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1/37Subnetting Surasak Sanguanpong nguan@ku.ac.th http://www.cpe.ku.ac.th/~nguan Last updated: 27 June 2002 Applied Network

Subnetting

Surasak Sanguanpong nguan@ku.ac.th http://www.cpe.ku.ac.th/~nguan

Last updated: 27 June 2002

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

2/37Topics The Basics of Subnetting Subnet Mask Computing subnets and hosts Subnet Routing Creating a

Topics

The Basics of Subnetting Subnet Mask Computing subnets and hosts Subnet Routing Creating a Subnet Example of Subnetting

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

3/37Addressing without Subnets 172.16.1.2 172.16.1.3 172.16.2.1 172.16.254.254 172.16.0.0 A class B “Flat Network”,

Addressing without Subnets 172.16.1.2 172.16.1.3 172.16.2.1 172.16.254.254 172.16.0.0
Addressing without Subnets
172.16.1.2 172.16.1.3
172.16.2.1
172.16.254.254
172.16.0.0

A class B “Flat Network”, more than 65000 hosts

How to manage? Performance?

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

4/37Addressing with Subnets 172.16.1.2 172.16.1.3 172.16.2.2 172.16.2.3 172.16.1.0 172.16.2.0 172.16.4.2 172.16.4.3

Addressing with Subnets 172.16.1.2 172.16.1.3 172.16.2.2 172.16.2.3 172.16.1.0 172.16.2.0 172.16.4.2 172.16.4.3
Addressing with Subnets
172.16.1.2
172.16.1.3 172.16.2.2 172.16.2.3
172.16.1.0
172.16.2.0
172.16.4.2
172.16.4.3
172.16.3.2
172.16.3.3
172.16.3.0
172.16.4.0

A class B “subdivided network”, smaller groups with routers

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

5/37Subnetwork benefits Overall traffic is reduced, performance may improve Smaller networks are easier to manage

Subnetwork benefits

Overall traffic is reduced, performance may improve Smaller networks are easier to manage and troubleshoot
Overall traffic is
reduced, performance
may improve
Smaller networks
are easier to manage
and troubleshoot
Increase the network
manager's control over
the address space
Subnetwork

Subdivide on IP network number is an important initial task of network managers

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

6/37Subnet Address Before Subnetting Network ID Host ID After Subnetting Network ID Subnet ID Host

Subnet Address

Before Subnetting

Network ID

Host ID

After Subnetting

Network ID

Subnet ID

Host ID

A subnet address is created by borrowing bit from the Host ID and designated it as a Subnet ID field

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

7/37How to assign subnet Each class can have differe nt size of subnet field Define

How to assign subnet

Each class can have different size of subnet field

Define physical subnetwork

Define individual hosts

field Define physical subnetwork Define individual hosts Network Subnet Host choose appropriate size Class A

Network

Subnet

Host

Define individual hosts Network Subnet Host choose appropriate size Class A : Class C : 2

choose

appropriate size Class A : Class C : 2 to 22 bits Class B :
appropriate size
Class A :
Class C :
2 to 22 bits
Class B :
2 to 6 bits
2 to 14 bits

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

8/37Subnet Example Class B address such as 172.16.0.0 might use its third byte to identify

Subnet Example

Class B address such as 172.16.0.0 might use its third byte to identify subnet Subnet
Class B address such as 172.16.0.0 might
use its third byte to identify subnet
Subnet
Network Address
Address Range
#1
172.
16.
1. 172.16.1.1-172.16.1.254
0
#2
172.
16.
2. 172.16.2.1-172.16.2.254
0
#3
172.
16.
3.
0
172.16.3.1-172.16.3.254
#254
172.
16.
254.
0
172.16.254.1-172.16.254.254

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

9/37Subnet mask subnet mask is a 32 bit number, use to identify a subnet 1

Subnet mask

subnet mask is a 32 bit number, use to identify a subnet

1 Set the bit covering the network and subnet ID to 1 2 Example :
1
1

Set the bit covering the network and subnet ID to 1

1 Set the bit covering the network and subnet ID to 1 2 Example : A

2

1 Set the bit covering the network and subnet ID to 1 2 Example : A
1 Set the bit covering the network and subnet ID to 1 2 Example : A
1 Set the bit covering the network and subnet ID to 1 2 Example : A
1 Set the bit covering the network and subnet ID to 1 2 Example : A

