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International Journal of Food Engineering

Volume 7, Issue 2

2011

Article 1

Modelling with Response Surface Methodology of the Effects of Egg Yolk, Egg White, and Sodium Carbonate on Some of the Physical-Chemical and Sensory Properties of Beef Patties

Özgür Parlak, Provincial Directorate of Agriculture, Muş- Turkey Ömer Zorba, University of Abant İzzet Baysal Şükrü Kurt, University of Adıyaman

Recommended Citation:

Parlak, Özgür; Zorba, Ömer; and Kurt, Şükrü (2011) "Modelling with Response Surface Methodology of the Effects of Egg Yolk, Egg White, and Sodium Carbonate on Some of the Physical-Chemical and Sensory Properties of Beef Patties," International Journal of Food Engineering: Vol. 7: Iss. 2, Article 1. DOI: 10.2202/1556-3758.2004 Available at: http://www.bepress.com/ijfe/vol7/iss2/art1

©2011 Berkeley Electronic Press. All rights reserved.

Modelling with Response Surface Methodology of the Effects of Egg Yolk, Egg White, and Sodium Carbonate on Some of the Physical-Chemical and Sensory Properties of Beef Patties

Özgür Parlak, Ömer Zorba, and Şükrü Kurt

Abstract

This study was accomplished to determine the effects of sodium carbonate, egg yolk, and egg white powders on some of the physical-chemical and sensory properties of meat patties by using central composite design of response surface methodology. Meat patties were prepared using beef, lamb tail fat, and spices. Effects of the addition of egg yolk powder (0-1%), egg white powder (0-1%), and sodium carbonate (0-1%) on pH, proximate composition, cooking yield, and sensory properties were studied. The influence of egg yolk in the beef patties was found to be limited. However, the effects of egg white and sodium carbonate were found to be significant on several parameters. The levels of sodium carbonate up to 0.8% and egg white greater than 0.5% improved the physical-chemical and sensory properties of beef patties.

KEYWORDS: beef patties, sodium carbonate, egg white, egg yolk, response surface

Author Notes: The authors are grateful to Yüzüncü Yıl University Research Fund (2008-FBE- YL034), for its financial support of this research work.

Parlak et al.: Effects of Egg Yolk, Egg White, and Sodium Carbonate on Patties

INTRODUCTION

The type and the amount of additives in formulations of meat products are the most important factors for product quality, technological properties, and consumer health. Egg products can be widely used in foods and can improve gel forming capability, water holding capacity, emulsification, and nutrition properties of foods (Kiosseoglou, 2003). Although egg white and egg yolk are primarily known for their sensory and nutritional value, they have important application in food formulations, including their protein functionality (Linden and Lorrient, 1999; Kiosseoglou, 2003; Kurt and Zorba, 2009). The technological properties of egg products are more important than their nutritional properties for use in meat products. They can affect the textural and sensory properties of meat patties (Gujral et al., 2002). Refined sodium carbonate is widely used in the food, feed, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries. In the food industry, sodium carbonate is used for pH arrangement in order to improve the textural properties of products. It has a white, opaque, and crystalline structure. Its solution in water is clear, colourless, and alkaline. Sodium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate can be used in fish and emulsified meat products due to their alkaline properties (Ko0 akowski et al., 1994; Bechtel et al., 1989) The objective of this study was to determine the effects of egg white, egg yolk, and sodium carbonate on pH, cooking yield, proximate composition, and sensory properties of beef patties using a central composite design.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Beef boneless rounds and lamb tail fat were obtained from a local market. Egg white and egg yolk powders were obtained from AB foods (Istanbul Turkey).

Beef patty preparation

Meat and lamb tail fat pieces (~3 cm 3 in size) were mixed and standardized to 15% fat. This mixture was minced in a grinder (Cem, :stanbul, Turkey). 1.5% salt, 3% bread crumb, 1% red pepper, 1% black pepper, 1% cumin, 0.5% thyme, and 5% onion were added to the minced meat and minced an additional two times in a grinder. This formulation was mixed by manually and divided into 16 equal parts. Egg white, egg yolk, and sodium carbonate were added to each part as shown in Table 1. Each formulation was then kneaded for approximately 10 min to obtain uniform meatball dough. Then, each piece of dough was shaped manually into approximately 1.3 cm thick and 6 cm diameter circular-shaped beef patties. The beef patties were cooked on a preheated electric grill (Tefal Largon) for approximately 15 min at 180ºC and were flipped every 3 min.

International Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 7 [2011], Iss. 2, Art. 1

Table 1. Central composite design of three independent variables

Run

Sodium

Egg yolk

Egg white

order

carbonate (%)

powder (%)

powder (%)

1

0

0

0

2

0

0

1

3

0

1

0

4

0

1

1

5

1

0

0

6

1

0

1

7

1

1

0

8

1

1

1

9

0

0.5

0.5

10

1

0.5

0.5

11

0.5

0

0.5

12

0.5

1

0.5

13

0.5

0.5

0

14

0.5

0.5

1

15

0.5

0.5

0.5

16

0.5

0.5

0.5

Determination of pH

Ten grams of sample was homogenized in 100 ml distilled water and the pH was measured using a pH meter (Consort R735, Belgium) equipped with temperature probe as outlined by Ockerman (1985).

Determination of moisture, protein and fat content

Moisture, fat and protein were determined according to AOAC (2000). Protein was determined as crude protein using the Kjeldahl method. Fat was determined as crude fat using the Soxhelet extraction.

Determination of cooking yield

Cooking yield was determined as follows:

Cooking Yield (%)

=

w 1 × 100

w

0

where

cooking.

Sensory analysis

The cooked beef patties were cooled to room temperature and served in random order. Eight semi-trained judges assessed the sensory properties using a hedonic

w 1 is the weight after

w

0

is the weight of beef patties before cooking and

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Parlak et al.: Effects of Egg Yolk, Egg White, and Sodium Carbonate on Patties

scale for the appearance, texture, homogeneity, elasticity, flavour, brittleness, juiciness, and acceptability. The values in the scale indicated the following range of reactions: 0: dislike extremely to 5: like extremely.

Statistical analysis

The experimental design and statistical analysis were performed using JMP 4 Software (SAS Institute Inc.). The experiments were based on a central composite design with a total of 16 combinations, including two replicates of the centre point were carried out in random order. Two replicates were performed for this study. The variance for each factor assessed was partitioned into linear, quadratic, and interactive components and was represented using a second order polynomial equation. The equation is:

Y

k

=+

x

0

i

i

1

=

i

k

+

i

1

=

2

ii

x

ii

kk

+

xx

ij

i

ij

j

i

11

==

<

j

where Y is the estimated response, 0 , i , ii , and ij are constant coefficients, k is the number of factor variables, and x i , x ii , and x i x j represent the linear, quadratic and interactive effects of the independent variables (sodium carbonate, egg white, and egg yolk), respectively.

Table 2. Analysis of variance of the effects of sodium carbonate, egg yolk and egg white on physical-chemical properties of beef patties

Sources of

 

pH

Protein

Moisture

Fat

Yield

Variation

DF

F-value

F-value

F-value

F-value

F-value

X 1 (SC) X 2 (Egg yolk) X 3 (Egg white)

1

605.819 **

5.3069 *

0.0647

0.0104

40.5774 **

1

0.275

0.0394

0.2132

0.6480

1.8405

1

0.181

0.0039

0.0433

0.1757

18.1017 **

X 1 *X

1

1

0.069

0.5244

0.0007

0.0146

6.9806 *

X 2 *X

1

1

0.002

0.9034

1.6418

0.1191

4.0368

X 2 *X

2

1

0.872

0.3324

0.2872

0.1291

0.1125

X 3 *X

1

1

0.185

0.0132

1.2322

0.3159

1.6574

X 3 *X

2

1

1.085

0.0102

0.0229

0.0002

3.3314

X 3 *X

3

1

1.377

0.1603

0.2771

0.0566

0.4663

Lack of fit

5

1.560

0.2821

0.1601

0.0979

0.7031

C. total

31

** : P<0.01 significance level, * : P<0.05 significance level, DF: Degrees of Freedom, SC: Sodium carbonate

International Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 7 [2011], Iss. 2, Art. 1

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

pH, protein content, and cooking yield of beef patties

The linear effect of the sodium carbonate on pH was found to be significant (p<0.01; Table 2). pH increased as sodium carbonate increased (Fig. 1). This increase in pH could result from the alkaline characteristic of sodium carbonate.

result from the alkaline characteristic of sodium carbonate. Figure 1. Effects of sodium carbonate and egg

