( 1 'JAN' 1970 )


DATES
1 'FEB' 1970/
/
-: VW8 Connection 5 1 1 Perf. Len 100.00 (100.0%)
-: VW8 Connection 5 1 1 Welltest Modified Kh 1088.94
1088.94) CF
0.91 by test/calc 40000.00/6335.68
-: VW8 Connection 5 1 2 Perf. Len 100.00 (100.0%)
-: VW8 Connection 5 1 2 Welltest Modified Kh 1088.94
1088.94) CF
0.91 by test/calc 40000.00/6335.68
-: VW8 Connection 5 1 3 Perf. Len 100.00 (100.0%)
-: VW8 Connection 5 1 3 Welltest Modified Kh 1088.94
1088.94) CF
0.91 by test/calc 40000.00/6335.68
-: VW8 Connection 5 1 4 Perf. Len 100.00 (100.0%)
-: VW8 Connection 5 1 4 Welltest Modified Kh 1088.94
1088.94) CF
0.91 by test/calc 40000.00/6335.68
-: VW8 Connection 7 2 1 Perf. Len 100.00 (100.0%)
-: VW8 Connection 7 2 1 Welltest Modified Kh 989.95
989.95) CF
0.87 by test/calc 40000.00/6335.68
-: VW8 Connection 7 2 2 Perf. Len 100.00 (100.0%)
-: VW8 Connection 7 2 2 Welltest Modified Kh 989.95
989.95) CF
0.87 by test/calc 40000.00/6335.68
WELOPEN
'VW8' 'SHUT' 1* 1* 1* /
/

362

SCHEDULE Section File


Exporting SCHEDULE section files

(ECLIPSE

(ECLIPSE

(ECLIPSE

(ECLIPSE

(ECLIPSE

(ECLIPSE

A Kh product specified in a welltest event updates the COMPDAT(M) to reflect the


welltest results. For wells with multiple connections to grid blocks, the Kh(welltest)
from the welltest is scaled to the individual Kh of cells based on the Schedule
internally-calculated Kh(accurate) values. In the welltest example above, with
K ( hwelltest ) = 40000 , the following scaling is done on the individual connections:
KH ( welltest )
KH ( iwt ) = KH ( i ) --------------------------------- KH ( i )

[EQ D.2]

where:
KH ( i )

is the individual Kh as calculated internally by Schedule

KH ( iwt )

is the individual Kh scaled to account for the welltest event

KH ( welltest ) is the observed welltest Kh as imported from the events file or


specified on the Events panel.
All Kh values are accurate Kh, thus accounting for effects like partial penetration and
positioning of the well in the grid cell.
Using the internally calculated Kh entries from the previous COMPDAT(M), which are
also written in the comment lines for the cell connections at the occurrence date of the
welltest, for the summation

KH ( i )

= 4 1088.94 + 2 989.95 = 6335.66

[EQ D.3]

and Kh(welltest)=40000, then the individual Kh values for the cells are scaled to
account for the welltest event as follows. (The calculation shown are for connection
5/1/1 as an example.)
40000
KH ( welltest )
KH ( 511wt ) = KH ( i ) ---------------------------------- = 1088.94 ------------------- = 6875.00
6335.66
KH
(
i
)

[EQ D.4]

The updated COMPDATM entries for well VW8 that are generated for the welltest event
are shown below. The Connection Factors are also scaled by the same factors, as they
are linearly dependent on the Kh product.
COMPDATM
-WELL
LGR
DIAM
Kh SKIN
'VW8' 'LG1_VW78' 5
6875.000 1* 1*
'VW8' 'LG1_VW78' 5
6875.000 1* 1*
'VW8' 'LG1_VW78' 5
6875.000 1* 1*
'VW8' 'LG1_VW78' 5
6875.000 1* 1*
'VW8' 'LG2_VW78' 7
6250.000 1* 1*
'VW8' 'LG2_VW78' 7
6250.000 1* 1*
/

I
ND
1
'Z'
1
'Z'
1
'Z'
1
'Z'
2
'Z'
2
'Z'

J
1
/
2
/
3
/
4
/
1
/
2
/

K1 K2
DIR
1
'OPEN' 1*

Sat.