Example : A class B network with 24 bits mask

Network ID

Subnet ID

: A class B network with 24 bits mask Network ID Subnet ID Host ID 1111
: A class B network with 24 bits mask Network ID Subnet ID Host ID 1111
: A class B network with 24 bits mask Network ID Subnet ID Host ID 1111

Host ID

B network with 24 bits mask Network ID Subnet ID Host ID 1111 1111 255. 1111

1111 1111

255.

1111 1111

255.

1111 1111

255.

ID Subnet ID Host ID 1111 1111 255. 1111 1111 255. 1111 1111 255. 0000 0000
ID Subnet ID Host ID 1111 1111 255. 1111 1111 255. 1111 1111 255. 0000 0000
ID Subnet ID Host ID 1111 1111 255. 1111 1111 255. 1111 1111 255. 0000 0000

0000 0000

0.

ID Subnet ID Host ID 1111 1111 255. 1111 1111 255. 1111 1111 255. 0000 0000
ID Subnet ID Host ID 1111 1111 255. 1111 1111 255. 1111 1111 255. 0000 0000
ID Subnet ID Host ID 1111 1111 255. 1111 1111 255. 1111 1111 255. 0000 0000
ID Subnet ID Host ID 1111 1111 255. 1111 1111 255. 1111 1111 255. 0000 0000
ID Subnet ID Host ID 1111 1111 255. 1111 1111 255. 1111 1111 255. 0000 0000
ID Subnet ID Host ID 1111 1111 255. 1111 1111 255. 1111 1111 255. 0000 0000
ID Subnet ID Host ID 1111 1111 255. 1111 1111 255. 1111 1111 255. 0000 0000

subnet mask= 255.255.255.0

ID Subnet ID Host ID 1111 1111 255. 1111 1111 255. 1111 1111 255. 0000 0000
ID Subnet ID Host ID 1111 1111 255. 1111 1111 255. 1111 1111 255. 0000 0000

zero bit are used to mask out the host number resulting the network address

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

10/37Masking 172.16.4.2 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 & & & & &

Masking 172.16.4.2 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 & & & & &
Masking
172.16.4.2
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 0
1
0
1
1
0
0
172.16.4.0
& 255.255.255.0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
&
255.255.255.0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

A bitwise-andbetween IP address and subnet mask yields a network address. Note that zeros bit are used to mask out the host number resulting the network address

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

11/37Subnet mask in Prefix format The number of routing bits (network and subnet bits) in

Subnet mask in Prefix format

The number of routing bits (network and subnet bits) in each subnet mask can also be indicated by the "/n " format.

255.0.0.0

1111

1111

0000 0000

0000 0000

0000 0000

/8

255.255.192.0

 

1111

1111

1111 1111

1100 0000

0000 0000

/18

255.255.255.0

 

1111

1111

1111 1111

1111 1111

0000 0000

/24

255.255.255.240

 

1111

1111

1111 1111

1111 1111

1111 0000

/28

172.16.0.0 255.255.255.0

Applied Network Research Group

=

172.16.0.0/24

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

12/37Subnet routing Traffic is routed to a host by looking “bit-wise and” results if dest_ip_addr

Subnet routing

Traffic is routed to a host by looking “bit-wise and” results

if dest_ip_addr & subnet_mask = = my_ip_addr & subnet_mask

send pkt on local network

else send pkt to router

%dest ip addr is on the same subnet

%dest ip addr is on diff subnet

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

13/37Routing Hosts and routers perform logical AND to send packets 172.16.1.2 172.16.1.3 172.16.2.2 172.16.2.3 To

