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81.

34 ,/
CBSE Science Self-hrtor-X
/
Q./ Wnirh chemical reactions cffe necessary to prod,uce energy rich compound,s?
Ifis. Oxidising-reducing reactions are the most common reactions which cause
breakdown of food to produce energy rich compounds. Oxygen obtained from
oyaiside the body is used for sueh reactions.
,/
Q./Wn, do unicellular organisms not require specific organs for taking in food,
/ exchange of gases, transport of substances and, remoual of wastes?
Ans. Since, the entire surface of unicellular organisms remains in contact with the
environiaent, specifrc organs for these functions are not required. Their general body
,surface helps in procurement of food, exchange of gases and removal of waste.
-Q75. Wich process helps in producing carbon-based food? Which source of energy is
utilised to produce food.? Name the organisms which are inuolued in the process.
Ans. The process is known as photosynthesis" Solar energy is utilised in converting
CO2 and water into the form of carbon-based food like carbohydrates by green
plants, r..e., autotrophs.
Q. 6. Do all organisms fulfil requirement of food in the same way?
Ans. Plants use inorganic substances like carbon dioxide and water to produce food
and other substances. Other organisms like animals take complex food molecules
from plants or animal sources and break them into simpler substances so that
they are absorbed easily.
Q. 7. Giue examples of parasitic organisms.
Ans. Cuscula, orchids, ticks, mosquitoes, leeches, tapeworm and lice.
Q. 8. flou.r d.oes Paramecium obtain food?
Ans. Poromecium is a unicellular organism with a definite slipper-shaped body. The
fiodis taken from a specific point called the oral groove. Cilia are present all over
/ t}l,e surface of the body which direct food towards the oral groove.
{5. Carbon d.ioxid.e is consid.ered, essential for photosynthesis. How d,o the aquatic
green plants obtain it?
An7 Carbon dioxide remains dissolved in water, which is directly absorbed by the
aquatic green plants.
/
,Q..tO. Tlace the path of food in human alimentary canal.
Ans. Buccal cavity -+ oesophagus -t stomach -+ small intestine -+ large intestine
-) anus.
what is the mode of nutrition in fungi like bread, mould,s, yeast and mushroom,s?
- Ans. The mode of nutrition in these organisms is that they obtain nutrients from the
dead and decaying organic matter by breaking them into simpler substances and
then absorbing the digested food. This mode of nutrition is called saprophytic

Lif'

$q

$(

g/'

nutrition-

4. rr. What would be the effect if all the green plants u)ere to disappear front. the earth?
Ans. Green plants are the only producers of food and oxygen. No living organism wouid
survive as food is needed to be oxidised by oxygen to obtain energy.
What are the sources of energy aua,ilable for organisnts?
Food is the main source of energy available to living organisms. Plants use solar
energy to produce food. This food is eaten by animals to obtain energT.

((

Lr,fe

Processes ,a

uJar*

{A.
'"-*J

81'35

,/

{intur*ed,iate

compound. produced. d,uring

changed to food during day?

night in desert plants? How is it

Ans' Desert plants absorb CO2 during night and fix it in an intermediate compound
known as malic acid. During d.ay, the solar energ:y absorbed by chlorophylr
*$>{urcs he}ps in changing the intermediate compound into food.
Q. 15. ffh,y d.o heterotrophic organisms d,epend. for food, on autotrophs?
Ans' Heterotrophic organisms cannot prepare their own food and thus depend on
autotrophs, which are also known as producers. The only food
to
herbivores are plants and plant parts. The carnivores, in turn, feed. on"rr"il"bl.
herbivores

and other carnivores for their fo,:d.


r7l*Q. to. jlo* is oxygen prodyred d.uring photosynthesis? What happens to the oxygen thus

-Jproduced,? ,/

Ans" Water splits during photosynthesis into hydrogen and oxygen. Whi1e hydrogen is
needed for reducing carbon dioxide, oxygen escapes into the atmosphere
to be
utilised by the living organisms to produce energv.
Q' 17' Wy are uariegated legtvs chosen to proue that chlorophyu is necessary
for
photosynthesis? -/
Ans. Variegated leaves show two regions, one green region containing chlorophyll, and
the other nor,-gry)n region that does not contain chlorophyll.
Q. 18. why do plants'fequire minerars rike nitrogen, phosphorus, iron and, m,agnesium?

Ans'

These are required to produce proteins and other chemical substances


needed by
plants. These are components of cells and enzymes.

Q' 19' Hout ma,ny types of substances are released. by the gastricSland.s of stomach of a
human being? What do they form collectiuely?

Ans'

_/

Three types of substances are released by the gastrie giands present


in th.e walls
of a human stomach. They secrete (r) hydrochloric acid, (ir) digestive enzyme
called pepsin, and (iir) mucus, all of which collectively form gastric juice.

),
O la. zd) wnat is the function of pclnrreas?
\ *#" Pancreas secretes digestive
enzymes: ,_-'

(i) Trypsin digests proteins into small molecules mad.e up of a few amino acids.
(il) Amylase digests starch into sugars.
(iii) Lipase digests fats into fatty acids and glycerol.
wich d'igestiue glands help in d,igestion though food, neuer enters tbem?

The glands are liver, pancreas and salivary glands.


-.'
q,.22. Wy is assimilation of food essential?
Ans. Assimilation or utilisation of food is essential for building up processes,
proper
functioning of life by producing useful materials, for ryit of worn
parts,
out
and
for obtaining energy.

_/-

Ltfe

81.36

'/

CBSE Science

Self-futor-X

,d rr. Wh,at is the role of intestinal ju,ice secreted, by intestinat gland,s?


Ans. In the small intestine. the intestinai juice completes the digestion of proteins into
amino acids, carbohydrates into glucose and fats into fatty acids and glycerol.
What are the end products of digestion of carbohydrates, fo,ts and proteins?
(i) Carbohydrates --+ glucose.
(ii)
Fats -r fatty acids and glycerol.
(,,,)
Proteins -+ amino acids"
[aw d,o stomata aperu and clase?
Wheruryrater flows into guard cells, they swell up and thus open the stornata.
phen the guard cells lose water, they shrink and close the stomata.
'ow
does ruitrogen enter the plant?

t
/
tA.rr.

(i) Roots absorb nitrogen in the form of nitrates or nitrites.


fii) Bacteria use atmospheric nitrogen (Nr), incorporating it in

Nonte the enzymes for protein digesti,on present in the gastri.c; pancreo,ti.c
intestinal juices, the substra,te they digest, and the products of their action.

(i)

Juice

Enzym,e

Gastric juice

Pepsin

Substrate
Protein

a.

a.
A

organic

compounds:

Ans.

/'

a.
A

a,nd,

Produ.ct

Small molecules made


up of a few amino acids
(peptones)

(ri) Pancreatii

(iii) Intestinal

jrr

juicr Trypsin Protein

Peptides
juice Erepsin Contain very few
Amino acids
amino acids (peptides
and peptones)

Where does exchange of gases occwr in plants?

Ans. Massive exchange of gases occurs through stomata present on leaves during the
proces$- of photosynthesis. Exchange of gases also occurs through the surface of
stems and roots"
Q.2e. Define parasitic nutrition. What are these organisms known as?
Ans. The mode of nutrition in which an organism obtains food synthesised by the other
organism, called host, is termed, parasitic nutrition and the organisms exhibiting
this mode of nutrition are called parasites.
Hout does the food moue in a regulated me,rLner along the d,igestiue tract?
Small regulated amounts of food should move, so that food is properly p*oc"""ed
in the various parts of the digestive tract. The muscular sphincter present at the
junction of the stomach and the small intestine allows only small amount of food

a.

i-jubstances are broken down into simpler substances here. The digested food
dffuses lnto the cytoplasm and is assimilated. The undigested food is thrown out
thrr-,ugh the cell surface"

Processes ,a.
B1.B?
81.37
*/
{, {ir" $* ao ii" orgrn, of alimerutary canal help in thte forwarcl mouement of food?
#n"walls of the organs of the alimentary canal like small andlarge intestine are
muscular in nature which contract rhythmically to push fbod forward by
Life

z-"F*q

pylstaltic
istaltic movements.
a. ss""fih.y is photosynthesis regarded, as the

sole mechanism for the conuersion af solar


energy into oth,er suitable forms of energy?
Ans" This is the oniy process where the chlorophyll molecules present in
the leaves can
converi solar energy to chemical energy which is stored in the food molecules.
The food thus produced is utilised by aII organisms in one way or the other.
No
op* o,*sanism can perform this process as they do not contain chlorophyll.

Q.34. "When d.o planrs

clo,se stomata?

Ans. when the plants do not use carbon dioxide the stomata is closed, i.e..
at night
when photosynthesis does not occur. In d.esert plants, the carbon dioxide
rs taken
at nieht. thus in such plants stcmata is open at night"
(Q"

ar'

lLook at the figure giuen below" What euents haue occurred.

in

them? Expktirt.

Guard cells

Stomatal pore

Chloroplast

(a)

(b)

Fig. 1.5: Open and close stomata

Ans' Fig.

1.5 (o) depicts an open stomata. It shows the gaseoqs cxcha,ge


betweeri C(.r,
and 02, and the process of photosynthesis is taking piace. since. guard.
ceils
contain glucose it has absorbed water from the surrounding epidermal ceils
4ue
to which the stomata open.

Fig. 1-5 (b) depicts closed stomata which shows that exchange of gascs and
photosynthesis do not occur. Since, glucose is not present waier
co,ce,t'ation
decreases and the stomata close.
Q. 36. Wat are

gill

slits and in which process d,o they help?

Ans. Gill slits are openings of gilrs to the outside and are meant for the process
of
respiratior in fishes.

CBSE Science Self-Tutor_X

between anaerobic respiration

in

yeast and,

in

Life

muscles-

Prol,

e.4G.
Ans.

q.47.
muscles causes cram
between erternal and

Ans.

internal respiration,
rnal
Cellular respiration is the oxidation
ofstored food to release energy in
the presence or absence ofoxygen
inside the cell.

Breathing is intake of atmosphericE


rich in oxygen, and release oicarbon
dioxide, through the respiratory organs,
into the surroundins mcdirrm

are red blood, corpuscles consid,ered, the best transporters


of oxygeru?
contain a pigment calted haemoglobin. Haemoglobin
has
1:=1Pt:,:*:11yctes
great
affinitv for oxygen. It combines with oxygen to be-carrie;;;;il"

Q. 40. How is carbon d,ioxid.e transported. in the human bod,y?


Ans' carbon dioxide is more soluble in water. Hence, it is transported.
in a dissolved
in the plasma of the blood.
_- --fqrm
z---.
I
tra,uels

reaches the alveoli in lungs by taking the following


path
through the various organs:

(@:::";:::':";;r'tr#;:;;:T;::;:::;n::::;:es+a've.'i

,Q.',rii.

Ans.

Q. 51.
Ans.

The air enters and fills the alveoli and. increases


the oxygen concentration in the
alveoli, than.the- surrounding brood capillaries.

Ti;;";;;;;;;;;;;iffuse

into
dioxide concentration than
alveoli- Therefore, carbon dioxide from the capillaries
"."bo, diffuses
into the alveoli.
43'
Is concentration of carbon d.ioxid,e in the enuironment
Q'
more d,uring night or d,o,y?
Ans' During the night, plants respire and produce carbon
dioxide which is not utiiised
by them, as photosynthesis does not occur
due to the absence oflight, thus oxygen
is not produced' Therefore,
" as compared to the day. carbon dioxide concentration is more during the night
q. 44. How is the energy released, d.uring respiration?

the blood-' The blood capillaries havJ more

(t

Ans.

from the nostrils to the lungs in the

Ans' Air from the nostrils

\-AEil6'

Q.4e.

"tJffiffi"

body.

'4 +t' )that path is taken by air when. it


l,/hurnan beings?

Q.48.
Ans.

Q.52.
Ans.

Q.53.
Ans.

Ans'

Energy is released in steps d'uring respiration,


so that the temperature of the cells
does not rise' very little amount of energy
is'lost as heat during this process.
Q' 45' Haw is oxygen carried, to the-tissues, consid,ering that
d,iffusion pressure is not
sufficient to carry olcygen to d,ifferent parts oy
tn"'6o417
Ans' Diffusion pressure is not sufficient to carry oxygen
to different parts of the body"
The respiratory pigment, haemoglobin, is
efficle"nt to carry oxygen to the different
parts

of the body.

