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11 vizualizări5 paginiFenomenele de interferenta exista numai odata cu superpozitia cuantica

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Fenomenele de interferenta exista numai odata cu superpozitia cuantica

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like the equation that describes thevibrations of strings, or Maxwell's

equation for electromagnetic waves.

A wave equation typically describes how a wave function evolves in time. A

function describes a relationship between two values. The function f(x) = x+1,

for example, is a function because for every value of x you get a new value

of f(x). A wave function describes the behaviour of something that is waving. In

the case of Maxwell's equations, the wave function describes the behaviour of

the electric and magnetic fields. In the case of a wave on a string, the wave

function describes the displacement of the string.

The wave function of a wave travelling in the x direction, with angular

frequency = 2 - where is the frequency - is

Here (x,t) is the wave function, C, D, e, and i are constants, k = 2/,

where is the wavelength, x is the position, and t is time.

Schrdinger saw that if D = 0, then for an object with E = h (the Planck

relation, where Eequals energy and h is Planck's constant), and =

h/p (the de Broglie wavelength, where p is momentum), this equation can be

rewritten as a quantum wave function:

(x,t) = Cei(kx-t),

using k = 2/,

(x,t) = Cei( -t),

using = 2,

2x

using = h/p,

x

(x,t) = Cei2(

using E = h,

h-t),

px

(x,t) = Ce (px-Et),

Finally, using =h/2 gives,

i2

(x,t) = Ce

.

This is the quantum wave function. The Schrdinger equation shows how the

quantum wave function changes over time.

i(px - Et)

Schrdinger showed that position and momentum are related using calculus, a

branch of mathematics developed by British physicist Isaac Newton and French

philosopher Gottfried Leibnizin the late 1600s. One branch of calculus is known

as differentiation, a mathematical method for measuring how a function

changes as its input changes. If you differentiate position with respect to time,

for example, then you are measuring velocity. If you differentiate velocity with

respect to time, then you are measuring acceleration.

This method can be used in scenarios where the equations velocity =

distance/time andacceleration = velocity/time aren't applicable, such as

when the velocity or acceleration is constantly changing.

Schrdinger showed that if you differentiate (x,t) with respect to position, x,

then the result is equal to (x,t) multiplied by the momentum (p), and a

constant (1/-i):

d(x,t)dx

=

p-i

(x,t).

If you differentiate (x,t) with respect to time, t, then the result is equal

to (x,t) multiplied by the energy (E), and a constant (1/i):

d(x,t)dt

=

Ei

(x,t).

For an electron travelling through an electric field, for example, the total energy

is equal to the kinetic energy plus the potential energy of the field.

The kinetic energy (K) equals

12

mV2, where m is mass, and V is velocity.

Using p = mV, K =

12

2

mV =

12

m2V2m

=

p22m

.

The potential energy of the field equals PE (x,t), and so E =

p22m

+ PE (x,t)

Putting this into

d(x,t)dt

=

Ei

(x,t) gives i

d(x,t)dt

=

p22m

(x,t) + PE(x,t)(x,t).

Finally, using

d2(x,t)x2t

=

p2-2t

(x,t) gives

i

d(x,t)dt

=

-22m

d2(x,t)dx2

+ PE(x,t)(x,t),

or

E(x,t) = H(x,t),

where

E = i

ddt

and H =

-22m

d2dx2

+ PE(x,t).

This is the time-dependent Schrdinger equation - or wave equation - for a

single non-relativistic charged particle moving in an electric field. It describes all

the features of the electron that we can measure, and can be extended to

include any other object under almost any other force. The Schrdinger

equation can be used to make the exact same predictions as German

physicistWerner Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. It can calculate

where electron waves will be situated within an atom, and predict

where spectral lines will occur.

Schrdinger's equation describes the world in terms of continuously evolving

waves, and Heisenberg's describes it in terms of particles that undergo 'jumps'

from one place to another without moving through the space in-between. Many

physicists preferred Schrdinger's approach because it was easier to visualise

and used more familiar mathematics.

Schrdinger went on to show that his wave equation was equivalent to

Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, although they both argued for the superiority

of their own approach. Danish physicistNiels Bohr however, believed that both

views were equally valid.

In classical wave equations, the wave function has a real meaning, it describes

something that is physically waving, but Schrdinger's wave equation had no

physical interpretation. In the 1960s,Richard Feynman stated: "Where did he

get that [equation] from? Nowhere. It is not possible to derive it from anything

you know. It came out of the mind of Schrdinger".

