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EDiTURA QT]ANTUM
B.DTIL N- TITL]}-ESCU NE.. J 8i61
4OO42A

CLUJ.NAPOCA

Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii N*iionaie a Rermfiniei


SPAR.K, RI{EA
Easic EngXish for healthcare

professienals: Engleza slebazil penfru persoraE

rnedical /Rhea Spark. - Cluj-Napoca : Quanturn,2OOg

81

ISB].1 978-9'73-88835-l -2

1 1 1i:6i

Ai1

rights resened. Printed in Rornania. No parts of this publicatian may be


reproduced or distributed in any form or b1r any meaos , or stored tn data base or
retneval sysiem, without the prior perrnission of the arithor.

r
l-"r

r*

T?zervate. Tipirit ir: Romdnia. Idicio pafie din aceasti lucrare


poate fi reprodusf, sub nicio icrml, pnn niciun rnijloc rnecanic sau etrectronic sau
stcscati, infr'-o baza dt dat* {afi acorciui in preaiabil, scns, al a*taarei.

Taate drepturiie

.,i

rOE*ate drepeuriie ;!s'{epr a aeestei edifii


l
1

.1

*par{irl auoarei"

Yfleww PkY

"% Sg

grusgffi-}cEEEJ}{E

tlE

[.rrgE"EZAH,E

Lucrarea *e talE se ad-reseazil tutu-ror ceicr aflafi ia un ni.vei medru cie cuncastere
a jiffibri engleze gi i.::*-teresafl sau ietciicali in riorneniul medicai. Prin contlnur*j gi

sirucfurarea n-rateneiului acest curs *{er& pcsii:iiitatea iasuqirii qilsau


irnbuna#,|im liznbajuiui <ie s3;ecialitate 1n yara'tetr ru Cezvoitarea gemeraid e
v ocabula ru-iui gi aproF;ndarea gramatlc ii en gleze.
Aceastdcarte-maru.rai poate fi ,L\tl}irat& fu *,mEie de scopuriXe iniiviCuaj.e aie
cititorului, deia facihtarea mlelegeru gl asrnii&* bibliogra&ei cie suecialitate gr
cercetdrii neeCicaie ?c',. iirilba engiez6, p*n6. 3a ptregawea pentru a profesa 'fl:r t&ril.e
de hnrbd engiezh, in special -cUA. De asenrenea, Erirr prezenta explica,flliar, acheii {rdsrunsurilor} exerciiiilor oi & posii:i}.ii6$i autoevalu*ri ctaaoqiinfeior
cobl,ndite, a.ceastE rarte se preteazd ia studiu inciwciuex,irrti*p ce pentru- eievii,
stucienrri gi profesorij clic]. qc+irle postliceaie, coiegiiie 6i facultaliie de prof;l.
'ru"craree poate ccr.stitu"i 'riit frlrrtetrral didacfic rlesiinai orelor
d"e curs aracac ie
iimbe englez6.

Fentru a beneficia

rnuit de ti::rprli ci eforfui invmtit in parcurgerea acestei


cdr,tr-manuai, este foarte irxrpertant ca cititerr:fr sH rnleieagE principiiie strucr*rani
irtaterialuiui gi sd- urrneze cfi.t mai ridei recofilafldarlie de uttlizare. Matenair-il este
organtzaz i* zece caprioie {*rJmts"}, #.s.are dinh"= acestea fii:ii rntrccius ir
vccai:ular ("\A/ord. Bank"j gi o prezentare gemeraX6 a confialuiutrul care este d:rizar
in patru subuniiHF: cie exexrullu {-irut ? este alcEtuit ciin Wor<i Bank, Llnit 2A, i.lrui
28, Unrt 2C gi Unit 2D: Principiul cie baz6. qi totodat# ingeniozttatea acestei cl{itj
corrstd ?n rnteriepertder,ta, dinire vocabuiarr.ri cle spe;iaj.ltate gl probierneie ie
iimb# care sunt prezentate, tixaie gi testate 'ruapreunE; eie exe.mplu, taate
exercifiitre de gramaficd riirrti'-un capitci conlin vocabuiarui ie epeciaiiiate utiiizai
ln acei caErj.toL, iar *a<iwcerile Ce La sf&rqitrai caprioiuiui ccmbin* dr'. no:.i
vocabulanrl qi probierneie ae 1i::&A/grarratrc*. A1&*rtea piamcipiu este repetiha;
termerrii rnedicali se ?nt&Lnesc pe tot pasfil.rsui c6r$i, i.nn anuntit tercren n-red:cai
put6nd aphrea in ?iard tsaur&-ui nnal multor capitoie.
cL rnai"

utltlrnui capiioi ({-;rut i si -Unit \81, r'tate casitoieie {Iiz-rrts 2,3,


4, 5, 5, 7, &, *i 9) rcahgi cunoptarite ffisrrlare d.* anaton'de {A}, grare,anct iB,t,
voca-bular de speciaitiale actifional {Ci ei exercifii c{e traiucere {D). Su-bunitatrle
A, E qi C sum.i insaiite oe aviljcaili qi exer*Vli *eylrtrtx practlcarea cunog.tinteicr g:
ruci teste {"qwzzm"}, ial subanitatea t presupu*e irnbinerea runoqiinpicl
iob6ndite ih suLrunrt,Ht.ile A,8., C.
Excepi6.nC prinrui

qe

:Trimui gi Lritin"u.d cag:itoi iTinri i. si I-Iclit n*j, deqi str;.rciu.rate ie patru su-inrutau
tA, B, C, si D) ca gj restu? caprtcrleioi,. se rl*osebresc de acestea p,;,lir, iapr,fi cd

I.l;''

l'

tr
incor.nore&zA t*1.8rea ampi* a cunogtrftIeior riob&srCite <irn ini].ea ga c-ds*L? F1 I-lu
'cra&T dintr*rrn siagur capitoi. Astfei, 3rr {-lnit i, conce-r:icri de "pre-test" se refera 1a.
un test tr'"i7al, aiici. testarea- cuncstlntelcr ce urmeaza a ti aarturse (tesiui se
aCnunisireazd inaintE de inceperea etecilvd a stueiiiliui qi fbr* foiosrrea
d"ictionaruLui sau a aiior resurse). in ?Jnit 10 concectui de "post-test" asigr;rp *
evaiuare fir',alT a cunoqtinleior dup& parcurgerea ;::raterraiuiui irttregii caril.Ideai
este ca Ciferenla de punctaj ckntre l:re-iesi 5i post-test s6. rle c;it mai semrLrflcativa
{;purtctayi offirnut la posi-test s# fie r.uit ril6i rnare dec&t cel oblrnut le- pre-test),
dar 15s*rn aceste *utzi ia iatituitnea unlizatoriior qt/ sao er furclnenr&tor-iior lor
(cadre dirlacticei. iat6 gi c6teva considerente practice: cer care obtin punctal
rrdicat ia pre-test {8$% sau. inai rr-rult} vor avea nevoie cie rnai pu?in fi.mp or
indr"uaure r:entru parcurgerea matee"ialuir.m, aproxirnativ 44 cre pe unif rest1ltr
ciiitorfior sunt sfAtuiil sE deciice cel putrn 8-12 qre fiec5rur urrit.

Consu"ltafi chiar acurn cuprrn"sui ("Contenu,s")t qi oprifi-rrif c6teva rninute asupra.


fiecdrui capitoi intre T-lmt 2 gi Umt 9, rhsf*I$-X gi il"rcercafi sii v& facrliliarizaf, cu
modui de prezentare. C6nd sunteli gata sh lncepefi sitrdiuL, reveniri ia Unii 1.
Succes!

flwio*rea

ryi

Efrfura

#.uaniwryt

CCNTENTE
CUPRINS

1NIT

UNIT 1A':

I]NIT

18:

UNIT 1C:
UNiT iD:
LINIT 2
UNIT 24:
LTNIT 28:
UNIT 2C
IJNIT 2D:

UNiT 3
Ul"liT 3A:
UNIT 38:
UNTT 3C:
UNIT 3D:

trl{m

UIdIT 4A
IJhI]T 48
UJ.JIT 4C
UNIT 4D

U}{IT

TJNIT

5I\

UNIT 58.
UNIT 5C
IJNiT 5D

uhiiT

6
UI''IIT 6.4
T T\TTM /E
UI\I.I, DD
UI.JIT 5C
IJI{IT 5D

Word Bank
Organs, S)rsterns, and Meciicai Specialties,
Human tsody Pre-test.
Cvelrview of Grarnmar Topics
Grammar Pre-test
Syrnptoms A-N
Unit 1 Translaiion Pracdce.

8
1A

23

1't

Word Bank
The Muscuioskeietal Systern
hiouns and Pronouns
Symptoms P-2.
Unit 2 Transiation Practice

JU

Jt)

+J
+)

Worci Bank
The Cardiovascular Systern.
Acijectives and Adverbs.
Clinicai Procedures A-N.
Unit 3 Transiation Practice.

45
4B

i3

)ti
41,

Word Bank.
The Resptratory System.
Verbs .- Forms anC Tenses....
Clinicai Proced.uresP-2.
Unit 4 Transiafion Praciice... -

64
65
'i-r
oi

A't

Word Bank.
The Digestive Sysien'.
Verirs - The Passive
Dis

as es,/

Ilines

ses

'

o-)

64
C?

-);

/ Irr1rrrie s f Fhysical

Con d i lions A -Ir4


j

Unit 5 Translaiion Practice.

1\-j

Word Bank
llne Excretor,v System. .
Verbs - Idodals
Diseases / Iiln esses / Inj urie s / Fh,vsical Conditions I{ - Z.
T-Jritt 6 Translaticn Practice. ..

iIL;
a,a

iii4
'i i^rC

.i

uc

1i5

UT\JIT 7

VriorC Bank

UI{iT 74'

120

The Nervous System


Connectors
Treatnnent A-Z
Unit 7 Transiation Practice

126

UN]T 78
UNIT 7C
UNIT 7D
UNIT

UNTIT BA

UhIIT BB
UNIT 8C
UNIT 8D

UNIT 9
UN]T 9A
98
UNIT 9C
UNIT 9D
LT-NIIT

fi

U}JiT 10
UNIT 1OA
UI\TIT 1OB

UMT 1OC:
UNIT1OD:

131

i35

Word Bank.
The Endocrine and Reproductive Systerns
Phrases and Clauses
Prescription A-2.
Unii 8 Translation Praciice.

136
138

1M
146

i50

Word Bank.

I(1

The Senses: Sight, Hearing, Snnel1, Taste, Touch.


Effective Sentences
Miscelian e ous / Medical an d F{ealth-Relate d E xpressions
Unit 9 Translation Practice

154

Hurnan Bodv Post-test


Grammar Post-test
Speciaiized Vs66fuuiary Test
Translation Test.

159

162
t66

167
1n.

It/
180

KEY.

182

ENGLISFI-ROMANIAN VCCABULARY

208

ROMA NIAhI-ENGLISH \,'CCAtsULARY

1){l

i-.
I

LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS.

234

I\iUVIBERS

.\a:jj

BIBLICGRAtrHY.

239

TINTT

3.

W*ERE} B,ENK

Use the aocabulary items iw this unit's ruorCbaruk as needeci,


-ior iessotts, aVpiicatioits,
euizzes, and translation prnctice, zs-niess otherzLtise inriicateri. 1'ou zuill encounter
marLy of
t'ttese zuarris in other units' aacabulary bank, afid so, by repeated nse, you ruiL!
masier
thnn by the time you fintstt tttis textbook. This unit includes the
folioruing:

" iA: Organs, Systems, arcd. l,Aedical Sperialties arud Ilumqn Boay Pre-test
" 78: Oaeraiew of Grammar Topics and Grammar pre-test
" LC: Sympioms A-N
" lD: Translation Practice
andrenai glands: glandeie suprarenale
(toi avoid: a evita
backache: durere de spate
biad der: vezica urinar5
bleeding: sAngerare
blister: bXgicE
blood: sf;nge
biood pressure: tecrsiu.ne alterialE
boitr: fu.rsncu.].
bones: oase

brairr creier
bruise: contuzi.e, vAn5taie
{to} caltr in sick a antrnta absenfaia absenta pe rnotiv de boal*
carfiiage: cariilaf
ca'vities: carii
ceil: ceiuiE
chiltr: frison, trigwl. r5cealE
coid. swea* sudoare {transpirafie} rece
connective tis sue: lesut con!.trncttv

cyanosis: tiawaz&"
{to} decli.ne: a refraza
d.ehydration: d e s hi drataa'e
eden:ra: erien'l

ER eioctors: rnediei <iin secfia de urgera!6


escphagu.e: esaf.ag
exp eri nre *tai &wgs : r*e ci.i c a rnente exp erim entai

fainil iegi:t
{to} faint: a }epina
fat: gi'hsirne

faiigu* oboseald

f,e:ler: febr6,
fiaagernaiis: unghin {Ia nt3i*i}
|tcl,z frtghEterc: a *pexta, iwgrazi, ?mfricoEa
gaSlbiad*,er v ezie a b iI iara
'{.t*i get, wortse: a se ?rerEutiti
hav fever: {.ebra f6rauluio rinit& alergic&., paierd*z&
itc) heatr: a {sei vtr'deca
heaithcace professtonals: eersonal meCicaL, iucr6tori in domeraiui
hearh inirnE
impairmenfu def,ect, deteriorare, alterare (a organismtlluitr

itch: mAnclrirne
i oinis : furcheiets:.ri, articuXatii
kidne3rs:

rinichi

lalror: travaliu., d.ureritre facerii

larynx

S.aring*
iinc: hrrze

iiver: ficat.
loss of consci.ousness: pierderea cunoqtintei
lungs: p}imAni
rnarrtrnary giands: glazad e rnairlare
rnuscle: rrrugchi
Ilausea: greafi
nefl/es: nervi.
nose: mas
numbness: arnorteatr6
*va-ries: ovare
pancreas: pafficleas
p ararned ics: asi.sterefi rnedicali. p e ambuianti
pfuaryrax: fari.nge
p ih.eitaryr gland : giare ci 5 pituiiarE, laip ofizd
itol postpofte: * am&na
(ta) presrribe: a prescri.e {.un tratarnent}
prostate: prostatE
puise: puis
pus: puroi

perplex
{tr:} sc'rub: a *uafiafspEia prill frec a$e, a sp[la cu peria
itt>j set e f,racture; a Fu.fle in ghi-ps o f::aefurE
sHeippin g: exp ediere, izarrsp ort
shivering: trerrlurare {tc shivec: a te"en'iura}
ski'sr: pieie
srr,aiL irrtestine: intesti.n subfire
sneezing: sts*.nut, strXnutare {sneeze: strdnut}
spinai ccrd: r*dcfuva sPinXrii
p:urzziedlt

sinltEtii

' - . :--rr+r+#1,_nl}i!t5.;

stornach: stomac

swelling: umflituri, umflare


testes: testicule
thymus: tirnus
thyroid: tiroidi
tissue: lesut

tongue: limbi
lrachea: lrahee
(to) undergo surgery: a ae opera;a se supune unei operafii chinrrgicale
urethra: uretri
utems: uter
vagina: vagrn
ochi apogi, Licrimogi
**:t"ry
"y*ut
weariness: obsseal 6., epuizare, sfArqea1I
wound: rani

ia+4 5,i

11

ir y:'tl', y

EilfEE

3""&:

#KGA-Iqs, sYsYEi?f,S, e*&

h/gEElEC

eL flwHCgAtrgES

xxffi* s*w,
i. ll'hat z,re cells?

2. Can ycu flarri.e so$l' oi the human hady argans]


3. What are systerns? Can you give a few exarnpies?
1. What medicai speciai{r relates to fhe digesiive system?

Choose from the box beiow to fiiX in the rrissi.ng words


in the text anct table. Use this urrit's ,,,rord bank N:J-/or a iictionary if necessary.
arteries
trschea

stomach
colon

enaacrine
neuralogy

trcsue
celis

units
oTgfr77s

Cur bodir, like all other iiving things, is cornposed cf t ny (l) -r*t":L- caiiei
celLs. The cel1 is the basic unit of structure and funcrion of al1 iiving things. T"rre
that are grouperi accorcling to the f,unctions
body Lras rniliions of (2) f'l.i i *
tJ'rey pertorm inic tissues: rnuscie tissue produces nlovernenfl epithelial H.ssue
makes up the skin; cennective tissr.ee form,s fat, bones, and cartiiage; anci nervous
f31 tr",.'n , ,r allows cornrnunicaiion bef,ween the brain ani {ne rest of t}ie bodv,
Groups of tissue ti'rat perfornl specific runciions form argarlfr, such. as the heart,
the brain, the lungs, the triver, eic. Finaiiy, (4j a+yj{&d- that work together to do
a certain job form s;zsiems. The tabie below i&entifies the boi;,r systents, the
crgafi.s in eaci:r s",/sienl".. the reiated u',eclicai speciai$, (eniing lfr.-y arrc{ dociors
ienciing in -ist)"
i cltGANS Ild rF{E T,ILED|CF,L StrECIALTY
i
DCCTCE.
i

svgrtl,t

ntusr:idoskeietai

cardiovas

cuia-r

resoiratory

i!g,*:
irrurccles

\ orthope<iics

icrthopedist

t lieurt
\ iloaa

/i*iewtai ineclicne
I cardioiogist
i cariiioio

r5, tt',." ,"^.

unarityt.l:

irtrU'tix

,---- r,r,,i5Ar
iot
. ittvto<

gy-

i ai*:rrhini: I arymz'-rLrsgv {*ose, firr*a i.


ear si I pulmonotr og-ir (1,"1n gs i
, otorhinoiari.mgolegis#pwtzrr*n*gist
i

6
,

i1

F"rJT::4*i.{!:i:i:::

rtigestive

sfi?.ai! intestitw-

excretory

kitirueus
biad{iey

gastroerater:fi*gy i ir"lternal medj.cine


gastr o entee. otr o gis t/izef ernis t

pr*ctaXogy i wology
pr octol o g.ist/uroi o gist

lur
1 spin*i cgrd

rrefi/CIl},s

i9) rr&tt t.r',8i,r*r.


areurologist' i r'

nerues

tfui
i10) il tr.{reU'r..1

adrenai

iand.

ersdocri.nalog'r,

emdocrinoiogist

ancis

I tesies i oas'nes

reproductirze

iw

I prostate I uterus

i---j--_-.--.-

rnatre: uroiogy

urologist

femrale: g;,-necologr / abstewics


gyttecCIiogist

mamlnfrry
giand"s

/1
,I

?r

3,

:.. r..

What are tissues?


Vilhat is another .ftari're for the skin"f
{Jairvcsu naffre tl-re organs si ihe di6leshve sysrerrfi
V'flhat is uroiog,rr?
F.jCne:zs are otgay-.s oi =tthat svsterr,'!

: *,i r '.,i:.;.

,apPltabloi!

li. Lo*k atthe tabie

ai:ove ani ciescri"be ti"ae hr:el=,'s.'/steytr5 r:.-cing the cnodel belou.,


Citoose {ozer systexns to eescri.be oraii1', altri *:e,* desci"ibr t}le rema-j.ning four in
'tnrtitino
'--"*'o'

Tfrc
wes culo

sltsts-nt is maae uy
ske ie

t tti sy sfuwr. is calieir,

oi

Tlrc metiical saeciaity reiated to itw

"

Suggested time: 30-4C rninutes

This test has 50 quesiions and covers the concepts and vocabriury you wil1 learn
in this course. DO hIOT use a dictionary, the word banks, or the lessons in ihis
textbook. Circie the rigtrt answers and then use the key section to total your
score. Wnte your score rn tfiis box
,t

ata

.l

[-_-l

Note: You will iake a post test in unit10, so you rarill be able to see your progress
(difference between post-test and pre-test scores).
1

l-.

Skull means
A. brain
B. cranium
u. Jqvv

2.

The exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen takes place tirrough the waLls
of airsacs and capillaries.

A. true
B. false
J.

The

is the muscle of the heart.

A. myocardiurn
B. riiapirragff.
A

C. biceps
The smallest blood vessels are calied veins.

A. true
B. false
5.

The lower chambers of the heart are called valves.


A. true
B. false

6.

Ihe
,ft

I
I

is called cholerystitis.
inflammation of the gatrlbiadcier
L'
trae

B. false
i

t-'

froo"

B. faise

t,
I

Phlebitis means inflammation of a vein.

;e thyroid giand influences


/ metabolism

i0

--l
I

B.

't

immunity

.:

C. blood sugar ievel

9.

A spasm is a sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of

6H:'
B. faise

1A.

The membrane thatiines the eyeiids is cal1ed


A. retina

@ conjunctiva
C. socket

11. Ilyo, have digestive probiems rloushouid see


6i " gastroen i;roio gisl
B. a uroiogist
C. a cardioiogist

72.

A neuron is a nerve celi.

@*"
B. faise

13.

1&.

Each kidneri has two ureters.


A- true

@ rui*
Kidneys do not filter harrnful chenicais as blood passes through them.
A. true

15.

irt*

C-)il glancts

prociuce sebum.

A. true
B. faise

"15.

The external opening through which fecal, material leaves the body is
cal1ed

A. coion
B. anus
C. pancreas

17.

Tne esophagus enters the stomach at the end of the sternum.

;,#:
tt

it

w'
t.ii

18,

The adrenal glands are loca*ed


A. in the brain
E. in the peivis
C. on top of each kidney

19.

The pancreas stores vitamins


A. ti:ue
B. false

20.

Otitis means
A. inflamrnation of the ear
B. inflammation of the evelids
C. inflamma'iion of the tongue

")1
LL.

Pus co*ring out cf a wound is called plasma.


,rr.

A,B, and

D.

irue

B. false

n.

The eardrum is a memb,rane.

A.true
B. faise
LJ.

'24.

Meningitis means inflammation of the brain membrane.


A. true
B. false
Urine is formed. in the
A" biadder
B. ureters
C. kidneys

25.

The maie sex organs are caiied testes.


A. tyue
B. false

LA.

Insu-lin, very imporiant in reguladng the blood sugar 1eveL, is produced $z


A. the pineai glana
B. the pancreas
C. the pituitary glanci

27.

The heart and lungs are protecteC


A. the rib cage
B. tire skull
C. cartilage
IL

by

28.

The inflammatisn of the cslon is cailed chorecystiris.

,!

A. true

B. faise

29.

This small organ right under the liver stores bile antl pumps it into the
small intestine when we eat foods high in fat.
A. p;u:lcreas
B. bowei
C. gallbladder

30.

Thetwo oval openings in fhe nose are called bronchi.


A. true
B. faise

31.

Another name for the breast bone is


A. ciavicie
B. sternum
C femur

92.

The brain and the spinal cord form fhe


A. central neryous system
B. brain stem
C. peripheral nervous system

33.

Motor nerves curymessages frorn the sense organs to the brain and the
spinal cord.
A. true
B. false

g4.

35.
.

Leucorytes are white blood ce}ls.


A. true
E. false
The irregular bones of the spinal column are called

A. ribs
B. vertebrae

C. framern ork

36.

-l

The phaqvnx is an organ of


A. the respiratory system
ts. the digesnve system
C. both A and B

1a

4i

--

37.
-- --

When the i<idneys do not work rroperiy, toxic waste accumulates ancl
poisons the bodpcells,-- --A. trr-le
B. {aise

JO.

Cystitis means inflammation of the bladder.


A. true
B, false

39.

The heart is situaied between ihe lungs and above the diaphragrr..
A. true
B. false

40.

The

nerve is responsible for the sense of srneLl.

A. optic
B. olfactoryr
C. craniaL
A1

An orthopedist is a doctor for


A. bones
B. arteries

C. the spinal cord


4./

The nephron is the iunctional unit of the kidne5r.


A. true
B. false
The word "myalgia" probabiy means
A. chest pain
B. rnuscie pain
C- stomach ache

44.

On the surface of the tongue there are nerye endings that forrn
tirrough which we feel the bitier, sour.. sah.;, and sweet taste
of foocis.
A. muscie-.
B- mucus
C. taste buds

AT,

A rtrord. containing "hemati o" pertains to


A, the blood
B. the heart
C. the kidnevs
aLt

..-!

46,

Pharyngitis is commor,rly called sore


A. tme
B. false

47.

Another narne for the throat is pharynx.


A. true
B.

48.

1t...,nr'$##!4wry..y:r+Vr9i+e9i*F.:EE1. : .i!!i

ttrroal

faise

Light enters our eyes through a small opening calIed pupii.


A. nrre
B- false

49.

When the diapirragm contracts and rnoves down, air is sent out of the
Iungs.
A. true
B. faise

50.

An inflammatory condition of one or more ioints is called


A. artlritis
B. lordosis
C. hinge

i5

UNIE 3.8: CVER.VNE"W of GRAMMAE. TC,FTCS


Unii

1: Overview- and Fre-test

Read the inforrnation below to get an idea of the grammar that wiit be covered in
this course, and then take the grammar pre-test. It is called a "pre-test" because
-you take it before you study (finish fhe course) in order to determine your score
at the beginnrng of the coruse. At the end of the course you will take a post-test,
and by comparing the pre and post-test scores you wili be able to see your
Progress.

Unit 2: Nouns and Pronouns


l.iouns name persons, things, and ideas. In 'rhis unit we wiil talk about count arrd
Irol1-count nouns, review the piurai of count nouns, alrd iearn some irregular
plurals of medical/ scientific norrns.
Exampie:
incowect and wlty?
does

not take an "s" flfld shouldbe used ruith "much", not "rflany"

Pronouns repiace nouns. Personal and Indefinite pronourls will be the focus of
our study in this unit. A common problem pertaining to the pronouns is using
them correctly (for exampie understanding the ciifference between subject anC
object pronouns and between possessive er.djectives and pronouns).
Example:
incorrect and zahy?
I

perform thr action.

I
I

t.
I

I-Init 3: Adlectives and Adverbs


Adjectives mociify nouns. Aciverbs rnoriify verbs. Our goai ii-r ihis unit wiil i:e to
differentiate between arijectives ancl aciverbs ani make cornparisons, with
special attention to using -ed and -ing adjectives correctly anci making tac#ul
compar$ons.
Example:

1/

(,-

Quesiion: Does the senience: "The pattent is boing." mefin a) ,,people are bored
by tne paiient." or b.) "The patient is bored bv people.,'?
Answer: lt means a) "Peoale are bored by the ytaiient.' (-ing adjectiaes s?wzp
the cause ol the emation, whiie thc -ed adiectiaes express the result\.

trJnii4: Verbs - Forms +nd Tenses

wiii review verb forms and tenses and


make sure you are able to use correct tenses (anC heiping verbs) *ith tirne
Verbs show action or states cf being. We
expressions.
Exampie:

this kospitat." can be summnized as a) "She worled in this itospital since 20Ab."
or b), " Sirc has ruorked in this hospital since 2006." ?
worked"), tuhich shozas that an actiaity began in the past and continues in tlu
Vresent), is the correct choice oaer sim'Die past {"zuor'ked"), zuhich siwas an
acttr:ity that began and. enrkd in the past.

Unit

5:

Verbs - The Fassive

it is more converrient or important to stress the thing


done than who performed it, or when the person who did the action is nol

The Passive is used when

knoirrr. We will review and practice using passive voice in all verb tenses.
Exarnple:

Unit

hospital was built in 1.999,"

perform the acfian, and that

i,s tulny

6: Verbs

tirc sentence is in the passioe

aaice.

Modals

lvtrodais are verbs that express E gr&rftrria.ticai :nocd sucir as possibilit-,, clil
necessiry*, We wili ieview sonr.e coalmon mociais anct their meanings and '*ie will
insist CIn some topics, such a.s past forms of rnoclais, whicn usuaiirr pose a"
probiern to iearner; of Engiish.
Exarnpie:
ssked Vour doctar or h) you

riidtt't ask your dociorT

1-f
1i

Unit

7: ConnecforE

Conrrcctot's/conjurtctions eve usec to connect glarnmaticai sfrucfrires and


cLauses. This rinit "w:11 ca\ler ccmrecfrrlg -worri.s or phrases v",ith ihe saille
grai:"r:naficai funcfion and expressing ca:u:se, contrast, and purpose wiih the heip
a{ t]ne most useci connectors/coniirnciions,
Exampie:
riecent Yqfue in the medical English cou?se," expresses a) contrast, b) cause,-oy
c)
purpose? Iforu can you rrphrase it7

"ILer English
E-nii.L
piLEL.trL

zues

nnn,-"nn r/
VUTAI JE,

poor but slze managed to get a decent grad-e

"ln soite of the fact that her Engtistt

z.uos

in the meriica! Englisit course."

in the medica!

poor, she ruanaged to get a d.ecent gra6e

{J&it 8: Phrases_and Ciauses


Phrases are groups of words that cannct function independenti,v, whereas
ciau.ses contain a subject and a verb. We wiil learn ho# to avoid corm11on
mistakes such as using incornplete clauses as sentences.
Exarnpie
acccrding to ofie's pitysicai actirszty."

phrase.

Uni.t 9: Effecfive Semtences

A sentence is a cornpiete tirought. This unit expiarns simple, compoun

Cr,

anC

cornpLex sentences.

Example:
campiex senLefice?
arud a aepencient ciau.se {.ti.uit

ihe ciactct" firescribeC.")

In unit X0, yau *,ili take 4 grorl-rrri&r posi-test asrd yau v-tillbe ahie ro assess vour,
progress by comi:aring your posi a.nd pre-test resuits"
1iJ
Iii

GH.AMMAE{ FT{E-TEST
Suggesteci time: 20 minutes

This test has25 questions and covers the grammar structures you wiil learn in
this course. DO NOT use a C,icttanary, the word banks. or the lessons in this
textbook. Circle the right arswers arrd then use the key section io totai your
..
a ta
sccre. Wnte your score rrr this box: i----l

Note: You wiil take a post test in unit LC, so you will be able to see your progress
(difference between pre-test and post test scores).

i.

ii

"It is possible that she declines taking experimental drugs." can be

is sr-lch an _
A. interesting
B. interesteri

case

that everyorre is puzzled.

reph-rased:
A. Sire shouiri riecline taking experimentai drugs.
B. She might d.ecline bking experirnental drugs.
C. She would decline tukir,g experirnental drugs.
D. She will deciine taking experimentai drugs.

3.

Most healthcare professicnals agree tha.t


arevery important.
A. the,v're
ts. their
C. theirs

4.

T'he patient is sometimes

communicaticn sloils

when he is ieft completeilT alone.

A. bored
i}. boring

5.

"It uzould have been a good idea to see ti:re cardioio$.st, bui you diein't."
ccuid be rephraseC:
A. You might have seen the cardiologist.
E. You shouiC'nave seen th.e carciiologist.
C. You must have seen the tatdioir:g1st.

6"

The sentence "Although she u.ndervrient surgerir two months ago, bui the
wound has not healed." is grarnmaCcaily correct.
A. irue
B. faise
19

s
:i:

7-

This hospitai has


A. more efficient
B. most efficient
C. the less efficient
D. i*re ieast efficient

B.