Routing Hosts and routers perform logical AND to send packets 172.16.1.2 172.16.1.3 172.16.2.2 172.16.2.3 To
Routing
Hosts and routers perform logical AND to send packets
172.16.1.2
172.16.1.3 172.16.2.2
172.16.2.3
To 172.16.4.2
1
172.16.1.0/24
172.16.2.0/24
2
172.16.4.2
172.16.4.3
172.16.3.2
172.16.3.3
3
172.16.3.0/24
172.16.4.0/24
172.16.1.3 has a packet for 172.16.4.2 and determine
that it is on other subnetwork
The packet is sent to the router
The router performs a subnet masking and sends the
packet to the destination network

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

14/37Subnet interpretation IP Address subnet mask Interpretation 15.20.15.2 255.255.0.0 host 15.2 on subnet

Subnet interpretation

IP Address

subnet mask

Interpretation

15.20.15.2

255.255.0.0

host 15.2 on subnet 15.20.0.0

130.122.34.3

255.255.255.192

host 3 on subnet 130.122.34.0

130.122.34.132

255.255.255.192

host 4th on subnet 130.122.34.128

158.108.2.71

255.255.255.0

host 71 on subnet 158.108.2.0

200.190.155.66

255.255.255.192

host 2nd on subnet 200.190.155.64

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

15/37Default Subnet mask A default subnet mask : a subnet mask with no subnetting Class

Default Subnet mask

A default subnet mask : a subnet mask with no subnetting

Class A

255.0.0.0

1111

1111

0000 0000

0000 0000

0000 0000

Class B

255.255.0.0

 

1111

1111

1111 1111

0000

0000

0000 0000

Class C

255.255.255.0

1111

1111

1111 1111

1111

1111

0000 0000

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

16/37Range of bit A default subnet mask : a subnet mask with no subnetting IP

Range of bit

A default subnet mask : a subnet mask with no subnetting

IP

172

16

0

0

 

Default subnet

 

255

255

0

0

 

New subnet

 

255

255

255

0

0   New subnet   255 255 255 0 Define a subnet mask by extending the

Define a subnet mask by extending the network portion to the right, 8 bits in this example

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

17/37Computing subnet mask Decimal equivalents of bit patterns Binary mask Octet value 128 64 32

Computing subnet mask

Decimal equivalents of bit patterns

Binary mask Octet value 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 1 0 0
Binary mask
Octet value
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1
1 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
128
1 1
0
0
0
0
0
0
192
1 1
1
0
0
0
0
0
224
1 1
1
1
0
0
0
0
240
1 1
1
1
1
0
0
0
248
1 1
1
1
1
1
0
0
252
1 1
1
1
1
1
1
0
254
1 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
255

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

18/37Compute Net and host How many subnet and host are there with 172.16.0.0/24 255. 255.

Compute Net and host

How many subnet and host are there with

172.16.0.0/24

255.

255.

255.

0.

are there with 172.16.0.0/24 255. 255. 255. 0. 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 0000 0000
1111 1111 1111 1111

1111 1111

1111 1111

1111 1111

0000 0000

Network ID

Subnet ID

Host ID

8 bit subnet ID = 2 8 =256 => 254 subnets

8 bit host ID

= 2 8 =256 => 254 hosts per subnet

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

19/37Network and Host relationship Sample class C Number of Number of Number of Total Percents

Network and Host relationship

Sample class C

Number of

Number of

Number of

Total

Percents

subnet

subnets

hosts

number of

used

bits

created

per subnet

hosts

 

2 2

62

124

49%

 

3 6

30

180

71%

 

4 14

14

196

77%

 

5 30

6

180

71%

 

6 62

2

124

49%

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

20/37Subnetting Special Addresses Reserved addresses that are not allowed to be assigned to any node

Subnetting Special Addresses

Reserved addresses that are not allowed to be assigned to any node

NetID

HostID

Purpose

any

All 0s

Subnetwork Address

Example: 172.16.2.0/24 Subnetwork 172.16.2.0

any

All 1s

Subnet-directed Broadcast

Example: 172.16.2.255/24 Directed broadcast of the subnetwork 172.16.2.0

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

21/37Subnet Net Block Diagram No subnetting 3 bits Network Address Applied Network Research Group 2

Subnet Net Block Diagram

No subnetting

21/37 Subnet Net Block Diagram No subnetting 3 bits Network Address Applied Network Research Group 2