CF

5.732

0.656

'OPEN' 1*

5.732

0.656

'OPEN' 1*

5.732

0.656

'OPEN' 1*

5.732

0.656

'OPEN' 1*

5.511

0.656

'OPEN' 1*

5.511

0.656

SCHEDULE Section File


Exporting SCHEDULE section files

363

SCHEDULE section file using simulation option WEFAC


The uptime compensated historical production rates are exported to the SCHEDULE
section file by default using the WCONHIST keyword.
For example a daily production rate valid for the month February of 100 bbl/day oil
with an uptime fraction of 0.5, results in the following WCONHIST entry in February
when you use the defaulted simulation option for production data.
WCONHIST
'G1' 'OPEN' 'ORAT' 50.00
/

0.000

0.000

1*

1*

1*

1* /

Remember to set the UCRATES keyword in the header of the production data file before
importing to account for the uptime fraction. Schedule assumes, by default, that the
rates in the input file are already compensated ones, that is they are already multiplied
by the uptime fraction (see "Keywords" on page 304 for more details).
However, this output can be changed to uncompensated rates in the WCONHIST entries
and to uptime compensation in the WEFAC keyword.
To change the simulation option for production data output, change the ECLIPSE
option for WEFAC on the ECLIPSE Options panel.

Setup | Options

Set Use WEFAC = YES

This results in the following production data output in the SCHEDULE section for
monthly simulator timesteps:
WCONHIST
'G1' 'OPEN' 'ORAT' 100.00
/
WEFAC
'G1' 0.500 /
/

0.000

0.000

1*

1*

1*

1* /

SCHEDULE section file using simulation option COMPVE


By default, Schedule exports well completion data in the SCHEDULE section file for
ECLIPSE using the COMPDAT(M) keyword. You can also export well connection depth
data using the COMPVE(L) keyword. To do this use the Schedule Simulation option on
the ECLIPSE Options panel.

364

To open this panel, select Setup | Options.

Set Generate COMPVE = YES

SCHEDULE Section File


Exporting SCHEDULE section files

An export SCHEDULE section file using the default simulation option for completion
data is illustrated below,
COMPDAT
-- WELL
Kh SKIN ND
'G1' 14
2
6.000 1*

J
K1 K2
DIR
1
1
'OPEN' 1*
'Z' /

Sat.

CF

DIAM

3.028

0.656

4945.643

'G1' 14
2
2
2
'OPEN' 1*
7636.556
6.000 1*
'Z' /
'G1' 14
2
4
4
'OPEN' 1*
0.548
10.000 1*
'Z' /
/

4.675

0.656

0.656

1203.600

changes to the following when you use the COMPVE option:


COMPDAT
-- WELL
I
J
K1 K2
Sat.
CF
DIAM
Kh SKIN ND
DIR
'G1' 14
2
1
1
'OPEN' 1*
3.028
0.656
4945.643
6.000 1*
'Z' /
'G1' 14
2
2
2
'OPEN' 1*
4.675
0.656
7636.556
6.000 1*
'Z' /
'G1' 14
2
4
4
'OPEN' 1*
0.548
0.656
1203.600
10.000 1*
'Z' /
/
COMPVE
'G1' 14
2
1
1 1* 1*
7979.050
8034.933 1*
0.000
7979.050
8034.933 /
'G1' 14
2
2
2 1* 1*
8034.933
8126.300 1*
0.000
8034.933
8126.300 /
'G1' 14
2
4
4 1* 1*
8149.990
8165.290 1*
0.000
8148.610
8165.294 /
/

COMPVE(L) is mainly used to reset the top and bottom depths of well connections to
account for partial well penetration within a grid block when calculating the phase
relative permeability at the connection. It also allows you to adjust the skin factor for
partial penetration. This would only be relevant if the Connection Factors or
(pseudo)skin are not specified in COMPDAT (that is defaulted), and ECLIPSE itself has
to calculate them. ECLIPSE then assumes full penetration of the grid block and an ideal
location of the well.
As Schedule already considers these effects in the Connection Factor, these entries are
not relevant. Another important entry under the COMPVE keyword is CVEFRAC (item 7
in the "ECLIPSE Reference Manual"), which determines the fraction of Vertical
Equilibrium curves to be used in calculating relative permeabilities for the connection.
This information is not available in Schedule, but can be specified using a template for
COMPVE on a well group or at the FIELD level, if common for several or all wells. This
also applies when editing the COMPVE keyword for a single well which has been
internally generated, and displayed on the Well Events panel, after exporting a
SCHEDULE section with the simulation option Generate COMPVE = YES.