"If your condiiion gets worse. You should cail us." is correct
punchrated.
A. true

medicai equipment of ail hospitais in town.

as

B. false

g.

The sentence "The doctor is well-qualified but a iittie impatiently." is


grarnmaticaliy correct

A. true
B. faise

10. }Ie is

at the thought of having his kidney removed.

A. frighteneci
B. frightening

11,.

Neither the instruments nor fhe table


A. has

been sterilized yet.

B. have
12.

the shipping delay, the new stethoscopes arrived on time.


A. In spite of the fact that
B. Although
C. Despite

i3.

At this time tomotrrow, the surgeon


for the flrrgery.
A. will be scrubbing

E.

hrs hands in preparation

will scrub

C. scrubs
D. wili scrubbing

L4.

The sentence t'Because of Brenda has many cavifies, she avoids sweets," is
grammaticali;rr correct.
A. True
B. False

I
l

15.

The nurse
arrive-s tomorrow.

the patient's blood pres$ure by the time the doctor

.,,
:...

..'

[..,

2A

A. has checked
B. wtTlhave checked
C, wiltr be checked

16.

Jt was

who ca.lled in sick.

A. I
B. m.e

17.

The nurse fhought she


but she hadn't.
A. teils

the patient how to take the

medication,

B. has told
C. had toid

18.

"His fractr:re was being set by the doctor." is the passive voice of
A. "Ihe cioctor is setting.his fracture.
B. The d.octor has set his fracture.
C. The doctor was setting his fracf.rre'

19.

The top doctors


A. will select
B. will be select
C. will be selected
D. be seiected

20.

"Patients' relatives will not be ailowed beyond this point'" means


A. Patients' reiatives will not ailow beyond this poini.
B. They will not allow patients' relatives beyond this poinl

21.

The sentence "Pa.ramed.ics, as weli like ER doctors, work directiy with


patients. " is gra:rrmatically incorrectA. true
B. faise

to receive special awards'

A. us
B. we

2g

,,He might have left his prescription at the hospital'" means:


A. It is possible that he iefi his prescription at the hospiiai'
B. it is certain that he left his prescription at the hospital.
C. He usually ieaves iris prescription at the hospiial'
21

#,
H
LA

24.

"T'llere must have been some miscommunicati.on between the


ophthaknoiogist and his assistant." means
A. Otrviously there was some miscommunication between the
ophthalmoiogist and his assistant.
B. We are urcertain there was any rniscommunication between the
ophthalmologist and his assistani.
C. Perhaps there was some miscommunication befween the
ophttralnnoio gist and his assistant.

25.

The doctorpostponed surgery


A. because the patient's reservations.
B. because of the patient's reservations.
C. becar:se of the fact thatthe patienfs reservations.

lii

ii.

[:..j

72

.,

. .:,

Ui\iXT 3.C: SYVIPT0k{S A-N

Go over the vocabrrury list below the tabtre. Uacieriine the words you are familiar
witl"r artd.f or those You can guess, and write them in the first coiurnn in the tabie.
Then practice their nronunciation.
Go over the vocabulary list again. This time circle the unfamiliar words, and,
write them in the second coirrrnn in the table. Then check their meaningin your
lan gua ge . Finally, pra ctice their pronunciation.
Worcis you know or you can

Nelt, words and meaning in


lan

ess

Exampie:

Exampte: Oru/Ug

,bscex {noun)

*r{ling

acaie ta$ecfne)

,tkiiry

tlgow

= cofrt//.278,

youi

{/fiffitfrle

,etuff o{

infecfion
^n
to a condi{ion rr liturtt frtaf heqins:ui/ur$ ond6^t o
of

as o

tfrorf, ievere caurre


afferyic fa$utiue]
angina

feciorb fnouni

vety sensifiue to cartain me/icafions anr{/o, suhstances


se{rere crtest

pan, canse{6y insfficienf fi{ooitrppty fo tfre freart

muscle
.

,t

arrrtqfrtmia {nounJ

lrfeqular keartbeat

hocrt*cfre {nounJ

fain

${ediry [nounJ

{oinot

6frtt

{noun)

in thc reaion o{tit ilocfrur:fiine

{rkrd

{oca{s*ef{inq of f6t srtin


J'J

hurninq or frrifat'ion
11

LJ

ilat

con'ains' water ano/ can 6u

,*utei

io,4

:::i-n

pwtsure r'nowni
6kri i:Jj

firesture eyenel {n4 frte 6hod- aaainsf fhe wa{i sl' ti}e 6ioo{ uuseis,
especia{k t6e arteriet

rtoi{

fnoun)

Ba;niu{ pu:-fi{e{ in{{ammation o{ tfie ,{<in


,

oni tislue coustd hy

!.

|T[e1tr0n
brwise

{nouni

tissue

iniun4/
contuion characterize{
,tJ

fi',a

sfun d?sco{orarion

iue ia

a-oiri ulr{uosr{,

'

inoun)
co{/rueat fnoon|

uarnits

cfri{f

inounJ
cuanoi: [naunJ
3"..."",..Ji|t.JJ

fuuliry o{to{/onf:friuerin7, sometimes vriffr frtqrt feuer

llfiersfiirat'ion

nefitousnesr',
,rd thifft tausr{ fnq
J'i

fu^r, or fsain

pain{u{wnfractions in ffre ahdamen


sfun rtsro{oration resu{tinq frorn insufficien{ ofrlqenatiorr of fhe

Lr^^"f

rJtuu{A

{nouwl
dr*o fnouil

{e6u{ra{;on

',
'

eTcess'fve

{ot of waier {nam tfie [o{3

yaint

o{ epwst water/f{uidin ,r[t oo hssues


^crunnukfion
lr f'ff
!'
lf--.
swdden, usuallj hrlef bJJ 0f c1wcl1usne:t

fanque

ww{trta-D cauxr{
-- - 617 eyces:sfue
tire{ness:/wearine-r:
extreme ul'vu{ta)/
oxlrarrte
'J''""'' ot' rnentai
,
tpfiu:ica{

r.,r

t
tnounJ
r r' {nounJ
r " 'i

achvifi
rta4 feuer
Jt

fnounJ

aferqic ronrtfio, {nsua{fi


t

[noun|

weafreninS,

iUury

lnounj

infkwnation

l'

{noun}

r;:,':;:,).,

l1

on

o{^*^gr, o, rtfrriorotion, u{tccia{{y

^t ^

ihe rnaitiliry fo

inouni
n,r*[rner [rtown)

cl

frgutlimyt*{,u$ {tgwfinq foor{

reacfion o{fiss*e to irritation, iylwry, or *fiecfion, cfinracierizeci


rt3

pain, rr{nrrr,

*"/*u{'t1g

;:,:;::,r:,;;,:;::,:{;:;,':'#,:,r.n:nine
b^/trt't ,ieiivent

wiqraine

nesuif

dittot,

ieueru hr^i^crtt, sometimes'accompanieal b,1 nawsea

ina{ti{iw or

famnl'inobiitu

I
t

poffeni o{frtt rsrtrira{ory sryste*r,

{
,
t . fr
,"r. ,
characterizel ly nasal discharSe, sneezinS, and waterw a4es

impafrmenf

fi'tottaesfion

to

24

io feef:envntion or

finin

Ccvey fire definitions artd go

terrninoi.ogy iiem in your own words.

'Wffi&

ri<t-r,sr"e

Lire.ijst h. ing to explain each

What's the Engiish for acl*, aeshid,ratsrs, ed{:rrc, inftamaiie?


l{nat's the Romanian for bruise, iaint,,iatigue, itchT

'

Use ihe Engiish words

in Appiication

2 in seniences of your own.

Circle the correct definition:


1". Biister

A. swei.l.ing of the jaw as a resuli


B. iosing biooci

of an infecdon

C. local swelling of the skin that ccntalns

waEe;, caused

btlbumingor

irritation

Arrhyf,imia

A. loss of consciousness
B. irritating skin sensation causing a desire to scratch
C. irregular heartbeat
J.

Edema

A. conft'acfi.ons causing pain ire tire abdomen


E. accurnuiation of r,vaier/fluid in celis or tissues
C. contusion
+-

Angina pectoris
A. discomiori or pain in the back
B" severe chesi pain, caused by insufhcient biood supvly to the heart

C.

muscie
perspiraCon and. chilis caused. by nervou.sness, fear, or pain

). Fatigue

A. excessive ioss of water fuow the bociy


B. ph;rsical or rnental tiredness or weariness
C. sensitivi$ to certain n'redications
T+niITLi

A. irntating skin sensation callsiing a ciesire to scra-tch


B. feeiing of coiC and shiveti*g
C" skin discoloration ciue to pc>or oxygenation of dre biooC
7,

tsoii

Z:

!,1

i*:

A. tissue reaction to irritation,:-nju:ry, or infection, characterizedb,v


pairr, reciness, and sweiiing

B. painrul, pus-filied inflamrnation of the skin and tissue usually


caused by infection
C. skin riiscoioration

8.

Numbness

A. Inability or partial inability to feel sensation or pain


B- weakening, darr:rage., or deterioration
C. sudden loss of consciousness

g.

Cyanosis
A. sicin discoioration resuiting f,rom inadequate oxygenation of the

blood

B. inabiiilv to digest or irnproperly iiigesting food


C. aiiergic con<iition
10.

impainnent

A. severe headache
B. weakenin g, dawtage, or deterioration, especially

as a result

or disease
C. relating to a condition or disease that begins suddeniy

2{t

of injury

UF.JHT 1T,I: UiT{gT 1

Pit.ACTTCE

"F.AI\SSLATEGN

Listen to each sentence in

below and repeat

it in Engiish:

Translaie the foilowing sentences into

1. Her condition is the result of severe bieeding.


2. The Coctor scheciuied a test to <ietermine the causes of your cramps.
3. He is very worried because his wife has been in iabor for six hours.
4. The n'urse wouid iike to kno-ar irow you got these bruisee.
5. The patient reported acute pain.

Romanian into Engiish:

L.

EdemuL poate avea nurnercase cattze, inclusiv inflamafie sau st5ri


alergice.

2. Crice amortpald sau senzafie neobignuitd necesitt ateniieiingrilire

3.
4"

5.

medicaii rrompti.
Ciwtaza se vede cel mai ugor pe buze,limbi si unghii.
Angina pectoralE poate surveni in timpul exercipuiui fizic, ernopiior
puternice sau temperaturilor extrerne.
Dacd suferi de indigestie, ar kebui sE eviii anumite alimente.

,}B','S#sr-4.#Ank,Eratti.cb The

fcliowtng ten vocabuiary iierrts are from

thi.s
unit's word bank: backache, biister, boil, fingentails, itch, numbrless, wtl,lssti,
aaramedics, plas, saub. Use thern in sentences oi Your own.

27

!',

LTf-{tr? 3

n{*f'{ffi BA}qlK

l"lse the aocabulary itenzs in this u'nit's uord" bank as needed, ior lessons, aypitcattons,
quizzes, and translstion practice, uniess othern)ise indicateri. You zuill encounter marry of
tlese worrk in othey units' aacabulary banks, and sc,'by reueaied use, yow zaiil master
thernby the tirne yau fiwish this textbook. This unit incluaes the following:

"
"
"*

2A: The Muscuioskeletal System


28: Iiouns snd Pronouns
2C: Symptoms P-Z
2D: Trsnsiation Prsctice

ankie: giezmd
app ointune nt pro g r asaaa e/ pLan if ic are { t a me &ici ; intfr inir e i a ot b i'txd
assurances: gatant'i, asigurlri {verbale sau scrieei
backbone: gira spilrt*rtrt, coloani vertebralS
b aXi-an d-sock et j oints: articteiafii sf eriee ilibere)
ito) bend: a ?ndoi.
bqlnes: oase
hreastbone: osutr pieptuiui. stez'n
burning pain: s*lrizafie de arsue6
carti.iage: carhlai
{tci caugh up: a tugi", erpectora (coaaghed up: expectorat}
itoi ccrnpiain: a se pli:rge
duiS pain: durere surdE" dt{wzb
riaetle s: responsa hilitXii, indatoriri { d e s erviciu}

forearm: antebra!
fe asrework: structnr}., cad-ru., carcas6
heipful: serviabi.I, sEliior, de aftlt<lr
hinge ioints: articrelatii ilt balama (hixnge: balarna)
s:ip: soid
iiasurance: asigurare
iaw: rnaxilar, rnandibuXE, falc'a

oints: incheieturi, articuiatii


{e,o; ittmp tc conciusioats: a *age concluazii pripite
kwee: gentrnchi
k;leecap: rotula

tr
I

ri

gantents: trigalt:rente
ianab: mernbru {m*rnH sau Piciori
irlss: pierdere
i.i

lo

medicaS records: fige medicatre


need.les: ace
occu.rring: care survi.ne, ar,ate, se produce
ore anci off pairt du.rere internritent5

fallor: paloare

phlegrn: {LerytEt

pilXs:

piiuie

pivot ioints: articuiatii pivotante ide ex. baza craniulrri)


receptionist dispecer, receptioner, sor5. de cabinet
red ularrow: miduvl rogie
(toi rernove (surgicaliy): a extirpa, a scoate (prin operafiel
ribcage: cufia toracici
ribs: coaste
schedule: plan, program, ora$ (to) schedule: a programa, plaaifica, fixa
sharp pain: durere acut6
chin. {i.r"ior:nl nie,inrrllr:; fihip
sighil vedere, simt-uX v6zului
skeietal muscles: mugciri scheletici
ekeieton: schelet
skull: craniu
smoot{"1 muscles: muqchi netezi
sore: irrfl.amati e, r anh; inflamat, dureros
sore throat: durere in git (to have a stlre throat a-} durea gatui)
swall owing: inghitit, inghilire
swelling: umfi Xtur E, remflar e
swoilen: r*.mflat
thigh: coapsii
throbbing pain: durere pulsatilE,ln puseuri
tcnsiis: aaaigdale
vertebrae: vertebre
rrround: ray:rb
wris* tncheiet""rra nadinii

)a

UNIT 2A: EHE MUSCUI,OSKELE?AL SYSTEM

T'FTE

i.
2.
3.
4.
5.

SKEI-ETON

Why is the skeieton important for our body?


Do all bones in our body have tlae same shape?
Whai bone protects our brain?
1{hat is the rib cage?
llow a-re bones connected to each otf,rer?

Choose from the box beLo.,ir to fiil in *e missing'words


in the text and tabie. Use this unit's word bank and/or a dictionary it necessary.

W*,
l

I irvtpp
skeieton

argfriis

OCTLil

oones

joints

ear

caicium

The skeieton is the framework of the bodiz: it supports our body and gives it
shape. It ccnsists of 2A6 bones of ciifferent shapes and sizes. Your upper and
iower arms and legs have iong bones. The wrist and ankie (1)
are
cubelike, short bones. The skuii and the ribs are exarrrples of flai bones. The
spinal coiurnn is made up of irreguiar bones calied vertebrae.

of the body, the (2)


has manrr other
runctions. First of ali, it aiiows movemenL muscles attached to the skeleton
(skeletai muscies) contract and p'.r11 upon bones. Some parts of the skeieton
protect the internal (3)
for example, the rib cage protects the heart
Besides being the framework-

and lungs; the skull proiects the braj.n. Finally, the skeieton stores minerais, such.
as (4)
and long bones contain red marrow, which is the site of biood
celi fornration.

ini.]ren0Se/throat,(5)-,anciiirotherpartsoftheborJythereisatcugh
eiastic Cssue called cariiiage.
bone ciuring growth.

it fcrms mosi of the skeieir.-rn in infanc-y,, changing to

iicnes are connecteci atJornrs, for exarnple tire {6)


eibor,r,. Tirev ar:e heiC together ai joints bv iigarnenls; besicles
Iisafiients, rnanv joints nave protective carti.iage {7'1

t
lf

L.r1

anC iigarnents iet bcnes mol,'e idre:e are aisc joints rhat are
immobiie). Your elbow and knees can bend back anci forilr (in
oiri3r e11g d-irecuon), iike rhe l'ringe oi:a. door", because they have

30

i'ringe joints. )'ou can (8j -_-.rhe heaci anci iook over the shouider riue to
joint
that connects the heacl to the backbone. Yoi;r shouiders have bailthe pivot
joints
ihat allow us to move them in ait directions.
and-socket

Based on the text above, iill in the missing worCs in the chart beiow. Tnen write
two paragraphs about the skeietai system: one about its functions, and one about
rhe size and shape of bones.
The Skeleton = 205 bones

tu/Vorfr fle 6oS.$raut

ttl"ft

size anci shape of bones

"

6y brurl t?/cran/hanonwantfur

ilari fruief{a/

lonet. wnitanahndti

,'$r{an/n6t

7rufecbnfarna/oyant
ffreaukriofle:.

What are the functions of the skeieton?


How man-y trones are there in the human body?
3. What parts of the body ha,re short, cubelike bones?
+- Where in the bociy cio n'e have hinge joints?
1.

lArhat are the vertebrae?


What is carhiage?

The foliowing words are related to ciiseases/conditions of itre skeieton: al'thritis,


osteoporosis, lordosis, _flexion. Wrife iheir defi.nition in Engiish b..z locking at rte
word parts beioir,. The first one is d.one for you.

arthr : joint
- itis : infiammaCon
oste = bone

- ion = process
fiex = benci

of

poro = pores in ihe bone


- sis = abnormal cond.ition
- osis : process of
lord = b'ending backward
\-

i>

tf

,r.

f/

t.

a?^thntr* lt4r/ammanoil

o/ao///i

fleyion;

wffi

li

You are probabiy famiiiar with the meciicai terrns of the bones, so you might
want to familiarize with the iay terms as weII. Look at the skeleton and table
below, and then answer the following questions:
c What is the lay term for pateila?
o Can you nanle the bones ol t}'e forearrn?
o \{hat is the medical term for the collar bone?
o What is the medical term for the thighbone?
o What is the scapuia?
o What is another word for siern?

humalt nkeletsn

A,

{ranium

E. vertehren
f

D.

f,

F.
6,

E1'

sternurr
ribrs
il-iurn
sai rum
r: 13[

( !']{

H, pubi:

i.

l-,
f4

tl,
8,

iErhium
ulna
ra,iiu s
rBrEUs

InetararFUs

F', r,halanEeE
dl, feru r

R, FEtEl-ta

5, tibia

i, fihuia
U, tErsuE

T, netatarsus

JL

i LAY IERIVI
I Craffurn

iaw bone

mandibie
ciavicle
sternum
i hrrmerus
I radius and uina

coLLarbone

i breasibone

toreart,

ivic sirdle
thiqh bone
tibia and hbu"ta

L0 i shinbone
shoui<ier biacie

scapula
rib cage

13 i backbone

MUSCT-ES

i. WW are muscles irnportant {or our lrociy?


2. Are there rnuscles in the stomach? Can we controi thern?
3. Can we choose to move our leg rrmscles?

tnraft,iqgffi#:li

Choose front the box beiow to fili in the mrssing rvords


in the text and tabie. Use this unit's word bank ana.ior a dictionar,r if necessary,

inaaiuntary

-body
.*rith the i-leip ci our
(1)
Viie move, maintain our posirrre anci
muscles. There are or/er 600 ciifferent rriuscles in1he hurna-n brsdy, ani ihe3,
account for aimost haif cf our body weight. M'.rscles classiS i,nto rrarious tyces,
accordrng tc their function:
Skeletal muscies, aiso caiied voiuntary muscies (they are undei cui conscisils
control, so r /e can choose to i'ilove themi mo\ue tne boner:. Thu-r are aitached. tr.:
and are r*aie up of bur'.dies of muscie ceiis
ti:e 'ncnes of &e (2)
(muscle fiber).

J.-_1

#
also calleri invoiu.ntary muscles (they are rtot ur-tcier our
Srnooth (3)
------, are found in some of the internai organs, suci'l as the stornach
conscious controlr\,
iniesiine, and blood vessels.

The cardiac rnr:scle, or myocardium, is found

in the hear! and it is an {4)

rnuscie.

1,.
t)

A
"]

Approximateiy how many muscl.es are there in ihe human body?


Why are the skeletal muscles called voiuntary muscles?
Can you give examples of involuntary muscles?
What is the heart muscl"e cailed?
FIow much of your body weight is muscles?

The following worcls are related to rhe muscular system and cond.itions
associated with it: atrophy, myalgta, intramuscttlz1 fieuromuscular, physiotherapy.
t,

Write their definition in English by looking ai the word parts below. The first one
is done for you.

a:

without

troph: nourishment
-Y:processof
fibro = iiber
my = muscie
-algia = pain

intra : into
muscul = muscle
-av : pertaining to
neuro : nerve
phvsio = nalure

mwaioia; muvcle hain


JJI

\-

mtramutculfrf:
t

n0uf?mLiJCul^trl
f

.r

l-/
thhusfotheralru:
J

t
a1

l4+

{w:w

belo*,' provides sclrfie exampies of rnuscies, their locatiol-1, anrl functio::.


Can ygu filtr in the rnissrng intorrnatioru'based cn tire pich:re? Hint Nkatrnuscles
arc iocated- on the chest, respectiveiy the r{os?
Tlte

ta'o'Le

[ruartrg
I aapez*ss

i ci.eitoid

FUIJCTJCi\j
i i-OCATlOlv
1"
t DzcY, of tne necl( ane ffroves the shouicier
upper back
shoulcier
I moves the r.r
fiexes the u

pectoralis
i ljilDef
s

brachu

I fie:<es iororer arlF,

a-rfi,}

extenis the iower arm

tei:loi ai:m

fiexes thre spinai coiunul,


ccmpresses abd orninai cavitir

oblique
'i dyanhra

)*1(1 nffiar,,

breathins

W{s*EEr#

'i

*",,..

".,.

-- iS{'tr+d. &}{t&*r44A#/:

l'icrrn'iake t,;rn* asktrug and answertn,6 'lhe fciicw.-ing qi-eesii*rrs:


c ./iirzere is the deltoid located-?
c Fihici"t muscle fiexes ihe spiurai cr-t'i=cr*n?
o *..&'krat fi;.nction can the devtrtici pettcrm?
c Vv'hich muscie heiPs breatitng?
o f/hich rnuscJ.e Lrloves the sh';ulder?
.ir.,.

s
-'

i,

Circle the correct answer:

ireguiar bones of the spinal colurnn


A. ribs
B. vertebrae
C. framework

L.

The

2.

The tough elastic tissue found

in

are called

th,e nose and ear is cailed

A. ma:row
B, joint
C. cartilage

3.

Your elbow and knees harre

A. pivotjoints
B. iringeloints
C. baii-anci-socket jornts
The heart artd itmgs are protected by the
A. rib cage

B. skull
C. cartilage
5.

An unusuai lrrward curving of the spine in the lower part of the back,
which may be meciicall.y significant, is called
A. lordosis
B. osteoporosis

C. flexion
6. An

inflammatory condition of one or more joints is called


A. artfuitis

B. iordosis
C. hinge
7

B.

Invoiuntary muscies are founcl


A. in ihe arrns
B. in ihe legs
C. in some intemai organs
The muscle of your heart is
A. the rr,yocardium

B. myalgia
C. a voiuntary muscie
:

-l

i:

l.
t,

36

9.

lvfrascLes tb"a-i aye under


A. sn-ooofh muscies

sur ccrriici aie cauei

A. voluntary mu.scies
C. invoiunf,ary muscies
i0. There are

A. 60A
B. 2A3--

bones in tne hunran bociy.

c. 2a6

a4

tr
;ilkigT 2E:

N*UNS and FRIINGUI{S

naxnes a person {man, w}yse, siuaent, Mr. Brazon, etc.), tJring ineedie,
hospitai, medication, chair, etc.), or idea (integnty, patieruce, uaiue, fear, etc.).

1\

Nouns can be ciivicieci info nouns which can be counteri and take Nr " s" (count
nouns) and nouns which cannot be counte<i and usually do not take an " s" ir'ortcount nouns):
count nouns
norr-count nourrs

BUT

ifeu:
't

neeales

a great mwmber

of

needles

ssme salt
I muc'h satt

Count noims take " s" ar "es" (nourts ending in -ss, sh, -x, -ch takg
pirlrai:
panent

"

"r")

in the

- patients

bone -hanes

tendofl - tendons
fturse - nurses
rpish- - toishes
box - boxes
process -processes

- iexes
Couat nouns that end tr,. "v" take "ies" {"y"
tcx

charrges

irto "i')

w'hen befate "1i"

there is a crxsonant:
snomsiu - anamalies
deficiency - defi.ciencies
alie':ga - ailergies
extremtry - ertrennties
Scme count noufls that enC "rr, "ff te" ta-ks
uiuraj.:
t
life - liues
haif - raiaes
knije - kniaes

rX

"ves" ("{" changes intc "v"} in

tire

Ctirer cou.ni ncu:rLs, especiai-lv soure meiricallscientiiic fi.ollxts, are i.rregs.Lar ani
{ta n#t teke " s" ot " es" *:r tne piurai, eg.
arnlysis - anaiyses {note how dte -is eniing changes into -esi
formuia - iorrnulae {note how the -a end"ing changes into -ae)
uertebra * aryiebrae {nate hov,r the -a ending chanses into *ae)
bacterium - bacteria {note hoy.r the -um enriing changes i:rto -a)
datwn - data (note how the -unl enciing changes into -a)
gangliore - ganglia (note how the *on enciing changes into -ai
appendix - apaendices (note how the -x ending changes into -ces)
thcrax - thoraces (note how the -x ending changes inio -ces)

stimuius - sttmuli (note how the -us enCing changes into -i)
f^c,.ngus - ftngi (note how tfre -us encii:rg changes into -i)
streptococcus - streptococcl {note how the -us ending changes into

-i}

Remember you can use:


each, eaery, singie, one, antd a witr,. singui.ar nouns

batk, ftuo, many, se,Jeral, and,sartous with piurai r.'!.ouns.

second, arrd- thiri person) and ca:r be iivided intc subject pronoul1s, o-biect
pronouns, artd possessive pronouns (see table below). A colrlrflon probierr
periaining to pronouns is u.ncierstaading the difference beiween subjeci and
aoiect prorroues anci between possessive arijec$ves and pronouns.
I nr rcr-ar

lt- JUDltr'-t
i PRONOtii{S

illvr'r!r-r
rtRTtra-r
i

I PR.CNTCUhIS
I

PCSSESSIVE

]?OSSFSSIVE

PRC} IOUNS

AIITECTryES

vour

v \J Lri .)

her:;

39

i
i:

tr
A suirject Prononn is the sublect of a verb - perforrns iire acticn o{ the verb. An

o$ect pronoun receives the action of the verb:

The dwtor gaae the resuits ta the nurse.


IIe gaae the results to her.

Or

-irv-iriie
a
snow wno or witat owns a noun.
possessive adjective describe a noun, so it has to be foliowed by a nor.:.n, the
possessive pronoun takes the piace of a noun:

is it her cho.rt?

+i

possessrve

Yes,

ii's

hers,

aciiective
I

possessive pronoun

rroun

tjsing correct pronoun reference is also very important:


The patients zaill be zteru upset if we mal<c him zuait longer. (ittcowect)
The pat'ients zuill be zsery upset if ue mak thqLzaait longer, (correct)

refer to people and things in general {some of them are


adjectives ): & anothe.r, anybody, *nything, @fu each, either, eoerybody, martv, U7EL
neither, nona, ane, other, etc. Most of them require a singular verb (the underlined
ones require a piurai verb when foiloweci by plural nouns):
N either vrocedttre i.s expensioe.
Eueryb o dy recornmenas this hosvital.
N{ost patients complain showt thts symptom.

reiate (conneci or explaini one part of a sentence to a rvord in


another part of the sentence. trVe generaliv use rolto aad that tc refer to peopie,
,-na ruhich arld that for things,
patient z.rlho canrc. in yesterday is uery sick.
Thts is the interyreter tha.t we. Lired last time.
Your medical record., which irtciudes your healtl', history, is conVd.enttai.
Shoru me the results t'hat the lab sent.
Tlze

40

g,$iF#UEi* Divirie the fotriowing nouns into count

a. svmptom
b. limb
c. equipment

d.

(C) ancl non-colr.nt (I.JCi:

e- infori-nation

.
g"
h.
f

tross

employee
ad-vice

hospital

Correct *re sentences:


After the negoiiati.ons, the,v made much changes rn their proposaL.
The arnount of oeople sfuciyrng rnedical Engiish is increasing.
A iarge amount of pafients comulained about the quaiiry of healthcare.
Tire radioiogist iici not give rnany inlormatron,
She rmust take severai piil every iay.
M*y i:rterpreter coltrabora.te with ihis hospital.
aiarge amortnt of the facts in tire meriicai report are incorrect.
The cioctor gave the patieni much assurances that he wouLd get better

i.
i.

soon.
Both nurses have various C.rry to cornplete tonight.
There are iess rnen than wonien working in the ER.

UAAs$jlA*:{ Rewrite the sentences bv fcrrning the piurat of the words in iialics
make other changes if necessary):
1. The formula contains manv nutrierut"

i*C

Z. Physicai abnannality

at irirth is rare.

3.

Tnis is a cervicai ueriebra,

4.

She compiains about her gangiiorz.

5.

He is scireduled to have hzs avperudix vernoved to<ia-v.

Ar,

Prac.fi{ei,D

Clroose ilre correct pronou:.ls:


Fie and (.i/wei wcrk together.
This contra.ct is between the insurarrce company an<i (her/she).

i.
2.
3. It r,r,as (we/us) who maie d:ie ernergencv
4. The test w-as done by (thev /*rera)
5. The receptionist was very heipfui to (she/her).
ce,'-s:.

A1
-tt

s
6.

we nnustmake every effort to heip (our/ours) patienb.


7 These aren't your records; thev're (her/hers).
8. The doctor thinks that (his/he's) s5rmptoms are unusual.
9. Most interpreters realize that (their/theirs) oral communication skil1s ar,*:
rrerv important.
10. Please $-,te (we/ us) yourmedicaiinsr:rancenurnber.
Choose the correct form of tfre words between brackets:
1. Every procedure (hav e / has) certain requiremenB.
a Both insurance
z.
companies (need/needs) to raise their prerrriums.

Everyone must fili out (his/their) rnedical history form.


4. Either the patients or the interpreter (is/ a,re) asked to sched.uie the next
appointrnent.
5. Neither the doctor nor his assistanc (havei has) this patiutt before.
J.

A'
aL

Lih{ET' 2C: SYEzEPTG&{S tr-E

Go over the r.'ocabolury 1i.st beicw Lhe tabie. Underline tiee words vou are famiUar
vrifh a*df or those you call guess, and wri.te them in the first column in dre tabie.
Tlten practice their pronunciation.