3 bits

21/37 Subnet Net Block Diagram No subnetting 3 bits Network Address Applied Network Research Group 2

Network Address21/37 Subnet Net Block Diagram No subnetting 3 bits Applied Network Research Group 2 bits 4

Applied Network Research Group

2 bits

3 bits Network Address Applied Network Research Group 2 bits 4 bits Block diagram subnetting class

4 bits

Network Address Applied Network Research Group 2 bits 4 bits Block diagram subnetting class C Broadcast

Block diagram subnetting class C

Group 2 bits 4 bits Block diagram subnetting class C Broadcast Address Department of Computer Engineering,

Broadcast Address

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

22/37Contiguous and Noncontiguous mask no intermedite 0 gaps in the subnet mask Contiguous subnet mask

Contiguous and Noncontiguous mask

no intermedite 0 gaps in the subnet mask

Contiguous subnet mask

0 gaps in the subnet mask Contiguous subnet mask 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 0000

1111 1111

1111 1111

1111 1111

0000

0000

intermedite 0 gaps in the subnet mask

0000 0000 intermedite 0 gaps in the subnet mask Noncontiguous subnet mask 1111 1111 1111 1111

Noncontiguous subnet mask

1111 1111

1111 1111

0001 1111

0000

0000

Noncontiguous leads to complex subnetting and routing

Noncontiguous leads to complex subnetting and routing

It is strongly recommend to use contiguous subnet mask

It is strongly recommend to use contiguous subnet mask

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

23/37 Subnet Class A Example subnet mask Interpretation 255. 0.0.0 1 network with 1677214 hosts

23/37

Subnet Class A Example

subnet mask

Interpretation

255.0.0.0

1 network with 1677214 hosts (default subnet)

255.255.0.0

254 subnets each with 65534 hosts

255.255.128.0

510 subnets each with 32768 hosts

255.255.192.0

1022 subnets each with 16382 hosts

255.255.255.0

65534 subnets each with 254 hosts

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

24/37Example : Class A Subnet Address Table IP Address : 10.0.0.0/16        

Example : Class A Subnet Address Table

IP Address : 10.0.0.0/16

 
     
   
     
       

SubnetID all 0s

 
10.0.0.0 10.0.0.1     10.0.255.254 10.0.255.255 Broadcast Address

10.0.0.0

10.0.0.1

   

10.0.255.254

10.0.255.255

Broadcast Address

Broadcast Address
   

#1

 

10.1.0.0

10.2.0.0

10.1.0.1

 

10.1.255.254

10.1.255.255

#2

10.2.0.1

10.2.255.254

10.2.255.255

 

Network Address

   

#254

 

10.254.0.0

10.254.0.1

 

10.254.255.254

10.254.255.255

       
       

10.255.0.0

10.255.0.1

 

10.255.255.254

10.255.255.255

 
       
     
 

SubnetID all 1s

 

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

25/37Class A Subnet with router 10.0.0.0/16 10.1.0.0 10.1.0.1 to 10.1.255.254 #1 254 subnets each with

Class A Subnet with router 10.0.0.0/16 10.1.0.0 10.1.0.1 to 10.1.255.254 #1 254 subnets each with
Class A Subnet with router
10.0.0.0/16
10.1.0.0
10.1.0.1 to
10.1.255.254
#1
254 subnets each
with 65534 hosts
10.2.0.0
10.2.0.1 to
10.2.255.254
#2
#3
10.3.0.0
10.3.0.1 to
10.3.255.254
#254
10.255.0.0
10.255.0.1 to
10.255.255.254

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

26/37Subnet Class B Example subnet mask Interpretation 255.255. 0.0 1 network with 65534 hosts (default

Subnet Class B Example

subnet mask

Interpretation

255.255.0.0

1 network with 65534 hosts (default subnet)

255.255.192.0

2 subnets each with 16382 hosts

255.255.252.0

62 subnets each with 1022 hosts

255.255.255.0

254 subnets each with 254 hosts

255.255.255.252

16382 subnets each with 2 hosts

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

27/37Example : Class B Subnet Address Table IP Address : 176.16.0.0 /24      

Example : Class B Subnet Address Table

IP Address : 176.16.0.0 /24

 
       