SCHEDULE Section File


Exporting SCHEDULE section files

365

Note

There is an ECLIPSE restriction on using COMPVE for highly deviated or


horizontal wells where DTOP and DBOT (items 12 and 13 under COMPVE in
the "ECLIPSE Reference Manual") are very close together. This makes
ECLIPSE extremely sensitive to fluid contact depths and can cause
convergence difficulties during the simulation run.

For such cases, you can suppress the generation of COMPVE(L) by specifying a
minimum change in Z value between top and bottom depths of the connection, using
the COMPVE Min. Z Delta option on the ECLIPSE Options panel. The default
threshold value is 5 meters.
For more details to the keyword itself please refer to the "ECLIPSE Reference Manual",
for details on specifying Keywords to "Keywords" on page 304, and for templates to
"Using templates, macros and keywords for predictions" on page 104.

Using non-default transmissibility options


When exporting a SCHEDULE section for one of the ECLIPSE family of reservoir
simulators, you must set the transmissibility calculation method to match the type of
simulator used. The default method in Schedule is that used by the ECLIPSE 100
reservoir simulator.
To change the default, use either the transmissibility setup menu, Setup |
Transmissibility, or set the preferred option in the SCHEDULE section of the
configuration file (ECL.CFG or CONFIG.ECL) before starting Schedule.
The transmissibility option determines the way the NTG is handled within the
Schedule Connection Factor (or transmissibility factor) calculation. The three choices
are:
1

ECLIPSE 100
The Net-To-Gross value is used as a multiplier on the height of the grid block (Dz)
and on the z component of the well penetration vector through the cell (hz).

ECLIPSE 300
The Net-To-Gross value is used as a multiplier on the z component of the well
penetration vector (hz) through the cell but not on the grid block height.

Scaled Permeabilities
The Net-To-Gross value is used as a multiplier on the X and Y direction
permeabilities.

Incomplete SCHEDULE sections


For generation of a complete SCHEDULE section file, grid, property, historical
production data, well geometry and well events data have to be specified. However,
you can also use Schedule as a tool for performing special operations in an incomplete
project. You must build a control network, of at least one group (that is an ECLIPSE
requirement) with its assigned wells, on the Control Network window. Two examples
are given below.

366

SCHEDULE Section File


Exporting SCHEDULE section files

Averaging and validating historical production data


You can import historical production data from a file. Then, before you export a
SCHEDULE section file you can display and verify the data, and finally build a control
network of at least one group, under the FIELD level with all wells assigned to this
group.
The exported file contains WCONHIST entries with the production data averaged
according to the target simulator timesteps specified on the Simulation Time
Framework panel.
Error messages appear at every timestep for every well on production saying that the
well has flow but no grid connection. This is because no grid, property and well
geometry were defined. Select the appropriate option on the Eclipse Options panel to
suppress the messages.
If production data are already in place in the project, you can use the simulation option
Suppress Connections - YES on the Eclipse Options panel to suppress completion
data in a generated SCHEDULE section file.

Calculating well Connection Factors only (no historical


production data)
To calculate well Connection Factors, Schedule needs grid, property, well geometry
and events information.
When generating a SCHEDULE section file with completion data only, you need a
control network of at least one group under the FIELD level with all wells assigned to
this group. Well names for building a control network interactively are available from
events data if events have been imported from a file. Alternatively, you can import
control network information that has been specified on a file (*.NET file).
To avoid WCONHIST keywords with all entries equal to zero being written to an
exported SCHEDULE section file, you should suppress the production history by
selecting the appropriate option on the Eclipse Options panel.