Go over the vocabuiary List again. 'lhis time circie the unfarniliar words, and
wmte them in the second column in the table. Then check their meaning jn vour'
ian gua ge . F irrally, practice their p ron unciaiion.
Worcis you know or you can

lJew woris anri meaning in vour

Example;

ian
/L,
lf,
Example: twe//tnq : artr//c[uto

unp{easan{ sensation occwrnng in olirasei

pain fnoun]

r:owtant, /u[{,

ean rte ftuwinq,

o, *n/16, r6onli, fLrobfitng

y,n[{or (noun}

hartney'o{srtin

l,aipiiafions {noun}

^
fironq
hut:ations 0[t tne kefrrL w|tn
.,t i

fain

rrr

[ r.

.ri

, t--

,frti ?nc?"afr:e ln fvequena4


I
;',

0/

r0rct
frticfi-mucus

lthtgrw {noan}

seuetei 6y tfre wa{: of frte re.spiraiory iract {ae ic

tniecil0n

frremature

(*$ )

. f r I

ll0tl,ri

*6i{iy r, tu,

ln?ui'u

tt

otten
/

ifir06[ {n1unJ

i -

-l

J1re {nafin
J?rc

iime
occwrrina or ,frur{onina \tione ffre usuai'r exfrecteo{
'i

s$n

{esion,

woun{, a, u{ce,

infkmwation o{tfru ton$6, nfraT


hain in ruatiowfna

I'j

{-J

nV, ,n [^,yn7 ciaraCerize/ h4

#
,ud{u* invoiuniarj aanfuac{ion of o rnnx{,nryrouf oirnusetes

t7asn] {nounJ
sfsutum
I

{*ouri

wafter/wucus cougfref up onl wua{{w Wfei{e

sufiocafa [ver6l

imfiair tfre resfiirafion

*u{fing {noun}

,wo[u* 6ofj porf

unconscious

{4,1

lfr*

the

rnoufil

orto

nof conscious/in a staie of mcontciouJner-t

Cover the definitions and go down the list trving to expiain each
terrrrinology item in your own words.
l4llrat' s the En glish f or dur e r e pwl s atil d, p alpit atii,,fl, Wd, y alo ar e ?
What's the Romanian for dwllpain, sight, sore thraat, swelling?
Use the Engiish words in Appiication 2 in sentences of your own,.

Circle the correct answer:


1". A sudden involuntary contraction of a muscie or glouP of muscies
A. spasm
B. sputurn
C. pain
2- An open skin lesion, wound, or u1cer.

A. palior
B. phlegm
C. sore

g.

Occurring or developing before the usuai expected time


A. pain
B. preataiure

C. unconscious

4.

Sirong pulsations cf the heart, usually with an increase in frequency cr


force

"i\. spasm

B. paloitations
C. swelling
-

Mabter or rnucus coughed up and usually expelieci frorn the mouth.

A. sweiiing
ts. spasfil
C. sputum
tt,

A /r.
++

-JitgT 1*: LIF#-IT !. ?il.f"NSLA?lGlH IlFi.AC?trCE

.;y,,,fuftemag,ftte*tisn 'raefiicB i-isten to eacir sentence


it in Engiish.

Ln E belo'ar anii

rei:eat

Transiate the following sentences into


Romanian:
i. The patient compiaineri about pajn in the region of the cer'-,icai vertebrae.
2. She coughed up a iot of sputum vesterda-7.
3. Either the nurses or the doctor answ-ers the phone when the receptionist is
away from her desk4. "M), assista-nt and I will check.your sight", t&e ophthairnoiogi.st sai'i.
5. It was i who calleci 911 when m,v sister was i-ulconscious.
5. You rnust take these pilis to controi )/olir pa-ipitahcns.
7. Ilre nurse was very heipful to her when she *.vas rn a lot of pain.
B. Those medicai records aren't yours; they're his"

Transiate tire foliowing sentences frorr:


Rornanian into Engiish:
1,. Sd nn ne pripim si fragem cancluzii prematrri'e.
2. DoctoruI,;i cu a sunt rie acord cd apenriicele tdu trebuie scos.
3. Mai pupni bdrbaii clecAt fernei au rilers ia endocrinr:log azi"
4. Nici asistenta, nici rnedicii il.: au observat paioarea pacientuiui.
i. Rezultateie'irirnise <ie iaborator aratd cauza crampeior tale.
6, Clfita toractcl. ili orareleazd plirndnii gi inima.
7. Frobierr,a este artrita, a stare infiasratorie a incheref.rnloi.
3. CAnC ?F vorn scoate ganglionii, aceasid. suprafala nu rra rnai fi umtlatE,.

*a;,;,?sfelr,t.G.: ,i,Ifuastic* The foiiowlzrg: ien ';ocabuiary iterns ave frorn this
unit's wor,C bar-rk: skuli, inaoiunl.ctru muscies, rfisrroll, bttli-an-socket ioinrt;.
zr:auncl, tririst, iimb, neeiies, kneecn"s, au!.i pein. Use tirem in sentences *f vo#r
OVr'I]r.

t<

U}dE? 3 WORD EANK

Use the uocabulary items in tltts unit's zoord bank as needed, for lessons, appiicaiions,
quizzes, and i-, ansiation practice, unie ss othenuise indicated. You will encounter many o.i
these words in oths uniis' oocabuiary banks, and so,'oy repeated use, you tuiil mastet'
them by t?te iirne you fintsh this textbook. Thts unit incluaes t?te follawing:

,
"
,
a
-

34: The Caraioaascular

Sastem

38: Adjectiaes and Adaerbs


3C: Clinical Proceriures A-A/
?h, 'T-n-"ln#ai 4TLJLGLLVIL

Jr,,

Dvnr*iro
&LLLLL

L,

atrortiort: a-vort provocat, intrerupere de sargit:t5


amni o centesis: amniocentezE
rrFprioe'

s'r*or.o

auscultation: a{u}sculta}ie (ascultare a zgomotelor produse de organele


interne!
(to; be adrnitted into the hospital: a fi internat in spital
(toi be drawn oufl a fi extras
bill: facturh,bort, noti de platd
birth control: contraceptive gi planning famiiial
blood: sAnge
blood pressure tensiune arteriaii
biood tes* anaiize d.e singe
lrlood vessels: vase sang*ine
breasts: s6.ni
eapillaries: capilare
car d.iovas ci.Li.ar sy $te m: sistemul cardiovas cular
{toi care for: a ingriii
chesfi piept
d,eoxy ge*ated. blooC: sfrnge neoxigenat
double pump: pcrnpi ciublE (pump: pompii
drawer: sertar
en<iotracheal iniuhati on: intubafie end ofrah ealX
(to) exhale: e expira
foreskin: preput
(to) frighten: a speria, ingrazt., in{ricoga
generatr anestheizafion: anestezie general6
Eerms: microbi, agenli paiogeni., bacterii
hearr: inimE
heart chambers: camerele inimii
45

{fo} ho}ci one"s brea{h: a-oi tine respiralia

illness: boa]6
indecipherable: iiizibii
intensive care unit (ICU): terapie intensivH
myocardium: miocarC
needle: ac
oxygenateci bioori: singe oxigenat
patient care: ingrijirea pacienfiior, as istenta medicalE
{to) perceive: a percepe
pregnancy: sarcini
(to)prescribe: a prescrie {un tratament, etc)
purPose: scop
c'
-r,
Y4v. -ttlni
t'stvt

receptioraisfr dispecer, receptioner, sor5 de cabinet


tecovery: recu.perare, insinitogire

redblood celLs: celu-Ie ro,;ii


reiiabie: de incredere, sigur
rernoval: Ecoatere, extirpare (pri* operatie)
sarnple: rnostrfl, probi" eEantion, specianen
valve: val.vE
veins: vene
waste products: produse reziciuale
white biood cells: celule albe
wornb: pdntec

X*ay: radiogratie

+/
^'7

5:g+4!ifrf{ .ljeeffi----'

UNTY' 3A: TF{E CAffi.3}1OVASCEJLAF{. SYST'Efoi

Yw;wE

A. ltV'nat are tfre crgans of the carriiovascuiar svstem?


E. Approximatelv how big is the hurrtan hear+J?
C. T'l{nat are tire rnain bload. =resseis called?
D. Which are fie smailest of the blood vessels: veins, arteries, or capiliaries?
E. $/hat is blood made ap of?
X,

Choose from the box beio-w io fiii in the missing words


j.n the text and table. Use this unit's word bank amC/or a dictionary if necessarly'.
infectiotts
arcuLatlon

hnrmones
cayiiianes

biood

arteies

heart

atrium

uentricie

tisswes

The cardiovascular sysiem l.s cornprisecl of ihe hear:, blcoru, anci blood vesseis.
the rnost importani organ of our bociy, purnps blooci. Biood
The {1)
traveis through our bocly through the biood vesseis. This is caJled (7i

II

t:
I

The heart is a muscuiar orgafi, a iittle bit larger than a fisi (it weighs less than iraif
a kilogram), It is situated in the thoracic cavifrr , between the iungs and above the
rliapirragrn. The rnuscutra-r tissue that rnakes trp the heart is caileC myocardiura.
The heart is divideci into right and left haives brz a -wali of tissue (sectuin) and so
that the biood from the rigirt h.alf is comptr"eteiv separated front the (3)
in the left cne. 'Ihat's why the heari functions like a double pump: frorn the ieft
helf, it sencis the oxygenated blooi through a series af fubes calied- (4i
cieoxvgenateci blood returns to the right half of the heart ihrough
odrer Lr-rbes called veins. Each half of the heari is further divided into *tzo
chambers: il"le upper chalrrbers are caiieci atria (slnguiar afriurn): ie{t atiur:.' ani
right i5) __=__=_-_. separateC- "ov avalve (a fiap of iissue that opens anri closes);
the lo-'azer chami:ers arc cail.ed^ ventricies: left ventricle and- right {6'}

li.,

separateci^ bv another valve.

T:.

'ihe main

3-.i.,

----....._.-

bLaod. vessel-c are caiied arteries anci veins. Arteries transpori


ox;ugenated biood awa\i from the hearq the-v beconre smaiier a::rcl smaiier - the
srnaiiest biood vesseis are caiiea capiiiaries. Through the ihrn.aralls o{ the (7y
-Dass from the bii;oci intr: the surrou:rdinEb'::dy'
, {)y.yg.,en anci r,r-iirien---s

cei_lsand.(8;-'Thenwasieproc1':-lcts,SuChascari:ortdtcxioe*,passback
i::orn the ceiis ani fissnes lnio the capiilziries.

:lO
+lJ

\ieins are srnailer than arteries b'ut larger than capiliaries.

Th.e1' transi:ort

aeaxygenated blood away frorn ahe capiliaries to the heart.

a'rital

It carries nutrients arrd cxygen to itie bociy celis,


a:.iii waste proriucts away frorn the ceils. it al,so circuiates (9i
tnat
coniroi the funcbon of man\r organs. and antibr-iiies li.'hich fignt asainst infection
and ciisease. F/hen biood circuiates :n the blood vesseis, it ';ushes against f:heir
walis, crea#.ng a pressure known as the biood pressure.
Bi,ooci i.s

iiqr.riC to our ijfe.

Biood is ma.ie ,.rp ct plasma ia compiex

iiquid thai ccmprises abr:ut. i^'aif of ihe


biood volumei, reC bloa.J ceiis, ani whrte biooi ceiis. Red bioor^ cells
(ervthrorytes) are r.narie in the marro'i/".' anci iheir job is to carr.r s)<1rgcfi *-o toc,',t
ceils. i{irite bi'-to,: ceiis iieukccvf-esj i-eienc '.ne bcci-; against gerrr,,s ar"id {1t;
, For exampie, ihe pus cor,rirrg crit of a -wouncj. is a mixiure of ieaC
gerins anci white biaod celis.

C*r,E

crti
i. 14&at is the i"ieart rnuscie cailed?
2. Why is ihe heart ciescribed as a " doubie pur:lp"?
3" Whai are the upper chambers of ti-re ireari ca"Led?
4. ,''ilw-t yesseis tians.i:ort axvZeflatei- bicrocl it-tvtai frorn wte hearr':
t. i/irhere aieiec. biood ceii:+ inarie?

Pietzls,le.laiielin$
Eearj tire text egat*. and finish labeling ihe piciu.:"e of t'ne iieari.
tr\

_--t

!$t atrzu,

i
i:
!:

a;#*Au;**

Ii
*r

Effi

aryp*drd.dtaaa
d,o+ttcwr*d. &le.t4

Ii

lr
F,;'

f..

picftre and describe the heart and how biood ci.rculates


through it by using dre fotriowing
I-.ook at the iabeieci

haffiaiues, double yunnfr, uoiTle, biood, ox7&enatedbloori, arteries.


ie o xy genate d bio o d, u eins, atr iun / atr i a, a er,tricle ( s )
and
verbs: iuncf)on, send", be aiuided, separate, be called, retunt
rroutrLc: heari,

lltre f*';lowtng lvorcis are rei.aiei io ihe cardiovascuiar s,vsterft clr


diseases/ccndilions associaiec with ir arteriosclerosis, atheroscierosis, embo!'isn-,-,
hyaer'tenston, nyyotefisior,,'tiiiebitts, ]wmatrsmo. Wite &eir defrnition
locklng ai the r,ryord Darts 'Delo"w. TI:re first one is dorre {ai yau.

arterio = arteries
scierosis = harden-ing
- atherc = iat*,r
err--hnl = trjrr o n: .irt':
- 1s11-] : cozrrlifion of

h-vper = over or excessive


hips = unrier
- t*"t = ccnciitton of tension or ilressllre
- ioil = Ilrocess cf
i ('r

in Engllsh bv

r:h]eb: vein
- iiis = in{iammation
- oma = tumor or swelling
hema: blood

1,- The smallest blood vessels are called veins.


A. true

B.

2.

false

Circulation is an organ of the carciiovascular system'


A. true

B. false
The upper drambers of the heart are called atria.
A. true
B. false
4. The lower charnbers of the heart are caltred. valves.
A. true
B. false
J.

5.

Leucocvtes are white biood cells'


A. true
ts. false

6.

Eed biood ceils are made in the rnarrow'


A. true

B. faise

7.

Phlebitis means inflammation of a vein.


A. true
<T

JL

.'-l-l'*e,++.=t"r+r.;..'-'iii+$;:rji;:Ir

ts. fatse

8. The thickening and loss of elasticit5z

of arteries is called embolism.

A. true
B. false

9.

Pus coming out of a wound is called plasma.

A. true
B. false
10. The heart is situated between the h:ngs and above the ciiaptrag:rr.

A. true
B. false
Now check your answers with your groap/ classrnates and correctthe false
sentences:
Sentence
Sentence
Sentence
Sentence
Sentence

no_:
no_:
nc,_:
no--:

no

52

i,JNEr 3W

&*lECTrVEs AND ADIIERB$


J

describes/modifies a noust and usuaiiy precedes it. Examples:


youngpatient
("young" is an adjective descibing the noun "riafre::rt"1

anew yrocedure
("new" isan acljective describing the noun "procedure")

When several adjectives describe/modifii one noun, the adfective witi-r general
meaning comes firsq adjectives of. coior, styie and nationaliry come just before
the noun. the3r riescribe:. Examples:
a tall modern hospital
a kind American doctor

A noun can function

as an adjectiv e,

tot example: a vturse assistant

if an adjective is a comporrnd of a number

and a noun, the nurnberrnoun

combination is alwavs hyphenaied and singuiar:


a twentJ-pqge rsporf (a report that has twenty pagest
a forty-vear old cardiologisf (a cardiologist who is fort,r years old)
Sornetintes aciiectives can modi?v ,terbs that sho-w no acticrn, such as "be",
" appear", " seetrtf laok" , etc. In the exampies beiow "b',JS-';" an,i vrrorriei are
adjectives for the verb "is", respectiveiy "look" .
Tia neuroiogist ts busts. He iooks r,oon'ied.

affidescribes/mociifies averb.lt is formed bi, aciding -ly to an aciiective:


Ad'terb

hdiecnve

siotu

siozuly

harl

quick

qutckly
easiiv
busily

easu

bustl

excepircrts:

'rr-rd
L'-^J

lcst

JtL>!

iotu

iozo

late.

iate

Examples:
.{ aru a guicklesrruer.Iiearn quickiu.
("quick" is an adjective ciescribirrg the noulr iearner;
adverb describlng the vetb "leau:i")

J:

h ,:l-,^*1v (:l L,'

_r-1L.1

"quickiv" is

an

ffi
w'

A-dveros can aiso rnodify adieciives or


ii is s very bwsu dst;.
Thr
') receptionist rurttes aeryl nea*iy.

eif+i

6#4e::

other as,terbs, foe'exarnple:

fu<$ies.a$+s*&xn*zha

Chasge the under"iineci phrases into iwo-worC combinations:

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Wa

a.
b.

a clinic tftathas five flocrs


a me<iicat bill that is worth lorff dollars
a check that is worii'r nine htLncired, doilars

medical office witlt two exits


a training course which iasts three weeks
a

Choose t}-le cc;rrect word in the foliovuing sentences:


The hospital i.s (close/closelyi tc the post ofhce.
Tne nteciicai assistant iooks so (h.onesi7 honesiiy) ti-,at no one suspectei

nim.

c.
d.
ii

e.

-be

admitteri intc the hospital"


The (rnainty / marn)advantage o{ t}ris oui-patient is that he ieaves
across the streei from the hospital'
The Coctor's signature is (indecipherabie/inciecipheraalyl-

It

rs too {late\r

/late) to

Give the aciverbs correspcnriing to the foltowi"ng nou.ris:

a. easyt ca7rn, simpie, goocL;


b. glaC, qrtck, arLgtTr, careful;
c. vlLse, sudden, w-iliir-rg, peaceftrl;
d. fast, cheap, irnmediate, sincere;
e. beautiful , fi'Iow , iogical, rnonthl3''.
Expressirag

similariiies and.,difierences using adiectives,*nti'ad=serbi

T..: express sinerlarit:{, grse

the forrarula

a.s

+ adjective +

as

i
I

Exampies with' ti-re adjectives " ta"*" , " ald" , and " atfftcult":
Tne nurse. rs as taii qs the doctor" {They are ilre same heighi.)
-fiu end.ogtnoittrtst is as old as his ptztier't'
{Thev are tfle same ate"}
-,ig51gid.a'1's
'ioitau's
7;rrtr:erlw't is ss Criffici.tit tts uesterclau's orlt. (Todar. and
proceclir-l'es are ecuatriy difficu"l".)

_i;.

express difference.. use il'le cornparatives iit vcu cottr;:;ue two nouns sr
aefionsl anri superlatives {if you compare three or rnore flouns or actionsl cf
adj ective s ar.tL adverbs

T*

zyk6t

'
{eniing in

CCMPARATiVE

SUFERLATIVE

MORE...

the MOST.-.

careiul

tnore cmefui

the most careful

hopeless

tnore hopeless

-the most

s;_y{a[fes

the mostWuate

llrare Pnaate
tnare pubitc

-iey, -re, -aie, prizsate


-ic, -isfr, -f-iii pubiic

beautiful
d.ifficult
hfieresttng

ihe most pubiic

?nore beautiful

ntore tlfficalt
tnore interestittg

the rnost beautifiti.


the most dfficult
the most intereshnr

an<i adverbs form the comparartve and


in a compietely irregular way'.
the best
betier
good/zoell
the <porst
bad/ill
TfiOTSE
the least
little
less
the raost
mamu/much
lflOte

The

foiiowing adiecives

fo,

&e superiative

the f arthesf {disiance)


farther
fur ther (extra, aci ditional)

The comparative anC superiative of adverbs of one syllabie


adding -er and -est:
iasi

lwpeless

faster

i-c aLso

formed by

the fsstesi

In the case of adverbs of twrs cr more svllables (except eari-v) tlre

cornpara.iive

and superlafrve a.re forn,ed b,v 3dding "more" , respecri'reiv "ihe most":
the most che*,piu
clwapiy vflare dzeavlu
the wcst effiaenttu
efficientiy ?nare efJ;,cirntiy'
To arodi$,- cor*.paratives, '*tuch rnore / marty rnare ii fu.r rnare / ,rnuch less ,i -rar less arr:
".,.^s
LrilE'r'
Titeir insuranu is far r?Lore exyensiae than ours.

55

dllllE.BT.arE iE-=---:::--

A.lways renne:nber:

nouns or aciions anci use superiatives io compare three or


inore nouns or a-ctions.
compa^re fw,o

In order to be polite, vou someti::nes rnight r,rrant to be less direci when


vou compare peopie, things, or situations. For exarnple, instead of salring:
Doctor Brozun's last researchbaalc is zoorse than ids eariier ones.
(using the acijecfir,e bad)
You can say:
Doctor Brown's iast research book is not as good as his eariiet'
ones, {using the adjective good, whicir is iiie opposite of bad)
Flace the adiectives before the norrns thev rieterrnine" Aciverbs can be
placed in rnany different positions.

-ed and -ing adjectives correctly. We can fornr. adjeciives by adciing


-eri or -ing to rnost'i,erbs which express emotion. For exampie:
{.Jse

tl
t,

ll
I

arijective

verb

-ing

to bore
to interesi
to aiarm
to amaze
io confuse
to encourage

bonng
inieresting
alarming
arnazing
conf,tsing
encouraging

-ed adiecfive
bore ri

interested

aiarmei
amazed
nnnfrrcor!

,nrouroguri

The difference is drat the -ing adjectives express the cause of the eil'ioiion,
whiie the -ed acijectives express the resuit:
Trw riiagnostic was ainnring. {cause)
i ruus aiarmeciby the riiagnoshc. (result)

Dr. Green is an amaztrlg sL:rgeon. \causel


I sru amazetii:V Dr. Green's skiils. (result)
,

i..'

:.8

rt9::-..
-:;a,..s.;{r
t-,raut:riar rraerrce: Expressing.similarities"a,r*fi,,,diffe,rertces
endadv.#,bs

56

';sing

a6j.ect'iv<

Gi

ldrise tire cornparaiive cr supeiiaive of tire aajecrives berweerr


parenthesis so that the senierrces fi1ake sense:

i. \'our condifr.cn is (bad) than yesterdav.

2.
3.

Tfus padent is nct (unciersianding) of patients.


This <ioctor is (ieticent) than other dcctors ur ihe hospiial to
comn'runicate the diagnosis.
4. This time, her recovery.was (difficult) than atter her previous surgery.
5. Take the (fast) way Lo the iab!
5. Lrnda is (competent) nurse in this ciinic.
7. The lab resuits are (reliabie) than the report
8. The tumor was (large)than the doctor expected..
9. The seats in this waiting room a"re (wide) thar, those in the emergencv
section.
hospitai has the (efficient) out-patient care of aii hospitais in to',arn.
Tnis
i0.
Choose the correct acijective so the sentence rnakes sense:
1,. The (satisfied, satisfving) patient thankerl the cioctor for his tirne.
2. W e ate (interesteci, interestingJ in hiring an interpreter.
3, We are (bored, boring) because we have to wait so icng.
4. She is (frightened, frightening) at the thought of surgery.
5. It is such a (riepresseri, depressing) circumstance that no one is
',,.fr

smiling.

6. I need (farther / further) infornration.


7. The hospital is (farther/further) fi'om ry112 place than frorn jtol;Ltb.
#,.ffiffiflltephrase

tI're sentences using tire adjectives befween parentneses

io

make tacitui comparisons:

i.
2.
3.
4.
5.

i.

2.
3.
4.
5.

Your nurses arelazier than ours. (energetic)


The qualit,v of patient care is lower here than rl my country. (high,}
This procedure is more iangeror:s than the cne',rou cieciined. (saie)
Your test resul*.s are worse than last time. (gor:d)
The ER srafi is sometirnes rucie; the matemit'y staff is never rud.e, (i:oiitel
Place'ihe a-dverb in the best positron rn the sentence:
fhe docior cornes tc work at 9:00arr..
ahuays
Fatienis compiai; r aboui insurance.
oiien
Nurses work iong hours.
usuailu
rarel.y
She is iate ior work.
sureiu
The paiient can count on the inter.preter to express his
concems.

5]

F'

UNIT 3C: ClinicaL Proceclures A-N


Go over the vocabularv list beior,t, the table. Underline the wor<is vou are famiiiar
wiil:r and/ or those vou can guess, and write thern in the first coiumn in the tabie.
Tlren practice their prcnuaciation.

[;'

Go over the vocabulary list again, This tinte ckcle the unfamiliar words, and
vrrnte them in the seconci column in the table. Then check their meaning in your
language. Finally, practice their pronunciati on.

1,.:

3t,

i:
i,,
l{.

i vvorris you know or you can

i lllew words anri meaninq in vour

llansu.ase

H.
Fi,

Example: auloVgr

Exa::npie:

l.:1,

i:r::'
',a

'i

&':l

remlving an e.m6ryo or fefus {rom ile wom6/uteru: ic

ahorcion {noun}

eno{a

amniocenfe$t {noun)

,l:

firegnancj

ltroceofure

in wfricfr a sma[{samlttu of fin;iit'{ro*n out

the uteru; o{ a ytrrynanf woman


l:i

in i$e

^6/r*tr,

af

f|roujh o ntu/[, inserfe/

fn or[er fo rtfeCsenetic ahnorvna{ifies in

ihe fetus

anctioarahrtu [noun,]
JJI-!

a h tt enoib

ii

l,

:ij.t,

c{ovnu l' no un

,,

rays evaminaiion oi {6, 6{oo/

ri

: u rcti ca i r evnoro I t i i

r''

abh

il

enai ;r

/r

'

/'

ailJ'cultai]0n {nowrij

iutewnq r0r J'0unil rnaule lu lnlernal 0{a,onr,rurf,ast'[le


t
,
lt
heart and lungs

nutohv,l {nounJ

eVamina{ton of a

<o
JO
hat

uusrrt

,^{*rw

fo de{ervnine tfie cawe

oiitfifr

friahsy

.1.

{r-

-{
{emffJfrla/}6i elfir,1inafiln of fr mwhie
oi ti$ue iu{,

iwouni

diaanos*c hurhoses

lr

,f

Jii
pknne{ u:'e oi coniracenfiue

nirth control {nowni

iecfrnio,ues

imii or confroi

io

trte numfier oi prgnanciu

ft{oooitut {7toun)

eyaminafion o{ a samp{e oi 6hoi ta iefermine it:

carfroqraf)h {nouni
JI

insfrumenf uied to ruroritfre rnechanica{mwements o{


f{te

,o n{t oy, o [r*n

arrt

r es u s cf

6eari

fa{i on

uenriktion

1CPN {noun}

restoration of carai*c ouf{twt ani t:u{rnonarr4


t
'
(
.r r :
,.
r,f, t
tr3 frrtrpctat retflrfrn1n anfi cfieic Tna''Jfrqe

casitafion {no,,mJ

-rteri{izatian; remwai oisEuo{orq^nt fo wartp


re

circwmeiion fnounj
/uo{unectomtq

ciewicai

ltro

{u e {i on im h o vi fi{e

*rg i ca { remou a { of 1t enis

suraicafremou^{ a{

houn)

fo res fu n

^i{rr fiart

of {ke

psf

section of tlre

sma{{intestine

,nr{rfr^rhr {intu6*{ir*

{noun,i

fax'age

ior
,y6o{u

kerhi

gastreeiomy inoun]
I
rf ,' r'
r
1
aenerai anelthetiZahon {nlunJ
J'Jli

rty:cerectomj inoun)
imrnunization (nounJ
rf)
,:

rilc'lgon lilo{,t?jj
t,:.
tncutifrcor lnowtj

. r

f ,^

!1

]tTtlal{ !Lcrc.,
a-

.J

rn'1ecfion

tnoun/

oi a tuite tiircwgi the nose ar mowii info tracfrea

rnaintenavlce oif[,e air*aw

e,rtfiire; breaffie owt

surgica{rarnoua{o{ a

nr,4
s'urr,tica{rernou*{rf
j
'i
ltroaruce

':1

,*

t{ce

sforuacrt

C'L;t.

ol"

or

iie enfirt uferw:

tmruwniw in, uacanaie

mt1 fr AcaY iry:'lie i)r

0rT4fi1'1

AVfinq Ju{qefi4

annara{w: ln w{tici te,rnheraiurc an/, huwi,itf,.t art


t

ii

' rr '' '' w:et


{{or arowi'na fiacteriai ,n{tunrt
ccntroiied, alleti
/

,'

icveutne

-t

tfi;

,),

1n5rl1{e

iylecfinj a sub.rtance

,:i

1,4

of

l'[''
r '
'f -t-'-"!' "-'
}na!fliitfd i0 fier1erJg
litltil rtire rC ll}rYfrUevious O?
. / f '.
r
aqenl!
tnnawtlGn

;.i:

t:.i

ltan

59

inro n tiss'ue,

uer'-reti

0{ orqn?'}

L:

v'

intensiue cnre unif

F'rl

{7CAl {nounJ

ci a ii ze d s ec fi on

anittaf

c{ a ios h i ia i c onrai ni ng i rte eq ui rtm

en

nece$aru to care ior patiena witfr severe i{[netses

';;:."

wrto neea Pennmenf sw{teruisian

f.:

f^pr*scolrj {nor,,ni

eVaminafion o{trtu in"*ior o{tfre

ofirt*t* frj o

{aparoscope

{orjnjwcostj [nounJ

eyamination

mammografifry houn)

K-rq!

maiectomy [nounl

rit6t hUn,6y

**nt oi^ {^y"30sc0pe

eyaminafio, o{frte hreails fo, aiognostic


ftur{tons
surgicafremoua{of ,[or parf of trte 6reai fat in hreatt
cancerJ

neuroruryer! {nounJ

Juryery on frtenervous syiem

+ Cover the ciefjnitions and go down the list ayiryto expiain eacir
terminoiogy item in your own words.
Whafls the English for amniocentezd, auscultalie, incizie, mamograf.e?
What's the Romanian for aborhon, blood test, exhaie, intensioe care
unit?
Use the English words

in Application

2 in sentences of

your own.

Circie the correct answer:

i.

The surgical ier::.ovai of the appendix is calied


A. angiography-

B. appendectomy
C. auscr.litation

2. A cui into a body tissue or organ, especially

one made Curing surgery is

a(n)

A. imrnunization procedure
B. biopsl,
C. incision

3.

An instrument used to record the mechanical movements of tire heart is


A. cardiograrh

B. iaoaroscope
C. lanngoscope

60

:.
'

'.
',
',
':i

4.

The relnovaL and examination of a sarnple of iissue frorn a ii'zing bodv for
diagnostic purposes is calleC
A. hYsterectomy

B. biousy

C' gastrectomY

,.

l,
a,
'.r,,
',
,,:
',.

5.

A:rmiocentesis is
A. the examination of the blood vessels using X-rays
B. the examination of a sampie of biood to determine its chemicai
characteristics
C. aptocedure in which a small sampie of fluid is cirawn out of t}.e uterus of
a pregnant woman through a needle inserted in the abdomen

6.