Q. 54.
Ans.

Life

Processes

81.39

Q' 46' Why does aerobic respiration prod,uce ntore energy than anaerobic respiration?
Ans' During aerobic respiration, there is complete oxidation of glucose .molecules"
Therefore, large amount of energy is released whereas in ana-erobic respiration.
glucose is only partially oxidised, releasing little amount c(
energy.
q. 47. How does the breathing process help us?
Ans' ' It provides oxygen for aerobic respiraiion in the cells to produce energy.
' It excretes out toxic carbon dioxide along with excess of water vapour from
the body.
Q. 48. Name the respiratory orgarus of (i) fish and, (ii) dog.
Ans. (i) Fish : Gilts
(ii) Dog : Lungs
Q' ag' Wat are the characteristics of root cells which remain in close conto,ct with soil
for
absorption of water and for exchange of gases?
Ans. The root cells are very thin and extend to become elongated, thus increasing
their
surface area. The root cells remain in contact with oxygen and water, *rri.t
makes them more suitable for exchange of gases ana for a'bsorption of water.
Q.50. Describe the diaphragm.
Ans" A diaphragm is a muscular partition separating thoracic cavity
from the
abdominal cavity. It helps in the process of inhalation and exhalation. When
muscles of diaphragm, along with rib muscles contract, the volume of the
thoracic
cavity increases. As a result, air rushes in. When their muscles relax. the volume
decreases and air moves out.
Q. 51. what are the respiratory structures and, their role in flowering plant?
Ans' The main respiratory structures in a flowering plant are stomata present on the
leaves. Stomata are small openings, present o" Uott the surfaces of the
leave*q.
Oxygen
Tovef into stomata by diffusion. This oxygen is absorbed by the leaf cells.
Carbon dioxide has more concentration in tissue-spaces than the surroundings.
When no photosynthesis occurs, carbon dioxide diffuses out through the
stomata.
Q' 52. Differentiate between aerobes and, aruaerobes. Giue examples of the two types of

Ans'

organisms.
Aerobes are the organisms which utilise oxygen and undergo aerohic
respiration"

Examples of aerobes are green plants and animals. In contrast, anaerobes


perform anaerobic respiration without utilising oxygen, as in yeast
and some

bacteri.a.

5s. what is the ad.uantage of ruose breathing ouer mouth breathing?


Ans' The air passes directly from the-mouth to the pharynx during mouth breathrng
while, during nose breathing, the air passes ihrough nasal
lassages and gets
filtered, warmed up and moistened because of the presence of mucus
*hich traps
dirt and foreign objects.
Q. 54" Explairu exchange of gases through stomata.
Ans. ' The gases which diffuse in or out are carbon dioxide and oxygen.
' Large intercellular spaces in the leaf are full of air and all the cells remarn rn
direct contact with the air.
Q.

'

Environmental conditions decide the dilection of diffusion of these gases.

B1.40

(,

CBSE Science Self-Tutor-X

Life Proce

Q. 55. What will happen to aquatic animals if there is oil spilt in tlrc ocean?
Ans. OiI spill spreads on the surface of water in the ocean, which d.oes not allow oxygen
to enter and get dissolved in water. Aquatic animals will die in such cond.itrons as
no oxygen will be available to them.
56.
Food. and. oxcygeru, both are necessary for life. Will man be able to suruiue without
Q.

Q.65.

Ans.

food and oxygen? Why?


Ans. Man can survive without food for a few days as the stored food molecules can be
oxidised to give energy. But without oxygen, energy rich compound ATp cannot
be produced and energy will not be available to carry on the life processes.

Q" 66. v

Ans"

67. s
Ans. B

Q.

Q.68.
Ans.

'C

In

Q.6e. Il

The companion cells are present along with sieve tubes. The cells contain cytoplasm
and nucletis and therefore they are living cells and help in the conduction of food.

Q. 60. How do water and, minerals from the roots enter the leaues?
Ans. Xylem vessels are placed one above the other, forming long channels from the
roots to the leaves. Xylem of the roots remains in direct contact with that of the
stem, branches, petioles ofthe leaves and other parts ofthe plant. So, through the
xylem, the water from the roots enter the leaves.
Q. 61. Wa,t is blood,? What are its components?
Ans. Blood is a fluid connective tissue. Its matrix, also known as plasrna, contains the
foliowing cell components-red blood corpuscles, white blood corpuscles
and platelets. Plasma transports dissolved organic and inorganic substances like
food, carbon dioxide and nitrogenous wastes.
Q" 62. Wat is haemoglobin and what function d,oes it perform?
Ans. Haemoglobin is a red-coloured respiratory pigment, present in the RBCs of the
blood. It carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues and brings carbon dioxide from
the tissues to lungs.
Q. 63. How does blood come back to the heart from different parts of the bod,y?
Ans. Oxygenated blood from the lungs comes to the left atrium through the pulmonary
veins and deoxygenated blood from different parts ofthe body comes Lack to the
right atrium throu5;h the superior and inferior venae cavae"
64.
which euents occur in the capillaries present in the tissues?
Q"
Ans. Capillaries are the ultimate branches of the arteries. These are one cell thick. The
exchange ofgases occurs between the cells ofthe tissues and the capillaries by the

tr

Q"57. How are minerals and water absorbed by the roots in the plants?
Ans. The cells of the roots remain in contact with soil and take ions actively" A difference
is created in the concentration of ions between the root cells and the soil. So water
from the soil moves into the root cells and reaches the xylem vessels.
Q.58. Does food, enter the uarious plant parts accord,ing to their need,s? Giue one example
to proue it.
Ans. Food enters the various parts of the plant according to their requirements. For
example, the food is transferred to the buds in the spring season. Buds need food
to get energ'y to grciw.
Q. 59. Name the cells which are present along with the sieue tubes in the phloem tissue.
Are they liuing cells?

Ans.

.r

tr

Ans.

di

q.70"

tu1

th

Ans.

\4

le
le

(,

e. 21.

I+

Ans. Tl

pr

q.72.
Ans.

TI

co

in

czt

Q. 73. I7

Ans.

H:

wI

tn

Life Pracesses

8i.41

process of diffusion. Oxygen diffuses into the cells of the


tissues and carbon
dioxide enters the blood capillaries.
Q. 65. Is the pressure deueloped, du,e to d,ifference in con centration, of ions enough to p*sh

water up in tall trees?


Ans. The pressure so developed is not enough to push water up in the
tall trees. The
transpiration pull, created by the ioss of water, helps to push water up in
tall trees.
Q. 66. \Ih.at are blood platelets? Wat function do they perforru?
Ans" tslood platelets are suspended in the plasma of the blood. whenever
an injury o*
a leah in a blood vessel occurs, the bleeding must stop. To minimise the
losc of
blood the plateiets circulating in the brood plug the leakage by forrning
a clot.
Q. 67. \44r,y sh"ould bieeding or leahage af btood. be stopped,?
Ans. Bleeding should stop for the following reasons:
' Loss of biood should be minirnised so that the amount of nutrients and. oxygen
should not decrease in our body.
' Loss of blood from blood vessels wil reduce the efficiency of the pumping sysrem.
Q.68" Describe the structure of capillari,es. IW,at function d.a th,ey perform?
Ans. capillaries are one cell thick. Being extremely thin, the exchange gases,
of
food
materials and wastes takes place easily through them.
Q' 69' llhat are the wastes prod,u,ced d,urirug metabolic actiuities? Ifaut are these u;a.stes
tro,n sported?

Ans'

Carhon dioxide and nitrogenous wastes are produced. These are transported
in a
dissolved form irr the plasrna.

Q' 70. Mett"tian the etsents accurring in the lelt sid,e of the heart when
the left atrium by th,e pulmonary uein,s.

6
6

blood, is poured intrt

Ans" When cxygenated blood is brought by the pr.rlmonary veins frona


the lungs tr-r 1,1ie
Ieft atri um, the left atrium and left ventricle are in a relaxed conditron. lVhen
the
left atrium contracts, blood is pushed into the left ventricle, which expands to
receive Lrlood.

Q. 71. Wat is blaod pressure?


Ans. 'Ihe pressure exerted by blc,od against the waII of the vessej. is
called blood
pressure" The presstrre of blood in the arteries is mucir greater than
in the vei's"
q.72. What are systolic and diq,stolic blood, pressures?
Ans. The blood pressure in the arteries during ventricular systole,
i.e., cturi*g
contraction of ventricles is called systolic blood pressure. The blood p*.**"u"!
rn the arteries during ventricular cli.astole, i.e., d.uring relaxation
of ventricLes is
called diastolic blood pressure.
What is high blood pressure?
High blood pressure or hypertension is caused. by the consLriction ofthe
arteries
which causes resistance to biood flow. Hypertension can rupture an
artery, Iearling
to incernai bleeding.

81.42

Life

CBSE Science Self-Tutor-X

q. 7 4. Wat

Processes

happens in the right sid.e of the heart when d,eoxygenated blood, is brought to
the right atriurn by the two uenae cauae?

Q.83. How is
Ans. A braac

Ans. When the two venae cavae bring deoxygenated blood to the right atrium, it
remains relaxed and the blood pours into it. The ventricle also remains in a
relaxed condition. Once the right atrium contracts, the right ventricle expand.s to
receive deoxygenated blood. When the right ventricle contracts, blood is pushed
into the pulmonary arteries to carry it to the lungs for oxygenation.
Q. 75. Why are energy need,s low in, plants?
Ans. Energy needs in plants are low because

very fi-n
Q. 84. How h
high or
Ans. Kidneys
tissues i
kidneys
Q. AA. Wat is
Ans. The Bor

(i) plants do not move so energy is not required.

Produce,

(zr.) plants contain large proportion of dead cells, which reduce the use of energy.

The uri:

Q. 76. How do unicellular organisms remoue nitrogenous waste?


Ans. Many unicellular organisms remove the nitrogenous waste from the body surface,
into the surrounding environment, by diffusion.

Bowmar
nephron

Q. 86.

Ans. Human.

q. 77. What is excretion?


Ans. Excretion is a process by which metabolic wastes are removed from the body and
an osmotic balance is maintained by controlling the water content and salt

to maint
gZ.
How doe
Q.

Ans. Several

amount of the body fluid.


Q. 78. State two uital functions of kidrueys.
Ans. (i) Kidneys remove toxic wastes from the body.
(ii) They control water balance and levels of minerals in the body.
Q. 79. Where a.re the kidneys located in our body? How are they protected?

(,

salts fror

Q. Ag.

Ans. urea and uric acid are the major nitrogenous waste products in human beings.
These are removed by the nephrons as urine by the process of filtration of blood.
The urine is collected in the kidneys, is carried by the ureters, and collected in the
urinary bladder to be released outside the body.

Ureter is the duct which passes urine


from the kidneys to the urinary
bladder.

Urethra

Urethra is the muscular tube


through which the urine is released
to the exterior from the urinary
bladder.

Wat slx

Ans. In

case o

device w
process it
90.
Write a s,
Q.

Ans. Urinary
beings? How are these

remoued frorn the body?

Q.82. Differentiate between ureter and, urethra,.


Ans.
Ureter

failure. I
88.
wy is tt
e.

Ans. Blood ca1

Ans.-Kidneys are located in the abdominal cavity, one on either side of the vertebral
column. They are protected by the ribs.
Q. 80. What are the major parts of the human excretory system?

Ans. Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra.


Q. 81. What are the major nitrogenous waste products in hwrnan

Wy is u

{f

through t

e. gr. what strc

Ans. Plants usr


are remor

materials
falling lee

Short Answe

Q.l.

Why are

possible

t)

tlore coml
Ans. Multicellu
cells. Cor

Life

It

)O

Processes

Bl.4B

Q. 83. How is glomerulus formed?


Ans. A branch of renal artery enters the Bowman's capsule and divides profusely into
very fine capillaries. This structure is called glomerulus.
Q' 84. How do kidneys maintain the water balance when water conterut in the bod,y is
high or low?
Ans. Kidneys excrete more dilute urine when the water content is more in the body
tissues and blood, and excrete more concentrated urine when water is less. Thus,
kidneys maintain a water balance in our body.
Q. 85. What is the function of Bowman's capsule? Explain.
Ans. The Bowman's capsule contains glomerulus, which is a cluster of capillaries
produced by the renal artery. In glomerulus, blood is filtered and urine is formed..
The urine contains important substances like glucose, amino acids and salts.
Bowman's capsule receives this filtrate which enters the tubular part of the
nephron.
Q. 86. wy is water reabsorbed by the excretory system of human beings?
Ans. Human beings take less amount of water. So, water is reabsorbed to conserve it
to maintain the osmotic balance of blood.
Q. 87. How d.oes kidney failure occur?
Ans. Several factors like infections, injury or restricted blood flow may cause kidney
failure. Since kidneys are vital organs, their failure may lead to death also.
88.
Wy is the tubular part of the nephron surrcwnd,ed, by blood, capillaries?
Q.
Ans. Blood capillaries reabsorb useful substances like glucose, amino acids, water and
salts from the tubular part ofthe nephron.
Q. 89. Wat should be done when kidney failure occurs?
Ans. In case of kidney failure, an artificial kidney may be used. Artificial kidney is a
device which helps in removing the nitrogenous wastes from the blood. This
process is known as dialysis.
Q.e0. Write a short note on the urinary blad.d.er.
Ans. Urinary bladder is a muscular structure. It receives urine from the kidneys
through two ureters which is stored in it. It is under the nervous control.
Q. 91. what strategy is ad.opted, by the plants to remoue the wastes?
Ans. Plants use different ways to get rid of waste materials. Carbon dioxide and oxygen
are removed through stomata, excess water escapes as water vapour. Other waste
materials may be stored in the vacuoles. Gums and resins may be removed in the
falling leaves or waste may be excreted out into the surrounding soil.