   
       
 

SubnetID all 0s

 
 
  172.16.0.0 172.16.0.1   172.16.0.254 172.16.0.255  

172.16.0.0

172.16.0.1

 

172.16.0.254

172.16.0.255

 
  172.16.0.0 172.16.0.1   172.16.0.254 172.16.0.255  
       

#1

 

172.16.1.0

172.16.1.1

 

172.16.1.254

172.16.1.255

 

#2

172.16.2.0

172.16.2.1

172.16.2.254

172.16.2.255

 

Network Address

     

Broadcast Address

#254

 

172.16.254.0

172.16.254.1

 

176.16.254.254

176.16.254.255

   
         
         
176.16.255.0 176.16.255.1   176.16.255.254 176.16.255.255

176.16.255.0

176.16.255.1

 

176.16.255.254

176.16.255.255

 
       
   
       
 
 

SubnetID all 1s

 

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

28/37Class B Subnet with router 172.16.1.0 172.16.1.1 to 172.16.1.0/24 #1 172.16.1.254 254 subnets each with

Class B Subnet with router 172.16.1.0 172.16.1.1 to 172.16.1.0/24 #1 172.16.1.254 254 subnets each with
Class B Subnet with router
172.16.1.0
172.16.1.1 to
172.16.1.0/24
#1
172.16.1.254
254 subnets each
with 65534 hosts
172.16.2.0 172.16.2.1 to
172.16.2.254
#2
#3
172.16.3.0
172.16.3.1 to
172.16.3.254
172.16.254.0
172.16.254.1 to
#254
172.16.254.254

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

29/37 Subnet Class C Example subnet mask Interpretation 255.255.255 .0 1 network with 254 hosts

29/37

Subnet Class C Example

subnet mask

Interpretation

255.255.255.0

1 network with 254 hosts (default subnet)

255.255.255.192

2 subnets each with 62 host

255.255.255.224

6 subnets each with 30 hosts

255.255.255.240

14 subnets each with 14 hosts

255.255.255.252

62 subnets each with 2 hosts

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

30/37Example : Class C Subnet Address Table IP Address : 192.68.0.0 /27      

Example : Class C Subnet Address Table

IP Address : 192.68.0.0 /27

 
       
   
       
 

SubnetID all 0s

 
 
  192.68.0.0 192.68.0.1   192.68.0.30 192.68.0.31   Broadcast Address

192.68.0.0

192.68.0.1

 

192.68.0.30

192.68.0.31

 

Broadcast Address

Broadcast Address
   
     

#1

 

192.68.0.32

192.68.0.33

 

192.68.0.62

192.68.0.63

#2

192.68.0.64

192.68.0.65

192.68.0.94

192.68.0.95

 

Network Address

     

#6

 

192.68.0.192

192.68.0.193

 

192.68.0.222

192.68.0.223

           
           
192.68.0.224 192.68.0.225 192.68.0.254 192.68.0.255

192.68.0.224

192.68.0.225 192.68.0.254
192.68.0.225
192.68.0.254

192.68.0.255

 
       
   
       
 
 

SubnetID all 1s

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

31/37Class C Subnet with router 192.68.0.0/27 192.68.0.32 192.68.0.33 to #1 192.68.0.62 6 subnets each with

Class C Subnet with router 192.68.0.0/27 192.68.0.32 192.68.0.33 to #1 192.68.0.62 6 subnets each with
Class C Subnet with router
192.68.0.0/27
192.68.0.32 192.68.0.33 to
#1
192.68.0.62
6 subnets each
with 30 hosts
192.68.0.64 192.68.0.65 to
192.68.0.94
#2
#3
192.68.0.96
192.68.0.97 to
192.68.0.126
192.68.0.192
192.68.0.193 to
#6
192.68.0.222

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

32/37Subnet Exercise (1) Given IP address 161.200, find out the following to yield not more

Subnet Exercise (1)

Given IP address 161.200, find out the following to yield not more than 256 hosts per subnet

net mask= ?? start net id =?? end net id=?? #of subnet =??