Endotracheal inhrbafron is
A. the passage of a frbe through the nose or mouth into trachea for
maintenance of the airwav
&. the removal of an embryo or fetus from the womb/uterus to end

Pregnancy

C. ihe removal of the testicles or ovarres

7. Autopsy

'

means
A. listeningfor sounds made by internal organs, such as the heart an<i lungs
B. an examination of a cariaver in order to determine the cause of death
C- surgerv on any part of the nervous system

I
,
I

,:,

8.

The voiuntary limitation or controi of the number of children conceived is


called abortion.
A.. true
B. faise

'.
i
,r
:
,
.,
,
iJ

i
ji

9.

Masiectomy is the X-ray examination oi the breasis for Ciagnosdc


PurPoses.

A. true

B. faise
10. The s'.rrgicai removal. of-the

first section of

Guocenectomy.
F". true
B. faise

::1

ri
.,i
.il
-i

:-i
-,rj
:i.,

"

l1n

i:
'ili

;i
:::_i._

0i

t1re smaii intestine is caLled

i&.

igow check vrrur

aTlsv\reys

with. alawr grawplciassrsrares ax-ii correct

Sentfl,ce5:
&.

El

,li!

Sentence
Sentence

no--:

nc-:

?!:

8,1

i4

E:

*,

E,
*'

E'
&1
it

g*

,\):

t;:re

iais*

UruIT 3D: u--NIT 3,?EAI*jET-{LTT*N tr&,qCTICE

gi

aruie*fu,rt'r{eatteE I-isten io each sentence in

B beiow anri repeat

i; in Engiish"

'
,:,
:,,

'
,
,
,
',
,
,
:
,
.
',
'
'
',
,
:
::
',

a
!
,
I
,.;
,

:,;

.
i

=
,.=

|;WjB,*,lf-{qaa4r*aft .f#ns}atiemTransiaieintoRoma-nian:
L. You ha,n,e to go to that firre-floor -buiiding for a biopsy.
Z. T-ne autopsrT results are in a special report in the top drawer.
3. "I scheiuieri you for amniocentesis, a thiriv-arinute prcrcedLlte", tiie
{ynecoiogist said.
4. }'ou v,ron't feel an1, pai.n as lrou wiil be under generatr a-nesthetizaiion.
5. His iiiness is se.,rere, so he needs permaneni meciical supervision in the
fuliensive care unii.
6. 'ihe doctcrr wanLs vou to inhale, hoid vour b:'eatir for five seconeis, a-irr:i
then exhaie slowit'.
7" The quaiitv of patient care in this ciin.ic is not as irigh as it used to -be.
8. ftre paiienfs condition was even worse before the mastectomv.
9. Tltrough ihe thin walis of the capiliaries, oxygen and nufi:ients pass from
ihe bloo<i intc the surrounding bociv cell.s and Lissues.
'10. When biooci circuiaies in the biooC \/essels, it pushes agarnst their vvalls,
creating a pressure known as the blooci pressure.
,f:lEteraari{*niE:tgfisfit.-ka.rrgiafiblr- Transiate i::rtc; Engiisn:
i. Spitalul are uii nou saion cie recuperare muit mai conforiabil rleczit cei
vechi.
2. Cardiograful a inregish'ai aritrnie, &g& cX trebuie sd-l apeihr, pe car,-iioiog
imediat.
3. Pe tr6-;lgd rneciicaiielmedicamente dcctarui a presc:-is oairmd Ld :r.aE dwpL
operafra Ce Cuorien.
4. Facj.enta a{e nevoie de rnai inr:ite inforn:'a}ii desirre riscurije
hisierecicmiei.
5 Si-a revenit (.s-a recupera.ti lrri&i ilE(.,r riupi. operab.a de aperulice
(apendeciomiel ciec6.i dupd operat-ia ciinailrte.
o. F.econranddrrr o mamogralie peniru ieteciarea ir.npu.r-ie a canceruiur
I]ia11r-ar.

7, Tcat* iun".ea ciin ciinici g{e ci eanu e:rte t*c:nai cea mai a:nabiia asisrentS.
8. Sunt iezu-liatej.r ,ie iabciat;i r*at ceirrrye'.i*rc riecit ar;scuiiailaT

*. '"li*td Baa.k Prartr,ie

ih<, fcllcr,a,ing irn vocabniarv iiems are i'ror:'' *,is ,-urjt;':;


ll,ori benr,-: cLborttcn, be arintittec iritc itospiitti, S{cti11s, pregnsnc'i, prescri.oe , sdrnpi{:(s',,
tuorth, heari clwntbers, hiooC press'*rs, leu.cr:r:ttes. ijse thern in sentences of i/cui
own.
-^
Ai

UFfE? 4 WOR.D EAF"IH

Use the aocabuiara items in tlus unit's zuord bank as needed., iar lessons, auviicatiams,
quizzes, and translation yractice, unless othenaise inriicated- Yor.t zuill encounter many of
these wards in other uniis' aocabularu banks, and so, by repeated use, you roii! rnaster
thernby the time vou firish this textbook. This unit includes tlte follozoing:

!a;
l,L:

*
"
"
,

apnea: apfl ee (opri.rea resplraliei)


{to} be scheiiuled: a fi programat, planificat
btrood sarnple: probE, speci.men cie singe
(to) breathe: a respira
breathing: respiratre
bronciei: bronhii
bronchioXes: bronhioie
{to| carry: a iransporta
{toi complain: a se plAnge
diaphragm: diafragm{E}
dis ease: b o a16., af ecfian e
eard"runn: ti.mpan

l;
ii.

t'

!: l

(3.a

rnedici

{toi faint: a Xesina


ito) g* atf: a se declanga ialarmai
i.nteasive care unit: secti.e de terapie intensivi
X.awrtx: iaringe
left bro*chus; irv."oitkia stingE
iungs: pi5naAni
night shiftu schimb de noapte, f*rE rie noapte

filiii:::

nostri].s: reEri

{:'t::
tni- :
t!:'.

pharynx faringe
plastic surgery: chirargie pLasticd

{?.it "
F;i

..i

s..:i,-

,&i

4A: The Respiratory Systern


48: Verbs - Forrns and Tenses
4C: Clinical Procedu'res F-Z
4D: Translatiorc Practice

recoverv room: ealon cie recuperare (in soecial


rernovatr; extirpare, scoatere {prin operatie}
respiratory systern: aparatui respiraior
right bronchus: branhia dreapth
skire test: test de se$sibiiitate la aJ.ergeni
su.r g ery: op erati e/:.nt erv enti e chirur gi caIE

iupi

intervenfi.i cltirurgrcaiei

tiecl: iegaie

tonsiiiectomy: tonsiiectornie, operafie rie scoaterq/extirpare a amigCaletror


tsnsils: amigdaie
trachea: trairee
tu b al. Ttgatton : I e gar e a tr o mp ei or uterin e ( s t eritizar e chirur gi ca1 i i
wound: rani

A<

UI\ IE 4*,: TE{E


..';.i

jt-;

E{E$PHE

A?*ft.Y SygTEIvs

...... :..'.,..

--j.
r:f+izlselEssjl;Gtr

i.

Whatis another word for breathing?


2. idhichof firese gases dowe oreathe in: oxygenr:rcarbon cioxiae?
3. if inspiration means breathiog io, what cloes expjration rrre&11?

4.

Hl
Ea'i

-tdhat is the
name of the abdomen rnuscle that heips breathing?

'--E*# Cftoose from tlie box belornu to filt in the missing


-------o worcis
in the text anci table. Use this unit's word bank and/ or a diciionary if necessary.

irachea
dtnphragm

larynx

oxygen
lungs

We breathe in oxygen and elirn-inate carbon ciioxirie tfuo,.rgh the process of


respiration. Thjs function is performed by the respiratory system. T,ne main
organs of the respiratory sfstem are: the riose, the pirarlmx, t7)
tne
E!

trachea, and the lungs.

Air enters through our nostrils

(iJle two cvai openiags in the nose), and tra"reLs


dorn n the pharynx (or throat) to the lungs, passing {nrough the larynx {or voice
box), anC through tire trachea (or windpipe), a tubeiike passageway. l"ne (2)
diviries into the b,ronchi {the ieft bronchus and the right'bronchus)
that enter the iungs. The bronchi contirrue to ciivide into smaii.ei tubes caltrei
b':'oncirioles, each of these encifurg in tin-g airsacs ca-lied alveoii. The excirarrge ot
carbon ciioxide and (3)
takes pLace through the'walls of aiveoii and
capiliaries. A iarge mu.scle fu-l our abCornen, ihe (4) __-_._---_.-____ ccntrois &e
iungs: ""orhen the diaphragm conkacts anci uroves down, air is puiiea into the
lungs; when the <iiaphragm reiaxes and rnoves up, air is sent out of the
1El
1vl_.

C+rnpreheusisrB
'
i. Hrhat Cc we cali the two or.,al openings in the nose?
2. irirhat is the pharvnxT
3. \44:rai is anoiher rlarrre .for the i.rindpir,e?
4. I.r'.,ihere ioes the exchange of carbon ciioxice anrl o>:v:*en take place?
5. Whai is ihe <iiapirragrn's roie in respirai:on?

6i)

:iwP:.'
:la
,.

i-ook at the iabeieri picture anC descri"be the respi.ratory system and how air
favels through it by using the folXowing
nouns: air, nostrils, pharyrtx (ar ilffoat), iaryrcx (or aoicebox), trachea (or winduipe),
bronchi, ieftbronchus, nghtbronchus, airsacs (or aloeoli), diaphragm, iungs.
and
verbs: enietr, traoel down, pass through, diaiae into, takc place, control, contraci, ?noT)e
up,

down, relsx.

nxoTJe

--)

The foliov..ir,g *'ords are related to ,iiseases/condiiions of the respiratc$/ sl{stem;


epwa, bronchihs, laryngitis, pharyngitis, pneumonia. l{rite their cietrniijc'n in
English b;; looking at the .worci parLs beLoa,. ljre firsi one is rione for vou-

a: without
- pnea^: breathing

maior branch wincipipe


larvng: voicebox
pharvng : throat
- itis = inflamntaion of

bronch

pneu-rnon

ia:

:7ur.g, ali

ab*armai conCi.iion of

,!r

[.r.

h{7ncl4ttil".
JJ

6i

ytrtayryitis'

finetwonia:
,.s5lGter.l

or faise? Circle the correct answer.

Tlnough the process cf respiraiion , 'w,eheafie in carbon dioxide and


elimjnate oxygen.
A. true

B.
1

Trle

false

The twci ovai openings in the nose are called bronchi.


A. tru.e
B. false

3. Another name for the throat is pharynx.


A. trre
B. false

4.

When the diaphragm contracts and- moves down, air is sent out of the
iungs.

A. true
B. faise

l:.

The condition of not breathing is called apnea.


A. h:ue
B, false
FharSmgitis is commonly caitred a sore

throal

A. irue
B. faise
"7

Another name for the trachea is the rroice box.


A. true

B. false
o

il"

Tne exchange of carbon dioxide and cxygen takes place through the wa].ls
of airsacs and capiilaries.

A. true
B. iaise
q

Bronchitis means infiammation of the iower respiratory tract.

A. tzue
B. false
68
;;:=*"

-'.....'.-'nrjrye"r?

#++1.a,

-: .-,a+?:,_tt
-. . _:.
iffir*lL
.:..:.:,i.,_Jl
-

'-'1

:;tr.

On its way to the iungs, air passes trror& the throat to the voice box and
w'indpipe.
A. true

ts.

taLse

'-1.
i

lJow check your answers wifh yo&r gravp/ciassmates and correct the false
sentences:
Sentence
Sentence
Sentence

no-:
no-:
no-:

i
l

9entenceno-:
,

.,

t
:

6q

tiI\iET 4S:VEffi.BS

F{}R&/ES ;md TENSE$

#,
i:'

*"

Yerbs show action clr staie *f being, and are ii:'Lportant pa*.s oi a semtence. T-ney
can also be classified into rnain verbs isuch as a singie verb in a sentence) and
heiping verbs, vrhich accompany main rzerbs in'yerb i:hrases (a main.rerb
preceCed bv ane or mcre heipia-lg ver-bs is a calieci a l,erl: chrase):

ry:

We ba:y rwzo medical equrment euery year. {rnatn,,rerb "buy"}


l,Ne bought neut medical equiVment last year, {main verb "brry"')
We will.buy nezu medical equipment rtext qear.
I
I

ft;

.rerb phrase

,;

She

helping verb " wilL" + rnain verb "brJy"

W,

H.
l,

is utorkirug in the intensizte Care Untt

thcse daqs.

I
I

t
verb pirrase : heipirrg verb "be" + rnain veyb "w-o{k" in the
i

-ing farm

ii:)
].:

SLte

has

beeru

reading this chnrt.fo.r' a fezu minutes.

I
I

verb phrase : heipil'lg verb "brave" + heiping verb "be" + rnain rrerb
"f,ead" in the *ing form.
i

As you can see fiom the exarnples above, heiping verbs are always piaced beiare
the main ver-b. The rnost cCIrlllnon heining verbs are rio/di.d, be {awr, is, are, urGS,
rarrei, fuaoffias, and will, which help make different verb tenses as expiainei
further in this ".:nit.
Verbs harre forms which are use,J to make riiffereni verb tenses:
BASF FCRh,{ i PAST FCF.],I PAST
PRESEhIT
PARTICItrLE PARTICiPLE
base - irrgi
talk
talked
taiking
talkeri
reg'aiar
verbs forrn
the i:asi anci
I

Pc"JL
,i

listen

i lisieneC

iisienei

iistening

particirie by

i ari<ii;rg -ed
i to ine oase i

/U

t:.*r.='.i?;11::ri

hnrrohl

D-i {i]i.'jLf.

$Te-{{ian
'ver-bs isee

sleeP

slepr

I wrtte

-\h'TOte

sieep11lg

wrltteri

list of
lrreguiar
verbs])

g?e&i the follo,rlfig vetb tenses and exarfl.pies baseci on the subject " h.e patient"
anci the verbipreciicate "ta sleeu" afid W tc deterndne v,rhat neiplng verba and
forms of the verb "to sleep" are useri to make each tense. ALso pay allerttion to
the tirne expressions used for each tense:';',..,rL

1.

sho-ws acfions that irapperr. on a regu"iar basis teaery


iraq, on Sunaays, on zueei<ends, tzttice a zoeek, at the en.d" of each rnonth, et)erv
otler uear), or ane generaiiv true:

fu:ur;#Ibt,:YlE

The patient sleeps ttito hou.rs s dav.


eceni a.fterrcoon.
a.fter s/ne tskes her rnerlicaf,on.

**pr"sses acaons in progress now {at the ruavruent c.f


speakingl or actions hapnemng aroirnd but not txactly at the monrent cf
speaking (such as titts week, these dcLys, eic)'.

i,o'E

The patiewt is sleeging ft07u.


ctLot tlxse dsVs.

I'iote: sorne stad.ve vexbs (that io not show action) such as !.aue, like ,
hate, prefer, Lufrfit, alt'fi, rteea, Tutt?tt, know, remember, understarLd. Lieiiez:e ,
SouTLQ, srneli, Trieln, etc. are noi used in frre progressive iense-q.
APPI-JCP,TIOI{: Simpie Fresent
tense

or Freserrt lricgressive? Ciriic the

correr:r

a. This cough svrup (is sn'relling/srnelis) gcorX'


h. i{e {is checkinglchecks) his biooci suEiar ievei e\/er}/ we"K.

..

I{igttt now the neuroiog:sis (are leavtngi\eav:'t fr:r tne runciraising iirLrtel.
d. Who {zs cr.Ttngicne.sl sc; iouciy in the erneigency rcsor*? Do somethingi
Answeri: a" s1i1,ells; b. checl;s; c. al'e lea-r''ing; i. i:; ci:r'iri!.

3:.

Eresew;k:Frnect is used for aci*ns that hapi:er:ei


sr:ecific tir::le is nr:L rneniioned clr l-rct iinp<;::tant,

7:

iit the pasr but iitc

The

Fl..

antiert iw.E Eieyt

a ic:.

lricte: if d:re specttic pasi time is merrlion ec-, us* sirnple past:

li'

i
T-irc
l

panent slept a ict yesterriay.

Fresent perfect can also shoro, a-ctions that sta;ted in the past and
c'."rntinue in the present (not necessariiv in the moa'lent of speaking),
especiallv with verbs iike v,rork,Live, anrl sitrciy:
paiient has worked m th.e lwaay inriustrV since 2002.
{Meaning: He started workirrg in the heav',r industry in zaa2 anci he
sfiii works in the heaw inrir.rsrrl,).
Tlne

W*AE.,PW

is used for acijons rhat began in ttre past


(before now) anci continue in the present (now). '''si.nce"' rncticates the
begrnnirrg of the iime period (stnce yesterriaq, since '].0:0arm, etc.'r and.
"{oy" sirows tl-re iength of the time period !.for fiuenty miruttes, for xuo
hours, etc.). in the example beiov', the paiient feil asleep at 10:00arn and
he is stiltr sieeoing:
T'he

paiien.t hos been sleeping since'10:00 anz.


for fiuo hours.

,r,: i.t iliustrates aciions that began anC enied

tr

in the past

{yesterday, tne d.ay belort yesterriay, last rueekend, ias! zueek, iast montit, iast
year, tzuo daus ago, tht'ee useeks a,go, l.ost month, iast year, Ln 1997, in
Acfuber, ruiierL I ttias young, etc.)
'|-k"e

yattewt slept zuellqe steraag,


Last week.

/\,?PLTCATICI'I: Sirnple Pasi or FreserLt Perfect? Use ti're correci tense:


a. X (worki in tiris ciinic aii m;v iife. I fioin) the rneiicatr staff r,t,hen I was-19.
b. Ti-re n,;rses (havei a u"ieting aimost everv cia-v thi.s week. Thev ftave) the
first rneehng on iv{onda1r.
t. id3, lorrtir is at home because she {broke) her leg. She (breakj rt iasf
rnonlh, 'in the ski carnp.
d" (Havei l,ottr er,/r srr,a\ipax? \'es,l have.
An..;u,ers: a.Itave w,crked., joinec; b.t,a^vt:had, hao; c. has broken, nroke;
i. l"rarre ycu ever had

72

'F1.",'

1't::

''

'

'

6.

irrCt atcs ar,, acticl\ in progless ai a specific tnie in the


pasi iai 3:}Aprn uesterriay}, an acbon in progress in the past interrupte,j
ov anothel action in the past {.r.oherc ihe aactor came in, utlten. uou callei"
nw, tuLten somebodu knacred a.t the ctoor, eic\, or iwo actions in progress at
the same time in the pasttruhile the nurse zuas reading ids chnrt).
The yatient was slerying at 3:00 om yesteraay.
urhzn the dcctor came in.
while the nurse ruas reading his cLnrt.

APPLICATIOI'J: Simple Fast or Past Progressive? Circie the correct tense:


a. The endocrinologist (wentlwas going) to the emergencr"z rocm when a
paiient sucideni,r, fainieri.
When the Meciicai Board (-was corning in7'came in), the head surgeon was
reaciing the report.
?he doctor (wers reaaingireaiii ihe patient's chart whiie the nurse was
chatting with the patient.
d. The pafient s reiatives (were waittng/waiteri) for the rJoctor when the
patieni was moved to the east wing.
Answers: a. was going;b. came in;t. was reading; d. were w-aiting

7.

*e..{:!?t

shows an action finisheci/compieied before another action


in the past or dme in the past

slept before tlrc nurse came in


Th* patient,:lept before the nurse came in)

Tne patient had

(:

The patient had already slept by the time the doctor awiaed.
when the aoctor srrraed.

8.

V$lWi#*ii'F-rogressive expresses actions in p'rogress in tl..e rle.si


befcre another action in the pastThe patr.ent fuad been s{eeping for tzpct nours ruhen the nurse ruale iti'm up.
since noon iuhen the rturss zuo'Re nirn ua.

Note: both Past Progressive and Past Ferfeci Frogressirre -*how actions ir:
progress ir: the past, bui ihe dtiference is tiiat Past ?erfecl Progyessive
indicates for horu iong, the acion- irad been ir, progress before another
aciion in the past.

l-t

APPLiCATil1,ti\i: ?ast ?ragressi..re or Past ilerfect Frog;essive? Circie 6.re correci


rrerb tense:
a. She (was waiting/had been waiting) in front of the kauma center for
aimost an hour b;r the time theiz told her that her daughter was no longer
there.
b. The surgeon (was perfcrrning/had been performing) a ionsillectom;z
w-hen the iights weni out.
c. The head nurse (was working/had been working) on the schedule whiie
the other nurses were complaining about the night shift.
d. Maria (was crytng/had been cryingS for hours v,rhen her son caiied from

the hospitai.
Answers: a. had beezr waiting; b. was performing; c. was working; d. had
been crvrng
9.

shows actions that wiil haopen sometimes in the futr-ue

ffi

ttomorvozu, next zueek, after the surgery, etc.):


'Ilre paiient

10.

wilt

sleep a iot o"fter the surgery,

x,Wind.icatesarractioninorogressataspecifictimein
the futtrre (at 77:1Aam tomorraTl, at this ttme on Nednesday, etc.):
The paiient

wiII be sleeping at thts fime tomorrow.


rohen the nurse cames in.

Note:

in the seconcl exampie above, when the nurse enters the

room, she will find the patient asleep.


"::..; :
t
11. Flx :1P!,#
-_

shows a future action finished/completea

before

ancther action or time in the futLrre:


The patient
meriicstion.

will haae already slept hy the time the rn{rse giaes lum his

Note: In ihe exarnpie above, the patient will be awake (the acaon of
the verb " s\eep" ',r,riil be cornpietedi rviren the nurse &:res hinr the
rnedication.
12

,I;u*re,,,F,

eelr.grg,qgpessi+iii expresses

an action in progress

furure before another acti.on or time tn the


Tke yattent

will

in the
fufure:

hawe been sEeeping lor kuo haurs by tiu tinze tlwy

dinner.
-l

se?'ue

r:- .r:rt::rli

+b,e

i.iiiererrce Deiweesr Future Froqressi.;* ini:mber ii acr,=rt'.


and Fui-i-Lre Pertect Progress;ve inurrber 12) rs *irat i* the Fui1ere
Perfecr Progressive vize rnentiori for hioro., iong the action .wiii have
beer: ln progress.
:liote:

APPLIC,T'"flOiri: Future ilrogressive, Fut-ure Perfeci, or Fuiure perfect


Progressive? C*cle the ccrreci verb tense:
a. Bv noon, the -.urgeon (will be operair'gT'wlii liave ooeratedfy.rilL irave
been or;erafi-ngS far iwo hours.
b. Accorciing io the scheduie, Dr. Smiih (wil1 be perforrnin g/w111 have
performed) a tvmpanopiasiv at this &r.e tomorrow.
c.The ortiropedist (won't be finishing/v,ron't ha',ze finished) the report t...,
tire time the meeting siarts.
d. A1l nurses (wiil be atenciingiwii\ have atten<ied/wiii have been
acten<iing,\ a h'aining befwee:-i l0am-iiam nexi Friday.
Ansn,ers: a. ra,iii have been operaCng; b. wiii be performing; c. won't have
finished; d. will be attending

.*Ai

Sardy this tabie, which is a synthesis of the verb


are formed"
Sil\APLE

t-K_L,5r.',1\

base

fcrm

past torrrr

I P.TROCRtrSSIVE i FERFECT
li

arnf arcf
present

ts +

articipie
wasf were +
present

i trTT'l-TI]iE
FUT"IJRE

i ,^,.ili
+ T,ooo
wiLi -*
hase

form

ten-ses

PERFECT

]]ROGP.ESSTVTT

havef has +
pasi

haver'J:as
+ past

rticipie
had + past
participie

ariicir:le
had been +

Il.12r'ia/-1?.}lp
i ljdlttLtl)t?
tILivt9
Hqrariicipie

i -^,;'!i
+
wiii '*.be --l-

'^i -,.;iI
v"':il hatre

present
i parti.cipie

anri how therr

.-tA>t

been

Dresent
L
oa.rlicipie
r,rriii have beerr

'preseni

i particioig : partrciri?

l\jotes:
Sintp.te Preseni: *"ilirri persori s;-ngular ('she, he, i:i adcls -s7,'-es tc f;re base fyrn; ai;
- other persons (.L, uotl, \|te, vou plural, theyr) require just ti're base fcr:r't
Irresent Frogressive: rnake slrie 1,'eu u.se ihe corrct foirt: c;f the verb be: i am.
liau/weirhe',2 are, s/he is
Fresent Ferfect and lJresent Perfect Progressir.e; i.rse "have" ior i/yau,/vtc,itnev

ani "has" for s/ire

!:i.<6?F.r!i;

Sirnr:ie Pasi ada -d t -eci r+ ihe base for:n for reguia-r -leybs; see pasr forrns of
irregu-Lar verbs

PasiProgressive: use "have" iGTI/vozt/we/&ev and "has" for s/-ne


Fi,"
E.:.

gi

:'

Now ccrnpiete the tabie beicw fcr the velbs " talk" anC " v,lTlte"

ii,:

>llvti-Lt

!l

PROCRESSiVE

PRESE}\T

FLN'{JRE

PERFECT

FERFECT
PRCGRESSryE

have/has
talked

wiiL be talking

will be wriiin

Work with ',rour desk nrate or in a smail group to pTacefwrite the


nurnber of the sentences containing underiined verb phrases rn the square thel,
beLang (the first two are done fcr you); then check with your teacher or agai.nst
the key ai the end of the book.

a.

llne nurse had been taiking to the paient for hal-{ an hour when ihe doctor

caiied her.
b. Th.e nurse wiil be talking to the paileni at this tirne tomorrow.
C.
The nurse talked to the patient last Moneiay.
n The nurse will have aireadJz talked ro the patient by the tim-e he leaves ttrre
hospiial.
a
The nurse has been talking to the patient for half an hour.
The nulse talks to ihe patient on a regrilar basis.
Tne nurse wr1I tpik io the patieni.
The nurse was talking to th.e paient when the cioctor cailed her.
The nurse had talkeci to the patienf before he inras riischargeci.
Tne nurse ra,ill have .been ta-lklng to tiie patrent for L:.alf an hour b"r the fi.me
the ooctor visi+s h.rm.
'Ihe nurse has talkei ic the palient on numerous occasit-rns,
The nwse is_laiking to ihe patient this very mornent.

76

iFi-L

giMPLtr
lf1

PP,CGT?ESSI-v-E

PEF,FECT

FERFECT
PROGF.E-q3IVE

"ii ECE i,. i'tr-'


\ r
i.\.1:JLi

i FUTURE

Make sentences wil& the subject "&e <Xoctcr" and the predicate "w-!tte
a teport" in all verb ienses {t-" of them are done for ,vou}. AdC time expressions.
Simple Fresent:
Present Frog'ressive:
Fresent Irerfect:
Present Ferfect Progressive: Tirc. cioctor hns been wnting a repori,for 75 minutes ,
Simple Pasi:
Past Progressive:
Fast Perfeci:
Past Perfect Progressive: TllE ri.actor 'nsdbeen runhng greport f'lr 1"5 minutes z.uhen
tlrc _fire s.lfitm

roent

c.,$

Simpie Fut-ure:
Fuiure Frogressive:
Future Perfect:
Fuirrre Ferfect Progressive:

Faying attention to the rules in the hox belorn, and the s-vnthesis rn
tabie trom practice A above, choose the correct answer for eachr sentence. Then
d"iscuss yorff choice with your ciesk rrrate, or in a smail group. Finaliy, check yaur
answers with the teacher or againsi the key"

#[.--,,

Use
Use
Use
Use
Use

the past parrrciple after HA-'rlE


the preseni participle r:r past participie after BE
the base forrn of the verb after WILL, Y'JAULD, or oifier h4ODAi-]
HAVE and HAD correctly
correct tense *rith Hme expressicns

i.

San-dra
a. has took
b. ieas taken
c"

2"

aiob in rhis ilospitai i* 7999.

took
a lot of extra hours latelY.

The nurse
77

@.*'"**""''
l.t r::r,

a. has worked
b, has u/orking
c. worked

ffi:l
*i-.:
!,ij

'i:.'

3.

Perhaps the d.octor


a. has draw
b. has drawn
c. has drew

4:

The nurse thought she


a- has told
b. told
c. had told

'.ii'

the wrong conclusion.

the doctor everything.

?;l

5. Our patients have often

the issue about co-payments.

a. raise

b. raised
c.

risen

6. We

are

our paperwork.

a. done
b. doing
c. do
7.
\2::a.

.11

The blood sample was


a, take
b. took
c. taken

B. An appointrnent

without perrnission.

at 10:00am tomorrow.

is

a. scheduled

b. scheduling
c. schedule
-i

9. He has been

ciue to his excellent customer skilis.

a. promote

b. promoted

::::'i

c.
.::,,
::i ii

iii

oromoiing

10. The docior wili


a. being iearring
:

at 5:00.

b. leaving
c. be leaving

i.."
-a
ID

il#:

1\.TY,ai paiient ntust


a. iake
b. be taken
c. taken
12, The next decision
a. riepends

to radioiog:y-,
I

,-:

will

on lab results.

b. depend
c. depending
13. The interpreter

shouid

soon.

arrives
b. arrive
c- arrived
a-

14. 'Ihe patient ate whenever he


a. wanted
b. want
c. wants

to"

in this clinic before she msved to California.


15. She
a. has worked
b. had worked
c. had been working
16. FIe is happy that his

wound

by thu iime he returned to

work.
a. heai
b. has healed
c. haci heaied
1"7.

L8.

Since I last interpreted for this hospital I


inierprefing jobs.
a.Ltad gotten
b. got
c. have gotten

At this iime tomorrow', the lab tecirnician

manv oiher

the sarnpies.

a. prepare
b. r rili be preparing
c.

19,
a:l

-lji
,.:-

will preoaring

They

me in the nursin g Prug-rarrL a few months ago.


79

.,t"j
a:.-

a. acceptec
b. have accepted
c. had accepieC

2C.The nurse wiil


<ioctor arrives.
a. have DTerare
b. have arepareci
c.

ihe examining room by the time ihe

prepared

80

EiI{t? 4C: CE tHgCAL trge*CE#EiEeES F-E


Go cver the vocabuiary iist beiow the ia-bne. Uncierline ti^re -worci.s yolr are faireijiar
with and/or those ycu can guess, anci r,r,rite them in dre f;rst coiumn in the tabie.
Then practice their pronunciation.
Go over the vocabulary list again. This Crne circie the ulfamiliar worcis, and
write them ir-i the seconci colrrmn in ihe tabie. Then check their meaning in vour
ian gua ge . F trtal7v, practic e their p ronunci a ti on.
I Y/ords

you know or you can

New words and meaning in your


ian
Exampie,

Exampie;
).