Q-

l.

why are processes like intake of food,, exchange of gases, remoual of wastes not
possible through the general surface when the bod,y size increases and, beconres
rnore complex?

Ans. Multicellular bodies are more complex as they are mad.e up of a large number of
cells. Complexity increases with the increase in the size of the body. Cells are

81"44

CBSE Science Self-Tutor__X

organised in groups called tissues. All the cells can not be in direct
contact with
the outside environment, and through diffusion, it will take a torrg li*"
fo" *

Life Processc

Ans.

molecule to reach its place ofaction. Therefore, such processes, defrnite


organised
systems are necessary.

2. How d,o mu.lticellular orga,nis,nrs accomplish the uarious life processes?


Ans' In multicellular organisms, there are various body parts or organs which
specific in their functions. These organs have specialised tissues which

(0

(o)

Q-

are
are

suitabie for specific functions. Intake offood and oxygen from outside is
also the
function of specialised tissues. Intake of food ant digestion occurs in
the
alimentary canal while the intake of oxygen occurs through the rungs.

Q.3. Wh,at are maintenance processes?


Ans' Maintenance processes are the processes to perform various functions in

(6)

(c)

the

living organisms. These are (i) nutrition, (ri) respiration, (ilr) transportation
and
(lu) excretion. For this, organisms need energy, *t l"f, is mad.e
avaiLble from the
food obtained through the process of nutrition. Oxygen is taken
in and the food is
oxidised to provide energy. Oxidation-reduction p"o.u*."" help in producing
essentral molecules needed for the- growth and development of the
body. Tru.rspo"l
of the molecules fuifils the needs of the actively growing cells of the
body" Un*untud
substances are excreted outside the body.
4.
What is the importance of photosynthesis?
Q.

Ans' '

'

Photosynthesis is the process of food production by green plants. They are


known
as prirnary producers, as they provide food to alt living organisms.
Solar energy is trapped as chemical energy, which is stored in food molecules
only try the process of photosynthesis. This energy is then distributed to
all
living organisms to sustain life.

'Photosynthesis is the only natural process during which carbon dioxide


is taken in and life sustaining oxygen is released.. This helps in baiancing
the
concentrations ofboth the gases.
6Co, + 6H2o

ffilf,

C6Hr2o6 +

6o2t

Q. 5. Wh,y is the process of nutrition necessury for liuing organisms?


Ans' Nutritron is necessary for living organisms because of the foilowing reasons:
' It provides substances which release energ-y needed to do work.
. It helps rn the growth and development of the body.
. It provides materials to repair worn out cells of the body.
' It provides substances to the body which help to fight diseases.

'
'

It

provid.es substances which regulate different body processes


an4" maintains

life"

Essential cellular products, such as enzymes, and other important


substances
like hormones are produced from the food molecules.
Q. 6. Differentiate between the following:
(i) Parasitic and saprophytic ruutrition.
(ii) Herbiuores and carniuores.

(iD

(o) l

(b) l

O e.z" W

abso,

Ans.

. Vil
. vil

dig

. Blt

pal

Q. a. Mafu
Ans.

vb

Life Processes

Ans"

81"45

(r)

rasitic Nutrition
(o) Parasitic mode of nutrition involves
obtaining food synthesised by other
organisms. known as host. The
organism obtaining food is called a

parasite. It lives in intimate

contact with the host.


(b) Holozoic nutrition, ingestive type
taken in solid state, and digestion

is internal.

(c) Cuscuta, orchids, tapeworms,


leeches, ticks and lice exhibit this

mode of nutrition.

ic Nutrition
Saprophytic nutrition is the mode of
nutrition in which the organism
obtains food from dead ancl decaying
organic matter"

Absorptive nutrition, food obtained


in liquid state and digestron is
external"
Fungi and bacteria exhibit this mode
of nutrition.

(ii)
res

(o) Herbivores are animals which feed


on plants only.
(b) Rabbit, grasshopper and . deer are
herbivores.

Carniuores

Carnivores are anrmals which feed


on herbivores and other animals.
Frog, hawk and tiger are carnivores.

e"7. wy are uilli, present in

the inner lining of the smail intestine, most suitabLe


fo,
absorption of food?
Ans. . Vilii are only one cell thick.
'villi increase surface area considerably, thus increasrng the absorption of
digested food.
Blood vessels present in them are meant to carry
absorbed food to different
parts of the body.
Q.8. Make a labelled sketch of a cross section of a teaf.
Ans.

Waxy cuticle
Upper epidermis

Chloroplasts

Air spaces

Lower epidermis

Guard cell

Fig. 1.6

81.46

BSE Science Self-Tutor-X

Life Proce

Q.9. lWy is the leaf considered the most suitable plant organ for photosynthesis?
Ans. . Leaves are the site of photosynthesis. The palisade tissue present below the

Q. 14. li

upper epidermis is made up of cells having chloroplasts. These cells obtain


carbon dioxide through stomata and water through xylem of the veins.
. Sunlight is absorbed by chlorophyll pigments of the chloroplasts.
. The solar energy is used to combine carbon dioxide and water in the
chloroplasts, with the help of enzymes, to produce sugar. Sugar is stored in the
form of starch. Oxygen produced during photosynthesis is released through
stomata into the atmosphere.
Q. f0. How do plants obtain food? Giue the equation for photosynthesis.
Ans. Green plants are autotrophs and synthesise their own food by the process of
photosynthesis. It means synthesis offood in the presence of sunlight. It is a process
in which plants use sunlight, chlorophyll, carbon dioxide and water to synthesise

Ans.

Q. 15. Ii
Ans. a

food.

6CO,
Carbon

dioxide

12H2O

Water

Tffir

C6H12O6

+ 6O2t +

Glucose Oxygen

6H2O
Water

Q. 11. Answer the following:


(i) Which is the first simple m.olecule produced by photosynthesis?
(ii) What happens to these sintple molecules in the leaues later?
(iii) In which molecules, produced, during photosynthesis, is solar eruergy stored
as chemical energy?
Ans. (i) Glucose is the first simple molecule prod.uced during photosynthesis"
(n) Giucose molecules combine to produce starch, which is stored in various
parts ofthe plant.
(iii) Solar energy is stored in the glucose molecules as chemical energy.
Q. 12. Mention. the action of enzymes which hetp in d,igestion of starch in the alimentary
canal.

8m t

c.

Q"17"
Ans.

; starch salivarv am-r'hse , Maltose


Amvlase ,
Pancreatic juice : Starch
sugar
In small intestine : Sugar
Glucose

Ans. In

mouth

^".ffirk*

Q. ls. Answer the following questions based on experirnents on pho"tosynthesis:


(D VAry are the leaues boiled in alcohol while testing for starch?
(ii) Why is the plant kept in dark for about three days while perform,ing an
experiment to show that chlorophyll is necessary for photosynthesis?
(iii) Why should the leaues be kept in boiling water for a few minutes before
putting them in alcohol for testing for starch?
(i)
Ans.
Leaves are boiled in alcohol so that chlorophyll from the leaves leaches out
into alcohol.
(ii) The plant should be kept in the darh for three days to destarch the leaves.
(ai) Leaves are boiled in water so that the enzymes are destroyed and they do
not show further activity.

Q. 18. .r

Ans.

Sl

Life Processes
Q.

81.41

f4. Wy is there a need for digestiue process in the orgaruisms?

Ans.

Food is masticated and digested

'

in the digestive system by:


the complex food molecules are broken down into simpler substances
with the

help of enzymes.

. the digested products offood are absorbed

'

by the

villi in the small intestine.

absorbed food is assimilated to form substances which are required


for growth

development, repair and production ofenergy.

' undigested toxic waste is released outside the body through anus.
Q. 15. wat happens to partly d.igested, food, in the smail intestine?
Ans' ' Small intestine has intestinal glands which prod.uce intestinal juice containing
'
'

enzymes. The enzymes are rereased in the intestinar cavity.


Complete digestion ofcarbohydrates, fats and proteins occurs here.
The products formed are glucose , fatty acids, glycerol and amino acids.
Foocl is
then absorbed by villi in the small intestine.

6 /ft] Wat happens to absorbed. food in our bod,y? Wy should. food, be assintilated.?
'*-/ Utilisation of absorbed food by the cells of the body takes place to produce the

chemical substances which are need.ed by our body for gro*ih, development
and
various other activities. Assimilation is important to

. build or replace old and worn out cells in the body.


. obtain energy from the assimilated food.
. build substances for growth and development.

Q" 17" Enumerate the euents which occur in the stomach when food reaches it"
Ans. ' when food enters the stomach it expands. stomach is a large
organ, which
receives food from the food pipe. The muscular walls of the stomach
crush and

'

mix, the food thoroughly with digestive juices released by gastric glands
present in the wall of the stomach.
when the food enters the stomach, the cells of gastric glands, present in the
wali of the stomach, secrete the gastric juice which contains hydrochloric
acid,
the enzyme pepsin and mucus.

'

Hydrochloric acid makes the medium of the food acidic and activates
the
enzyme pepsin which acts on proteins and breaks them.into smaller
molecules.
Bacteria and other microbes are destroyed by HCl. Mucus protects
the 1ining of
the stomach from the action of HCl.
Q. 18" Haw is the food digested by the intestinar juice in the small intestine?
Ans" The partially digested proteins, carbohydrates and emulsified
fats from the first
part of small intestine move further into small intestine. The
intestinal juice is
secreted from the glands present in the walls of the smali intestine
and it contains
enzymes. Here, intestinal juice completes the digestion of proteins
into amino
acids, carbohydrates into glucose and fats into fatty acids and glycerol.

J1."{8

Life Proc,.

CBSE Science Self-Tutor_X

Q. 1e. With the h.elp of sketches, show nutrition in


Amoeba.
Ans.
Pseudopodia

Food particle

Fig.

Q' 20' How

q.24. L
Ans.

Food particle

i.7

is d'erutal caries caused? w hat precaution


s should

you

obserue to

*uoitl

d,ental
happen if praqui formation is *ot remoued.?
Ans' Bacteria.acting on sugars produce acids that
softens or demineralises the enamel.
Bacteual cells together wiih food particl""
r, the teeth to form i""rrr piaque.
saliva cannot reach the tooth .,rrfr"" t" "ri"r.
the acid as plaque covers the
teeth' As a result dental carle1 or tooth """irlile
a".uy o."rrrs. Brushing the teeth after
eating removes the plaque. If plaque ror^uiiorrl"
,rot remored, micr.orgarusms
mav invade the pulp causing inflammatior,
*oJ infection.

caries? rilhot

&

wil

(ii

Q" ao" r\-c

Ans. Gil

an(

Q' 21' tf o s'""n plant is placed. in air, free af oxygen,

utou,ld, it liue longer in tight or in


darhness? \Alty?
Ans. The green plant would live ronger
in 1ight even rvithout oxygen in air as it
can use
carbon dioxrde and water du"ir;rg phoiosynthesis
and uroiru oxygen rn the air.
This will be utilised du,ng *".piiriio.,
io ,ui".uu carbon aio*iau and energy.
But
in the dark, there wiil be no ptoto"yrrttesis
and no evolution of oxygen. since
oxygen is not present in air, the prant
wil not u,dergo resprration. Energy rvil not
be made available for various activities
and the prant *itt die after some time"
q,"22. Merution, th,e euen'ts which
occur d,uri*g the proeess of aerobic respi,ration.
Represent the process in the
fornt of word equation.
Ans. Aerobic respiration is a multi-step
process which involves:
(i) Absorption of atmospheric oxygen,
(il) Oxiclation of fbocl (glucose, etc.),

(lli) Elimination of carbr:n dioxide produced.


during oxidation,
(i,) Production and conservation of energy

and
released dtrring oxidarion

in useful
forms such as ATp.
the form of word equation, refer to point
6 of Brief R6suur6 on Fage BJ.4
for
^^--:x
q.
^ 23.
Ila'ta is breathing d,ifferent
froru r.espi,t ation?
Ans.
Breathin
iratian
(i) It ls an extracelluiar phvsrcal
It
is an intracellular biochemical
process, performed by specific
process"
i
organs"
(ii) Iio energy is releasecl.

