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Define electrical conductor?

The electrical conductor is the wire you see between power poles or towers; it carries the
electricity. An electrical conductor is an object or type of material which permits the flow
of electric charges in one or more directions. For example, a wire is an electrical conductor that
can carry electricity along its length. Copper is the most common material used for electrical
wiring. Silver is the best conductor, but it is expensive.


Define current?
Current is the movement of electrons in the conductor.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge. Electric charge flows when there is
voltage present across a conductor. The SI unit for measuring an electric current is the ampere.
Electric current can be measured using an ammeter.


Define voltage?
Voltage is the electric force that causes current in a conductor. A voltmeter can be used to
measure the voltage.


Define electric power?

Electric power is the rate at which electric energy is transferred by an electric circuit.
The SI unit of power is the watt, one joule per second.


Define load?
Load is the electric power needed by homes and businesses. When a conductor energized
with voltage is connected to a load, a circuit is completed, and current will flow.


List out the types of power lines?

There are two basic types of power lines: transmission lines and distribution lines.


Define transmission lines?

Transmission lines are high-voltage power lines. The high voltage allows electric power
to be carried efficiently over long distances from electrical generation facilities to substations
near urban areas. In the United States, most transmission lines use alternating current (AC) and
operate at voltages between 50 and 765 kV ( l kV or kilovolt = 1000 V).


Define distribution lines?

Utilities use lower-voltage distribution lines to bring power from substations to

businesses and homes. Distribution lines operate at voltages below 50 kV. For residential
customers, these levels are further reduced to 120/240 V once the power reaches its destination.

Explain the terms:- substations, transformers, circuit breakers?

Electrical substations serve many functions in controlling and transferring power on an
electrical system. Several different types of equipment may be present, depending on the
functions of the particular substation.
Transformers change the high voltages used by transmission lines to the lower voltages
used by distribution lines.
Circuit breakers are used to turn lines on and off.


Define AC?
In alternating current (AC, also ac), the flow of electric charge periodically reverses
direction. In direct current (DC, also dc), the flow of electric charge is only in one direction. AC
is the form in which electric power is delivered to businesses and residences. The
abbreviations AC and DC are often used to mean simply alternating and direct, as when they
modify current or voltage.


Define DC?
Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge. Direct current is
produced by sources such as batteries, thermocouples, solar cells, and commutator-type electric
machines of the dynamo type.


Define transformer?
A transformer is a static electrical device that transfers energy by inductive coupling
between its winding circuits. Transformers are essential for the transmission, distribution, and
utilization of electrical energy.


Define fuse?

A fuse is a type of low resistance resistor that acts as a sacrificial device to provide over
current protection, of either the load or source circuit.

What is a staircase?
Staircase means the same thing and refers to a set of stairs between one floor and another.


How do you do staircase wiring?

A two way switch is required for staircase wiring. A staircase switch will have two
terminals. Connect the line wire with the center terminal. Connect the two ends of a wire with
the top two terminals and two ends of a wire with the bottom two terminals. The line wire at the
center terminal can now be connected with one terminal of the light bulb or light holder.

Where do you use staircase wiring?

Staircase wiring is used in apartments, offices etc...Generally where ever two way
switches are used.


What is the other name for staircase wiring?

It is also called as "hallway wiring". The idea is the same in both cases there's a switch at
both ends, and either switch can turn the light on and off, regardless of the position of the other
switch. That way, a single person can turn the light on at one end of the hallway or staircase,
walk up the stairs or through the hallway, and turn the light off when he reaches the
other end.


How many switches used for a single staircase light wiring?

Two switches for a single staircase light wiring.


What are the advantages and disadvantages of twisted pair wire?

1. Cheaper and far easier to splice
2. Less susceptible to electrical interference caused by nearby equipment or wires.
3. In turn are less likely to cause interference themselves.
4. Because it is electrically "cleaner", STP wire can carry data at a faster speed.


1. STP wire is that it is physically larger and more expensive than twisted pair
2. STP is more difficult to connect to a terminating block.

What are the different types of switches?

SPST: Single pole single through
SPDT: Single pole double through
DPST: Double pole single through
DPDT: Double pole double through


Why we have 240V, 50 Hz in India and 220V, 60 Hz in US?


What is the voltage range of the regular ac supply v receive at home?


Name the material used for Fuse.


Why is fuse rated for amperes?


Why in a three pin plug the earth pin is thicker and longer than the other pins?
It depends upon R=rho l/a where area(a) is inversely proportional to resistance (R), so if (a)

increases, R decreases & if R is less the leakage current will take low resistance path so the earth
pin should be thicker. It is longer because the first to make the connection and last to disconnect
should be earth Pin. This assures Safety for the person who uses the electrical instrument.

Explain the working principal of the circuit breaker?

Circuit Breaker is one which makes or breaks the circuit. It has two contacts namely fixed

contact & moving contact. Under normal condition the moving contact comes in contact with
fixed contact thereby forming the closed contact for the flow of current. During abnormal &
faulty conditions (when current exceeds the rated value) an arc is produced between the fixed &
moving contacts & thereby it forms the open circuit.

Why link is provided in neutral of an ac circuit and fuse in phase of ac circuit?

Link is provided at a Neutral common point in the circuit from which various connections are
taken for the individual control circuit and so it is given in a link form to withstand high Amps.
But in the case of Fuse in the Phase of AC circuit it is designed such that the fuse rating is

calculated for the particular circuit (i.e. load) only. So if any malfunction happens the fuse
connected in the particular control circuit alone will blow off.

What is switch?
A switch is used to make or break the electric circuit. It must make the contact firmly.


Lamp holders:
A lamp holder is used to hold the lamp required for lighting purposes.


What are the different types of lamp holders?

Pendent holder
Batten holder-for incandescent bulbs
Screw lamp holders-for bulbs rated 200W and above
Fluorescent lamp holders-for fluorescent tubes
Starter holders- for tube light starters


Ceiling Roses
These are used to provide a tapping to the lamp holder through the flexible wire or a
connection to a fluorescent tube or a ceiling fan.


Working of Fluorescent tube

With switch closed, the circuit gets closed. The flows through the ballast and the starter.
The glow switch suddenly breaks thereby breaking the circuit. Due to the high inductive
property of the ballast, a transient high voltage is available across the filaments. Hence
electrons are emitted and travel through the tube. Such a continuous flow of electrons
produces the sensation of light to human eyes.


Earthing means generally connected to the mass of the earth. It shall be in such a manner
as to ensure at all times an immediate and safe discharge of electric current due to leakages,
faults, etc.