:uryety {noun}

',

suraety fo re

feflair, ar reiore
I

oi a {isease

pragno:i: fnouni

fsretficfion a{ frtu co$rse

recaverj roow {nounJ

hosfiita{a"oow eqwif,rflef for {rte care


a h en
1t

l-

t f

tlcin test (noun.l

fesf

ioniftecfomuI [nouni

trnnsp {anfaii on fnoun


l

, f

f''.

t,

eo{i a r e {y

ior {erectinq

urai/t ca { r entoua

^*
l" o{

t o ii r* i

booi,q

porf

wetkor{ ol

"t

ru

^rro{o6tr**fron
ery

f he tonsi [s
frss'ae

or nn o,yan from

wmnanafrksru {noun)

J!!J

:'

ienta[t:fe,iizroiion' tfie {la{hpian) tufiet are

-,.i

urq i ca { recon-riru ctf on

fli

, iriu

to anotfrer

:uratca{iu iier{
u'

ai

o[frray or iniec{fout oisr*s,

prlce:r o{ f**t'7r[*n{inq a

,,
iuihal liaation {nounJ

i: i rnni

ytart:'

oi

rfr'u eo odn un t

laaiji'. :4:1':::;:' "

't:

inocctkte vtifi a vaccine fn order ia frroaiwce imrwunt*,1 io

,tacdnate inouni

an iniecfiou: {itrot,

,r)

ufrJect7'rftu {n1unJ

wnqica[rewou*fo{r{[on part oi
tuhe tfra{ carries

tr'

fierm

the um aiferens'

into ffte ltefuic

ia ia*y

cavi! in men),

u:wa@ nt menni of :terilization

Cover the definitions and go down the iist trTrng io expiain each
terrninology itern in your own words.

ili.

't'.

ffi.What's the Engiish for salan de recuperare, ligatura trornpelor uieine,


aasectomie? V\Ihat's the Romanian for alasfjc surgery, tonsillectomE-,
skin test?
S

Uu. the English words in Appiication 2 in sentences of \l'our

owTl'.

Circie the correct answer:

i. A method of fernale sterilization


A. vasectorny
B. hrbal iigation
C- tyrnpanopiasty

2.

Surgical rernoval of *re tonsiis

A. surger;,2
Y. transpleurtation
C. tonsiiiectorny
F{ospital roorn eguipped for the care and observation of patients a*er
ssrqery
lL. recoverv room
B. intensive care u.nit
C. waiting roorn

3.

4.

Tesi for detecting an aliergy or infectious disease


A. vaccination
B- skin test
C. piastic slrrgerv

5.

lnocuiate witir a-va-cc.ine in or<ier to produce im-murd+,'to


disease

A. sterilization
E. reccver)'
C, vaccination
(t:

.i:

u*'t ir",6s'Jtious

a#,.r: :

UNIT 4il:

TJNET'.s

TRA}[SLAEIGN PXdACTICE
l

Listen to each sentence in B beiow and repeat

it

in English.

Translate the following sentences into


Romanian:
!-

2.
J"
n
'4.

5.
6.

The patient had been sieeping for 3 hours in the recovery roorrr r+,hen the
nr*rse woke hirn up.
The doctor wili be perforrr-ing a tonsillectomy at this time tomorro-$/.
Fiis family has aiready been vaccinateci.
The trachea divides into the bronchi that enter the lungs.
Air enters through our nostrils and travels down ihe phalvnx (or throati.
i have been scheduled for a skin test and I would like to cancel it.

Transiate ihe

foilowing sentences from Romanian into Engiish:

l. A i::cetat sd respire de douizeci

de secunrie. Diarragmul nu

s-a n:rai

rnigcat deioc.

7.
3.
+.

Nora mea este la l:at cu pneumonie de o sdptdmAnd.


Vasectomia gi legarea kompelor sunt metode de steriLizare rnasculini,
respeciv temirLind.
Schimbul de dioxid de carbon gi oxigen se iace prirr ps'etii alveoieicr gi
capiiareior.

foiiowing ten vocabuiary iterns are from dris; ,;n;t's


word bank: es-rdrum, faini, nigkt shift, nastnis, surgery", tansils, roounci, iung,r. bc
scneduiea. agneil- Use them in sentences of yo'Jr o\4/n.
tie,E The

83

UNIT 5 WCRE} EANK


Llse the aocabuiaru items in tlds unit's ruord bank as needed, .ior iessons, aypiications,
ttuizzes, anC iranslation practice, uniess othertuise indicated. You wrll encounter rllany 0-f
these zuords in other units' aocabulo.ry banks, and so, by repeated use, you zuiii master
them bv the time you f.nish this textbook. This unit tnciudes thz following:

"
",
"

5A: The Digesiiae Sysietn


58: Verbs - The Passiae
5C: Diseasesflllnesses, Inluies/Physical Conditions A-M
5D: Transiaiion Pracfice

(to) account for: aterrrezerrta, ajustifica


addiction: dependenta de o subtanti chirnicS.
AIDS: SXDA
a ilmgni; boalE, afecfiune, indispozitte
athlete's foot (Tinea pedisy: rnicoz[.la picior, ciuperci intre degetele de

tra

picioare
(to) be appointed to a medical staff: a fi numit pe post d"e personai meci.ical
(to) bepassed frorn person to person: ati tranmis(5) cie la persoanX Ia
persoani
beyond: rnai presus, di.ncolo de
bitter: amar
(to) bieed: a sAngera, a pierrie sAnge (bleeding: sAngerare, pierdere de
sAnge)

body weighi: greutate corporalX


bowel filovements: perisialtism intestinal
{to} break down: a descornpune
by touch: prin atingere
(to) catch a riisease: a se rnoiipsi de o boalX
chewing: rnestecat
chicken pox: variceiE

chiidhood: copilirie
{toi choke: a (se} sufoca
clot/clotting: cheag
crou$ : c::up, anghina
c,vst : chisi
riigestion: digestie
ciigestive sys tem: ap ax atw't <iigestiv
disorder: boai5,, tulburare, dereglaae
ernbedded: fixat in, incasfrat

evetrid Xi:ring: interiorui pl.e*ap ei, corlj u.ncriv*


f arsi ghte dness {hypermetropiai : prezbi}i e, prezbitioet:
fats: gr6sirni, alirnente grase
treezing temperatures: temperaturi d"e inghef

frostbiie: degerituri
gallbladcier: vezica biliar:5
graand. up: micinat {to grind:
growth: rrestere
gutrtref, esofag,. gfitlej
heat stroke: insoiafie
oinfi incheietur5, articulatie
.i
Lavge intestine: intestin gxos
!.r-;er:

rnicina}

ficat

trining: ciptugealS", rnembranE


ioss: pierdere
{to! manufacbttr': af.abica, a produce
rneasles: pojar
rnur-nps: oreion
nerve endings: terrninaiii nervoase
occrerring: care apare/ survine, se produce
cpening: deschiCere, orificiu
paramedics: asistenfi rnedicaii pe arrrbui.antE
reriness: rogeati
research: cercetare
siaa-Ll intestine: intestin subitre
sour: acru.
siarches: f[inoase, aiimenteJproduse cx.L Conti&ui ririicat de an:irion

(toistore:a&epozira
{to} swaliow: a inghi}i
sw elling: ilnrf laturi, urnfl are
taste bud"s: papiie gustative
ti:ricker: mai gros (thick: grcs)
through the air: prin aer, pe tale aeriand

OJ

UIET 5A; TF{E E}gGtr$TEi,'E SY3TE}I,

L.

,4

tr

What are nutrients? Can -you g;lve exarrtpies of major m:trients?


Where does food go wherr we swatrLow it?
Approxrwtaiely what percentage of o:ur bodv weight is water?
Can you narle ihe organs of the digestive systern?
What is the body's largest organ?

The :naterials our body uses to rnove, {ro\hr, and repair itself are calieci nutrients
and- ate o-btainei from fooC. The major n.r.rtrients and whv the body neeci.s them
are shown in the tabie beiow. Canyau give exampies of fooris containing these
nukien+,s?
hIiJTR.IEI\JT
It' ca-rbohvdraies
I /starches or
i!

viiavn:ns

FUNCTI()N
Droc.uce enersv
UJ

ve bod
wth and tissue repair
normal heaith and
urth

minerals
I-ook at the picture below while reaciing the text:

g6

Water is aiso an importart'i


nuirient. it is present in aLltne
boctry tissues and accounts for
approxirnately 60"A oi our boi'v
weight, Water circuiates
substances Ln our body, acts as
a iubricant for movement and
digestion, ana. heips conti'ol
bodv temperature.

4!q.(.4:4i1':'
-:,

:i

.;'z

Ti'* soiic fto;: \^re eal. is :r=ken j-r3u.'r- :ntl- ru::ietit: tnar el'e :.r3eu Di Dr')cl; i=.is.
Thts pracess of changing soiici toods inio soiul,ie fcrrns ih.at are absor7r:a 3,.r
DatS\r ceils is caHeci iigestion afii is periatwred o'.,, tJre ciigestive s",,,siefi1. Tirr
orgar.s r:f the digesrive sr*rsterrr ar*: tme rfiauth (orai cavlryjt throat i\arv*x'), g1:liet

(ii

smali intestine, iarge intestine (coioni. A11 ,,_irese


make up' d:re aiimentarv ca*al, a 9-meter iong i-ribe from the rnouth io anus. Cther
cygarls that l"reip the process of digestions are: ihe pancreas, {?i _
. ajlc
iesophagus),

gailbiadcier.
Itiow'choose from *'he box beionr to frli in the inissing words in the iexi an<i tabie.
Use this unrt's word bank and f or a dictionary if nece csery
.

protetn
saliae

a0enftLg

e.sanha,zt;
-- - i- '"/o-'- s

.fat

biie

iubricant

nutrienis

SOUT

large irutestine

latlers

*i-'

calon
chezoing
giucose

Fooa enier-q the digestive iube thrr:ugh tl'ie nrouth (oral or buccai ca\rttrt),-wnereit

lsgroundupLryteethancry,,txedwifn{1)-,-w1lichcontainsachen",icai
that changes starch into sugar. The iongue {a skeietal muscierr, }"reips {.2i
ani swaik:wing. Cn the sur:face of tj"le tongue there are nel'\./e
enclings tirai form the iaste o'*ds; througie Lhern we feel the bitter,
salq,, ancl sweet taste of foocis,

(3)-

we swaiiow, {aod. goes tfu"ough the throat into the guiiet lescoiragr:s1,
muscuiar iube abawt 25 cenhrneiers iong. The poinr where the {zg;
enters the stcmach is Locateri at the en<i of the siernurrr..
?v-iren

Ine stornach is a pouch-iike organ just beLow the diaphragni iits shape is actuaLiv
<ietermine<i bv the amount af foocl and the position ,:i cne's *ai,-yi. "Ihe "waiis ci
ihe stornaci"l have la7rere, cr c"Jats, such aE i-lee muclrs ani cnusc'Li.iar i5,i
. T'l:re gash'lc giands em'uedded in th* inucils ccat secrete iriices ii-rat
break do"r,rn proteirts. The muscies in'$re rnuscular coat help {5'l
_ for>dundl it irecomes a iirluid. and push it into the sr"r'all intestine
.

The small intestine is iike a cctieC '-*-'oe, anci it is the p\ace v--rtrere fooci is preparee
and absorbed.. The iining c,f the smali inies'iine secretes digesnve juices, sucii en
enzv*ies q.-r'hich siirnu-late the pancreas, livel", anci Ea1]'o\ad.aer) anci i.riie i='0"'i1i1n
b,i'eak down fats). The sr::.a.il iniestine lining is coverea wtin iin-v hiood- vr:sseis
vr,'irich at*sori: nutrients. 'lirroug,ir ihew* {;7';
pass iri",-:; tne b:*crisiiear
to the bci;, ceils. Tne undigesteri focd passes {-rr:m thr: smaii irrtestiae into the {8}

t:

The pancreas, iiver., and

"

Fi'

gaiiblaclier aisc' piari an imnortant roie in digestion:

The pancreas is a feattrer-shapei organ situated behind the siornach. It


secreies into dre smali intestirre pancreatic iuices, which break ciown (9)
and fats.
The iiver is the largest oxgan in the human body, iocated beLora. the
riiapirragm. It manufacf,rres (10)
a yeiio,ei-green fluid that
breaks dow"n fats. Another iob of the liver is to store vitamins A, E, and D
and to procluce anci deposit (11)
, the sugar the bod-_r, doesn't
neeC.

The gailbiaririer is a small organ right


- under the liver. Ifs role is to store
biie and pump it into the small intestine when we eat foods high in (12)

The iarge intestine, or (13)


fram"es the abdornen. It is approximatei-7
i,5 n'reters iong anci it secretes mucus which acts like a (14\
for the
passage of fecal material (unused food). The fecal materiai is pushec out of the
body due to Lhe mussular activift' of the colon (bowel movementsi. Ti:e exleinai
(15)
thrcugh which it leaves the body is ca1led anus.
.*;;

f.:

W.z.W

ReaC the text above again

and label ihe picture based on it.

! i',::

ai::.
*
i-,

_:-

;t',''
f;{ai:-..

.1:,

Jr+,-

**&a:...
-lf-47 :

'E8

natrnai or nuirients pro<luce ener gy ?


Wirat i.s another rrame for the esophagus?
FIow rioes *le gaiibiacider heip dieesij-on?
Whai are bowel movemertts?
Does the stornach always have the same shape?
l,Vhat are taste buds?
Where is fooci prepared and absor"bed?
What is anoiftei name for the mouth?
Vll

ihe iabeie<i pici-ure anc clescribe (oraiiv anCtf or in writrng) the process oi
digesiion by using ihe following verbs: eai, enter, traaei doun, Pess through, break
u7s,
dol,n/oe briken acrpn, absorb/be absorbed, be, make up, heip, g,'Lfld uP/be g':ouni'

Giii"

"t

ciieiu, sa;aL'roto, secrete,

sioie,

be situaledt (iocaieiL),

pustt out/oe'pushed out, be cslieri-

t". trifr*ing worcis are reiated to the digestive system and. diseases,/condifions

associated 14r1th it. apperudicitts, cftolecysiitis, ciwh-osis, degiutitiott, gastroenterits,


gtngtaitis, ntasticate, hepatitis. Write'.heir delinition'in Engiish by looking at the
word par+rs beiow. The first one i-s cione for ya:u.
apendic : appendix, attachment
- itis = inflamrnaiion of
cholecyst = galibladCer
cirrir = rediish, Yellowness
- osis

: conciition of

degiuti: sv'rallowing

dir,,erficui : offshco l, byysass


gastro = st-omach
- enteri = smali LntestineE
gingiv = gurns

hepat: liver
masdc: che-w
- ate = process

),

cirrhcsis:

'

{t

n en oi i ci

of

i :, it';/rhm;rta fion a/ {/te a7,,rtma a7

J
()^
a'/

b
Y
r

gasiroenferliis;

Siyyiuitis
/

,-r.

kef)afitlr:

Circie the right answer:

1.

The mouth is aiso calleci


A. buccai cavity
B. digestive system
C. aiimentary canal

,L-

Cn the surface of the tongue ihere are nerye endings that


through which we feel the bitter, sour, saLw, and sweet taste of foods.
A. muscies
B. mucus
C. taste bucis

forr-i_

The segment of the aiimentary canal where food is prepared and absorbed
is ihe

A. smali intestine
B. coion
C. stomach
A
q-

This small organ right under the li-,rer stores biie and pumps it into the
small intestine when we eat foods high in fat.
A. pancreas
B. bowel

C. gaiibladder

5.

The external opening through


ca[leci
A. coi.on
B" anus
C. pancreas

6.

The stomach aiwavs has the same shape.


A. ir-ue
B. false

7.

The esophagus enters the ston'rach at the end of the sternum.

which fecai material ieaves the bodir

90

A. true
B: false

8. lfre pancreas stores vitamins


A. true
B. false
9-

A,E,and D.

The fecai materiai is pushed out of the body tiuough bowel rrovements.

A. true
B. faise

10. The

inflammation of the gailbiadiier is called cholecystitis.


A. tme

B.

false

iiow

check your answers


sentences:
Sentence
Sentence

with your group/classmates and correct the false

no_:
no_:

i.t

,,i

,*

,1
,.:I

.-_!
.,:

.E

{
n.
r

'z
.;t

,E

,i
.,i

.tit
-:,f
:::+

.;l

,...2

,.,1

'rIi

:.t,tltil

.:, ?

'iI
::

.:i

9t
.-!.!

41?
a;*

lE

UF{tr? 5E: VEffi.BS

- ?HE trASSgVE

The passirre is usei when iL is rnore convenient or knporrant to srress ihe thing
Cone than who perforrned tt, ar whren the person who ciid ihe actioil is noi
known. In an achve siatement, ihe subiect cloes tne acdon of the verb. in a
passive statement, the subjeci receives the aciion of the verb.

1rt.-I}I]

SUBJECT

$g+past part-iciple

Examples:

Active: Tlwtl inaested a iarge amottnt of money 1"n cancer researcLt.


Passive: A iarge antount of woney was imaested in cancr research (uy
tlrcm).

Active:

Tlze doctor zoiii resd tirc

Passive: Tke chart

ciwrt.

wiMe readbv

thz doctor.

A passirre verb alwavs corsists of ihe heiping verb "to be" in the specific tense
(is/am/are, is being, was/rnere, ruas being, has been, zoiil be, etc) arr'J the rasi
particirle of the rnain verb. S{;udlv'the sentences beiow and oay ati--ention io the
yerb " ta be" in the passive.

s-.

Ttze

b.

The ntwse is brutgtng tl"'e meclicstion,

nurse bnngs tlrc ffieaicatiorz.


Tirc nrcdicatiort is broug-Ltiby the nurse.
Tne medication is beingbrowght by the rut"rse,

c.

The nurse brought t!rc m.edicatron,


Ti'Le medicstion rnas broaght by the nurse.

a.

Tne nurs ruas bringtng the nrcdicstion.


Ttw me{itcation was being crawght by the

e.

{LLLrse.

Tirc nurse has brougitt the medrccrtion.

Tiw meaicstion has bee* braugfutbu the nurse

Tirc nu.rse ruiilbnng ihe medicaiicnThe medicahon will be braugfut bg the nurse.
12

Y&W*

idearif'7 asrc underiine the passi,re ir-l the fciiowing excerots froryr this
week's hurnan b,ociv Lesson. The first one is done for vou.
Thr soiid ioad that iue entJp-Aeke7'!._io3.url. iruto nutrients that at e used. by boay
cells. This Pt"ocess a.f changtng soltd foods into solubie iorms that are absoibea bri
botty cells is cslled digestion and. is yerformed by the digesttae systerr,,
Food enters the digestitte tube throu.git the mouih, tuhrre
and rnixed zuith. salioa.

ti is g'ouna up ht1 ieerh

Tl'e stomnch is ct pouch-liice organ iusi beiotu the iiiaphrilgm. Its shape is actuaLiu
dsteminedby the amount of food an.d the positian of on.e'sbariy.
Thz small intestine is like a coiied tube, snd. it is ihe piace wlwre
-food ts urepare d.
srLd absorbed. Tlw small intestine iining fi coaerel.'tL'ith tiny hioori tessels iolnch.
nbsoro nutrtertts.

Probiems wiih the Passive {acile vs. passinve, -ed vs. -ing, ccrrect
iorrn of "be" , etc). Circle ihe ccrrect answer (if more than one anslnrer applies,
discuss the ciifference )
:

i.

The consultaion
a' ir''iIl Pa,v
b. will'oe pai,eri
c. be paiC
d. will be paid

2-

r,rn all hospinai beis


lf"re sheets
a. irave ci"langeci
b. irave i;een changed
c. i-rave been charging

3.

Ten pati.ents
a. seiected
b. were seiecting
c. werl sei.ectec
i. selecting

4. Each new effrp'Lcyel

hy the patierrt.

icr:

thre research prcieci.


ti

to irave a physical.

a. is requireri
b. are required
c.

requiring

5.

The doctor's jokes


a. were amused
b. amused
c. is amusing

6.

The hospitai
a. established
-o.
was esiablishing
c- was estabiished

7.

Admission to the clinic

thre

patient

in 1989.

on strictrules.

a. is based

b. based
c.

basing

B. The top meciicai stucients


a. wili select
b. wili selected
c. wili be selected
d" willbe seiect

tc receive scholarshiPs.

g.

about three hours.

The surgical Procedure


a. is lasted
b. iasted
c.

w'ill be lastedby the doctor is an oid Lad1t.

10. The next Patient to


a. be seen

b. see
c. be saw
d.be seei:rg

i1. Two peoPle


a. been hurt
b. hurt
c. were hurt
ri. were hurting

in the accicleni.

94
i-i."r,a

'! o C'r.
g-ltl] ^
i:.

the flu.*ziriie visitung rrienis

i:.r

Europe.

caugni
b. caught
c. was-being caughi
a. was

V*W&Y/riie

thj.s senterice into the passive in iire Present Flogressive, Sirnpie


Fresent
Perfect, anri Simple Firi-ure.
Past,
Tne d.octor controls the pattent's vain zoith analgesics.

Present Progressiae

Aciive:
T)^^^;,,^.
r q-DDI v C"

Stmpie Past:
Acti.,,e:
Passive:
Presen.t Perfect

Active:
Passive:
Sirnple Fltture:

Active:
Passive:

W:y
7.

Change fi'oue passive to aciive:


The interpreter was askeC to come early.

2. A speciai riiet has been kept b-;, all patients in the stud1,

3.

Faiients wii-l not be alioweC bevond this point.

4.

Tne rer:ort v,ras written

5.

.^r

b1,'

fire new ioctor.

decision shouict be rrrad.e soon bv ihe surgicai ieam.

Fragticel E Cn a- separate sheet c{ vaper, ka-nsl.aie Lhe i:assive seniences


aboye into vour native langu.age. Tl-ren h'ansiate ilern back intc Hnglish.
I

!". ...
:::;

2i!:.

LJ\

in

ffiRe-writethefo11owingoassage,changingtheua<ier1inedpartsinthe

passive. Begin with "When someone is aopointed to our mefical s.'af!..."

lA{nen ?Lte appaint someone io our vnedicol staff ue gtue him/hzr a thorough
orientation to the lwspttal on ihe fivst ftuo days, We c'noose people as a result of a
searching interaiezu. Tnen zue train the new eryyloyee and teach him/her lnzu to
communicate with

atients

96

,.,,+.'yrw

ffit'

UNIT 5 C: D TS EASE S/I[, LNE 5 S E SFNTURIE SIFHYSICA T,


CONDITIONS A-M
vocabol*y list below the tabie. UnderLne the word.s you are familiar
wiih xtdl or those You can guess, and write them in the first column in the table.
Go over the

Then practice their pronunciation.

Go over the vocabularylistagain.This time circie the unfamiliar words, anci


write tfrem in the second column in the tabie. Then check their meaning in your
lan grra ge. Finatty, practice their pronunciation.

Words you know or you can

New worCs and meanins in vour


languase
Example:

CSS

Example:

af[icfion {nounJ

t{eTteno{ence on a substance 0r

prncifa ieyonfone's

w{unray csnfro{
A9OS {noun}

olitordurof fhe frnmune yqsfem

seuere

tran tmi

tr, eoi

f frro

uq

rt s e7u a { contact

ca*rl6a
?i,gil,
J

or contaminatec!

6{ori
ai{ment fnaun]

p 61t i ca { o r rn en la

am.nesia fnowrrJ

fost of

artfrropatty fnoun)

o{ist*se

(Tine^

1te{is) {noun}

[ fr s r{er, u fi
o

cere6ra{ 6emon

{r,oun)

a mi n d i {{n e: s

o,

o{ryoinf affifete's foot


^6no,rn*tg
contagiows fory*ii"facfian of'tfieti<ln fhaf utwa$ afict:,

t*u
{,tag e

ci a {$y

mumory

t6e feet

6{rt{ {uer[,]

ff

6ao{
L

bteed,nq

97

in

,r

the cerebruyn

ciiel<en

nniaairt

Pot inoun-i

i,rs

aitro.s

r, mai n k oi' cir tla?en,

yance{k uiru,s, wif6:bn eru{tfron:

,iufa {verbJ

interietne wit6

ca utea.'

i4 rfre

^nr{forer

ruhiraiian 6u comnression or oLsfruction o;

rf |
f
'
tfie lfrrynx 0r tfacnea

,iof/rfrrti*q [noun)

yrku"*6rru 6[oo/ iuromet trticrtpr, a{most:oi/

coma {nounJ

:t'afe of anconsciouy]ess in wfiicrt a fierscn b incaTtabie


: enting

t..r.

r-.

fpinheT) fnounJ

cojuncfiuifis

con-ragiou:'

/ru fioniing io werna { stimu li

infkmrnaiion o{ frt, coyi unefiva


c

t^$.)

fia r a cferize

{itrott

of

[ey

eid i"in@,

i 64 r tines:

t6.ai can fie yta:sei{rom

,4ernson io

lterson

fiu touci.

or frtrowqfr tfre air

ctoufr {nounJ

cji

{noun)

pafrtokqica{conotittrn of ifrt

hry"r, upra^{$ in r:frifdren,

cfraracferize/@ rupirafory

lifficuf$ onf cougrt

6no

r*^ [ t*c wn o{er s {g n, it fiei wi i 6 a li g u ii o r s emt:' o {i {

sw|sfance

demenfia {nown}

[et ert o ra ti on oi i n fe frt d u a i fa c, rti et,, u, 6

m{bcaifon (nounJ

{ue to ftrain disoru/ers


^nt{lndgment,
/,ispfacrmeni of a rto/y
rucfi at the temf]0r6$a

^,

m emo,ry,

concentratian,

1tart,

tliy,kcrrnunt of a 6one {rom f t: nonnafposition


7a wt q

rti e{n u': fry fierrneiro i a

{ n o un

,6nor*o{ ronfrtion of trte e3e in *fiirf,


frtfant ofiecf: tfian

ir"otthite

(noun)

i: 6eier ior

o$eca

iryury or {ettrwcfion oisfunlfissue, yilost oiren t'iat ol ffre


nase, eatJ',
i ow

3a:frttit fnoun)

{on near

uision

/ fr

Tnger:, or ioel, *ustr,{

fy krct e7t]wrre

to uen4

en ng tem p e m t u r e-r

ciranic or acwtetffimmation of trtrmuclu-t memhrane


of tie tiomacfi

fieat

strotv {noun}

ieuere rx;n/irion u,usui k4 imfiair-ynenf of thr

ie.mperaiwre-rynkiirS oftilifit:, a:
eqcesiue 6eaf

a1C

6r$':

, ,err{f oi e/ftosure k

uir*iai:ease titusiliq iie eruytuon ,r *naiiirisfer: on tie

ne,,nes {nounri

s$n or vnucotnt

,nroirrnu

r
. rf f r /
f' /
: r.
walli
concenfi^(1?0'fi 0r |u[t[t{ }n t!,}e wt00d

tUpeytycenlia ('nounJ

/',

f f

fiyltertenion
{nounJ
J!

tllqh t0l00d hreisure

ieuiemia inounj

,'
f,..i. r.
f
I r f
f
.t 1.,
r1{w or cancetr due n abvi)ftnai muttthbcaion ol wnite

JI

6ko{rrfi"
me^s{u {nouni

acute, contaSious rdiseasr,

an{ cLaracterize/

wr*$

6y erusttion o{

occurdng in ch;tfi,taod

rel spofs on tfie ski* *nd

prt,
trl

rne@n0Tna i noun

,l|nr[.frmu, mott$ in the sidn

riiarrt"ed fy iie nafura{an/ peorn*ne* e*amg oi


i:etior/
ntensfruatian, ut,rofr1 hetween trte aqes oi a5 oniSi

meli0!!nu:e !n0'"{nr'
I

-i-)

marnflJ' ln1unJ

acwie,

in{amrnatoty,

conraaioul d?sr*ie cfiaracurize[

tg

:wellinc.t oy the saliuarjglands

Cover the definitions and. go


terminolog.rr item in your own -worcis.

rloltn the iist Sylrizto expiairr

each

'S'v\Tnat's the Engiish

for a sl,ngera, aariceid, cneaq, tnsoia.tie, d"ererdiurdT


\zfnat's the Romanian for clot, iarsigh.tedness, ffteasies, rrr"um.as, crorutT

Use the worris

Circie the correct answer

i.

-!

i?:
'w.,.:

sentences of yawr ow.n.

contr"oi
a physicaL or rnentai d-isorcier, espec-ral'ty a rntnd iliness

Athiete's foct means


A. a Cisease cr an abnormaiii:, cf a joint
B. a c,:ntagious fungai infectiom of the skin that usi:allv affects tire ieet

C. bieeiing
csQ

'r,

in

*eEsE Wr**s,A-M

"-:-i
..4

An aiirnent-is
A. very high sensiCviry* tc certain substances
B" dependence on a substa-nce c>r practice bevond one's votruntar-r,

C.

?.

in Application

Cerebrai hemorrhage rneans bleeciing in tire stomach.

A. irue
&. false
4

A chronic disease of the ii.ver characterizedby the replacement of normai


celis -with scai tissue

A. acute
B. cirrhosis
C. arthropathy

5.

tsiood becoming thicker (al.most solid) is known as

A. clotting
B. bieeciing
C. hemorrhage

6. A ciisease ihat can be passeci kom person to person b-y touch or through
the air is called a contagious riisease.
A. true
B. faise
7.

An injury or desffuction of sidn and uncierlving fi.ssue resulting from


exposure to very low f freezing temperatures is known as croup.
A. true

E.
b.

false

Gastritrs is the

A. infiammation of the colon


ts. infiammaiion of '.he urinarr bladder
C. infiamrnation of the mucous membrane of the stomach.
9.

Disiocation means the ciisplacement of a bone from its normai position


A. true
B. faise

70.

A forrr, of cancer <iue to abnormal muliiplication of white blooci ceils


A. ieukemia
ts. coma

'

C. riementia
check
vour ansv,zers with
Now
sentences:
Sentence no :
Sentence no_:
Sentence nc_:

your

group

!00

/ ciassmates

an<i correct the false

Uh{IT 5D:

r;}{i? 5 ?'RAhISE-A?gGhi

iei*

N,

E}RACTAC:

Lisien ic eacir sentence in B below and repeai it

rn English.

Translate the foiiowing sentences irito


Romanian:

i. The next patient tabe- seen bv the docior suffers izorrr amnesia.
2. I{e i.s choking. Ha',,e- tlte pa-ra-mectics been cailed?
3. Dementia patienrc will not be aliowed beyond this point.
1. Tnis nurse was taught how io comrnnnicate v",ith AIDS patienis.
5. Alarge amor:nt of monev was invested in menopause research.
6. No connection has been estabiisi-red between vour hvpergiircesria
7.
8.
.;-i'

:i

anC

5/our hvpertension.
Conjunchvitis is characterizedbv er4e redness.
She had a heat stroke wirile she ,w,as visiting friends in Mexi.co.

all"'.r,r..i.::i.I::li.iii+l-

rsqjffffi.l ii

":i+i.<j;str' *:

"Ef-

.-

. i'

-- t.

'

"aas l ati6r,r T r a. ns

La

te th e

f ol"lo

win g s e nten c e s rr om

ltomanian into En giish:

i. C boali care se trans:nite ie ia persoand


?.
3"

1.