(iii) Exchange of gases takes place


withotlt the action of enz mes"

Energy is released. and stored in the


form of ATP rnolecules.
Food is oxidised with the heip of

enzymes.

Ox:
dio:

out
the

Q. 26. Des
Ans. The
the
bro
alr.e

bl,b

[he i

Q.27. Dif;t
Ans. Dun
anci

of an

In

1.e

GIucr
(6- e;i,
molr,r:

Anae:
glucoi
Glucc
(6-ca:'i
nr o

lt.c:;.

Life Proce.sses

Q"24.
Ans"

81.49

Di fferentiate betw een respir atiorc and photosyn thesis.

Respiration
(l)

(ri)

It is a destructive

process

osynthesis

in which

It rs a constructive process in which


food is broken down into simple
simple inorganic molecules like
inorganic forms like carbon dioxide carbon dioxide and water combine to
and water with the release of energy. form food as complex organic molecules.

It

does not require

light but, d,uring Carbon dioxide and water are used


to produce glucose try utilising solar
energy. It is a light-dependent, process

aexoHg-r"es.pirat"ion, require oxygen.

and oxygen is produced as a by-product.

(iii) h takes place in cytoplasm and


mitochondria of the cell.

It takes place in the chloroplast of


the celi.

Q' 25. Name the organ of respiration in fishes. How d,oes it help in the process of respiratiort?
Ans. Gills are the respiratory organs of fishes. The water enters through the mouth
and spreads over the gills, which are richly supplied with blood capillaries.
Oxygen dissolved in water diffuses into the blcod. The blood contains carbon
dioxide, brought from the various parts ofthe body. This carbon dioxide diffuses
out in water" Water containing carbon dioxide is expelled out of the gills through
-'"-'1the gilt siits.
structure of human lungs.
Ang' The lungs are situated in the thoracic cavity. Each lung receives a bronchus from
*. s'' the trachea. Elach bronchus branches into many smal.Ier and smaller tubes called
bronchioles. Each bronclr.iole terminates into a balloon-like structure called
alveolus or alveolar sac. The alveoli have ver], thin walls which are surrounded
by blood capillaries. The exchange of gases occurs between the alveolar walls
and
the walls of the capillaries.
q" 27 . Differentiate' between an aerobic respiration in yeast
cells an d, in ou7 bod,y mwtcles.

Q.

26. iDescribe the

Ans' During anaerobic respiration in yeast cells, glucose is converted into pyruvate

and then into ethanol (ethyl alcohol) rvith the release of carbon dioxide. This
type
r:f anaerobic respiration is known as fermentation.

In yeast cells;
Glucose [n c-vtoplasnt
calhon
molt,cule)
(6-

pyruvate
ii]*carbon ------]
rnolecule)

Ethanol

+,

Carbon dioxide + Energl,

(2_ca r.br';n

molecule)

Anaerobic respiration in body muscles involves lactic acid formation w,here


glucose, after conversion to pyruvate, is reduced. to lactic acid.
Glucose In cl'toplasm
(6--carbon
nrolt'cule)

, pyruvic acid or pyruvate --------+


(il-calbon
rnolecnler)

Lactic acicr + Itrner,gy


(jJ__calhon
nroltrcuk_,)

81.50

CBSE Science Self-Tutor-X

Life hocesses
Ans.

Ans. Aquatic respiration occurs through


n

organs like gills, as in fishes. In terrestrial


respiration, lungs are the respiratory organs.

'

Very little oxygen is dissolved in water as compared to the oxygen present in the
atmosphere. Thus, the rate of breathing is much higher in aquatic organisms as
compared to in terrestrial organisms.

'

Gills, which are the organs for aquatic respiration, are exposed to the outside
but are covered with operculum. Lungs, which are the organs for terrestrial
respiration, are placed inside the organism and are protected by the chest

'

cavity.

Q. 29. What should be the characteristics of a gcaeous exchange surface?

"Ans. ' It should be a thin, delicate surface


. It should have a large surface area.

i It should

and should allow exchange of gases.

Q.34. Wat

richly supplied with blood vessels for easy transport of gases.


Q. 30. .besc ribe the role of trachea in respiration in humans.
An+: Trachea or wind pipe is a tube made up of rings of cartilage. It serves as an air
.'r"' passage between the throat (pharynx) and bronchi. It remains moist due to the
presence of mucus which holds back the dust and bacteria.-This ensures entry of
dust and bacteria-free clean air to the lungs. Pharynx leads into the trachea.
Jrachea runs down the neck and branches into two bronchi.
A. Fl Wry is tlrc internal respiratory system considered efficien t?
be

Ans. The fun

Yeast pr

fermen
first cor
dioxide.
Glucose

Q.35. Explain
Ans. Tissues

energy.
blood cz
leaving

Ans. ' Internal respiratory organs have very frne, delicate

membranes which provide


extensive surface area for exchange of gases. These remain in contact with the
environment full of air. Being internally placed, these are protected.

'
'

Efficient separate,respiratory passages have been provided and are protected.


A well-developed internal mechanism for moving the air in and out from this
area is also provided.

concentr

ntr

,.g0.
An

exchange of gases possible?

W'alls of gills and those of alveoli of lungs are

thin and are meant for

easy

diffusion of gases.

In both, a large surface area is available for absorption of enough oxygen.


" Gills and alveoli in lungs are richly supplied with blood capillaries.
Q. 43. Q) Draw a well-labelled diagram of a human lung showing its internal
structure.

'

(ii)

Enlarge a part of the lung showing the respiratory bronchioles, alueolar d,uct
and alueoli.

,s

Loss

ofr

water is
to contir

Q. 32. What is comrLon to the structures of gills and, lungs that mahes the efficient

Ans. '

i^s

Discuss.

pulls wz

,'^,

moveme

'\ Thi"
"^,
Q. 3?. ta wz
(ii) Ho

,\*-,' ,j
(ii) tla
Ans" (r) Pn

r(x

(li) Ior

en(

ceI

(lir)

Tt

Life

Processes

81.5r

Ans.

Fls. 1.8

Q' ga'

What is comm,on between anaerobic respiration and, the


functioning of
Discuss.

brewery?

Ans' The functioning of a brewery is based

on anaerobic respiration shown by yeast"


Yeast produces ethanol during anaerobic respiration.
This is known as alcoholic
fermentation or yeast fermentation. In t-he cytoplasm of yeast cell,
glucose is

first.converted into pyruvate, which is then reauced to ethyi


alcohol and carbon
c[oxrl.e.

Glucose ln citoplasm

, Pyruvate-------+Ethanol or ethyl alcohol + carbon dioxide


Q. 35" Explain gaseous exchange between tissues artd blood, in humans.
Ans' Tissues are in constant need of oxygen for the oxidation of stored.
food to get

energy' The cells of the tissues have low concentration of


oxygen than the
blood capillaries, which are rich in oxygen. So, oxygen
diffuses into tissues,
leaving the blood. In exchange of thls,"th"
fro* ,t" higher
"a.borrtioxide,
concentration in tissues, diffuses into blood
having lower carbon dioxrde

-...,poncentration.

Q' s6.

!w"t is the rore of transpiration in the cond,uction of water?


Ans,"'Loss of water d'ue to transpiration occurs continuously
from the leaves. .Ihe lost
water rs replenished by the movement of a fresh supplyof
water to the leaves. Due
to contrnuous transpiration, a suction force is created
in the xylem vessels which
-/
pulls water up from the xylem cells of the roots. Transpiraiio"
rr"rp" upward
movement

-'

of water and the dissolved minerals (sap) from the roots


to the leaves.
This causes continuous absorption of water from the soil
by the root hairs.
e. s7. i (, what is root pressure?
,j (ii) How d,oes it d.euelop?
' (iii) Wat are its benefits?
Ans.
(j) Pressure exerted by water on the rigid wals of the xyrem
cerls is

'

''

caned

root pressure.

(ii)

Ions are taken up by the roots from the soil actively with
the expendirure of
energy' A difference is created in the concentration ofthese
ions in the root
cells and soil. This causes water to enter the roots and
deverop root pressure.

(iii) Water rises in small plants

due to root pressure.

Life

CBSE Science Self-Tutor-X

81.52
Q. 38. Mention three

uses of transpiration.

Ans. . Transpiration helps in conduction of water in tall trees.


r It helps to transport minerals, which are needed for various

metabolic

activities, to the leaves at the top ofthe plant'


o It regulates temPerature'
Q. 39. Show the path of water during its transport in plants'
Ans.

q.42.

wy

d.o t
tentperotut

Ans. Amphibiar
atria anC c
atria comt

oxygenate(
amount of
These orgr
temperatu_

Q. 43. Desuibe b;
Ans. Fishes har-,
pumped rc
the giIls. It
_ water, carl
only once ri
Q" s+. How does ,
minerals?
r.
-.
Ans. . Stomata

4
y't \
{/

Processes

. This io,"r

Water vapour

vessels
Movement of water

c,i

. Leaves

d-

absorb ir':

a suction

Q. 45. Describe

on

Ans. (l) Take

(ll) Take r
(lii) in the

(iu) The su
so tha:

(u) Coverl
(ui) Place r
(url) After t

Fig. 1.9

are there two pathways in plants to cond.uct food, and' raw materials like
water and minerals? Describe them in brief.
Ans: Plants have two independent pathways for conducting enerry store, i.e., food and
raw materials like water and minerals. The conducting system needed to
transport raw materials like water and minerals consists of dead cells known as
xylem vessels and tracheids. Transport ofthese raw materials in trees occurs
due to root pressure, *'hich is an active process, and transpiration puil, which is
a passive pro.""r. Another conducting system consisting of live cells like the sieve
tube cells of the phloem tissue translocates the food s5rnthesised in leaves to
different parts of the plant. This process involves use of enerry'
Epidermal cell
6. +t. Define transpiration. Draut a diagram of the
Guard cell
pa,rt of the leaf front where transpiration takes

{bt e.

4O. Wk1

place.

Ans.

Loss of water vapour into the atmosphere from

the stomata present on the leaves of a plant is


called transpiration.

Stomatal opening
Chloroplasts

pot wh
the inr

Water drc

Life Processes

q'42. Wy

81.53
d.o animals lilze amphibians and. reptiles not haue

tentperature?

constant borly

Ans' Amphibians and many reptiles have a three-chambered heart, consisting of two
atria and one ventricle.The oxygenated blood and d.eoxygenated bloocl fio* tt
atria come into a single ventricre. This causes the mixed bloo4, ;"r., -purtrv"
oxygenated and partly deoxygenated blood, to be circulated. This leave-s*tess
amount of oxygen to be circulated, causing less arnount of energyi" U- pr."a.,*a"
These organisms do not have a constint body temperature as their hody

temperature depends upon the temperature of thl environment.


Q.43. Describe blood. circula,tian in fishes.
Ans. Fishes have-on1y a two'chambered heart-one atrium, one ventricie. The
blood is
q"orqg"d to_the gills for oxygenation. water carrying dissolved oxygen passes over
the gills. Here, blood takes up oxygen and .ellas6"
aro.,g- r"iin
water, carbon dioxide is removed through the gill slits.
"urtu"-ai""ia".
Blood enters the"heart
only once during one cycle of passage thiough tire body.
Q" 44: r{o.w do-es suctiort force created, in the prants trclp in cond.uction o{ ws,ter and,
min erals?
Ans. ' Stomata remain open during the day and water is lost from them.
. This lost amount of water is compensated by taking ,,vater from
the xylem
vessels of the leaves.
'Leaves draw water from the branches and branches from the roots. Roots
absorb water from the soil, which has an adequate supply of water. This
creates
a suction force that helps in the conductton of water and rninerals.
Q. 45" Describe an experiment to d.emonstrate that plants transpire wqter.
Ans" (l) Take two pots of the sarne size having the same amount of same soil.
(ii) Take a plant in one pot.
(iii) In the other pot, take a stick of the same height as that of thc plant.
(iu) The surface of the soil in boththe pots should be covered with a plastic sheet,
so that no water evaporates frornthe surface of the soil.
(u) Cover both the pots with plastic bags in such a way that no leakage of air r:ccurs.
(ul) Place the tu,o pots in bright sunlight for half an hour.
(uri) After haif an hour, water droplets-will appear on the inner side
of bag in the
pot which had the plant. In the other poi, there wlu b" ;;;;;.
a"ffiut. o"
the inner side of the bag.