Figure 1. Effects of sodium carbonate and egg yolk on pH of beef patties

The linear effect of the sodium carbonate on protein values was found to be significant (p<0.05; Table 2). As shown in Figure 2, protein contents decreased with an increase in sodium carbonate. This effect may be related to the increased pH. When pH moves furthers away from the isoelectric point of the muscle proteins, the net electric charge increases. It can cause an increase in solubility and water holding capacity of proteins (Zorba et al., 1993a, 1993b). The decreasing in protein content may be related to an increase in protein solubility and relative moisture content. Cooking yield was significantly (p<0.01; Table 2) affected with the addition of sodium carbonate and egg white. Sodium carbonate levels up to 0.8% increased cooking yield and then decreased (Fig. 3). However, the increased levels of egg white also increased cooking yield. This effect of egg white may be related to its hydrophilic properties. Also, heat treatment affects protein properties, allowing protein-protein interactions, which cause a stronger protein matrix (Zorba

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Parlak et al.: Effects of Egg Yolk, Egg White, and Sodium Carbonate on Patties

and Kurt, 2006). During gel formation, the protein matrix can retain some components inside it (Ziegler and Acton, 1984; Ker and Toledo, 1992). The technological properties of meat products are strictly related to the physicochemical properties of their proteins (Zorba and Kurt, 2006). An important functional characteristic of proteins is gel forming ability. Myofibril proteins play an important role in gel formation, which contributes to the desirable texture and fat- water stabilization in meat products (Ziegler and Acton, 1984). The effects of egg white, egg yolk, and sodium carbonate on moisture and fat values of cooked beef patties were not found to be statistically significant (p>0.05; Table 2).

Sensory properties

The quadratic effects of egg white on appearance scores were found to be significant (p<0.05, Table 3). Increasing levels of egg white up to 0.5% increased appearance scores (Fig. 4). However, egg whites levels greater than 0.5% decreased appearance scores. This phenomenon may be due to clot formation on the surface of the patties.

may be due to clot formation on the surface of the patties. Figure 2. Effects of

Figure 2. Effects of sodium carbonate and egg yolk on protein content of beef patties

International Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 7 [2011], Iss. 2, Art. 1

Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 7 [2011], Iss. 2, Art. 1 Figure 3. Effects of sodium

Figure 3. Effects of sodium carbonate and egg white on cooking yield of beef patties

carbonate and egg white on cooking yield of beef patties Figure 4. Effects of sodium carbonate

Figure 4. Effects of sodium carbonate and egg white on appearance of beef patties

The linear and quadratic effects of egg white were also found significant (p<0.05, p<0.01, respectively) on texture scores (Table 3), as texture scores

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Parlak et al.: Effects of Egg Yolk, Egg White, and Sodium Carbonate on Patties

increased with increasing amounts of egg white until the egg white content was 0.5%; then they decreased (Fig. 5) which may be attributed to the resultant effect of egg white on structural and functional changes in proteins. Elasticity, brittleness, and juiciness scores increased as significantly sodium carbonate level increase (Table 3, Fig. 6, 7, 8). However, higher sodium carbonate levels decreased brittleness and juiciness values. The changes in the scores of texture, elasticity, brittleness, and juiciness may be attributed to the result of the behaviours of proteins. Sodium carbonate increased pH values, which may affect the solubility of protein. Changes in pH values of muscle proteins improved the textural quality and water-holding capability of meat products (Gökalp et al., 1999). The changes in the muscle proteins led to gel formation, improving the slicing ability of the meat products (Kerry et al., 2002).

slicing ability of the meat products (Kerry et al., 2002). Figure 5. Effects of sodium carbonate

Figure 5. Effects of sodium carbonate and egg white on texture of beef patties

The linear and quadratic effects of sodium carbonate and its interaction with egg white on flavour scores were found to be significant (p<0.01, Table 3). Flavour scores increased with increasing levels of sodium carbonate and then decreased when the level of sodium carbonate rose above 0.6% (Fig. 9); this may be attributed to the resultant effect of pH on proteolytic and lipolytic changes. Cooking process increased taste and aroma components, such as nitrogenous components and short-chain fatty acids, which originated from proteins and fats (Serdaro Mlu and De Mirmencio Mlu, 2002). A complex series of thermally induced reactions leading to a wide range of products determined the aroma attributes and contributed most to the characteristic flavours of the meat (Mottram, 1998).

International Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 7 [2011], Iss. 2, Art. 1

Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 7 [2011], Iss. 2, Art. 1 http://www.bepress.com/ijfe/vol7/iss2/art1 8 DOI:

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Parlak et al.: Effects of Egg Yolk, Egg White, and Sodium Carbonate on Patties

of Egg Yolk, Egg White, and Sodium Carbonate on Patties Figure 6. Effects of sodium carbonate

Figure 6. Effects of sodium carbonate and egg white on elasticity of beef patties

sodium carbonate and egg white on elasticity of beef patties Figure 7. Effects of sodium carbonate

Figure 7. Effects of sodium carbonate and egg white on brittleness of beef patties

International Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 7 [2011], Iss. 2, Art. 1

Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 7 [2011], Iss. 2, Art. 1 Figure 8. Effects of sodium

Figure 8. Effects of sodium carbonate and egg white on juiciness of beef patties

sodium carbonate and egg white on juiciness of beef patties Figure 9. Effects of sodium carbonate

Figure 9. Effects of sodium carbonate and egg yolk on flavour of beef patties

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Parlak et al.: Effects of Egg Yolk, Egg White, and Sodium Carbonate on Patties

The linear effects of sodium carbonate on acceptability scores were found to be significant (p<0.01, Table 3). Moreover, the quadratic effects of sodium carbonate and egg white on acceptability scores were significant (p<0.05, Table 3). Sodium carbonate up to 0.6% and egg white up to 0.5% increased acceptability scores (Fig. 10). The effects of sodium carbonate, egg white, and egg yolk on beef patties are also expressed mathematically in Table 4. These predicted model equations are useful for understanding levels of factors and the interactions among the studied factors.

of factors and the interactions among the studied factors. Figure 10. Effects of sodium carbonate and

Figure 10. Effects of sodium carbonate and egg white on acceptability of beef patties

CONCLUSION

Increasing sodium carbonate levels up to 0.8% improved the properties of the beef patties. This improvement was associated with increased pH as a result of adding sodium carbonate. Egg white powder was more effective than egg yolk powder on the beef patties. More than 0.5% of egg white powder improved the properties of the beef patties. However, the effects of egg yolk powder on the beef patties were found to be limited. Egg white powder was only effective in affecting flavour scores in the range of 0.44-0.76%. As a conclusion, it can be use more than 0.5% of egg white powder and by 0.8% of sodium carbonate should be used for more desirable beef patties.

International Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 7 [2011], Iss. 2, Art. 1

Table 4. Predicted model equations for the effects of sodium carbonate (X 1 ), egg yolk (X 2 ) and egg white (X 3 ) on properties of beef patties

Parameters

Equations

pH

Y = 7.037 + 1.057X 1 + 0.023X 2 +

0.018X 3 + 0.022X 1 2 + 0.002X 2 X 1 -

0.078X 2 2 + 0.021X 3 X 1 - 0.050X 3 X 2 + 0.098X 3

2

 

Protein

Y = 22.019 - 0.730X 1 - 0.063X 2 + 0.020X 3 - 0.447X 1 2 - 0.337X 2 X 1 - 0.356X 2 2 + 0.041X 3 X 1 + 0.036X 3 X 2 - 0.247X 3

2

Cooking yield

Y = 82.691 + 1.824X 1 - 0.389X 2 +

1.218X 3 - 1.474X 1 2 - 0.643X 2 X 1 -

0.187X 2 2 - 0.412X 3 X 1 - 0.584X 3 X 2 + 0.389X 3

2

 

Appearance

Y = 3.887 - 0.036X 1 - 0.060X 2 - 0.003X 3 -

0.072X 1 2 + 0.004X 2 X 1 -

0.006X 2 2 + 0.032X 3 X 1 - 0.029X 3 X 2 - 0.242X 3

2

 

Texture

Y = 3.750 + 0.090X 1 + 0.036X 2 -

0.099X 3 - 0.076X 1 2 -

0.030X 2 X 1 +

0.153X 2 2 - 0.067X 3 X 1 + 0.037X 3 X 2 - 0.257X 3

2

Elasticity

Y = 3.712 + 0.151X 1 + 0.005X 2 +

0.019X 3 - 0.083X 1 2 - 0.064X 2 X 1 -

 

2

Flavour

 

2

Brittleness

0.094X 2 2 - 0.036X 3 X 1 + 0.007X 3 X 2 - 0.145X 3 Y = 3.677 + 0.265X 1 - 0.054X 2 - 0.015X 3 - 0.355X 1 2 - 0.135X 2 X 1 + 0.062X 2 2 - 0.036X 3 X 1 - 0.029X 3 X 2 - 0.063X 3 Y = 3.723 + 0.096X 1 - 0.044X 2 - 0.030X 3 - 0.300X 1 2 + 0.015X 2 X 1 + 0.158X 2 2 - 0.037X 3 X 1 + 0.036X 3 X 2 - 0.151X 3

2

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