5.
b"

7.
8.

ia persoanX pnn atingere sau pe

caiea aerului este o boali contagioasd.


Degerdtura rie la degetele picioarelor tale esre ciestui d-e serioasd. Cfir time
ai fosi expus la tempeiaturi de inghe!.
Cam.enii care au fost r5.niF i::i acest accilent sd"ngereazL grav.
Leucemia este ci tcrrni; iie caficer dat-orarb muiiiplicirii anormaie a.
celuieior sangurne.
Este congtient? Mi s-a spus cf, este in corn#..
Are cisdtd gi durerea ei esie controiaiS cu analgez,ice.
Probabil c& s-a m.oiipsit de eipd sipi5mana ?ecutd,r,rr zborui spre Asia.
Chnd cineva este nurait pe post in cadrui. personaiuiui nosuu rr,.edicai, i se
face un instn-rciaj am5.nr;ntit ia locu.i de rnuncd.

fu:,1,;6

ilBie&eq The foiiowins ien -,,,ocabuiarv iter"rs are froni this uni:':
'woril cank: adr)ictict, boctti ioeighi, ci*t/clotrlrtg, .fa;sryntaarwss, tneflsies, sic.rcies.
szuaiiotL;, ioes, yeriness, gnllhiadaer.'iise therrr in seatences of your o14'n.
;&Fwi

10 i

UNIY 5 =r^/OftD BANK


tlse ilrc aocabuiary items in ints unit's uordbank

for lessons, ayplications,


quizzes, and transl^ation practtce, unless otlrcrtuise indicated.. {ou tuill encounter many oi
these words in aiher units' aocabulary banks, and so, by repeated use, you zuiil master
thzm by the time you flnish tltis textbook. This unit includes the folloTolng:
t
a

I
a

s-s needed,

6A: The Excretory System


68: Verbs - Modals
6 C: Diseases/Illnesses, Injuries/PLty sical Condifions
6D : T ranslation Practice

-Z

(to) admrt a r:atient: a interna u.n r:acient


-r ---*--bean-shaped: 1n forrni de boabe de fasoLe
billin g: f acturare (delayed biliin g: factu.rare intArziat5)

bladder (urinary bladder!: vezici urinarX


blurred: incetogat, neclar, confuz
bowel movements: peristaltism intestinal
burn: arsurX
ito) check vital si.gns: a verifica sernnele vitale (respiratie, puls,
ternperaturE)
covered bv insurance: achitat/onarat de asiguiare
cystitis: cistiti
driver's License: permis de conducere
(to) empty: a goli
excretory systeu"l: aparatul excretor
fafl grisime (sr.rbstantiv); gras (adiectiv)
feees: f, ecai.e, excremente
fever: febri
{to} get pregnani: a r6.mine insircinatd
harmfi.li: nociv, diunitor
healing wound: ranE care se vinciecd. (in curs de vindecare)
hemafuria: hematurie, singe in urini
holiow muscular organ: organ cavitar
in great demand: foarte cerut/solicitat
kidneys: rinichi
liquid waste: reziduu iichiC
iungs: pIEmAni
name tag: ecuson
nanorv: ingust
nearby objects: obiecte apropiate
.,;,

ta2

.,i:.,.r

';'ti!:
g1-a

nearsighteCness (rnyopia): miopie


nephrifisz mefntd
nephrons: nefroni
noisy: zgornotos, gSligios
(to) occur: a surveni, a se produce
ointrnenh aLifie, unguent
oli guria: oligurie (mic gorarea v olumului urineior!
openin g- deschidere, orificiu
(toi perforrn: a indeplini, aface
pneumoc oniosis: pneumoconiozd
podiatrisfl medic specializat in afecfiuni ale picioareior

(to)poison: a otrivi
poiyuria: poiiurie (cregterea car.titifii
pr esbyop ra: p r ezbilie, pr ezbitis m
rabies: turbare
-l-i-i+ic
IlrlllILIg.

cie

urlni

peste 3y24h).

- -i-i+X
lrlr^t&

salts: siruri
scab: crusti., scoarli
{toi scald: a opiri {verb); scald.: opireal5. (substantiv}
scar: cicatrice
seizure: crizi., acces, atac (dei
soiid waste: reziduu solid
sprained: Luxat, scrAnti$ sprain -luxafie
steam: vapori de api
(to) store: a depozita
strep throat streptococ in gAt, rogu in gfit
sudden: brusc, sulrit

tonsilliHs: amigdaiitH
tonsil.s: amigdatre
ureters: uretere

urine: urini
whoopi.ng cough: tuse convu.lsiv}, ttr.se md.gireascE
withdrawal: refragere
(to) write prescriptions: a scrie relete medicatre

iUJ

UNIT 64': TF{E EXCRETCRY SYS"EIVE

,}
1
IL

Whai are bowei rnovernenis?


Can vou narfle dre organs of the excretorv system?
What is ifre name of the iiquici waste the body eliminates?
Ufhy are kicineys important for tne body?

Choose from the box beiow to fili in the missing words


in the text and iabie. Use this unit's word bank arrd/ or a dicdonary if necessarv.

ffiW

saiis
kianeus
-l4e iearned

liqutd
bladder

w'ine
nephrons

bowe! moaements
'tubes

the previous unit flrai the undigested food {feces or fecal materiai)
(muscular activii"t
is renloved from the bodv with the help of the (1)
of the colon) through the colon's externai openlng, cailed anus. T"ne fecai materiai
is soiid waste, but our body aiso eliminates iiquid h,aste as u:'ine ia mixture of
waste is
water and harmful chemicais). The removai of solid an<i (2)
perforrned b;,r the organs of the excretory systern: the colon - for soiid waste, twc
and the biarlder - for liquid waste.

The icidnel/s are two bean-shaped organs that filter out watet, (1)
. anti harrnful chemicals as blood passes through them. The,r, perform this job
ihrough theil nephrons ithe functionai unit of the kicine,rz): each icidney is n,arie
. Urine is forme<i in tire nephrons. The activrty oi
up af rnillions of (,5'1
the l<irineys is very i:nportant if ihey rion't function prc;reriy, ioxic waste
accirrnulates and. Doisons the bocilz ceils. From the kioneys, ttrine i.s carried to the
t t rotc
(each kidney has one
callei ureters
biadder througn Ewo narlo-* (6)
ureter).

is a hoiloY/ rlrrltsCdai organ


The urjnart biacirter, or simpi',r ine (7j
-leaves
the boci-'r. TLre need to ernuty the biadder
uniil it
that stc'res (8)
usuallv occurs wi-ien hatrf liter of urine accur-luiates in ihe bladcier'

I Vt+

#esla{
I

ffi&f,4

#,a&b

*,riaar4

i.

2.
3.
4.

\Alnat do kicinevs filter?


'vVhat is iire furrciioi-iai -r;.iLit of -uhe kiciney'?
FIow is ui'ine carriecl fuom the kidnevs to the biaider?
When ioes the need to empi the biadcler rr-suaiiy occur?

A. I-ock at the labeied picture above and ciescribe the excretorv srzstern anri the
eiimination of soiiri and iiquid waste hy using dae foilowing verbs: remoue/oe
remor.ted, perfcrm/oe performect, filter, pass through, be marie up, be formeri, funchon,
accumuiate, store, be csried., be cnlied, iesae.

B. Look at the r:niabeleC picti.:.re ani describe ihe excretory system anci the
eiimination of solid anci iiquicl rvaste bv using the verbs aborre amd the foilowing
nouns: excretary system, soiid zuaste/fecai mstenal, iiquid zuasteiitrine, lacnev,s,
nephrons, ureters, bladrier, bowei moaements, Gnt$.
!

I
i

t
a

t
t
l

I \j j

The foilr:wing words are teiated to <iiseasesT'conditions of i:he excretorv siistem:


cystiiis, dysuna, hematuris, oiiguria., renai. Vyrite their <iefinition in Engiish by
iooking at the warC parts below. The firsi one is rione for vou.
cyst = biadder
- itis: inflammation

.i,vt: painful
',tvia = urination
olig: scanfy
hema = blood

ren : kidneys
- al : relating to

di,ttttt\n
"

j-'"./> fiaiy]6tufla:

\,
\.-

ohauria,
renat:

Circie the right ar.swer:

1.

Urine is formed in fhe


A. biadder
B. ureters
C. kidneys

2.

Each kidney has

two ureters.

A. true
B. false

3.

Urine is the liquid waste oi the bociv.


A. true

B.
L

faise

Urine is carried to the bia<iier througi-r


A. ureters
B. kicineys
C, nephrons
Kidne-vs cio not

filter irarmjui cteemicais

A. true
B, faise
r06

as

blood passes through them.

:Y&_-Yqqi:

6.

Crrstitis meafis inf,larnmae.on oJ the biariaer"

A. true
B. false
1

7.

rnateriai is
A. sslid waste
B. iiquiC waste
C. nephrons

T"ne fecal

B. The condition of blood in the urine iscalled oiiguria.


A. true
B. false

9.

The nephron is the functional unit of the kidne-v.

A. true
B. faise
10. \Alhen the kidneys

poisons the bociy

don't work properl.rr, toxic waste accumulates anci

celLs.

A. true
B. false
Now check your answers witir your groupiclassmates and correct the faise
sentences:
Senience
Sentence
Sentence

no_:
no_:
no_:

1A'l

UI"{IT 6E: VEEttsS

- kI{}DAE S

Tile rnosi corngion modais are CAN, COUI-D , !uL.L'Y, I{IGI{T, SFIOULD, FfUST',
I-LAVE TO, WILL, artd WOU-D. i-ike be, cio, anl haae, modals are helpingvetbs,
but they are always followeC by the base form of the rnain verb and they are also
spectaiin that they cannot stand aione in a sentence - that's why exampies 2 and
3 below are incorrect:

L. Tlte nurse can speak three languages.


2. The nurse can soeaks three languages. (incorrect)
3. The nurse can three languages. (incorrect)
in orcier to recognize and use modals it is necessary to be famil"iar with them. The
foliowirg chart shows some rnodais with their meanings.
present abiiiry
Can

CAN

possibilif

use

jourpen? (infarmaQ

Sfre can 6e tfrere.

I coutd spea?,-Engf*fi.
oermission
I

COULD

I Caui{

witen

was 12.

i i;tss }ourpen? (pofite)

I
I

possiiriiify

5fi, couff 6e tfrere tontgfit.

M,A-Y/

DermI.Sslsn

g(a-i,/mWfrt i use ,rour oen?

possibilif'!/

advisabiiitv

{ou

MIGI{T
may/rntgfit

6e accepteci

itt medira{ scfroo{.

sfioufd see tfu doaor.

lcgical ccnclusion {fie [octor sfioufd


i

6e fis7s fi"; nfru;.

i "A $ app{uanis mrst ta?g tfre test.

h{U3E
i probabiiiry
ir

llonn i.rn't

108

"..

fiere ioaay. He must 6e sic4

TTAVil,T*

neceSSltr,r
J

frepe ,c get e fiiglc score on t?,e test.

c,A/iff"'tou situt tfie Aaor?

i paiite xesuest
ljj

WILL

not agree

refusai

| 9/, waui"a

I past habit

WOULD

La fi..

ufffir fraurs 4lrer meetings.

polite request
3{e wou[dnot taQto

me.

MAY to express what doctors and nurses


are aIlowed/permitted to do, anri CAhii*JOT or MAY NOT to naik aboui wha:

Based on the table belcv,z, use CAN or

nurses are not allowed/permitted to do. T"ne

first two examples are Cone tor -you.


but '/ou nnight want to redo them so as to altemate using CAb,J/MAY anri
CANNOTI}!d.AY I.JOT.

i
j

<ioctors i

-----#-lvesiyesi
i
-r..o

i. aciminister medicaiion

ves

2. v,rite
3. cive i
4. perform
5. check

allowed/perrnitted
i-'-

tc?

nurses
no
-^

vitai

6- qive advice to

1. administer medication

Coctlart

t/,n al/futi?ilic{ mrdimrtbn froclort are afiwefrro*minler{ io a/rntnrfir

,ae"/r*rtau.

lvhrermn

me/uartan, /oo.

.Nurratrreart*e//Vcn trffet/

fo a /mrnyfer ma.lica rta n foo.

?. wrrre prescriphons

Aac/orinrautn/e.4rucnfii'anr,ir.'cior"ar'taf,cwcalia,ryatfea'?t
J;i/
wrie,rtrerriortbrt ,Auant maty' nor wn/e /trefin/tfr'oru: lv'artct are no"'aii5wu2frurw,'/rbt''
//Jlit

l ncir

----:.:.

i:i'.:

:'

?,.

gve iztjections

4. periarrn surgery

5. check

vihl

signs

6. give acivice to parients

In the affirmative and interrogative, both

MUST and FIAVE TO indicate tirat

something is necessary, or strongly required:


exsmination if you zaant to get a drioer's iicense.
Do I haae to take a.n eye test if L taant to get a driaer's licsnseT
Yes, you hnae to take an eue test iJ you ruant to get a ririaer's license.

Exampies; You vnust haae

However,

a meaicai

in the negative.

MUST and HAVE TO no longer have the sarne

meaning:
MUST NOT (MUSTNT)

forbiciden/prohibited, against ruies/la-ws

Exampie: You mu"st not (tnustn't) drink and diae.


Meanirrg: ii is forbidden f agarnst tire iaw io dri:rk anci drive (T1lere wili be
conseeuences if you do.)

ii"i

DC IdOT HA'',{E TO (DCNI'T I-{AVE TC1 = not

necessary

Exarnpie: \'ou do not lwae to (don't hszte to) clt)Tl 0. cor in- arder to get r, driuer's itcensc.
Meaning: It is rroi necessaq,z ta own a cai 1n order io get a ciriver's license
(You can obtaii:' a tl-rirrer's license even if r,,ou don'i own a cari,

rlar

I tu

gA.Mffim Which of the rwo statemenis airer eaci:r sentence

best sho-ws the

rneaning ot the sentence?


a. The cardioiogist might go ro *:re r:rountai.ns for the weekenC.
- He was given perrnission to go.
- it is possibie he will gc.
b. V'le can't seii tlij.s d*9.
- We are unable to.
- We don'tneed to.
C.
You cou-id be right about Fjs allergy.
- You are right.
-w'^.. *^.'
I Lrtr ilrfl)/

e.

l^^
ut *j^L+
rrbirl.

He should see the podiatist.


- It is advi.sabie for hirn to see +Jre poCiatrist.
- He ie c'i'-reri ne*::ission to see {:e r:od.lafi.ist
The patient won'i eat hospiial food.
- He refuses to eat hosi:ital {ood.
- Fie is not alloweci to eat hospitai food.

Choose the best wan, to compiete the seniencesT'diaiogues below:


a- "\Afhere is doctcr Praf{?"
"1'm not surg. He
in his offuce."

should

be

might

be

wiii be

b. Have you noti.ced that sign, sir? You

c.

hospitai.
must noi

should

nct

srnoke

fu:l

the

rion't have to

"'[ can'tfind tfus'i:atien/s recorcis."


"Y7ave you lookeri in the nev., file cabinet? We move<i all recoreis
fur ti:ere last week, so vou.r patient's file
there iocanay be
shouiri be
carr b
three Languages wh.en she was jusi i4.
shoula speak
can speak cou.id speak

d,. she

e.

long hcruis for


iwas in rredicai schooi, i
each test. i had vetv gaod sf*dv habits.
wou-lC studv
rnight stuctv
couid studr;
rvVhen

F,racfi*e.C Transforrn ihe fr.,iio-wing senier:rces using mcciai rrerbs:


a. It is possii:ie &at thev refuse to acLmit this patient.

li

U.

C.
L.t.

It is necessery to creaie a good irnage in orcier io increase


med.ical insurance sales.
It is advisable for them to price this drug at an acceptabie ie','ei.
The drug is in great ciemanrl, so it's obvious it will yiei<i a profiL
We were able to read tfre rnedicai report last week.

Studv the information below to understand the meaning of past forrrus of modals.
l.lotice that you can use the following forrnuia for the past forms of the moclals
studied in this unit
rnod_al + have + past parficipie
Past forms of mociais

should have +
past participie

Examples

MeawLwa
advLsaoLe acltow

V* rno"tan*,

(a.La. wot taPe-

to gtae

ntked him

it to yott in wittng.

pLaoe)

couid have +
oast participle

past

pos-cLbLLLlv,

(vtwcertaLw Lf ttAe
actLow occu,rred)

may/rnight have +
past pariicipie

past

r.,o.ss[V:LLL|tl

(utwcertaLvu Lf

tne

-tle

couiithaae hndhis own

medical practice if he
zuanted to.

ile may hnae entsred anoth'er


medica! o1fce. I rion't knoto.

actLow acc,"trred,')

must have +
past participie

I can't find rny irieniity tag.


must haae lfii it ai home,

PYOctabLLLtUl

Discuss the meaninglmessage ci the sentences in the box beiow. For


each senience, determine whether )/ou are
a. rnaking a guess
b, saying vou're sure about something
c. saving something was a gooC iciea (advisable) but it <iic.n'i hapren.
d. saf ing something wasn't a good iciea but it happened.
e. saying somedring is possibie.

$#l

112

i.

saying someflahg is nci passibie

,/

haopen.

,
Fie shouio have haci his erres testeri' t:"..--"*rrYour brother must have ieft the hospitai {eeling much better.
The hospitai coukin't ha-ve lost your medicai records.
You shouidn't have iaken tius medication.
Tnis medication nLight have given you a bad reaction.
i{e couldn't have perforrned the surgerv so late in ",}re evening.
Ycu must have known somefhing about my condition'
ilne ciiet insiruciiclrrs should krave been untire paper'

WffiTransforrn

the foilowing sentences using past forms of rnocais:

!,

It was a good idea to have her clinicai skilis tesieri, but she cli<i-n't.

2.

I'tl'r sure ycvr sistei left the rnaternif secfion with her newbo::i.

It is not possibie that ihe pharmacist losi yollI urescription"

4.

It wasn't

"

-rou riiri.
a gooci tdea ta appi:{ this orntureeni bui
t/orilaufrrt f i*r r,n, iiur/'ilu o*Arri.
vUy,

J,lvgz.v.,,-y.,.,."..;/./..

I guess nuts harre

f.

-.

gi";err

.-:-..

voli an atrlerpc reaction.

O. It is impossibie that he visitei the patient so iate :n the e-rening'


;

3.

1'm- sure.,.ou i<nevt'Scffil.hing ai:out rnv *rse'btLt?v '


1t was a goocl id ea to have the

get tirem

o11

riier

PaPe:'.

11-

i.nstruc$'-r j:IS LIii ?apel ,

but -'rou diiLn'

Transform the following sentences using past forrns of modai verbs:


Obviousiy there was a deiayed rnedicai biiiing.
{l-.
I don't believe they called the specialist so late.
b.
c. Perhaps the drugs har,.e alreadv been deiivered.
d. We are?retfy certain that the meciications were covered bv insurance.
If you had done your biood tests, everything would have been O.K.
e.
*

1:u

114
**;a.
6$'.-i*i:::

-.ri1l:rB:Tii_T.l

UN

IT 6C: E) I S E ASE S.#LLNE

S SE

S/{NJUREE S&r'HV

ICAL

Cr}NDTTI(}NS N-Z
list beiow the tabie. Und.erline the words you are famiiiar
with ana/or those you carl guese, and write thern in the first coiumn in the table.
Then practice their pronunciaiion'
Go over the vocabrrlurry

Go over the vocabulary list again. This time circle the unfamitiar worCs, anC
wrtte fhem in tle seconcl coiumn in the table. Then check fheir meaning in your
lan gua ge. Finaily, pt acfrce {reir pronm ci ation.
Words you k"no-w or You can
ESS

ExarnqLe:

nearsi q frfednev {no

un),

New worcis and. meaning in,vour


I h,'n..r^su
Example: tcar: cfuafnce

u;:ua[{e{,ecf

inwiici di:tani o$ecit a{tfear fiin*,'ed

{ruio;tia}
-

! .t.

nePt4nfiJ

",

lnounJ

r ., r

ohefiu Ln7unj

acute er cfrronic in{ammafioru of ifre


increased

6olj

we'krti causat

tOdnrjt

eyasnue ar:cumukiion

{a{ [zo% io Jc% olrer an in{iviiuais

of

re*o**r*iui

we,gnt)
ofifis tnou,nJ

inikmr*a tion o{ f[it

ftneumcnia {nouni

acu{e or clironie

e^n

iitu^su ,nar{,.{ rt, inikrnmafion oi frtt


r

!unjs and c{rused l'y uiruset, haeteria, or chenvica{irrita*is

ri5

i.4i

9r.t.

aJL:1aJn
.lr

9w /t) ulAAWWUiut
.
.,

{u

,J

./.Ij

yt 0

u}

t!} !,} tl }?,t

yt

',tOtlCUnJ
,l:,

,!!/c{i)0!O$hfu ou huilttff

rilfic:t)

Gnssa J0 {4l{rtadb tou,t}cuqCI

ljt

,t0LUv13

tuaf fica
uo Jo .scuala!{L ,tto,tj

l,

'f.ro\

a,,!1

frnAl s}4luat

oiiicot4s ro

iun?uJ

fufiju) talj|tfuci

yruci ]c uouuututwJut

f/ru1i

ayl

Jflus

0u,rtev"ii

.r

j0 u1uvtl.tbwtJwyua "ta,+al hcl /4a2il0]cv,tiruc


iatt

yeffiac y0,tu1aLil
t3?0c01qa4[
f
i hq
_'
lJ
Ji Jii
ar

inlqlun ln? jaulrotl uuy]

nlc

arl ro

jo

Lt o i1 vc o)

a^aar

sa 'uo$rnnuoc,,to

u.t

[unau.) iaoary {,ia,tir

tf

,,BJoa,rf,uoaow Jo a6ua,t

u t4bnorLi] iraudvc si ittiz/ a'ii u?tjtvt ]u'dLilvo! v

Grirld,

u?q?eJut
./ J .

'*or),

htn iut

lunouiulrris

ycul]u uaryltr

,utrls ay1]o arn]uwnc

{unluJ

enrqler

funou] ttro7ocr

JUraJat
JraJ0?tl

tvu

"Funn{n

ro frrney eca},tnr a aaila uds efi


Luua]r ro pmby

uo

l'iln1u]

la1>Jrwu

ptl glyn uinq

rwr

$;an1y1at[

iullriljo loJ , 6upnyor,)


l.an7

o]!w c.gt.tvrarl v

funauli

yasnao atazry ub1,r;n0hu1u0c

vil/nnJv frr,rror, ,, frr, ,nnnr, 1/it)u trtn, uatrt ,nl tcr rt


f *"""' "*i" "7' - ":"""" i'"* "*""7.f """*'7 r'""''

'(

,;aua,tqurcut ,rnozytw [ar1u)


ay]
]0 uo4aatwvJut
Jq,tyu
!,1]t

[r1 ya ma11
ay nj r u !

tv!1

o]' a quau]a p p uo

r*

1,) *

{s1au1ua

sc/'

tt

joi

u,ra ]s

fi

?,p/tuq

rsl u0 /t$sa,t

ilu.tc

7"""

{unou) qiluly,,j

tyt$o*r)

66a' tuau,u1,cla

rn o tre u vuJua c
J

*""^j

fttmntt)

saaucs
'l

!] $

ap a

ataaiyJart{})r}v! qy6t? 'rnogca}u1

{unouJ salTur

i'J0 uoucnao"ttl teui busnn;o


r
r
butuwtttoc

-l

a
r'- f'
,^i
i
f
' hxfiqaut
kaus;u u0 aftrous stlcal ur al,ft aw io
t'J'J
i
_i
.i
,tii
-i'

t"htu)r. luou,tnt/
t.-J
J
t/|
[uv]ouJ stc/ohgra,ttl

auun ia u, ornrruri rtt{sacxa

[i/]1ou) alrnnJoq

'-t

'

jj

sjz?lc!0
r 'j

it2tng curorltLi

ij,,!J;J,J_t;-;

vty

tlrteufit

[,,rrrritr]

r:snu
I

-,n,-

:d da2!4lailLtt itual-t uoi iiq rtasa? i.tunt aut

,I

.!c ;,rae .rt:,t

{ ull
(,r

o Lt

st so

iucc

owt a ut/

7.twr!;?j
'

.5_

..f:.ra

ilfrciniti: i'nounj

tnf mwwt.S10t t), |4A':!GGi1,)o

r
.
" i,:
,..;.
i'e/uallti t"friiiT.tttit1d dt:e[iJe. Mcn aJ sUhhiiii andf
J!

r,raa

uenefeai disen:e i?70u7]rt

qonorfheot
l)ertiqo

t-

inoun)

wrtoopina

f.

f. i".

t.

.,r

!'

fi

'ewafi?n
f r
i /'.
0r 0r elierval 7weett

cory6 tnoun)

rt,3

fr

cln

ut u o [{,q
:

co ug

!
,:

of trfequ{ar 0f wmrnnq m0D0/L etther 0i


-i Ane|eti
-.---- i

ta q i o u.t

ii t uos u a i f h e res li ra n nt sys fem,

fficfi n31, fri {r{rrn, ^nr{ c horo cte* ze[ h.,1 s hasms of

iiry

anc{ ncist4 ins

iirati on

/ef a c rtm e n t fr o nt s o c i a { o r

wrirtirawa{ [noun,i

em o ii o n a I i nu o fu ern en

Cover the definitions anC gc down t}e iist irlary to expiain each
item in your owl1 words.

ii':E

IA/1-^+/+l--,
Y?ITAL
J LIIC

Engiish for cicatrice, amigdalitit, tuse conuuisiad.,

boaid

,-tenertcd?

iAlrrat's the Itomanian for rrcnrsighteCness, scald, seizu?'e, sprainT


Use the Engiish word,s i:r ,-ppiicaiion 2 i-tr sentences cf yout ort/rr.

Cc#ditions ibi'.Z Crcie tne


correct anslnrer. The last three questions are based or1 tire orevious unit
(Diseases/ Iitnesses/ iniuries/ Phvsical Conciirions A-M)

i.

hiearsighteCness is a visuai defect in whicir


A. close ob'iects ap?ear unclear
ts,. distani objects appear biurred
C. coniuncti,;a inflammation is preseni

')

The infi.arn-rnation of the ear ls callei,

A. nephritis
B. tonsiiiifis
C. odtis
Pneurn-onr.a is

A. a

clisease

cf the i;.mgs caused- 'a',, Lrxsg-term

inhaiaiion cf dusts.

especiali-r: mi.:re:ai r:: metaliic dusis

B. a hishiv contagrcius

ciisease

aiiectj"ng chiicire:r

iil

of the respriator), s:ystem, usuai.i','

ffi
*r

chronic iii.sease nt;rked n'r, "a{laanr:lati*n is{ t"n* :::ngs


anC causeabv viruses,bacteia, sr chemrc-& irri.tanis

C. az: acute

4.

A ciust forrned frorx am-i c'cvering a ireaiing vuounci is a


,A, ^^^L
--t. >LdU

5.

E"

scabi.es

C.

scar

ScaiC means

to burn with hot iiqlriC or stearr'..

A. ffue
E. false
/
r).

1.Al:+L.S-^',,^1
^ -^*^^r-:^*
^S:--^-.,1^V I lLlttllClvvG.-[. I-tLE().li]
iai(:<Liaar
O.
D=l.lJC.LILJil Lrl

*^i-i^iltl-rLI\JIl.

A. true
ts. false

7. A seious ,ry*ry or shock to the body, as from vioience or an accicl,ent

is

ic'lown as
A. rurrior
B. trauma
C. sprain

B. A ryst is
A. a pathoiogicai condition c,f the larvrtx, especiaiiv iri cididren,
characterized bv respiratory difficrrity an d cough
B. an abnorrnal sac under skin f-tllea "siih liquid

C.

olr

sernisolici

substance
the inflam::aation of the urinary blaiCer

is an acute, inflarnmaiory, coniagious disease characterized


by svreliing of the salivary glands
A, rnumps

B. measles
C. rneianon-ra
i.0. i{erpes is a vi.ral ciisease causing i}re eruption of small Lrlisiers on the skb'
or mucous rrrembranes.

A. true
B. faise

I!oi.u., check vcu-r ansy/ers

witir l.our gro,;plciassrnates an.4- ccrrect

sentence{s i:
Sentence

no-:
r16
t to

Li-rr:

raise

iiFJgT &E]: I*'HIT

{}

Tl--iri';3

-;l::;:-;

;- i;": i+: .
L i_'a; L\-

i-isre* to earn serrrel]ce jn

i: !
:-L ,i i._ c

B belcr.v anci repe+.t

ri in Engiisi'r.

PrCr:lan"ea:t:
1

J,
LI

neeC to empr:y thebLa*,cer usuaJ"ly occurs w'nen iaaif trjter of wine


accwmulates i:t ti-ie bladciel.
i irright be ar:ce::ieo in tl'le inter::veter ti aining prolrarrl
You shoulci ask the ioctcr to :nange vour strep tnroai::re-"crirtrorr.
i can't itr.a my narne tag. i rnust have'iett tr. ar ihe hsspital
Sl're couict have trierl sor:fte natural remeiies c;n her scar.
Sire s.trouldhave ireateci- her vaginiiis bef.cre get*ring pregnant.
Ti.r.e

**'s.?*icffi Trans iate tir e foii c'rrrin s se.ntencp-s # r:tr,


F.oinania;r' il ito En giish

DacI rinichii t*: fr:ncdoiteazd. cu:re tr:ebuie.. se uat acwmulia reziduuri


iaxice gi uot otrdvt ceiuleie corpuiui.
Tusea wtdgbreasch.oaate fi caracterizatli prin accese c*nvu.iswE ie tuse sl
insnirafe zgomotoasi.
Tlacl ohiectele fudepdrtate if per neclare, s-ar putea s5 ai iniopie.
Tratarnentui tdu de l:ne,.:-::tonie n'ei:uie sa fi fost achitat de asi.g":.rarea- ta
medicald.

'iret re ros sei-i ceri pacieniuiui si--st ciescrie r::tzeve7


Eiirrinarearezia*uriior s,oliie r;i iicldce si: la:e '.ie cdtre +rta;ieie
1..;

apatanslui exctetar.

Wi,lW :W;a*'eiuriic*'l'he
-bani<.:

iru'iovixrlg ten vocab*liary iterns are irom rnis

bczue! iitot)s:x.eitts, di.eck.ztttat sigris, i'm,^mft;"i, scnb..


ll-rtit's vt'+tti
sar*inieCl, Voisoii, iiz,er's iicetsc, airctmeri. ttad,iatri;t. ie?naturin. Use t-he:lr ir:
se;-itences ci vaur oai'.li.

i1a

ffi..