Water droplets

Piastic sheel

B1.54

CBSE Science Self-Tu.tor_X

tf e'

46' Giue a schentatic representation af transport


and exchange of oxygen
dioxide i.n human beings.
Ans.

Li:e h.":r.;,,r;
an cl

carbon

Lung capillaries

Q.

rg

.[I.:; a

.{as- . -i _s
i--

-J

--!

. Ifutft

Pulmonary vein from lungs


(Oxygenated btood)

Pulmonary artery to lungs


(Deorygenated blood)

reabi

. Filtri
Aorta to body
(oxygenated blood)

Vena cava from body

(Deoxygenated blood)

Q. 50. tthat lt
{i) Bou

.{ns, (ii

Rr

(ri)

Rr

frf

(il')
Capillaries in body organs
apart from the lungs

. ,.- '..\i
a'2' 47

'

Yr!r:;

Fig. 1.12

bload circulation

d,ouble circulatio*? Explain

venae cavae bring deoxygenated blood


to the right atrium, from where the
blood flows into.the right ventricle. The brood
is pi*pua in,o the pulmonary
trunk and is carried to the two lungs for oxygenation"
The left atrium receives
oxygenated blood frorn the iungs through
thepulmonary veins. It then flows into
the left ventricle from where it is pushed into
the aorta for distribution rn the body.
since blood ci"rculates twice in the heart, it
is known as double circulation"
Q. 48. Giuen below is a sketch of a human orgarl system.
(i) Name the system.
(ii) Label the uarious parts of the system.
Ans.
Left renal artery
l-eft kidney
Left renal vein
Vena cava

Q. 51. Ilhat qr
Ans. . planft
con,.rci

in human heart caltert

43q-4'*o

Right kidney

ur

Aorta
Left ureter
Urinary bladder
Urethra

. Ox-r-ge
. Carbo:
. Escesi
.

Lcss

o:

Q" 52. Describe

Ans. Blood

fi_li

tryo kidnr

of

rena_l

filtrate

These su
urine.

Q. 53. How is th
Ans. Excretion
reactions
organs kr.:
hody thror
the bod_v.

Q. 54. W,at is tt

Ans. . The prc


product;

Fig. 1.13: Human excretory system

. It reguie

and salt,

" It help--

Life

Processes

B1.bb

Q' ag' How is it beneficial to h,aue large number of highly coiled. nephrons
in our lzid,neys?
Ans' ' A large number of nephrons in the kidneys helps in increasing
the su*face area
for proper filtration.
' Highly coiled nephrons further increase the surface area which heips in proper
reabsorption of, useful substances.
. Filtration becomes more effective and fast.
Q' 50' wo't fuructions are performed by the fortawing parts of nephrons?
(i) Bouman's capsure (ii) Tuburar part (iii)
coilecting d.u.ct
Ans. (i) Refer to e. gb on page 81.48.

(li)

(ili)

Reabsorption of substances like glucose, amino acids


and salts occurs in the
tubular part ofthe nephrons.
Urine gets collected in the collecting d.uct and is then
released into the
ureters.

5f. What are the d,ifferent waste prod,u,cts prod,uced by plaruts?


Ans' ' Plants produce many substances like gum, rubber ancl
resin,

Q.

which are

considered as waste products.


' Oxygen may be taken as a waste product prod.uced during photosynthesis.
' carbon riioxide produced during respiration is arso a waste product.
n Excess water, which
is not utilised by plants, is taken as a waste product"
o Loss of leaves periodically
may be considered as loss of waste parts.
Q' 52. Describe hriefly the m.ecrrunism of uri,ne formatiott i,n *ephrons.

Ans'

filtration occurs in the nephrons rvhich are present in large


number in the
tll'o kidneys. Abunch of capillaries, known as glomerulus,
is procluced by a branch
of renal artery in the Bowman's capsule. Blood is filtered
in glomerulus. The
filtrate contains useful substances iike glucose, amino
acids, .salts and water.
These substances are selectively reabsorbed by
blood. The filtrate forrns the
urine.
tsiood

Q' 53' How is the process of excretion d.ifferent fram that of egestion?
Ans' Excretion is the removal of nitrogenous waste products produced
by biochemical
reactions occurring in the body. These waste products
are removed by excretory
organs known as kidneys. Egestion is the removal
of undigested fooa from the
trody through the anus. The faecal matter is
not produced by metabolic activity in
the body.

54. Wat is the significance of excretion?


Ans' ' The process of excretion helps in the removal of
toxic nitrogenous was1,

Q"

products from the body.


. It regulates the cornposition ofthe bodv
fluid by controlling the leveJs of u,at,
and salts in it"
. It helps in conserving useful substances lilte glucose,
arnino acids and salts

81'56

CBSE Scien'ce

Self'Tutor-X

Q. 55. Describe the uarious organs of excretory system of human beingsAns. The excretory system of huinan beings consists of two bean-shaped kidneys.
These are located in the abdomen, one on either side of the backbone. Each kidney
contains a large number of closely placed tubular structures called nephrons"
Urine formed in the kid.neys enters the ureters. The two excretory tubes or
ureters, one from each kidney, open into a urinary bladder. A muscular tube,
called urethra, eilIows the urine to be thrown out through an opening.

Life Processes

Q.3. Can uisible r,


Ans. Visible movt
rnovements l

Structures of

made up of ct

organ systefi

is such that

processes ov

Q. 56. Explain the circulation af blood. in the hid,neys.


Ans. Renal artery brings oxygenated blood which is rich in nitrogenous wastes, to the
kidneys. A branch of renal artery enters the Bowman's capsule of a nephron and
forms the glomeru}rs where blood gets filtered and urine is formed. The tubular
part of the nephron is surrounded by the capillaries which reabsorb substances
like glucose, amino acids, salts, water, etc. The capillaries join to form rena] veins
which join to form the inferior vena cava which collect blood from the lower part

their structu:
worn out pai
Even unicelh
themselves.
enance

these processt

Organisms a<
carried out. T
the body is L
when the size
on carbon-ba

of the body.

Long Answer Questions (5 Marks)


t criteria do we trse to decide whether

sorneone is aliue or not? Expl,ain.

lfferent types of moveraents can be taken as the criteria to decide whether an


organism is alive or not" The following movements are observed in living

Q.5, Wich

organisms:

Ans.

. Animals move from one place to another.


. Piants show growth movements.
. During breathing, the movement of chest cavity is visible in animals"
. Al1 organisms, whether plants or animals, show invisible molecular

euents

of carbohydrc
The following

(l)

Absorpr
(fti) Convers
molecuii

(iil) Heductl

movements. Plants and animals are made up of tissues, and tissues are made

atmospl
Excess carbol
storage organ

components and tissues.


. waste molecules are moved out of the body by the excretory system.
\$th.y is there q, need for a transportation system and ant excretory system? Wh'o:
relationship exists between the tuto systems?

Excess carboL

up of cells and their components. Cells are made up of molecules. These


molecules must move so as to maintain and repair the structure of cell

Q.2"

based.

Ans. Food and oxygen are taken in frorn specific points such as alimentary canal an:
respiratory system respectively. But nutrients and oxygen are needed by all th.
other parts of the body. The transportation system helps in carrying thes=
substances to ail the tissues and cells.

Whep chemical reactions use carbon source and oxygen molecules are brok::'
down during oxidation along with energy generation in the cells, certain b-''
products, which may prove toxic to the body, are also produced. To remove the=.
substances, a specialised excretory system is involved. Transportation systecarries these wastes to the excretory organs from where they are excreted cu:

During

that

d,ru el
chloroS,

phatosynthesi.
steps taken:

(il il/hy uc

uariegott

(ii) Why u'as

three do-

(iii) Wy uc;
sunlight

(iu)

Why u'er
boiled tn
(u) llhy uer,
iodine?

81.56
Q.

55.

CBSE Science Self'Tutor-X


Describe the uarious orgctns of excretory system of human. beings.

Ans. The excretory system of human beings consists of two bean-shaped kidneys.

These are located in the abdomen, one on either side of the backbone. Each kidney

Life Prot

Q.3.
Ans.

contains a large nurnber of closely placed tubular structures called nephrons"


Urine formed in the kidneys enters the ureters. The two excretory tubes or
ureters, one from each kidney, open into a urinary bladder. A muscular tube,
called urethra, atrlows the urine to be thrown out through an opening.

Q. 56. Explain the circulation of blood, in the kid,neys.


Ans. Renal artery brings oxygenated blood which is rich in nitrogenous wastes, to the
kidneys. A hranch of renal artery enters the Bowman's capsule of a nephron and
forms the glomeruhos where blood gets filtered and urine is formed. The tubular
part of the nephrorr is surrounded by the capillaries which reabsorb substances
like glucose, amino acids" salts, water, etc. The capillaries join to form renal veins
which join to form the inferior vena cava which collect blood from the lower part
of the body.

criteria d,o we t!,se ta d,ecide whether sotneone is aliue. or not? Explain'.


an
/lfferent types of moveraents can be taken as the criteria to decide whether
living
in
observed
are
movements
following
The
nol.
or
trganism is alive
organlsms:

Q.5.

Ans.

'

. Animals move from one place to another'


. Plants show growth movements.
. During breathing, the movement of chest cavity is visible in animals.
. AI1 organisms, whether plants or animals, show invisihle molecular
movements. Plants and. animals are made up of tissues, and tissues are made

e. Z,

up of cells and their components. Cells are made up of molecules. These


molecules must move so as to maintain and repair the structure of cell

components and tissues.


. Waste molecules are moved out of the body by the excretory system.
Wh.y i,s there a need, for a transportation system arud an.excretory system? What

relatioruship exists between, the two systerns?


Ans. Food and oxygen are taken in from specific points such as alimentary canal and
respiratory system respectively. But nutrients and oxygen are needed by all the
other parts of the body. The transportation system heips in carrying these
substances to all the tissues and cells.
When chemical reactions use carbon source and oxygen molecules are broken
down during oxidation along with energy generation in the cells, certain by'
products, which may prove toxic to the body, are also produced. To remove these
substances, a specialised excretory systern is involved. Transportation system
carries these was;es to the excretory organs from where they are excreted out.

6. )

Life Processes

81.57

Q. 3. con uisible ntouements arone be ind.icatiue of tife? Justify yoar answer.


Ans' Visible movements may be indicative of life in some
cases. But there are
movernents like molecular movements which are surely
indicatir.e of life.
Structures of all living organisms are well organised.. Multicellular
6rganisms are
made up of cells which are organised into tissues, tissues
into organs, organs into
organ systems and then the individual as a rvhole. The
effect
the env[onment
is such that the organised ordered iiving structures, *uyof,rro*
breakdown
processes over time, leading to death.
Organisms require molecules to maintain
their structures intact' Therefore, molecules must be availabie
for repair of their
worn out parts. This is made possible by molecular: movements
through diffusion.
Even uniceliular organisms need. a
supply of morecures, to maintain
"orrtirr.rorr*
Inemselves.
4'.

processes require energy to preuen t d,amage


an,d, breahd,outn. IIow d,o
lMaintenance
processes
ocqu,ire eruergy?
/these
Organisms acquire energy from outside sources for ma.intenance
processes to be
carried out. The process which provrdes a source of energy, a.e.,
food from or.rtsid.e
the body is known as r-rutrition. organisms require #.iitlorut
raw materials
when the size of the body increases, i,e", growth o"o*rr*. As
life on earth depe,ds
on^carbon-based molecules, the sources, i.e., food *n,rr*r,",-r"e
mostly carbonDased.

Q"

6. which euents accur

Ans.

_during th,e proce.ss of ph,ettosyntrr,esis? what happens


of carbohydrates uthich are not utilised" by prants and uruirrtars?
The following events occur during the process of photosynth*sis:
(i) Absorption of .l.ight energy by chlorophyll molecules.
(r,) conversion

ta

of light energy into chemical energy and sprittlng of

excoss

wate,r:

molecules into hydrogen and oxygen.


(ir'il Reduction of carbon dioxir{e to carbohydrates and release
of oxygen into tire
atmosphere.
Excess carbohydrates, which are not used by plants, are
storecl as starch in the
storage organs of the plants.
Excess carbohydrates

in animals are stored as glycogen.