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

33/37Subnet Exercise (2) Given IP address 192.150.251, find out the following to yield not more

Subnet Exercise (2)

Given IP address 192.150.251, find out the following to yield not more than 32 hosts per subnet

net mask= ?? start net id =?? end net id=?? #of subnet =??

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

34/37Type of Subnetting Static Subnetting all subnets in the su bnetted network use the same

Type of Subnetting

Static Subnetting

all subnets in the subnetted network use the same subnet mask

pros: simply to implement, easy to

maintain cons: wasted address space (consider a network of 4 hosts with 255.255.255.0 wastes 250 IP)

Variable Lengh Subnetting

the subnets may use different subnet masks

pros: utilize address spaces cons: required well-management

pros: utilize address spaces cons: required well-management Applied Network Research Group Department of Computer
pros: utilize address spaces cons: required well-management Applied Network Research Group Department of Computer

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

35/37Problem of Static subnetting 192.68.0.32/27 used 20 hosts , waste 10 hosts 192.68.0.64/27 used 20

Problem of Static subnetting

35/37 Problem of Static subnetting 192.68.0.32/27 used 20 hosts , waste 10 hosts 192.68.0.64/27 used 20

192.68.0.32/27 35/37 Problem of Static subnetting used 20 hosts , waste 10 hosts 192.68.0.64/27 used 20 hosts,

used 20 hosts, waste 10 hosts

192.68.0.64/27 subnetting 192.68.0.32/27 used 20 hosts , waste 10 hosts used 20 hosts, waste 10 hosts 192.68.0.96/27

used 20 hosts, waste 10 hosts

192.68.0.96/27 waste 10 hosts 192.68.0.64/27 used 20 hosts, waste 10 hosts used 25 hosts, waste 5 hosts

used 25 hosts, waste 5 hosts

192.68.0.128/27 waste 10 hosts 192.68.0.96/27 used 25 hosts, waste 5 hosts used 25 hosts, waste 5 hosts

used 25 hosts, waste 5 hosts

192.68.0.192/27 waste 5 hosts 192.68.0.128/27 used 25 hosts, waste 5 hosts used 10 hosts, waste 20 hosts

used 10 hosts, waste 20 hosts

192.68.0.224/27 waste 5 hosts 192.68.0.192/27 used 10 hosts, waste 20 hosts used 10 hosts, waste 20 hosts

used 10 hosts, waste 20 hosts

Inefficient allocation of the address space

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

36/37Variable-Length Subnetting 192.68.0.32/27 used 20 hosts, waste 10 hosts 192.68.0.64/27 used 20 hosts, waste 10

Variable-Length Subnetting

192.68.0.32/27 used 20 hosts, waste 10 hosts 192.68.0.64/27 used 20 hosts, waste 10 hosts 192.68.0.96/27
192.68.0.32/27
used 20 hosts,
waste 10 hosts
192.68.0.64/27
used 20 hosts,
waste 10 hosts
192.68.0.96/27
used 25 hosts,
waste 5 hosts
192.68.0.128/27
used 25 hosts,
waste 5 hosts
5 hosts 192.68.0.128/27 used 25 hosts, waste 5 hosts 192.68.0.192/28 used 10 hosts, waste 4 hosts
192.68.0.192/28 used 10 hosts, waste 4 hosts 192.68.0.224/28 used 10 hosts, waste 4 hosts
192.68.0.192/28
used 10 hosts,
waste 4 hosts
192.68.0.224/28
used 10 hosts,
waste 4 hosts

192.68.0.208/28

unused subnet Available 14 hosts

192.68.0.240/28

unused subnet Available 14 hosts

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University

37/37 VLSM - An Example three different VLSM of 172.16.0.0 CPC RDI 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252

37/37

VLSM - An Example

three different VLSM of 172.16.0.0 CPC RDI 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.255.252
three different VLSM of 172.16.0.0
CPC
RDI
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.252
255.255.255.252
255.255.255.252
point-to-point link
CPE
255.255.255.252
255.255.255.192

Applied Network Research Group

Department of Computer Engineering, Kasetsart University