SCHEDULE Section File


Exporting SCHEDULE section files

367

368

SCHEDULE Section File


Exporting SCHEDULE section files

ECLIPSE Import
Appendix E

Introduction
You can import an ECLIPSE data file into Schedule, using Import | Schedule Section.
Schedule, then, extracts information from the RUNSPEC section of the file and reads the
complete SCHEDULE section to determine the START date and the units. If no RUNSPEC
section is provided, Schedule asks you to enter a START date. The units are defaulted
to the current setting of the units option.
Schedule determines the groups from the GRUPTREE, WELSPECS and WELSPECL
keywords. This results in control networks being created on the START date and on
each subsequent date when alteration is made to the network by one of the above
keywords.
Schedule also extracts the production rates from WCONHIST, WCONPROD, WCONINJ,
WCONINJE, WELTARG and WEFAC. These rates are for display purposes only. If you
export a SCHEDULE section after importing data, you should select the option to
suppress history; otherwise Schedule exports both the imported keywords and the
internally-generated keywords (for example WCONHIST and WEFAC) together, thus
creating an inconsistency. This is because Schedule cannot regenerate internal data
(apart from the history and groups) from the imported keywords.
Note

Schedule uses the uptime from the WEFAC and multiplies this by the rates from
the RATE keywords such as WCONHIST on import.

ECLIPSE Import
Introduction

369

370

ECLIPSE Import
Introduction

Schedule Advisory Messages


Appendix F

Introduction
You can export a SCHEDULE section file for all wells and groups, as displayed in the
Control Network window, using Export | Schedule Section.
You can also export a SCHEDULE section file for selected well(s)/group(s) of wells,
using Control Network: Export | Selected Schedule.
Schedule generates an ASCII file of keywords with associated entries and so-called
advisory messages. Advisory messages are comments embedded in the export file;
they can be error messages, warnings and comments.

Error messages are written when Schedule encounters a situation that makes the
resulting SCHEDULE section invalid.

Warnings are generated to draw attention to potential problem situations.

Comments are written to better understand the SCHEDULE section content.

When you have to deal with very large projects, it is useful to extract possible ERROR
messages from the exported SCHEDULE section files in order to get an overview.
On UNIX you can use the following command to obtain a shortened list of error
messages sorted by well name:
grep ERROR SCHEDULE_FILE | sort +2 | uniq

sort +2 sorts the output by well names.


uniq extracts only those lines which are different from each other, thus avoiding the
same error message appearing hundreds of times on the extracted list. An example is
Well has flow but no grid connections, which appears every time a
production rate is specified for a well that is not perforated.

Schedule Advisory Messages


Introduction

371

Error messages
Schedule generates error messages when it encounters a situation that makes the
resulting SCHEDULE section invalid:
<WELLNAME> is completed in both global and LGR cells

This is generated if Schedule attempts to complete the well in an LGR when the well
is already completed in a global cell, or vice versa.
More than one COMPDAT(L,M) for a cell

This is generated if Schedule attempts to create a COMPDAT keyword and finds an


existing keyword for the same cell as a user-created keyword event.
Multiple RPTSCHED keys in one time step

This is generated if Schedule attempts to create a RPTSCHED keyword and finds an


existing keyword for the same cell as a user-created keyword event
<WELLNAME> More than one COMPVE(L) for cell %d %d %d

This is generated if Schedule attempts to create a COMPVE keyword and finds an


existing keyword for the same cell as a user-created keyword event.
<WELLNAME> has flow but no grid connection

This is generated when Schedule creates a flow-governing keyword (WCONHIST,


WCONINJE) and discovers that the well has no grid connections (that it has never been
perforated or all perforations have been squeezed).
<WELLNAME> has deferred production but no grid connection

This is generated when Schedule creates a flow-governing keyword (WCONHIST,


WCONINJE) and discovers that the well has no grid connections (that it has never been
perforated or all perforations have been squeezed). The deferred production refers to
a production volume which has been saved from a previous time step in which the
well has both production and injection volumes. As the well must be either a
producer or an injector, Schedule saves the smaller volume and attempts to place it in
a following time step.
<WELLNAME> Layer <LAYER NAME> one of K<LAYER TOP> or K<LAYER BOTTOM> not on trajectory

This is generated when Schedule tries to process an event that has a layer restriction,
and one of the layer ranges is not valid for the well.
<WELLNAME> <EVENT> ignored because well has no trajectory

This is generated when Schedule tries to process an event but there is no known path
for the well through the grid.
<WELLNAME> <EVENT> ignored, no top depth

This is generated when Schedule tries to process an event with a missing top depth.
<WELLNAME> <EVENT&