Durirug art experirnen,t to d,em,onstrate
th:tt chlorophyll r.s essenti,al for
photosynthesis, wlty were tlre following Leal

(i) VIlry uia,s a potted plant


uariegated leantes

taken?

with
i

(ii) Why was the plant kept in d,ark far


thres

d.QY5?

Leaf boiled

water

in

Leaf boiled
in alcohol

(iii) Wy

was the potted, plant kept in


sunlight for si,x hours?
(iu) Why utere the experimental leaues
hoiled. in alcahal?
(.u)

Wy
iodin

were these leaues t;rea.ted, with


e?

Blue black

:
Variegated

leaf

Starch test of leaf

Fig. 1.14

' 81.58

CtsSE

Ans. (l) Variegated leaves have some green areas containing

Scieruce

Self-Tu,tor_-X

Life Processes

chlorophyll and sorne

(x)

non-green areas which are without chlorophyll"


(il) Since the potted plant was actively photosynthesising, it was kept rn dark
f,or three days to destarch the leaves.
(iir) After destarching, the potted plant was kept in sunlight for six hours so th;rt
starch could be produced by photosynthesis.
(ru) Experimental leaves were boiled in alcohoX to dissolve chlorophyil from

Q" 9. Explai
photos.

them.
(u) These leaves were treated with iodine to show the presence of si,arch rn
green areas r:f the leaves. Blue-black colour appears in the chlorophyll

Ans.

Potassium
hydroxide

Refer

Q. 10. Ansue

(,

ir

(,,) I
(,,,) u

/8. 7. Describe an, experiment to demonstrate that saliuary atmylase d,igests starch.
\{ry/ (i) Take two test tubes A and B and take 1 mL of starch soiution in each

test tuhe.
(ii) in test tube A, add 1 rnl, of saiiva. Keep the two test tubes undistr.rrbed at
roorn temperattrre fbr 20 to 30 minutes.
(rfl Adcf a few drops of iodine in each test tube.
(lu) Blue-black colour wiil appear only in test tube B. There wiil be no colour in
test tube A.
(u) This shows that salivary amylase from saliva in test tube A has acrr:d on
starch and changed ii to sugar. Hence, there is no colour.
',r-/-\-.-\
/ q.tA. )escribe an experiment to proue that carban d,iorid,e i,s essential for ph,otosynthesis.
( a"". ) O f"Uu two potted plants, nearly of the same size.
\---/
(li) Keep ttrrena in the dark for three days to destarch theru"
(lil) Take two separate glass plates and put one pi,:tted plant on each of tirem.
(lu) Put a petri dish or watch glass containiug potassium hydroxide on one of the
glass plates aiong with the potted plant, as seen in the experimental setup A.
(u) Cover both plants separately with bell jars.
(ul) Apply vaseline i:o seal the bottorn of the beii jar to avoiti leakage of the
carborr dioxide prnd uced.
(uri) 'i'he experimentatr setups should be kept for about twc hours in sunlight"
(c;il,i) Pluck one leaf each from the two piants and test for the presence of star:ch
b3'Lroiling first in water, then in alcohol nnd finally, treating it ivith rodine.
(ir) A leaf {rom experi.menlal setup B showed blue-blar:k colciur.

(iu) Il
(t'1

th

11

Ans. Refer t
q. t"!. obser-,

(i)

II
(ii.r tt

(iii;

-1:

(it.t

Gt

(rl -{'

r(

Ans.

(r)

P,:'

(ilt \-a
(izi) \r
(fuI C:

cal

(c) In

ber
,---\

L,.
ugl

Ct ql rz. rritot a,

-l
Lif'e Processes

81.59

&) The leaf from experimeatar setup A, containing potassium


hydroxide, diri
not show any blue-black colour. potassium hyJroxide abso*bs
was not availabre for_photosynthesis, proving that carbon co, which
dioxide is
necessary for photosynthesis.
Q" 9. Explain an, experiment to tlem,onstrate that chlorctpltytl r,s
necessnry

for

phatosyrtthesis.

Ans. Refer to Q. 6 on Page Bl.bT.


Q. 10" Answer the following questions

based.

on the a.boue experiment.

(i) W'h,y raere uariegates leaues taken for the experirnent?


(ii) ll/h,y was plarut hept in dark for tuto
to threi d,ays?
(iii) Why was the plant hept again, in sunligh.t?
(iu)
(u)

.., Ans.
{t e' 1!'

Why was the teaf sailed, in alcohol?


Why was the leaf later treatecl, with iod,ine?
Refer to Q. 6 on page B1.b7.
obserue the set-up prouid,ed for Ans. I carefully a,nd answer
the following questions:
(i'1 wy is potassiunt. hyd,roxid.e sorutioru kepr
in one of the bey jat"s?

(ii) why should uaseline be opptied, arau,nd, the rnottth of the


bert jars?
(iii) After testing for starch with iocline, what do you obserue?
(iu) Giue d, reason for th,e sa,nte.

(u) After testing for starch on. leaf


from setup B, what d.o you obserue? Giue u
reason for the satrle.
Ans' (i) Potassium hydroxide was kept in one of the bell jars to absorb carbon dioxide.
(il) vaseline is applied to make the experimental setup air tight.
(ijj) No blue-black corour appeared in the experimentar setup A.
(iu) Colour did not appear in the leaf taken from experimental
setup A because
carbon dioxide was absorbed by putting potassium h5rdroxicle.
(u) In setup B, the leaves showed. biue-black colour
when tested with iodine
because carbon dioxide was present in the air of the
beli jar and was arso
being produced by the plant.
. 12. wpat ore the different modes of heterotrophic nutrition?
Describe thent.

fleterotrophic nutrition: Organisms which derive food from the other organisms
show heterotrophic nutrition. such organisms are called
heterotrophs. All
anirnals, inciuding man, are exannples of heterotrophs.
Heterotrophic nutrition is of the following types:
(i) Pctrasitic nwtrition: organisnas caltred parasites live on or
insiile the bocty of
other living organisms, calred the host and absorh food.
from them. This is
seen in plants like orchids, custuta and animals
rike ticks, tiou, tup"*orr*
(ii) Saprophytic n utrition : Tnsaprophytic nutrition, the iiving
organism s thrive
on dead and decaying organic matter of piant ,"a
o"i*i
orlgin. ,rhi. ;;p;
of nutrition is seen in fungi, suctr as bread *o.,tj.,
*,r.irroonas ancl yeast.
(iii) trIolozoic n'utrition ' some animars eat whole plants, whore
animars or their
parts arrd digest thern' The digested materiai is
subsequerrtly al:sorbed and
utilised" Holozoic nutrition is seen in most of the ani*uls
like Amaeba,
cc,ckroach, man, and. also some pl,ants.

81.60

CBSE Science Self-Tutor-X

escribe the process of nutrition in Amoeba.


'Amoeba engulfs food in solid
form. Following are

nutrition by Amoeba:

'

,{\
{:^)

Life

the steps in the process of

Amoeba captures its prey by means of the pseudopodia (faise feet).

It forms two

pseudopodia encircling the prey. The tw,o pseudopodia fuse completely,


forming a bag like structure containing the food particle or prey. This is called
the food vacuole.
. The enzymes present in the food vacuole digest the food.
' The digested material diffuses into the cytoplasm, where it is assimilated to
form new protoplasm.
' The food vacuole also known as residual vacucle containing undigested waste is
brought to any point on the surface ofthe cell and then it is released outside.
For figure refer to Q. 19 on Page 81.48.
wy is photosynthetic process considered, the most irnportant process in the
biosphere? Explain.
Photosynthesis is considered the most important process in the biosphere due to
the following reasons:
' Fhotosynthesis is the only process on earth, where solar energ"y is trapped by
ar'rtotrophic organisms and converted into chemical energy, which gets stored. in
food molectrles for all the organisms present on earth.
' Photosynthesis is the only method to produce food from inorganic raw
materials^ All photosynthetic organisms are producers.
. Plant and plant products are used as food, fodder, firewood, timber, fibres, oils
and drugs, which are produced as a result ofphotosynthetic process.
Fossil
fuels, such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas, are also prod.ucts of
'
photosynthetic organisms which lived millions of years ago.

Processes

;--

16.

at

(,)

(ii) (
(iii) I

(iu) F
(u) L

Ans.

(,) B

fc

(ii)
(iii)

L1

AI

(iu) !\:
CO

fo:

(u)

NI

of

.j

t7

templ

(i)

wt

orl

(ii) w'l
(iii) w1
(iu) Ho
do:

In
(i) AIt

(u)

Ans.

pro

wh:

{iii)

wh'y is ntuctts necded, duri,ng the process of d,igestian in the stomach?


(.iu) W'hy is the small i,ntestine richty swpplied. with btoael, t.:t:ssel.s?
(u) Why is there a need for absorption of d,igested" foadi

Ans. (i) Small tntestine

is very long because complete digesrit.,rr of food must occur


and then te foliowed by complete absorption of the digested fbod.
(rr) A sieeping person requires energy because processes like respiratiou,
transp0rtation-, :flormation of waste products and growth occtrr even when
asleep.

(lii)

hlucus in the stomach protects the iining of the stomach from ihe action of
HCI and facilitates srnooth movement of food"
(iu) Small intestine is richly supplied with blood vessels to absorb all the digested
food products so that they can be distributed to all parts of the body.

(il)

Dru

pro
givt

(iil)

Ext

(iu)

Des

ani

enel

(u) Nitr

obta
atm,

Life Processes

81.61

(u) Digested food must

be absorbed so that it is assimilated in the form of useful


substances needed for growth and maintenance of the body.

'plain the following:

(i) Emulsification

of fats.

(ii) Gall bladder.


(iii) Function of the large intestine.
(iu) Peristaltic mouements.
(u) Use of muscular sphincter in the stomach.

Ans. (t) Bile salts break large fat globules in the small intestine into smaller molecules
for better action of the enzymes" This process is called emulsification of fats.
GaiI bladder is a sac-like structure present in the liver. It stores bile juice.

(li)
(iii) Large intestine
and making

it

is meant for absorption of water from the undigested food


more solid. This waste is then excreted through the anus.

(iu) Wails

of the organs of the alimentary canal are provided rvith muscles which
contract rhythmically causing peristaltic movements which push the food
forward-

(u) Muscular sphincter, located at the end of stomach, regulates the movement
of small amounts of food into the intestine -for its proper digestion.
ttempt the following:
(i) why is photosynthesis acnsirlered the most beneficial process for liuing
organisms?

(ii)
(iii)

Why is there a need for openirug of stornata in, leaues, d,uring d,ay?
What happens to ertra carbohydrates produced by leaues?

(iu) How is food

prod,uced, by desert

plants, as the stom,d,ta remain close during

dav?
(u)

Ans.

In which form is nitrogen

taken up by plants?

AII the food needed by living organisms is produced by plants through the
process of photosynthesis. During this process, oxygen is also produced,
which is essentially needed by organisms to procluce energy.
(ii) During the day, carbon dioxide enters the leaves through stomata for the
process of photosynthesis and oxygen produced during photosynthesis is
given out into the atmosphere.
(iii) Extra carbohydrates produced by leaves are stored as starch in plant parts.
(,)

(iu) Desert plants take carbon dioxide through stomata during night to prepare
an intermediate compound, which is then changed into food by utilising the
energ'y absorbed by the chlorophyll pigments during the day.
(u)

Nitrogen is taken in irrorganic forms, such as nitrites and nitrates, or it is


obtained as an organic compound which is produced by the bacteria from
atmospheric nitrogen.

81.62,].,1
,..
/I
L8.

\.
\_/

CBSE Scieruce Self-Tutor_X

fExplain.

the

foltowing

aspects of photosynthesis

i,t

Describ

plants:

(i) The role of chlorophyil.


(ii) Euen"ts which occur d.urin4 photosyruth.esis.
(iii) go* is excess of carbohydrates stored, in prants
and. animars?
Ans' (i) chtorophyll pigments absorb light energy and convert
(li)

this energy into

chemical energy, which is storeiin the fJoci morec*les.


Events occurring during photosynthesis are;

(o) Chlorophyil pigments absorb light energy which


is converted into
chemical energy and stored. in the food mollcuies.
wut"" ,r*o.prits into
hydrogen-and oxygen. oxygen is then rereased into
the atmosphere.

(b)

es

spJittingof Hro into oxvgen and hydrogenis known r" pi"l"iy"i}i;"t*.


The hydrogen released. is used for reduction ofcarbon
dioxide to produce
carbohydrates like glucose. This process does not
require light ancl
occurs during and at night.