,Jse t'ne z;ccirbt;iar"! iterns

fu titis w'tit's'tu*ribank

s.s needed,.io. iessans, a?piicat'tans,


uniess ailr.erzuise inciicatett-. {oit r-oill encounier rnanu of

*nd irawsistiott'orsctice,
iltsse z1c?.ti,s iyt otiwr u.-rt.its' ,.tacabuiat3i banks, itnd so, bA rryeflted use, yow zliii tncsLer
-youth.sm bi; the itrnE
-finisit ikis textbcok. T?tts imit inciuaes the iolialtting:
c1rtz7es,

"
*
*
"

7A:T!& hieraous System


7B: CorLnectors
7C: Treo-trnent A-7
7D: Transiatton Practic.e

: exatl., f o r e s p u 11 zat tw, p r e c i. s


affordabie: perrnisibil, accesibil (ca bani, ti*pi, elisponibii
awpiiant *: <i is r: oz it{lr, lnstru rterai, agl arai, in stalatie
itof avoii: a e=rita
at *et at ei

v*

baneiage: bali,.d.ay
-ne
warn: a fi pa,r-t"rat {is worn: este purtatl
{to}
bone Enarrow fuanspianil iransplant d.e rxrbduvi
brar.e: ptotezh
brai.n: crei.er

braiclstem: flrunchi eerebral


rrrffi$cle bunclle: Sascicral *e {xbre rmuscuiare (bundle: fascicul, mehnunchii
(toi canceL: a areula, a canceia
cas!/piaster: giaii:s
ceffitra] nerlrou.s systerta: sisteraaul ilerr/os centrai
cerebrtirsi: creierul sr?are
chirog:ra ctic: ch.iro yr acr.fu-a
c:aniai nerves: nervi. craniezri
{toi cure: a virndeea
ttatr d.etrivr: a ffitssi, a asi.sta }a rtagteri: alivta
ito) ciesf,rov: a ci-isf,ruge
itc) iiveril a deri=,,e, a" {.seil abate iie la
*izzv: ame'rii
<iressing: Bansarr!e:?i
exn es ge3:r f v tre atm e fi?: $ a!.atrLe nt d e wr E* ,:{tl"
ii*e: subf{re, fin
{.tysk erdt

prim ajutor

fiorer of Liicoci; i\,ax.ld-ebi.t. ctlrgere de s&nge


ga'*z,:

iitcr:
120

gra"., xfl a tter: *tater i*-:" sw .b st


neari*g a-id.: aparai auriihv

ar:tI * enu s i *: i a cr e i eru i.;: i


, prorezi, aueitir."i
tw.paired itea:'ing: defect ae auz,i:uruc$ie audit..ivE altercr,a
in-patien* paci.e*t i.nternat in svita.i; paci.e;:it tratat ?n unitate a svlta]llceasci
medtr.al suptrlies: instrumerrre, produse de uz me<lical
tnrltar il etrr,es : nervi rnoteri
mouthwash: api cie gurE
naturezrathv: aneCicini rafuristi
needles: ace
nervous systeur: sistern nervcg
olfactory nerve: fiel..,r altaeiiv
opening: deschidere, orifici.r:
avt-pa-tten* pacieut care nr:-::eeesitx rclternase in soitat; Facient
ambulatori.rr
peripherai ner,rous systern: sisiem nerv{}s periferic
itoi pierce: a str6pflflge, a gdle.l:,.
Prescriptiasz r etetE me <ii caii
{toi i:romote thera?yi a acceleialgrtbi, i.rtlesni teraaia
race: cursE, intreeere
(to! receive; a prirni
reiatives: r,ede
(tci save rnoliey: a econernisi ba*i
sense $rgans: organe cie sirnt
sensory nerves; nerrri senzitivl
smeil: rreiros, sirnf'.rl mirosu.iul
soft tissue: tesut moale
spicv: picant, iute
spinal cord: rniduva spinErii
spinal Rerves: nerrri spinaii

splinting: ateiE
ito) start one's ow]l meriical r:i'actice: a-oi desch:<ie cabinet medical prcpriu
skip: faqie
swailowin g: inghi rlt, i*gni r e
{tr:} train: a {se} inslru#pregd[, a forrrra
ireaiment: f,ratament
{to}wear: a purta
{to} weigh: a cdr,tbsi
rrring: artpdlcarp ae cld&we

tr21

iiFJiT
**

Az

TiiT

i1.1HF"V'':]T-jE

3YS,TEir{

:i*j.

:'ff-'"r}55&5S18?;

1"

rr,{/i1*U

does the nen,ous s.y,stafil ic,?


2. What bone protects tne craim.?
?r. Arpro;,.i:nareiy ho-w nruch dces ihe ?iuman brai:i wetgn?
4- -fiinat are nerve ceils caitreri?
5. Is the sainai cord pafr of tire rLer-i/ous sysre:ri?

F.r;e

Choose froi:.1 the box belorv to f;li in ihe srissing v.rori-s


ir-r the text a:r,j tabie. Use this unit's -wrsrd bank and.f ar a itLcaane-rv ti nec e s sz,T-,! .
;1o1.loh?no

't<,levu

ro ll

{tvo

/1

hvnnoc

OCLfrNCE

ffLgSSA?_eS

iLILLOl
tt iowt'o
U'LL;i *-

LSaTmflq
O

t.

optic

Our oaa;v is coord"inateci by the lrervous si/siem: it receives, t7)


. anrj
-responds to messages from the Dacy or ti-ie environment. Ihe basic unit of tire
I?ef/ou.s systern is the nerye (?)
0I fieuio11.
BunCles of neurons forsr fi-ie nerves: sei'isotr,, nerves carrl' i3;
ii:om
ihe sense organs to the brai:r and the spinai cord; motor nerves carry rxlessages
-brain
frorn the
a;rC tire spinai ccrd io other ooair llaffs. Ti:e ne;-,rous svsiern
ft;.nctions throt-rgh neR/e rmpulses -- messages irr the form of elech,ic cili:renis
transn"uitei irorr ilenlron to {1)
tI .,Y,,,.,
I .tS:t:_Z/:
:llt e .+r-..f;;-*+.*.-\tl ':h, f

-brain

-/_

: ..'-(F

aflc the splnai coicj. conirci ail ti.i= aciions of the *af.y, T1-1e1, for:n the
central ner\zolis s-rrsteui. The i"luntart ayaiy is a mass of scft tissr-ze weighing a-bc;ut
i4A{: grams proiecteli n3, *re si<uil. It ls rqracie up of ,ryhite and gia=,, Eiarter
ccrverecl ay \5)
cai.iei. i'oeriinges. Ti:e different part^e of ine bral-,
fieliarrfi riiffelent iuncticns. For ?xarrt-T)'le, tlle ceyehrurn ls responsibje tar
ai-:-- l-;* .= ! d'.
r
-'*",riiin
anlsj-tsfl
g, ar,G i'oluntat
llj. t.i\.l^ a:_, !,ii.i
YY1/Lrara-., a;
cpea kifr-?.,
:tt
ul:italt-"
=lrstci * aciir;ns; the
ccrebeiiurfi .ont..its i7\
Gl il-i
:1il.
lricion (such as it-: ia.aii<irr5; iur"ning
'::iocc-i
inr=
d z::r'i'l-lc.i:
?taii-.SiU:l
alfe:::;
3E?5r-'.:Ie, rioLi: :e rri1]i':.cini-1'rj, ;::.;
T'he

:.1

s:+,aiic'+ring.

1.2:

.::

f'he cenffai nervous systern is connected to a}I bodv ,arr-s b;u crania-l ani sp:.na.i
nerves which f.attr. tl"ie perinherai fiervous svstsrn. Tirere arc 3.? pairs of craniai
of the Drayn astci ate na:nei
nerves which begin in- different {8)
to
their
f,.rnctions,
such
as
th= (9) _-_----. x.ierve (responsi o'te {r-ti
accorcling
vtsicn), the olfactorv llerve {responsible fot'r-he ser*e cf srneiii, or some of thern
rLave rnixed functions. In general,, the F.rncdons ot il-re sanial neryes periaii'i
mairly to the aciiviiies of the head and neck. There are SL pai.rs of spinal nerves
originating in the spinai corC. Thuy go through coenings in the {10)
anci are responsibLe for carrytr.g m.essages to/{ram the spinai cor.d anci the bratr
to all bcdy parts.

^'
/-.

J.

-1

What is tLre differerrce befween t1-,e sensorlr nerves and ti-re mcior nerves?
-v4Lhat
function does +,he cerebmm perform?
!{irat art o'i tne brain controis bocv temperature?
Where cj.o craniai neryes ori.ginate?
V?-hat nerr/e is respcrisibie fcr the sense ci sm"eli7
How c:,ari,v pairs of spinai ile?'ves are tkere in tne hurrran borir.r?

.&E?p$ibaEeu

A. In tvvo separaie coiutrns, rtrriie down tile most important no:::rs ancl verbs
the seconC paragraph. Then d.escribe the centra.l nerrior.ls svstem using ther*.

\ierbs

|'ior-rns
'n

rr:ii;

c0|ttrrst

1,n1.

:.:::

B.Ir. twt sepal:ate ccLurirr:-g, wrtte dov,'n tlte rnost in'r-portant nocins ancl ver-bs in
the third paragraph. Then <iescribe ti're centrai nen,ous sr,rsiern using then-r.
Verbs

Nou-ns
bodti paris

_be connected_

The foliowing words are reiated to diseases/conditions of the ner''rous system:


cere'Wal, encephatitis, menin.gitis, neurcLlgia, neuitis.Wrtt-e their clefinition in English
hrr took.jng at ihe worci parts beiow. Tne first one is cione for yori.
vf

cerebr: brain

ai:

pertaining to
en = urithin

cephal: head
- itis = infiamrnation
mening = membrane
neurc : nerve
- a\pa = pain
\-|''tr/-,/

7
\.

eerebral: rterf*/ll/ila lo tfre


/

encelthaittts:

s,

J
,t.
neuralfia:

.-/

blalfr

!,r_

*t

,tf*erveug Sy,ib'err4Circie the correct ansl\"er:

L. Motor nerves

spinai corC.
A. rrue
Ll.

Z.

cerr\r messaftes trorn the sense organs tc the brain anci

tdrnlj

hjerwe impuises are messages transmitted from neurorr to neurcn as


eiecrric currenrs.

A. true

B.

false
1'\

"4

:i;:.:r'

'

"_ :'

:;
',
,

3.

The cereb

:.rm.

controis bloo<i pressltre.

A. true
B. faise

,1,,, 4. The brain and the spinai cord form the


A. cenirai nervous system
B. brain siert

C. peripherai nervous system

.'{

,,1

':i
.l
:i

5.

Spinal nerves begin in the brainA. true


B. false

6.

The

nerve is responsible

for the sense of srneltr.

A. opiic
B. olfactor,v

',

- cranial
C.

7. A neuron is a
A. nerve impulse
B. nerve cell
C. membrane

8.

The membranes covering the brain are called


A. gruy matter

B. skull
C. meninges

:r;
,.'

9. Cranial and

,:1

nerves connect the centrai nerwous system to atl bod,u

parts.

e.
8,

ootic spinal
C. vertebrae

,',i
.''1

i:,i

,:'i
'1

f
'r1
,!

10,

:i

Meningitis means inflantmailon of the brain rnembrane.


A. true

B.

false

:.

Now check your answers wiih

ti
=
.i.
i
i
::

your group / classmaies and correct the ialse

seniences:

.,i

no
no
bentence no_:

_i!

)entence

.>enrence

:t.
1

.{

...,

-ij

,.,:-

|t.

'. -:

'i" ,:.",

4r':.'
*a;:i: .

1?<
lL-,

UHIT'78:

1r':l-

CONNECTOR,$

Conjunciions {connectors) are used io connect words or phrases with the same
grammatical funcfion: the worcis before or after these connectors must have the
sa1:le grammatical form.
Verb

Yerb

AND
Aciverb

BiJT
OR
NOR

l'ioun
a a

irfrt

Aciverb
I

Noun

A5 vv-trr-L Ai]
Y

Acijective

Adjective

T_I

Exampies:
doctor usualltl arriaes at g:}Aam andleaaes at 4:A0pm.,
The arugs they sell are eificient but expenskte.
He could zaork as a meriical assistant or a lab assistant.
T'ne recepttonist types fast cts usell as accurately.

aur

Noun
Verb
BUT ALSC
i LTN
."\i\u

Exarnpies:

3ttr lab assistorii is nof o'niu

proiessl{}nai but aiso rueli-tratnetl


I

adiective

ttb

adjective

=HE*t!::i
'.q-:
.:.

'

Tne rectp-rlantsf" i,nes bath .fast nnd nccu.r::e!t.

ii

r'i

advero

adrlero

fle boih sfrtriies and iuqt'ks. Iie is ruot on!.u a sty.dent but also a. nurse.

il"ll
Y?YV

rrerb

A.

h
C.

noun

verb

nolu:r

Correct the rnistakes in the senterices beiow:


The Meciicai Engiish course was very i:rieresting but cost.
Nurses, as weil like doctors, work <iirectfv with patients.
The letter -we receiveri frorn our interr:reter contains mistakes in grar:rrnar,
_-- _Ir:._
_ _
_,
r-_, I r.
sperrurg
dIlQ sf_vusnL.

#9#6# Fili in the bianks 'a,ith the rnissi-rg r,r,oras of the expressions

"not

butaiso. ..","as weii as" or "both. -. afid..-"


a. fhe new meciical suprlies
. moi'e eccnomicaJ'otzt also more
atkactive.
b. FIe has
.. the tirne and the moner.r to staii his own medical
practice.
c- Thel, bought the drug for its a-':aiit,v
, for i.ts aiforcable price.
d. The cardioiogist lvas .
hungrv and til'ed after the suigery.

"Becatlse"f "because of" and "due io the faci ti'rat"f"d\r,e io" express cause,
Flowever, "because of." anc. " due to ihe faci fuat" are foiicrr,'eci bv subjeci a:,d
verb (:clauser\, urhiie "because of" anl "dite io" are foiioweil -by noul-rs (or noun
ohrases).

r).arflple6:

Tiu nospiia!

ruas abie to

btiii,i. ri tleiil it:itzg because

aonc,tiotts.

it receiaeri -ctgl'niccytt
-:*
1

c--:

hron.

B,

velD

..::j

j :,:l

i7?

,<97--- '

Trte liosaiisi :::as rible


rionailons it recetuei.

i*

ittnld- ,,

':1e7{7

:iting becauss

*f

liTo

sisnificnni

Er

noi.ln phrase itfre nourr is "iionations")


Prices rose due
Prices rose. riue

to the.fatt that ircnltJrcare cosis increased.


ta the inCI'ease irL heaithcare costs.

ldote: more deiaiis aboui ciauses and phrases

will foilow rn Unit

8.

e#
V.;

UE; identify the


**i-

---i.

c, using
-because

1.
2.

fciiowing as cause (C) or effeci (E), and then combine

-., I^lI +-.r-:t- 1 --,J

n --^:^-

it:t

la *ho dt-i +l"o+, 2 o_A

A ,,ri^t

because;7 arfi E using riue ta;9 and 10 using because; arrd 11. and l2using
o"f.\'wo pairs are aireadv combined for =,,ou. klake chanhes as necessary.
The operation was canceileci. (E)
More tests were neecied. (C)
She dicin't feetr weii.
She calied the doctor's office to make an appointment.

6.

Medication makes the patient dtzz,,,.


Tne patrent reruseC medicaiion-

The treatmeni' was sr.iccessfui iE)


The corrdition u*as iiagnosed. promoiJl,. (C)

fielreatytreflrtua.ri,t/ccgi-rfi/hfreiaftomrt/afaanai:t
\rie calieC 911.
Cur neighbor ccrmpiained of acute abciomi:ral pain.

1'l
"i.
i;.

,annn.,nn, i
^_^J

ivirs. Tones arroic|s Stricv foods.


Mrs. jones has an uicer.

t-o

T::'

'X.

Fill

il:t the bianks r.nriti. eithe: "be.ai:se

"

,:,r ,,becat-;.;. D{,,

wete upset
. the nurse's behavioi".
2. sne dio not Du-.,/ that thermomerer
. its price was tco higit.
just
3"
. he has
iost his job, he rs hu?py to accert tiris part-Cme
r:osition in the hospiiai.
4.
. tiru-, agreed to pa'y the meciical biil, he decideC to accepz
their terrns/ coniiijons.
Tne-,v=

"Aithough", "iR spite of the fact that",

ar,{i. "whe?eas" are usei,when facis or


'I-h"y
are aiwavs follcweri bv a ciause (subject + verb). "nn
figures are contrasted.
ot" and. " despite" are foliovted by nounsr/noun phrases:
spite
i

Although

sire oraered the

prescnptio'n tutc ciays ago,

ii

is not reaiy.

o'r:

Tlu prescriphon is not reaay, although

she ordered

Ei
subject
,q

tt ftoo ciavs ago,

't

VErD

Whereas rrentmen.t
thzy increased.

costs

went dozun in this itospitn!, in all oiher itospziais

Now

choose the correct form frcm tire parentheses:


iln spite oflalflrough) h.is aoot Engiish, ire rnanaSrtd. ia corrunulltcate
iris probiern very cieari,v.
{Al+Jrough/ despite) the cieiayeC sl-ripring, ihe dru-gs were deiivered o*

4.

firne.
traricing fees were i;rcreased {d.espiie/in spite of the fact that; rtriarliobj ections from hospitai emp io=rzees.
{irr spite of the fact ihai/ai'Jroughi the insurance refused tc cove:: iiris
;:rccedu-re,. I was able io have iL.

?ileg#l*u,,H R.ephrase the sentences above ipraciice Ei using :he


have*"'r chcsei': iin pracice El.
:i'le n-ranageti to comrnunicai: hls
ciearir,'.
.}
the drugs were cielivered on iime.
i7

iolm th&t -r/or;


prcblenl rre*'

? arksrrg i'Jes

-t'i

era inc;:easeni,
...,1 was abie io have it.

"Ss tktat" has ihe sarne meanrng

as
by the same grarnrnaitcal sfu-uctrire.

_--.-

"itl or{ier that",

anC the;,, arebo{rv fcllo,wed

RESUi-T CLAUSE

"3othat" is frequentiv followedby

these constructions:

r-resenz rense

Past tense

--- so th.ai ---

... couid
.. .

might

^.

'wouid

"

Exami:ies:
SIE saaes lrcr money so that she can pay ior plastic surgery"
Siw saaetl her maney so t:jtat s'itt cowld pay ior plastic surgerv.

?.za*dt*t$ lr{rite ihese sentences lrr- the past tense:


7. She studies harrl so that she can pass the board exam.
2. Tney train everyr-lav so that they mav win the race.
3. Fie takes vitamin C dally ciuring the f1u seascn so that he won'i catch

4.
5.

cold.
I wani to search thre internei so ttiat I can finri ou.t more about bone
rrlarrow trans.pLant.
She shoula ca7l"her rioctor tociav st thai she vuon't have tc waii untiX
arte.r the hoiiiavs.

i@?-,

iildi?

7C: T reatmnent A-2.

Ga ovet the vocabular,v iist beiow tl-re tabie. Un<ieriine ihe '*rcrds vau alefamiii;ir
',.^,ritj: and/ or those you can guess, and vrrite them in &e firsi coiumn in the table.
Then praciice their pronunciation.
Go over the vocabular.rlistagain. This time circle the r:nfa:rriliar worcis, and
wtite thent in the second coiurnn in
tabie. Then check their meaning in vour
"he
ian guage- Fin allv, praciic e their p ronun ci ation.

Words vou know or lrou can

woris and rneaning in your

I
I

age
E,xampie; acurtancfaff

Example:

{trocee{uye

ur/70V

in whic ytecific

areat aJiociatuiwifit

eri{tfiera{ner;et are fiiercelwitfi line

neeolies tc

hrowote

fheranw

IJ

6 a nfag

/ dr us i n q fn

o wn

striB oi'rnaieria& sucrt ar.aauz,e utedto Trrotect or suftport

^
6one

m^,rcw fran:piani [naunJ

wouni

iniure{ fioiy fiari

iechniqwe in which frone rnorrow is

anitr*wltianief

{teron

6r^rt {ncuni

0,,

remweifrom 0w.

;n another

ortio1rerfrc afpiance frtat:wytpor* or

nart of

frt.e icoay

cowect

fro{c{s

hoitf o* *6i{e

o ry,oua{ifr,

*ii*inq

rysoiion

of the ftan
trr

lc\fifr$ Ln1un

a[tema{iue ffnsse,qe createa!surqicai,4 ic rifuerf


!-t*rJ
lri000i

r {i

tit fbi+ oi'

ri

x5 i 7,r'i; Inrte

;s

c ui,+

.f

:,'

nqlA fireS::fiq, ;.!;i;/Zlltt ryfrCt Ci [itZuIL tzj,tfr filtSi'ei",

i.i

"

;Tnn1?{Jiittg frn lniur9[/,

la i

!-.)00tu

.
triif:. fri

!.i],J,; i{;

it.t 61 r{ficiure n:"

ai:{ocaiion
;

.t

,/'

t'

./'-

Cnem?tl4effr FIU L nC L{n r

:re^imenL c[ cfrt]cer u:lr,a ihecfric cnemlcfrl c,qenti ct fitLtql


tr , t ,
rf
tl+at desryotl cancer cel!: and iis:Laei

chirofiractic fnouni

t14i{ew o{
t tfieraou

i.J

_/

tJ

[r*st/ on i6e,re{afionsfrin
hetween fke
''"'i""-'-

r
ftf
i
r,
,',f t' f
'' / i r i r
{nuJ'cut1.tKcleiat rtfuctu{es 6n0l rhe f wncrions 0[ the h0d4,

iparficukrg of ffre :Bina{ ca{um,t nnl

fhe yteruuut

:\Siern)
,

.(:--..i -: J' f.- -. ... )


li{)L u}u
L rtuuilJ

f r

ft/

[rrfort ht'cie:'sianaI carc is' auait)tife

l'terscn

iiil

lf

t.

/'
/:
re|mrntl?n or l,)aalth; rec7uerry irorn
rtriseate
t.-^ -t.^. ---! ^ ^f,-^:--:-t-..- i'i:-^:-.--^ -l' ^- ^, ^L
--- I7t!ut,ea
urrlo?'uaituu Lt aLTLtf
tatrL h{rtt{tilit}LEre6 Lc (n7}
tjr Sicili
JJJ,

fnomj

cwre

:ma[ eie.c{ronic aht'taratu:


tfia; amnfrfies
io*ni
ll
i i

beflfinq a][.{ Ln}uy}J

nny' is

woffi i4 or hehin/ {;e ear l0 clmbensafe r'or imnr,tired


iti
he[tfina
, r

i'

f t

tYnhlo,nt l'Jerh J

lnJ',eft

ct embea an 1lfiect
.JJJ 0r fr ,ieuice suratcallt4

r/

iniectfon fnoun/

.'.

r.

tlte act 0f intecitllq [i Juhrtance into a n'yue or zraall


j
--t

r f

r.
174*.

hfr

efi [ I't']o uy] J

i.

i'

.t'

r'

wh0 i; arl,"nitted t0 a hc:iciia! or clinic icr


t,fiatient

treafmeni {itn{ reqwires at iea:t sne cueffiiqfri:iali

r)

,.f.

iJ
i,

r,t

,f

t.

rubbina or Kneadinc! ct' fiarts oii the haciw iw thei,aheuiic


r
J 'l
u'

n'la.rfirqe in0utltJ

ht ril&tnta?
lJUr w-'

iJtt,
1i
[-

t-

;'

n')eatcfrfi1n {naun,i
_{n0bitnyilJ,l/it'.rl

f.
n'teatet?Je

t
,r
.:'
'i
f,
ir
i/.
,.,t
i.
medf caienl tiqwid useot fot, cteaninc tne ntoulh anLi lreaiinq
I.j

ilCr{n r,

ml
r

ri'

ii

tl

naf rno u tn
t

nfr turo fia tl't'i4 i fio t&]J

il4Jte'ffi

0f
!

I-t.

30nd1 it 0 n.l
/

'

./

l']aiurfrl remedieJ in wnicn neii.ncr iLti6ticat no;,


-_;

-/

n'iert;c'inat 6oeni: are uted'


1Li

t- f)ir[t e?]| ! n

L,!

vi

-;

hcr)cni *"t'tfl iJ al,rr'tifted :0 k !40tt'tiLfri tr ,:!inil it;:'


t

r,

treatmetit thar aces nat:lsqtiire fifi {Jternf 0ilii tifit,i


rt

nu-r;ca { l.i

! ,L

erfriJ L4 { nouvt..,
it

r
, l,
r r-/'
I t )' ,.
tieo,rru!nt i.- f?n14flcal clulrunctt1vi cr t.iluf,r in.t Ifig ntt ,,-./

txercifi
i -;L

#.WF
11,,;, :,
;ai.
::r

fgc7n.ttrucilLtg t Lt{Gefl I ! ;i c fft.:.;

,aia:;ic

ji|il{tilnq in0un.i

fiEacnnq fr fiece ff

iJ

:'riraert

!/t

ff

0r meta{ ri :7mfine'] aTyn cr

w000t

,-.f

iltj

,f

a ievice, funfca[l4 a #qhfiw encirc/ina inn/aqe, useti jo


J!
J
r
J
J

tcurruquet lnounJ

J''"'""'-"

cheekhieeiinq by temytorari$ sroltlti7g fhe {ow o{6kor.t'


tfrrouqrt * krqu arfery in a im6

ffiCoverthec1efiniiionsan<igodo*,,the1isttry:ngioexpiaineach
terrriinoiogy item in your o-wn woris.

What's the English for pflnssrftent, ghivs, apd de gurd. prirn aiutor?
W. hat's the Romanian foi' brace , hearing aid, in-aaf,ent, sahntznE?
! Lise the Engiish words
...,..;'.-.:"-,i4

:1,j:,:;

i;

|,!.:|i.

.afl:.' &:rglaffitenh

i.

,+

A-Z

^.
Crr

cI

in Ap;rlication

e th e c orrec t ans

2
r,rr

in sentences of ry'cir.r o\,yr-r,

er

A rigid dressing, usually rnacle a{ gauze ancl piaster, used to irnrnobilize


an injureci bodv pa*., as in a fiacture or disiocation, is caiieci

A.
E.

brace
cast
C. byuass

2. T'o insert or embeci an object or a device surgicaliv


A. irnplant
B, inject
{-

a11TD

Lg!1-

3.

A patient who is admifted to a hcspital or clinic for treaL:nent tirat resuires


as ieast one overnight stai, is a{ni
A. in-paiient
B. out-paiient
C. paiient

1- Aitaching a- piece of v*ooci or rneia.l to someone's

arm or ieg to prevent

broken *rr:a/!eg frorn movmg is cai.ies


A. banca#ng
B. firsi aid
C. splintins
is a ,i.e.,'ice used tc check bleeding
ihe flor,v-of biocid ihrough a iarge ariex-v in a iimL,

A. tourniquet
i-?3

brz

temporarilv stoi:ping

:,ffi:
Fi irrrnia:-': i

C. piasier

6.

Acupunctr-lre is the rubbir,g or lmea crng afparts of the boay tar


therap euiic r:urposes.

A.

?rtte

ts. faise
7. A rnedtcated liquid
A. tuue

B.

use<i

fcr clean::r g *e ntouih is cailed medication.

faise

8. An out-patient

is a patient who is admj.tted to a hospitai or ciinic for


ireai:nent iirai does not require an overnight siay.

A. irue
B. ialse

9- A cure is an emergency treatrnent administered

to an inyurec{ or sick
person be{are professional medical care is available.
A. true
B" faise

Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer using specific chemical agents or


rirugs that desirov cancer cells and tissues
A. *'ue

1,0'

E.

faise

Now check your answers with your group / classmates and correct the faise
sentences:
Sentence
Sentence
SenLence

r:o_:
ft.c--:

no--:

134

E:'

iJFiIT 7}: il]cIIT

"WW'fua{*{*

"

TF*Ai.Jg: -qT:C:{

:RACTI.:

Listen to eacir senience in B be}c-,q and rer:eat

ii

rn Engiisn.

iT'ransiate ihe ioliowimg sentences rntc

1" The brain ar-r<i the spinal corci control aLi acdons of the boov.
2. He repiace<i his bandage so ihat he coulC wear his new shirt.
3. Aitrough i-re was wearing a hearing aici, she haci to ask us tc
4.
5-

C"&_

repeat each question.


-but
iViassage is nct oni=,r forgnsficial
aisc; rziaxrng.
i'jaiuropar;:rlTt ts a sys.lern of naiurai rernedies irr -which neitirer
surgical nor rnedicinal agents are usei.

i,,fu-#f'stt. Fr.Eqs,Ia_8ig$ Transiate the follo,*ring sentences

inro English:

i.

datoriti protezei..
2" in ciuda obieciiiior inifiale, pacieniti-l a fost de acorC si

3.
4.

Puiea s5-gr rnigie r:icioareie

chirrrioterapia.
Erau swphrart c.trl cawza corrtr.lortamenir.:.iui "pacienfuiui iinternaii.
Degi acupunc'Lura poate inlesni terapta, nu o recarnarrddn"l r:entrumoment.

5. intreag* 1ui ia-nriiie a


5"

inceapd

econorrri.sit i:ani ca- sb-i poai5 pLA:

trar.spianrul de retd du,t 2".


!*easi6 boala este incu.ara-bill-, riar o putent nre sub control.

'ilriffiAi&,rB'atiknP+a*tlce The foilowing teri t/oczlbuiar,, iteryLs are frori-L ri-Lis ,.:riil's
word ba-*.k: d.izzy, cast/vlaster,.first aiii, gauze, grfry "rnatter,'lierce, sriintzng, serLs(
org{tyts, oi-factorty ?ueroe , itxpstreA hearing. Use unem in sentEnces cf .vour o}\ry:..