In 1926, Schrdinger believed that electron waves were always spread out

across all of space, and that the square of the wave function gave the density of

the electron wave in any particular location. This was a reasonable assumption

since the wave appeared to be densest in the places where Bohr's theory

predicted that electrons would be. Yet Schrdinger's interpretation could not

explain quantum tunnelling.

German-British physicist Max Born proposed a different interpretation that same

year. Born stated that the square of the wave function does not represent the

physical density of electron waves, but their probability density. This is the

probability of finding an electron in any particular state; that is, with any

particular position, momentum, or energy, at any particular time. The de Broglie

model of the atom was now replaced with the idea that the electron exists in a

superpositional 'probability cloud'.

During the double slit experiment, it is the probability density that is 'waving',

and theinterference pattern is produced by the superposition of possible paths

the electron could take.Anything that can be described by the Schrdinger

equation can be described as being in a superpositional state, where it exists in

all possible quantum states at once. A superposition is composed of all of the

solutions to the Schrdinger equation and - since the Schrdinger equation is

linear - there are often an infinite amount of solutions.

Linear equations are equations with the form a1x1 + a2x2 + ... + anxn = c,

where c and a1...anare constants, and x1...xn vary. A linear equation with one

variable, 3x = 9 for example, has one solution, x = 9/3 = 3. Liner equations

with two or more variables have an infinite amount of solutions. A Liner

equations with two variables, y = 3x+3 for example, has possible solutions

x=1,y=6, x=2,y=9, x=3,y=12 ... etc. and produces a straight line when plotted

on a graph. With three variables, 2x + 3y - z = 9 for example, possible

solutions include x=1, y=2, z=-4, x=2, y=2, z=1, x=2, y=1, z=-2 etc. and the

equation produces a plane when plotted.

If, during the double slit experiment, the position of the electron were

measured, however, then a single result would be given with a probability of

100%. All other measurements would confirm this result, and an interference

pattern would not form. Bohr and Heisenberg interpreted the process of

measurement as invoking a 'collapse' of the wave function, from a

superpositional state into a single state, with a probability determined by Born's

rule. This is known as the Copenhagen interpretation, or collapse approach to

quantum mechanics. The collapse approach suggests that the universe must be

objectively indeterminate because you cannot predict what state a superposition

will collapse into, you can only assign each possibility a probability. This implies

that you cannot know the future of the universe, even if you knew all of the

physical laws and everything about its current state. Schrdinger and GermanAmerican physicist Albert Einstein did not agree.

The search for the physical meaning behind these new equations was discussed

at the 1927Solvay Conference on Physics. This was attended by 29 scientists,

including Erwin Schrdinger,Albert Einstein, Max Planck, Niels Bohr, Werner

Heisenberg, Wolfgang Pauli, Louis de Broglie, Paul Dirac, Max Born, Marie

Sklodowska-Curie, and Arthur Compton.

In a joint paper delivered to the conference, Heisenberg and Born stated that

they considered "quantum mechanics to be a closed theory, whose fundamental

physical and mathematical assumptions are no longer susceptible of any

modification". Schrdinger and Einstein disagreed, and argued that quantum

mechanics is a statistical approximation of an underlying deterministic theory.

Part of the conference was filmed by American chemist Irving Langmuir, as

shown below.

The 1927 Solvay Conference on Physics. 21 out of 29 attendees are shown, they are, in

order of appearance: Erwin Schrdinger, Niels Bohr, Auguste Piccard, Werner Heisenberg,

Paul Ehrenfest, Peter Debye, Wolfgang Pauli, Leon Brillouin, Hendrik Kramers, Paul

Dirac,Max Born, Louis de Broglie, Irving Langmuir, Marie Sklodowska-Curie, William

Lawrence Bragg, Arthur Compton, Owen Richardson, Hendrik Lorentz, Paul Langevin, Albert

Einstein, and Max Planck. The 8 attendees not filmed were: Emile Henriot, Edouard Herzen,

Theophile de Donder, Jules Emile Verschaffelt, Ralph Howard Fowler, Martin Knudsen,

Charles-Eugene Guye, and Charles Thomson Rees Wilson. Credit: Irving Langmuir

via mikicorni.

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