(iii) Itrxcess ofcarbohydrates,

which are not utilised


vJ the
plants, o"
v'rv r^a*vD,
- -- by
are changedttt
into starch and get stored. in their organs.
, ,,

The ali
mouth

$)M
,:f

sa

(ii)

O(

frt

(,,il sa

sk
da

sp,

(lu) Sr

tat

Fo

(o)

In
wa

(ui) An
sPI

Ans.

f)i.gestiue

Secretian

Enzymes

Salivary giands
(in buccal cavity)

Saiiva or
salivary jui.ce

aurylase

Gastric glands
(in stomach)

Gastric juice

Pepsin

Salivary

Substro,te

Products
Sugar

Starch

Fyoteins Partly digested

,.'---l\Ffu figu
fi. zy6)",,ia"
\AEx/ G) Mo

car

inr

(li) Sto

gla

prr:tein

HC
dor
fror

molecules

Liver
Pancreas

Bile juice
Pancreatic

juice

Intestinal
glands

(in small
intestine)

Intestinal
juice
(succus

entericus)

No enzyrne Fat
(r) Amytrase

(ii) Trypsin
(iii) Lipase
(i) Enzyrae
for
peptidases
protein
digestion
(ii) Enzyrne
for sugar

Srnall molecules
of fat

Starch Sugar
Proteins Peptides
Fat
{atty acids and
giycerol
%

Peptides Amino acids

Snt

intr

wh:

Tht

ofr

coII
glu,

bvl
(iu) Lar

abs,

Sugar

Glucose

thrr
Q.32" \Mtat is
orgonism

e.g. r,naltose

digestion
(ili) Lipase

(iii)

batlt, the

Fat

Fatty acids
and glycerol

Ans. Respu.ati

There arr
(i) aerobir

81.63
Describe the path of food, in th.e alimentary canal
of man.
The alimentary canal of man is nearly nine metres
long, extending from the
mouth to the anus.

(i)

(ii)
(iii)

Mou,th (buccal) cauity: Food is rnasticated. in the


buccal cavity wirh the help
of teeth. Tongue, present in the mouth, herps
in *i.i"i
rrre food with the
saliva secreted by the salivary glands.
"r
oesophagus: A long muscular tube. also known
as food pipe, carries f,ood
from the buccal cavity to the stomach.
stomach.' st.mach is a rarge muscular organ" The
muscr.Iar ri*ing of the
stomach helps in mixing the food thorou-ghlj, with gaJic juice
whiclih"lp in

digestion. passage of food into the smarfiniesti"";;;;;Iated


by m*scular
sphincter.
(irt) small intestine: It is a coiled narrow tube
and the rargest part of the arimentary canal. The food enters here and-the process or iig"*tro.,
rs compreted.
Food is absorbed by villi present in the iniestinar
*ur]?(u) Large intestine: It is a wider tube
than the small intesti,e and excess of
water from the undigested food is absorbed here. It
is also known as coron.
(ui) An'us: The faeces is egested
out of the anus which is regulated by anar
sphincter.
figure, refer to Fig. 1.1 on page B1.8"
ribe the process af d,igestion of foact in ntan.
(r) Mou,th, (buccal) cauity: Three pairs
of salivary grands present in
ca'ity secrete salivary juice which mixes with fooa. sdi"r6;yhsethe buccal
present
in saliva tligests starch into sugar.
(,i) stomach,: Fnod enters the stomach
through the oesophagus" The gastric
glands present in the ,r'all of the stomach
secrete
j;"e contarnrng
HCl, which provides acidic medium for the r"tioo o?c;;;i;
p*p"i., breaks
p"f
down proteins into smalrer mr:recules. Muctrs protects
"lri"
the iining of stomach
from the action of HCI. Food now enters srnall intestine"
(iii'1 gn'o1'1 in't'estine: Fancreatic juice contains
trypsin, which breaks proteins
into smaller molecules' amylase, which digests itur.t
into sugar, and 6pase,
which changes f,ats, emursified by bile sJlts. lnlo fatty
,"id ;;; gjyceror.
The bile salts secreted by the liver make tt e ,neclium
alkaline for the action
of pancreatic enzymes. The intestinar juice *"".,;l;;;;il;;u
iri*.tirru,
completes the digestion of proteins into amino
acids, carbohyJrates into
glucose -and fats into fatty acids and glycerori;" digested foorl is absorbed
b5' blood vessers present in the ringei-iike p"ojo"aiorr"
known as vi1i.
(iu) Large intestine: Excess water, from the unabsorbed
and undigested fcrod., is
absorbed by the walls of the large intestine.
Cndigested foocl is removed
through the anus.
Q' 22' W1w't is respiration? Mention the two types of respiration,
ocatrri*g in tiuing
otga'ruisrns' Descrihe briefly the two typesif
respi,raiions. lvrite th,e equcttions
for
bath th,e prlcesses.
Ans' Respiration is a biocliemical process rvhich results in
the production of energy,
There are two types of respirations occur:ring in
tiving
r:rganisms" These are:
(r.) aerobic respiration and (ir)
anaerobic
"uupiiutio.r.

81.64

Life Processe

CBSE Science Self-Tutor-.X

t 'rtl

(.i,)

Aerobic respirati.ou Aerobic resprration occurs when food (glucose) is


completeiy oxidised by oxygen into carbon dioxide and water with release of
lot of energ'y stored in ATP (Adenosine tri-phosphate) molecules. This
process occurs in mitochondria.
Equation for aerobic respiration:
No oxl,gen
Oxygen rs
.cquired
Pvruvate
Glucoseln 't'qtr,'e(l
ts *
, Carbcln clioxrd^e * Wrtcl
ln rnitur,hrrndlra
c\ t{,pla{lr

.T.

'Ti
Q,,25.

De-,

Ans.

Brer

It i:
,j

+ Enet.gy

(ii) Anaerobic

respiralr.orlr '1'n" process occurring in the cytoplasm, rvrtholrt


utilising oxygen is known as anaerobic respiration. Food i-< partialill"

i::

oxidised into either ethyl aicohol or lactic acid. Bacteria and yeast undergo
fermentation, producing ethyl alcohol and carbon droxide, as shown in the
equation.
No

oxygen

ir

r Pyruvate .. r't'qur'ed > Ethyl alcohol + Carbon dioxide


lrrplasnt l"er'rncntirtron
f Energy
Our muscles also undergo anaerobic respiration during vigorous exercrse
and produce lactic acid.
No oxygcn
No oxYgon
Glucose
Fyruvate 'S!!lfg--> Lactic acid + Energy
Glucose

&

ln

r'eqrrirj'd
cr

l::

/q. za. tt+,

In cvtopl:rsrr

e.23. What will happen

when

Ansz'P-'-r: a-

F'_.-.

(,) yeast cells are ad,d,ed ta sugan' solution?

:1-

(,,) cluring actiue exe'r'cise, lat:tic acid q,ccum,ulates in th.e muscl,es?


(iii) grease is applied, auer th,e upper and, lower surface of leaues?
(iu) glucose is com.pletely oxidised, in th,e body of an organism,?
(u)

Ans.

ii

No ('\ygerl

air enters the nasal

ca,uities?

(,) Anaerobic respiration or fermentation

will take place due to the

absence of

oxygen. The sugar is converted into ethanol.


Nrj o\\'uer')
^
-_:'Y'-:1=-_>
Susar
Ethanol
"
l,'r:i r,rr,nfrr1 rrrt

--

-:

Ir-:

+ Carbon dioxide

(li) Accumulation

of lactic acid in the muscles causes muscle cramps. Later on,


lactic acid reduces and the cramps stop.
(rrr) At1 the stomata wiil close, which will stop exchange of gases rn the leaves.
(lu) It will lead to aerobic respiration. It releases carhon dioxide, water and
energy.
(r,) The arr is filtered and moistened by the hairs present in the nasal cavities.
q,. 24" How does the process of breutltirug au.t of air or expit"atioll accur in hum,an beings'!
Explain.
Ans. Erpiration: It is the process of brealhing out of erir. The following- events occur
during expiration:
. Diaphragm comes back to its original dorne shape as the muscles of the
diaphragna relax"
. Simultaneously, the rib muscles also relax.

e.2;

^{ns'

;- _

!
Life Processes

'

rJ1.{15

",'he thoracic cavity comes back to its original size.


The volurne of the thoracic cavity decreases, while

its air pressure increases.


The air, rich in carbon dioxide, is expelled out.
Qt es.' Descri.he the euents occurring during the process of breatfi,ing in lt,un-rans.
'Ans. Breathing involves exchange of gases in the lungs and tissues.
It rnvoh,es the following processes:
(i) Inhalatlon.' During this process, air, rich in oxvgen, enterr, the ::ostrils and
passes rnto alveoii of the lungs as a result of the contractlon cf rib muscles
and diaphragm"
(ii) Excho,nge of gases in the lungs: A s alveoli have higher oxygen concentration
and lower carbon dioxide c(,ncentration, in cornparison to the blood, the
oxygen diffuses into blood tr.nd carbon dioxrde diffuses into ah,eoli.
(iii) Exchange of gases in, the tisswes: The cells produce carbon dioxrd.e
'lue to
metabolic activities" Carbon dioxicte concentration is rnore in the tissues
and
so it is reieased into the blood. Oxygen from the blood diffuses into the
tissues because of difference in concentration.
(iu) Exhalatian: LL is caused by the relaxation of the rib muscles and the
diaphragm. which causes the expulsion of carbon dioxide fi,om the l*ngs
through the nostrils.
,'-a:,
/Q.2d.\ wtat is pyruuate? How is it produced? what is its function in a cell?
Pyruvate is a three carhon rnolecule. trt is produced by the breakdown of glucose
molecules in the cytopl.asm"
Furtction: Pyruvate, driring aerobic respiration, enters into mitochond.ria, where
it is oxidised by oxygen to produce carbon clioxide and water. accompanied by
rel.ease of a large amount of energy.

[ry/

In mitochondria

n1
tTIUCOSe

0rvgen present
[n cl'torrlirsnt

l\o r)xr gon

Pyruvate
+ Energy

In yeast
No Oxlgen

In our musclc
i\() o\yBen

l+

r:cll-c

Carlron dioxrde + Water


+ Ener:gl
Ethanol + Carbon dic xirle
+ Energy

l,actie acid + Energv

During anaerollic respiration, in the yeast cell, pyruvate prod.uces ethyl alcohol
and carbon dioxide and, in our muscles, pyrr"rvate is converted. into laciic acid. A
trittle arnount of energy is released during anaerobic respiration..
-+
q,. 27. Aruswer the following:
(i) wat happens to the air in nasal cauities before it reaches the trachea?
(ii) \Yhy rloes the exchange of gases occur continuousry in the lungs?
(iii) Why are lungs made up of rnillion s of alueoli?
(iu) What is the role of hair in the nasa,l cauity?
(u) During uigorous exercise, oxygerL is u"sed up faster than it is mad,e auailable
to the m,uscles. rlow do muscles obtain energy for contraction, and, expan,sion?
(,) Refer to Q. 41 on Page 81.38.
Ans.
( ii) some air is left in the lungs, which is known as residual volume"
It gi.ves
sufficient time for oxygen uptake by tire blood riue to which exchrrxge *f
gases occllr coni.rnucuslv.

81.66

(iil) Miilions of alveoli


of gases.

L:ts Prlcesses

BSE Science Self-Tu,tor--X

Lncrease surface area tremenclouslv for effective exchange

{t*

Q so" 'Respiratit
-{ns. The proce

(ll') Hair present in the nasal cavity catch dust particles and any other foreign

material present in the air.


(u) During vigorous exercise, the muscles uncl"ergo anaerobic respiration
and
produce lactic acid, accompanied with release of energy. This energy is used
for contraction and expansion of muscles.
Q. 28. Describe u.n, experintent to proue that carlson dioxid,e releqsed. by us clurin"g
respi,ration is ntuch nl,ore as compared ta that present in the atmospl,eye.
Ans. (l) 'rake equal. arnounts of lime water in two test tubes A and B.
(ii) In test tube A blow air. Nore the
time taken by lime water to turn
milky.
(ili) in the other test tube B pass arr
through a pic,h.hari or a syringe.
Rubber
(lu) Note the time taken by lime war,er
tube
to tu;r:n milky.
(u) Time taken by lime water to turn
miihy in test tuhe A is much less
Test tube
containing
as compared to test tube B.
lime rrvater
(r.,i) I'his experirnent shows that the
amount of carbon dioxide blown
B
out is more than the amount
Fig. 1.16
present in air.
(i) wh.y is hl*od can si,dered, the n,r,st effici,ent tissae to cat ry oxygen ta d,ifferent
Q. 2e.
parts of f,he bocly?
(ii) Horu is c.orban dioxide cqrried to Lungs?
(.iii) Ilout da iungs cornntunicate with the outside?
{itt) Haut da fi,shes bt"eath,e?
(u) lYhot h,appens to energy released d.uring oxid,ution, af glu,cose?
(i) Blood is the most efficient tissue as it carries oxygen by combining it with
Ans"
the haernoglokrin rnolecule present in the red biood corpuscles.
(il) Biood carries carbon dioxide dissolved in plasma, for its removal through
the Lungs.
(lli) Lungs cornmunicate rvith the outside through the respiratory passage
consisting of nostrils, rlasal cavities, pharynx, trachea. bronchi. bronchiolls
and alveoli.
(iu) Fishes take in water through their motrth and force it over the grlls. Here,
dissolved oxygen passes into the blood.
(u) As glucose is being oxrdised. the energy released is used i1 synthesising ATp
rnolecules, which are utih.sed to provide energy for various functions of
the body"

. It
.

provir
through
Oxygen

annount

Oxidatic

highly ti
. During t
extra de
. Vital org
respirati
Q.

3i.

Differeruti.a

inhaled an
Ans. Refer to e
Muscles at
cavity caus
the lungs.
cavity to n
squeezirrg

Q. 32. Desuibe th
Ans. The transp

vesseis (fbr

(i) Aorta
differ,

(ii)

Pwlmt

right

(iii) Super
body

(iu) Inferir

body t

(tt) pul,mc

Q. 33. Y\lh.ich anin


Ans. Birds and n
. The blood

. Left atrrr"

.
.

ventricle.
From the
blood to C
From the
the right :

!
Life Processes

Q.

30.

Ans.

'Respiration is the uital functian of the bod.y.'Justify.


The process of respiration is the vital function of the body because;
' It provides oxygen which is vital for life. Air, rich in oxygen, enters our body
through the process of breathing, which is an essential step of respiration.
' Oxygen oxidises food (giucose) in the cells, resulting in the production of large
amount of energy, which is vital to perform the various trody activities.

'

,t.
O

81.67

Oxidation of food results in production of large amount of carbon dioxrde, a


highly toxic gas, which is expelled out by the proce ss of breathing.
' During excessive need of energy, the rate of respiration increases to meet the
extra demand.
" Vital organs like the heart and the brain require oxygen, which is provided by
respiration.
Q. 41. Differentiate beh.ueen breathing and respiration. Explain. clearly how the air is
inhaled. a,nd exhaled during breathing in, humaws.
Ans. Refer to Q. 23 on Page 81.48.
Muscles attached to the ribs and those of the diaphragm contract and lift the chest
cavity causing its volume to increase and thus resulting in inhalation of air iirto
the lungs. The rib muscles, along with the diaphragm, relax, trringing the chest
cavitS, tc' normal condition. This causes an increase in the air pressure, causing
squeeziiig of the trungs, which results in exhalation of air.
Q. 32. Describe the tru,nsportation system of the human heart.
Ans. The transportation system of the human heart consists of the following blood
vessels (for figure refer to Fig. 1.3 on Page 81.7):
(i) Aorta: It arises from the left ventricle and carries oxygenated blood to
different parts of the body.
(.ii) Pulmonary arteries.'There are two pulmonary arteries which arise from the
right ventricle and carry deoxygenated. blood to the lungs for oxygenation.
(iii) Superiar uena cou,c. brings deoxygenated biood from the upper part of the
body to the right atrium.
(iu) Inferior uerLCL couo brings deoxygenated blood from the lower part of the
body to the right atrium.
(u) Pulmonary uein s bring oxygenated blood from the iungs to the left atrium.
Q. SS. Which anima,ls show d,ouble circulation of bLood. and, why?
Ans. Birds and rnamrnals show douhle circulation of blood.
" The blood flows trvice from the heart.
' Left atrium receives blood from the lungs, which is pushed intr: the left
ventricle.
' From the left ventricle, blood enters aorta, a big vessel, which distributes the
blood to different parts of the body"
' Front the body, blood is collected by two big veins and they pour the blood into
the right atrium. Thus, blood enters and leaves the heart trn ice.

81.68

CBSE Science Self-Ttr,tor-X

Q. 34. Mention the functions of blood.


Ans. The following functions are performed by the blood:
(i) Transportation: Biood transports various substances to different parts of
the body such as:
(o) The digested food and other nutrients from the intestine are absorbed
by the blood and transported to aII parts ofthe body.

Life Processes

(iii) Hot

(iu) Wtt
tu) w,

Ans. (l) pla

less

(ii)

(b) After the air enters the lungs, the oxygen from alveoli diffuses into the
blood capillaries. It is then transported by the blood to every cell ofthe
body. Carbon dioxide, produced in the tissues due to metabolic
activities, is brought to the lungs so that it can be released outside.

(ii)
(rii)

the following:

Why d.oes an artery d,iuid,e into smaller and. smaller uessels on entering a
tissue?

(ii) How is bacleward flow of blood from th,e uentricles to the auricles preuented?
(iii) How is double circulation beneficial to us?
(iu) Why ,ioes our transport system require a heq,rt o,nd a network of blood
uessels?

thin-walled and why do they possess ualues?


Ans. (r) Arteries divide into smaller and smaller vessels so that blood comes in close
contact with the cells of the tissue for effieient exchange of materials.
(ii) Backward flow of blood from the ventricles to the auricles is prevented by
valves present between them"
(iii) During double circulation, oxygenated and deoxygenated blood circulate
separately. This allows efficient supply of oxygen to meet the demand for
high energy required to maintain the body temperature and for various
other activities of the body.
(iu) Heart is required to pump the blood into a network of blood vessels which
are required for distribution and collection of blood, to and from different
parts of the body, and for efficient exchange of gases and materials.
(u) Blood pressure reduces considerably in the veins so they do not have thick
walls. The valves present at intervals in the veins allow movement of blood
only in one direction.
Q. s6. Answer the foltowing:
(il Why do plants require less energy?
(ii) Does the d,istance between the soil contacting orgcln, i.e", the root, cci
chlarophyll containing organ, i.e., leaf , affect the trunsport af ruul ntateric.:
(u) Why are the ueins

.
(f;

und" energy stare?

(jjl)

root
Soil

(lu)

Due

mag
cells

frou

Blood regulates body temperature.

e.sb. Explain

(i)

diffi

Waste products like urea are produced in the various tissues of the body due
to metabolism. of proteins. These are brought to the kidneys by the blood so
that they can be expelied out.

(iu) It prevents loss of blooct by coagulating it during an injury.

wh,

conl

(u)

Wat.

.
6 e. g7. what are,

ox)'E

substance

Ans. . In plant

mineral
cells. T1
water. a
Sieve tu
help rn r
form.

. The cir
substanr
haemogl

suitable
flows thu
Q. 38. W\r.y d,o ptt
Ans. Plants ner
found in th

the soil. T

leaves. Th
small. In r

so process
organised r
a dead tisr

ffiat is

lj,t

the body?
Write a notc

Ans. Lymph

is ar

of blood cell

B1.69

Life Pracesses

(iii)
(iu)
(u)

Ans.

(r)

(,,)

(rrr)

How d,oes soil fulfitl the main reqwirernents of a plant?


W4ra,t wil,l be the rate of tra,nspirati,on' wh,eru the air is dry ar'd, Eoil is wet?
V/h.at would. be the fate of a water molecule in'the cells of a leaf?
Plants do not move and, also, they contain many dead cells" So, they requu'e
less energy.
When the distance is less between the soil-contacting organ and chlolophyll
containing organ, then the conduction can occllr by the simple process of
diffusion. When the distance is more, as in the case of tall trees, then either
root pl:er sure or transpiration pull help in the process"

Soil contains water and minerais iike nitrogen, phosphorrrs, irc;n and
magnesium"

(iu) Due to the

{b

diff'erence in the concentration of water vapour in air and rn the


cells of leaf, transpiration rate wiil be high, leading to absorption of rvater
from wet soil.
(u) Water molecule, on reaching the cells of a leaf, will split into hydrogen and
oxygen in the presence of sunlight.
Q. BT. Whot are the characteristics features and. special tissues or orgoru$ tt;lti.ch transport
su,bstances in plants an'd artintals?
Ans. . In plants, xylem is the most suitable tissue to transport rvater, with dissolved
minerals, to all the parts ofthe plant. The xylem vessels and tracheids are dead

cells" They have great affinity for water molecules. Since, plants transpire
water" a suction force is created, which pulls the water up.
. Sleve tubes of the phloem trssue are living and, along with r:ompanion cells,
help in translocation of food in all directions. Food is translocated rn aquectls
form.
. The circulatory system in animals, including man, rapidly transports
substances to each part of the body aird removes the wasle efficiently. The
haemoglobin present in the RBCs has great affinity for O2 and is the most
suitatrle and efficrent molecule to carrlr oxygen. The blood pumped b5, the heart
flows through the vessels"
Q. 38. llrh,y do plants n,eed a well organised con,du,cting systern?
Ans. Plants need raw material like nitrogen, phosphorus and other minerals are
found in the soil. These substances are taken up by roots which are in contact wrth
the soil. These substances must reach the photosynthesising organ, namely
leaves. This may be achieved by simple process of diffusion if the plant size is
small. In tall plants, i.e., trees the distance between roots and leaves is big
so process of diffusron cannot be possible. For this there is a need of a well
organised conducting system. This system is made up of xylern tissue which rs
a dead tissue
./:.,-,..''.
,&,:,,9C,"'rfuat is lymph? What functiorus d.oes it perform? IIow does l-v*Lplt. ci.rtttLute it
the bocly?
Or
Write a note on lymphatic system in htlmqti l:eings, statirug fun cti.or+s *{ t,h,e l),mph.
Ans. Lymph is another fluid connective tissue In ilur circulator;, systeffi. Scrme amount
of blood cells (lymphocytes), plasma, proteins, gases and nutrienLs escape from
"

CBSE Science Self-Tutor-X

81.70

very fine poresr present in the capillaries, into the interceliular spaces present
between the cells. This forms the tissue fluid or lymph. Red blood corpuscles are
not present in lymph. As it lies outside the cells, it is also called extracellular

(iu)

fluid"

X1,'lem

Function,s of lymph:

x1-lem

. Lymph drains excess fluid from the extracellular spaces irrto the blood.
. Lymph returns proteins and fluid to the tissues through circulation.
. Digested and absorbed fats are carried by the lymph.
Circulation of lym.ph: From intercellular spaces, the lymph is drained into

{l

Life Processes

lymphatic capillaries v,'hich join to form lymph vessels. Vessels open into the big
vein, superior vena cava, thus returning the fluid to the blood. It is purified by the
lungs along with bLood.
Q. 40. Draw a diagram of tke heart and show the flow of blood, with the help of arrou-ts,
in the uarious chq,rnbers of the heart. Label the parts through, wh,ich the blood
will flow.
Ans. R,efer to Fig. 1.3 on Page 81.7.
Q" 41. Differentiate between: (One difference only)
(i) Lymph and, blood
(i,i) RBCs and platelets
(.iii) Plasma and blood
(iu) Xylem arud, phloem
(u) Root pressure and transpiration pull

Ans.

(l)

for cor
from t
the plr
(u)

Root p
is effet
the rc,<

(l q.42. Exptain li
(l) IIlo
(ii) Hou'

(iiil

(iu,) Is:h
(i- ) II7: *
Ans. (l) AJl c

-.,L -.

*-cri

(li)
Lym.ph

Lymph is plasma without RBCs. It


contains blood ceiis Qymphocytes),
proteins, gases and nutrients.

BIood
Blood contains RBCs. It is red in
colour as RBCs contain
haemogiobin, which carries oxygen
to dif[t,rent parts of the body.

II no

O:*-;
entl

(lii) -{m:
(lu) In ra
bet*-

(u) On e
srte

RBCs
RBCs are spherical disc-shaped
celis, without nucleus, but contain
ha-emoglobin, which can transport
oxygen to different parts of the body.

Platelets

Platelets are very small blood cells


and help in clotting of blood at the
site o{ injury and, thus, stop
bleeding.

(i,ii)
Plasma
Plasma is a colourless fluid matrix
of blood containing proteins, salts,
hormones and vitamins.

Blood,

Blood is plasma containing RBCs,


WBCs and platelets. It is red in
colour due to the presence of
haernoslobin.

Q. 43. Draw a dir


of the faii.a

(i)

Puln;

(ii) Aortc
(iii) Puln
(iu) \:er'.a

Ans. Refer to Fi

q.44. Answer tht


(i) Ment
(ii) trlent

(iii) llhat