;:-'

'@+-l

U TEYT &'r.N

*{q*

&hiE;i

Jse tiu:l-'ocabuio-ru iie'ms in this u"tzit's zttord. bo.nk as .r"eeriei, for

iEssat.ts, aaaiicat.irsns,
rtuizzes, sni transla.tion rsractice, uniess oth.eyioise tntiicsted. Yai,, zuil! encounter m*ny c.f
these ruor{is tn other urtits' ur:cabuiary ban.ks, and. sts, irg reyeated use, qou tuili masteir
them br| the iwne uou finisit tnzs textbook, This wnit inciudes ihe jallotuing:

"
"
"
"

BA: The Entiocrine and Reproauctiae Sustems


88: Phrases and. Ciattses
8C; Frescmption A-Z
BD: Transletion flyacitce

_'e ___ -r-_ _!_ . _,.-- -_- _]^


-.-t-.___.\
4'!i.r
u ft d.t Sj'cr r Li 5 ;
EI all {.r e s'LrpIaf el}di e

b alanxe {t cii e*

alimeniatie e chilibratE

{to} bandage a wor.end: a bantiaia o ranii


bandage: bandaj
brrtFi cariai: canai de nagtere
bleeding: sAngerare
caoh ghias
{toi cure: a vindeca
demand: cerere
d evi c e : irtstrtlme nt, r-cr e c atrism, ap ar at, <iisp o zitlv
drrsa ge: d*za1/ dozat e, a d rni.nisfrare a trntni nae dicament
drug: medicarnent
egg ceils: ovule
ernbryo: entbrioa'e
enriocrine sysien:l: siateinul endocrin
fertilized egg; ovui fecundai
giands: giande
horrnones: horraro*i
ibuprof en : ii:erprof era, rrre<iicament anrii.nflam"ator
injury: ran5., rEnire, ieziune
in-paiienh pacient internat ?n spitatr, traiat in trsr.iiatea spitallceasc#
kneeciing: frarn6fl tare.. masai
limb: :rternbru {sn;ini sau picior!
fires6engers: rxansrrlttdft.*ri, mesageri
ftarrolv: ingzsi
ointneeltt: ufi gu en t, allf.ie
out-paiien* pacient cae'e nu meeesiti internare tn spitai; paciemt
arflbulatoriui
ovaries: svare
lJtl

:r#g.+

rlverniglxf, reste lloal>ie


clrer-the'cou:rter dtwgs; medicarrrence are se cl:rfipirE f5ri retetd
?,aTtcteasi pancreas
peivis: pelvis.. hazin
pick up: a ridica, a lua
pineal giand: glandE pineaiX, eprtizh
pituitarv gland: gland* pituitar6, Itipofizl
pregnancy: sarcinE
prescription: reietft {medicai6}
reproductive system: aparatul reprodncitor
{to} require: a cere, a necesita, a solicita, a r:retincie
ru bbin g: fr ecar e, fr extie, frictionare
scrotunt scrot
sirie effects: efecte secundare
sperm- ceils : sp ermato
sulinting: atel.5
testes: testicule

zoizi

thymus: timus
thwoid: tiroidE
lreafinenfl tratament
(faliopian) tubes: trornpe uterine
urethra: uretri
uterus: uter
vagina: vagin

137

LjhIE" -$A: TFiE Elaf*GCRIF"jE

AHri REFRC*{JCTIiiF syg?Ehdg

TIIE trNDCCH.I}dE SYSTEhi

\Nhat are hci-ntones?


CarL vou narrle tlre rrtosi importani enclocr-ine giands?
=vvhat happens
when endocrine glands rio not function properlr,?

4t

a
L.
n
J.

i::l the

it4_ry ciroose fr-orn tl-re box beiow to fili in the missing.,vords


text and table. use tiris unit's r,rrord bank a:i*dlor a ciictor,,ary if necessan,.

influsnce

iiancTeas
ar.taries

inessenxers

V{e just learnecl thai our bociy is cooriinated bv the nerrzous sysrerfi. Along ,arith
the nervous s',/stem, the enciocrine systern (glanris and hormonesi heir:s
controlii::rg ail oflrer boiy svsterns. Gtands are orgarrized grouos of
ilrat use maieriais from btrood to rnake hcrmones. Flormones aIe
i1)
chemrcai (2) .--.-.--.-_ ti-Lat are traasportei bv the biood to different paris of i-l'ro
bod3, where thel, irav. special (3) _=The rnosi ir:npcrtant glancis of the endocrire svstem are: pifuitary, pineal,
thvrnus, aCrenals, (5)
and the gonads -(6) -{4)
the
in
female and tesies in the maie. Studi, the iabie beiow tor ihe iocation and
activirv of each tiand, anC then use ii to finish labeiing the figure beiow the tabie,

Icierup(s)
I

LOCATIO}i

nmi-mranv

0ase or

D;},T]-

base

secleies growth hormones that influence the


normal qror,r.'th of 'occjv ilssues
Lrces hormones that
iate sieer
secretes hcymcnes &ai lnfiuence sreiabc,iism.
hvsicai aricl rnental activit'.,
helps cieveioou:rg immuniiiT to certain ciiseases

DTa1.fi,

A-

at brain
iower porrion

THYTdOID
.I"I+--VT
i I r I

of the neck
uncier the

I IC
l1'l;-.i
/f

qtA1't-!1rrva

I ADREI'{ALS

on ro.p ol eacn i affeci rnetaboiisrn


i{icinev
behini the
secreies insuiin. verr importe-nt in reruia*.ns
-blociti
stomach
tire
sugar ievei
I

T) ,\ lr. ir-.D
l" J-L1 '{
-l\l'11-

AC

iii

..-

:rr*d:ir:

-...*::

.j

ifillj---=F.E#.,ffi
:

feuraie pel*ris
i secrete estrogen which inifuences tt *
,l
i rievelopment of sexual characterisfics,
one to heip maintain
rnaie scrotuu-r
secrete testosterone io cieveiop sexual
i characteristics

cva"RiE-q

work properiy Cue to different causes (riiseases, infecfions,


poor diet, etc.), ilruy can produce too trrany hormones (hypera"ii-.iry-'), or not
enough hormones (hypoactivity). For exampie, the h'vperactivif of the th,rrroid is
i<nown as hyperthyroidism - peopie eat a lot of food but lose ureight. Another
exampie is the hypoactivi\r of the pancreas, which results in the disorder called
vVhen giands do not

diabetes.

n
e
/l

6.

1A/l-^-^
,,'YiiuiU i,i- +L^
-'l-n41an-+aA)
lULqLCui
LiiU ^ir-ri+-q,
yTLailL.^Li tirt.aru

ldhat glanris influence :netabolisrn?


i /hat gtrand secretes insuiin?
Diabetes is the resuit of the hypoactivrty
lfhat is hyperthyroidism?
Match the giands with their location:

piruita

thvroii
adrenais
Pancreas

thymus
.' ,
Pmeal ,/
o-,taie{

//

at'

which gland?

fernaie pelvis
behind the stornaci'i
of brain
iower porti.on of the neck
r:n top of each kidnev
male scrotum

under the sternurn

testes

7. Match the giands wifh their act:rvi$:


pituitary
thyroid-ad.renaL

thvmus
pineal
or.,aries
testes

-blood

sugar
i.nsulin, *'hich reguiates
secretes testosterone io deveiop sexual itaits
produces horrnones that reg-uiate sieep
secretes growth horrnones
secrete progesterone to help pregnancy
affects rnetabohsrn
\-.* heips cleveiopurg immurrify t<; certain diseases
ts
secreies horrnones that infiuence metaboiisrn

1.':9

.. . .-.- . - -. rr.-J:;?:c1}:
=._.:

-.. .,,,..i:,

Finish labeiing the picture (-iook at the tabie in the reading iesson

if

necessarv):

.,
I

\r

drart{Ec

-_

#-

il{/*'14

i
\-H.:H
l/ {{,-vl-I-i \-,Id-l t-/
\,

iH:re
'\Jrr'

i\-'/\

II
I

Describe the activity of each

flal *fircru

t )'./'
tiYN,
tb( .p',

\,

\
\
i
i

gland: "ffeTii{uthgry/an/tacreferytrotuil lomnnet

ffe rarrnatgra,o,$ af6o$ rt$udt "

C. Now

describe the location and activity cieach giand following the mociei:
giand, I ocatio n, activ i t.v"
Example: ffepi;fn@ry6nr{/oufdaf fle 6av aftle 6raA ycrufet 6onrone-,

flaf*{uence fle n onQm*frf oflo$ fuiuet

TI.IE REPR.CDUCTIVE SYS TEM

j! !;

.-,:

Can you name the female sex crgans?'


2. Can you name the rnale sex organs?
1

-;':
:

Choose from the box beio,,oi to fifi in the missing words


irr the text and table. Use this unit's worC bank andf ar a dictionary if necessary.
'

,iaq:-.
')P.1.:+

skin

pregnarlcy

sex

aagirua

tube
oaaries

-|

.P+.t*.'
"E::

..

! :

7.:

a, r?1.::1*1.F-: :

'

!,iaLes ani fes,aies have drffereni sr{ ?r;{3fis. Sez: organs 'work as gianris ias
expiairied in the previous iesson cn the endocrine svstemi to prociuce hormones
ciraracieri siics.
necessar't' for the cleveiopment of (i)

Tne fernaie reproductive system consists of the two ovaries, tw,o {fallopiani
atbes, tire uterus and the rragina. They are aL[ located in the female peivrs. The (2)
look iike fwo large aimonds; besicies the female sex hormones, ihey
prociuce egg celis. fhe uierus is a hoiiow muscular organ situated behind the
biadcier. It is smaii and narrow, but it expands during (3)
when the
egg,
calJ,eci
embryor
grows
inside
(4)
it. The
is a short canai
ierriltzed,
the
place
for
intercourse
is
sexual
and
also
a
babSis
passage during birth (for
that
tlds reason it's also called the birth canai).

The maie sex


called-

orgars are calleci testes, anC are lccated in a sac of (5)

scrotum. BesiCes secreting male sex hormones, iheiT p13i.u6s sperm

SpermEaSseSt1rrougha(b)-cail.ed'urethia,v.rhichisintire

'{
n

&
Look

Where is the uterus siiuateC?


l4ihai is the feriiiized egg cal.leC and w-here does
V/hat is the bkth c?'ral?
Where a-re the testes lccatecl?

ii

cel1s.

penis.

grorv?

#on
at the iabeleci picture abo',ie anci descri-be ihe femaie reprociucuve svstem.

'tt'E
1+t

Y;.ff*.

-,.n;.-

Tne follouring words at" leiatei ts diseases,,'roniiitions af ar.d ciinicai


procedtt.res of the enclocrine al-ld rerrroducfir,.-e svstems: it-lSyergiycernia,
it'ypog[ycernia, htsterecionty, snd rnastectomy. i{rite their definition in English by
iooking at the wora paru beior,t,. 'lhe hrst one is done far you.
h-v-per = over/ excessive

i.ypo:

deficient, not enough


gycemia: biood sugar
hyster: uterus
- ectomy: removai of
rnast = breast

J
\-tt

Tila$ftci0fltu:
j

Circle ihe correct

i.

Endocrine giands produce

A. tissues
B. hormones
C. ir-,zstereciorn-v

2.

The adrenal gian<is are located


A in the Draln
h
fur the nolrri c
on top ot each kidnel,

3. The ti:rvroid
I

\.

gland infiuences
metabolisrn

immunitv
bLood sugai l,e',tel
uf-

The hvpoac*triY of fl::e th;,rroii is known as

a. hypeflyroidisrrr
B.

riiabetes

C. hwertnyroidism
I Aa

5. Insuiin, very important


the

in rer*iahag the bloori suzar ievei, is pr'riuc ea ay

A. ptneai glancl
B. pancreas
C" pituitary giand

6.

The ovaries expand during pregnancy

A. true

B.

false

7.

Aferahzed egg which develops in the uterus is calied an embryo.


A. tnre
ts. false

8.

The vagina is also known as the

birth canal.

A. true
n

r_1_
D. ralse

g.

Mastectomy means surgicai removai of the uterus.

A. true
B. faise
10. The male sex organs are called testes.

A. true
B. faise
Now check yout answers with your groap/ ciassrnates and correct the false
sentences:
Sentence
Sentence

no_:

no-:

| /l'2

Ui{rT

Ai

ts

SB: FFEI{,ASES

AI\ti} CLAUSES

grot;:o od words -r^rithc,ut subiect or predicate., so

indepenrientiy" As different fvorn phrases,

eE*

ii cannoi functian
contain a subiect and. averb.

Researcitws iyied to iind a cure for the disease.


"Researchers tried" : clause (researchers = subjec! trieri :preciicatei
" ia itrtd a sure for the disease" : phrase
The patient waiied, in front o.f the recoaery room.
"The paiient waited" : clause (the patient: subiec! waited :rrreriicate)
"in ftont of the recoverv room" : phrase

indep. i

Clauses can be riepencient or inciependent. en


cornplete thought and can sianci by itself as a sentence.

exPresses a

The doctor read *"he paiient's chart.


You shouirl call us.

ffi* flffe

is incompiete (more inforrnation is needed) and carmot stanci

aLone as a senience.

t'/hat? I,Vhat

did he

lo, what hanpened?


Ee-fore nz le"ft the

hospiial.,.

iVhat happens, what


shculd I do?

To make a sentence, a dependent clause must be combineC wid-e an inciepend.errt


ciause:
The doctor reari tirc ttattent's chsrt beJore he ie.ft the hasuitai.

or
BeJore he
\''or..r.

ieit the hospital, the doctar read the pafierd't chart.

stnula

caii. us i-f uotn' con.rlitton doesr:'i lvnorcre.

olIf your coucritior, doasn't imprrxte . rlou sizttuid cnll us,

!+4

;lrf,=r'.r"

iil?j5iiti

::1,r.

'

yWl

-1. i've

l,d,en*$ iire ita-lici z,ed v,rorqs es e r,r\rase {I}i or a ciause {c):


will keep '{our test resuits conri<iendal unless a release fbrm is stgned.

Weight,.zaries accorriing io one's diei.


r/vWn you knoru the ieb results, give rne a caII.

Wehave enough gauze to bandage t?w ztsound.

;t

The man cansuLted a speciaiist for knee ttzjury,

WffiWitewrite

.i+
:L

mnrii
^^.

the sentences and piace the pirrase or ciause next to the word

Fiae'
vr^^4r!s.

7.

Chiidren are heal,thier who ear a balanced diei.

2. Anaigesics

are calied drugs that reduce pain.

3.

In a cast rnv sisier ajter the car accicient had her arzn.

4.

Who had had a heart attack ihe doctor visited the paiient.

5. tr{hen the operaiirx rvouid beg:n the paiient


F.rr;lgse;..fr Cora.r:lete the seniences

by

askeci.

ad,a*,:rA deperrdent or rr,ain ciauses:

, ihe

better.

That'was the hcspitai

I knorn'
/-

If you. orcier: yollr oyescri"oiton toclay,

5.

Dernanris fcr healij.rcare are irrcreasing

^:

pa*eni feir

cmptt*n r"-Z

EJFJET SC: Fres

iJo o,.rei tne vocabularv iist belo-*, tne tabie. Uncieriine the word-s ./oL\ are f;irniliar
wiih anci/or those you can guess, anci r,,rrite tirem in the first coiumn in ehe tabie.
Then pt a cnte their pronrin ciation.

Go over the rrocabdury lisi agara. This time circie the unfamiiiar words, and
write thern in the seconci colurnn in the table. Then check therr m.eaning in irour
lan guage. Finaliy, practice their pronunciation.
Vy'orcis vou

New wori.s and meaning in your


ianguage
Exampie : otn/mcnf : uryueni

know or you can

es5

Exarnpie: ana/sat

fr1

frnnlctefic
ln1un.t
1'
.l

t-

aneJ'tnettc

rn erl i cati
-.

lnoujl

antihiafir: fnounj

a a en

t\

ifiili,t

atfiirin inown)

tl

cit

re a

ci na c

r olu ces to ta { o r
..f!.

,f

freiluit|n, tylit!

{i rni n a

ri n 0t rt rzi t .t

il

aarfl a { io:: a { s ens afi on


i'

c{il1 hteltffnr

i.i.t

or inni0l!

il

arcxtrn ol 1Lner w|cr}1rclfrnltv1.,]J


J'J
r,
,f , /'f
,tullstance il,]oi /,etai4: ar hreuent: fie cioffina oi filooa'
JI
JI

[rrq

^troi

finnfirLtnac

n o 6 ie

J'Util',r.ance,'IJ't/c!1 6s
ti

anfi{ti:tamine {nounJ

co

i c{r u atttlt fra i

J,.IiI
t r

il4e

anfrcoaaukni inawnJ
,r1
antidefire:'tant lno wn J

on

om4

i,

ltreueni

or

,tlt , i{+e rymtttorni c{ /eltression

i s ever* i dru q s u s ed f o ca w nier a ct a [{er qi c :vrw nfnrn:

lcreuentino or re{ieuina i{cfrtnct


w fii f e com p c un r{

c?vwn}niA

i"riu e/ f, nr*

i +\J

i rrl i, ari oi" an {

r']ii mnletf1iitn;0
t 1i ,
' rt}eU!
'''

145'eA

teler anr4 inf mrnrna[Jori

li

.t

nainanl)retitrce

,t

rekfiry ie *r itauinct

carrtofonie inounj

a fauor*ich

ffic{

unon

tie action

ff

tfre heayi

coniracefifrue
/eytro:e

i^$.i

{* cos, (no

eaJtobh
un

oi Ttrewnfinq

forrn olgiucose fonnilnafwra{k in animafawt p{ant firue


an d le ri v e

diurefic

cancefifion

{^/i.l

i t3

f fiefi ca {fj from :ta r c fr

renrtry b fncrease frte {isciaye of uine

[woj, inoun)

a{miniirafion o{a

prwcriiei

fheraFteufic aomt in

amounft
olcse

- r' r

''
'a drua or niedicine nrescr;rte/ ic 6e
rilnna;r/ 0r
uj
t
ai one iime or ai sfafe/interua{,

'

fiioun]

sflecl?ed
raken

{rlg {noun)

,r"oJ;rn fio .finn-nni"


i*ani*o-{
w.o,ravtrtt
t)t e,

",rArlo-no

n* .r-nrtanknut
trr vvvrr0rvf t

of o diseaso 0r a clmfionenf of a mencation


elfiecrorant

.f'r r-

{ad.l

pahtafin9

/,

tl

the secret?on 0r exfuu11n

other mafter

from

an ti -i nikmm a to

fiuytrofen [nown|

respiratoy fract

tfre

ru

f-ff

q Phlum, mucuJ,0r

m ea{i ca ti an us e

i et fi

ei a

{i4 i n f rte

treafmenf of arfirttts ond *mmon[4 frfien {or

it:

ana[aeir: hrolternot

Jil

oinfmeni [nouv,]

ouer-{6e-caunfer

tirugil hd

emis

{i

/ fi r p a ra ti on u s* t{3 conwf ni ng m edi cin a {


e

:ub:iances

a"d i"tenir{ frr

tirwqs trtaf

ca, bt iouqit wiiloui

Jll

exierna{ apftlir,aiio,+
a

{octor': fire:crififron

wriften order 6y a pfiysician, for irte ytreparation ana{

{trwcifiiion inoun)

aiminis'iratfon cf a rnetficine
:irle

ffica

{noun)

'

reron/on1 ef,reci:, upecia{$ undisirabie seatnd^n, effecit

oi^
ruf)Posirory {noun)

ing

or t{terastu
{

ff-i

r.

f: tl
ai ooaii

[:

'a
devqneil tc wtei
r?nall fJtucl ar meatcati?n
tJ'J-/
,

.tf .

r-

t'r

.i

ternherature withfn a nodv callin4 (rectwn or uariyrrij

t'ranquiizer

&p,#i+
:'::E'

147

-t-_'

,i?eir : .

- r'{':'
:: 4t.' . .'''
;;a:

_a,

lt

g* down ihe list rrying to expiain

,',

'r):t

, f

rneatcauan ute,l t0 l'equce niencal anfieiu frna ren9?ni

,r* Cover the definitions ani.


terminoiogy iiem in you.r own worcis.

; ti-i
ttf i
:..::+

;.-$!

li.j
f.

'

each

-..4;.;::
::':

::

*rt?'wnan's trte Engiisi"l frsr ungueni, rgtetd. eiecte sec*.wa.ayg,


't{hat's ihe Romanlan lor anesthetic,

sutrcziior,T

rirug, ozter-fhe-tannter drugs,

ibuvrofen?

use the Engiish

woris in Appiicaion ? in sentences of youi. c14/n.

nh,t Circie the correct answer.


1t

A rnedication capabie of reducing or eiimjnaung pain is a(n)


-1,. antibioric
B. anesihetic

C. analgesic
A substance tl:rat deiays or preveftts the clotHng of biooc
A. antipruriiic
E. anticoasuiant
C" aspirin

An expectorani

A.

iacihtates th-e secieiion or expulsion of phJ_egrn


B. is used to reduce mental anxiett ancl tensions
C. increases the discharge of urine
Dvevine-counter c.rugs can be bought oniy with a cloctor's prescription.
il

lrrro

B.

faise

A written order b,v a ph3rsician far the preparation and aCministratucn of-a
rnedicine is a
A. prescription

B.
C.

dose
ricsage

A carriiotonic has a favorable effect upon the action of the heart.


A 1-r:ro

B.

faise

An oinh:rent is a serr.iscliC prepararion usuaiiy containing rneriicinat


subsiarrces and iniended foi externai apolication.

E.

t-v'ttr'

D
',).

!-i ^^
ict.iSE

A smali piug c,f rried.ication iesignec to meii ai ooov temperaiure u,jiirin


the rec'urn cr vagina is calleC a

A. ranqutiizer
B. diuretic
r48

,:1.

'u.

supposlEDry

9. Aniipruritic

refers ro n-re<iicaricn capabie of pieventing or reiier,.ing

r.tchrng.

A. true
B. faise
10. Contraceptive means capable of enhanci.ng conceptiort.

A. true
E. faise
hlow check'y'our

ans=$/ers

urith your group/classmates and cc'trrect ihe false

sentences:
Sentence

rrcr

149

q1-

LIF,IST

E#: LIFJEE 8 EF.AH$E,,AEE#&{ PFiI${T'ig:E

W;

eA

Listen to each sentence in B beiow and r=peat

it

in

Engiish"

Transiate the following sentences into


F.omanian:

t. Glanis are organize,J

sro:u:ps of fissues thar use rnateriais

irom the biood

to r-nake hormones.
r{ you orcier your antiiepressant tocia-7, you car pick it u-, tomorrow.
a-tternoarr.
i know thai ovel-the-counter cX.rugs cambe bought ar rnost drug*tares.
Christrne asked when to begi-n taking the expectorant.
Iack haii his a:-m in a cast.

*;rwainW
F.omani.an

i"

rran

inio

Ei:r

Ia te th e

foliowin g s er-iienc es fr om

giish:

Sisternui reprcitiuctiv feminin constd ain daud avare, d.oud h:ompe utei'ine,

uterul gi vaginui.

7.

Analgeziceie suni mpabrte ie a reduce sau eHrmna <iurerea.


3. Aceea a fost farrnacia <ie la care aln curnplrat unguentul.
c-. Dacd. nu vei putea toiera acesi antibiotrc, doctorul ii va scrie a reletl nou5..
5. Doctorul a',totbtt cu pacienil-ri care avea nevoie cie cariiotonice.
r. A=,zern tirnp sd banciaiXm rarLa.

*.;"W{;w"&?#.WiY=aciice The fcilcwing ien vocai:uiar-y iterns are:fursrn this unit's


-*'rord bank: egg r:elis, sirie e.ffects, aaer-tlw-crsuvtter drugs, owt-paiient, iw.iuril, cut'e,
tiir,;rcid, trestinent, ernhryo, dosage. use them in sentences af volit own.

1JL/

-I-JF{TT

'
':
:
:

,
,,
:

9 E"AI#RC}

tsANK

'jse the uocabulary items rn rhis unit's toord bank as

needel",

ior

iessons, applications.

qttizzes, and transiation praciice, unless otherzuise tndtcated. You zoili encounter many o.i
th.ese ward.s in other units' aocabularu banks, and sa, b,,l repeated use, you zuill tnoster
them by the tirrue you f;ntsh this texibook. Tius unit includ.es the iollorutng:

.
,
r
B

9A: The Senses: Sight, Hearing, Smell, Taste, Touch


98: Efrectrae Sentences
9C: Miscellaneous/Medicai and Llealtlz-Related Exvressions
9D: Translation Practice

niivii: niccvali
arrnpi* axild, subsuoarZ

,
,
't
',
I
:
I
:
,,
,
'.
.
,
i
'
,
,
:
,
i
':
,
,

{to} bandage a wound: a bandaia o ranE


bitter: amar
lto) blame: a ?nvinoviti
c&st: ghips
ohewi.ng: mestecat
coniunctiva: coniunctivi
co-payrnenil contributia pacientutrui La cheltuielitre rnedicale
srutches: cdrie
d*livery roomi sali de nagtere
derived syntheticatriy: derivat sintetic
{iischarge {of urine): debit {de urin6i
disposable: de unic5. foiosiniE

dizzy:

aralrqt::t

drugstore: farrnacie
fi1'canal: canai auditiv
eardru.nt: tirnpan
exhausted: epuizat
eyeballs: giobi ocaiari.
eyetrashes: gene
eyeiids: pieoape
{to} fas* a posi{
&auze: trtar,.
gerrn: micrcb, agent watagex. -bacterie
harnmer: ciocan
(tolhea].: a (sei vindeca

healing: vindecare
hearing: auz, simful au.zului
15i

aoll cr+' ="lu -ccalar

itching:
kiaee

{}T

geri": *y *affi aaqitar

rl:.dn*.Avirrte a

yienii, prurit

injury: ran*ltanitela genr.lnchi;

prCIblemetatertzw*i aie senuncEri.alui

lens: ientilE

ti*|

a siitbi, a wreyde din greutaie


{io,; maintain pregnar:tcv: a rnentin*, a aiwra satcina
maipractice: maipraxis
::terlical suppiies: prociuse de uz rne<iica1 iechipamene etc.i
{to} me}h a (sei toai
a:iscarriage: avort sDonian" pierderea sarcinii
rn ortu arv: rnorgi { sub stantiw) ; mortu ar iadi ectiv i
nerve endin gs: termi.nafii ner:v-oase
zrieht shifil schimb de noapte, b.,,zrl de noapte
oii gtands: gtrande sebacee
ointment: ungueftt, alifie
optic nerye: nerv optic
over-the-counter cirtlgs: rneciicarnente care ge *tw,pi*rA f5irt retetE
p ararne d ic: asisten t rne ciicai p e am.bu1.anti
pa;ttal ioss of sensation: pierdereapa4iali a sirnt-ui,,tiicalr.aciti,rti *e a sirr,ti
posfure: tinuii, p astttrd' p aziyte
prescripaon: retetE"
(toi preve:r* a irnpiedica {?n sens profilactici
rrimary phv sici.an: me ciic prirrrar/ de f amilie, generali.st
irsse r*zeight:

pupii: pupii5
:.laranfine: carantinE
itcl reiierze: a usura . a aiir,a
retina: reiinE
salty: sirat
seburfi: seburn
seFrgasi sirnqur;
side ef,fecis: efecte secunciare
sighil veeiere, sintfi*i vazttlan
smell: rniros, simtui lrtirosulr;.i
sound vii:raiions: s.nde $onore
gGur: acru
starcit: anddtn
q

sttrrzr:r': scSrifE

siretcher: targi
swall *wiraq: tnghi iit . ing*itrr e
sra'eat glaecis; giancie ;u<icripaEe
eaarea." drr!rrt

iaste buds: i:apiie gu.starive


tasie: gust, siminl gusiuiui
tor"lgree:

limba
152

'r_i:

ril

*rs*tcai: iccai
ufl <iesrra:pi

t:

me

* r.rr:l

iouch: attli'gete, *im*,:ti iacrii


f,gaft; fteg
wheeiclaai.r: .*caun eu yctiie

<':

EihigT 9F.: TWE SEHSAS: SIGF{?, F{EARI&IG, StugELL,


ffi^?
_.

fJut--ii

&fiTL"

1,. sight, hearing, anci smeil are three of the five senses. Can vou name the
a

rernainingtwc?
IA/hat is the largesi sense organ?
I&lrat sense organ is associated vzith taste?

ffi

Choose from the box beiow to fill in the missing -rvord.s


in the text and table. Use this unit's worC bank ani,/ or a diciionarv if necessarv.
oht

tongue

^bn"LrL

-,i-:

patl4-

ii

skuii

iniection

eyelids

szueat

srueet

SCNSES

e.artlru.m

ttib rati otl s

We iearneci in ii"ie previous ul'rir iftan the sense orsans senc messages to the bram
and the spinai cord". The sense orgaxs associated with the (i)
are e\/es
- sight, ear - hearing, nose - srnel-I, tongue - tast{,, ancn skin - touch.
The eveballs are iocated in front of the trread, in the orbital sockets (cavities) of the
. Tt uy are protected by eyelids and evelashes. Tire (3i
l,L)
-wiih
a thin rnernbrane ca1led conjuncti'.2a, whicir heh:s maintain tire
are iined
eyes iubricaieC. The eves work like a carnera: (4i
enters through a
small opening ca1led oupii, ancl is focused l;y the iens on a s,.irface cailed retrna
ii"i. ihe back cf the eJles, formrng pictures. These images ale fransraifced to the
brain bv the opiic nerve.

l-i:le ea-rs pick up

souni rribratians flom the air. in eacir eal, these i5i

travel through the ear canaL u-ntil the}r vsssit a membrane caliecl eardrurl1. The
vibrate, and th.ree srr,aii bones - hammer,
vibrafions rnake tne (5)
anvl'\, anC sdrr,.rp beltinri the eardyum arnaiifu '*e t'ii:ratiorrs and transmit them
t

-)+

ta z itquia ::i. ti':e inner eal. l'ierves in contact -w:rh the iiouic send $.essaqes to
:*=bratn.

g#,F

a&is*t

l.&Mt#!.
The tongue (a skeletai muscie), helps chera,ing anci swailowing. C,n the surface cf
ihere are nerve endings thai form the
rt^re (7)
rne iasre
taste bud.s;
ouas; mrougn
through
+hom tstp {oai lha hiftnr

c.111r.
calf*,
u4t1
vv4lt

anri 1Q\

fzcfo

n{ :vJuJ.
{nnr{c

"I-tr''o nnco
!!!!
i.vDL

has rnany sensor1,- nerves that react to tfre particies y/e breatl-ie in by sending
i-flessapies to the brain; ihe brain recognizes rrlcre ihan 50 cLifferent smelis.

il"re skin is our largest organ (it weighs about nine iciiograms in aciults). it
and i.jrtf and it mainiains boci.v
protecis our bociv from (9)
-*uough
perspiraiion: sweat glancis creaie a caoling effect when il0i
temperafure
evaporates. The oiI glands, aiso situated in the skin, help iubricahnE
(11)
the
surface bv produckrg sebum. Equailv irnportanr, a lat af
nerve enc.mgs
are iocated rn ihe skin and convev the se-nsation-s of temperature,
U
toucn, {721
_, and pressure io ihe brain and the spinai cord.

aareai q!ar4/"
/.ii

,".

t.

./l

0d e{a"d

V/here are ihe eves iocatecl?


\&h,v do we sa-rr that the eves r.trcrir iike a c&rn,er??
lzt/hat is the earcirum?
l{.cw manv iifferent smelis rloes tiee brain recognize?
hihat giartds locateci in the skin heip iubncahngitbv producing sebum?

i5i

A" Use the la"beieci picture in the reaCing iesson abcl,s anci ijre verbs e;i.c,
rLo'uns

SEidSE

Iieamng

in fhe chart beloq., tc exclairr l-.ow we hear.


HCUf\js
i VtrR.BS
ears, sounti aibrations, efrr
canai, efrrdrutn, three smsl!
bones (hammer, snoii, a.nd

pzcK Lrp, traaei

ampl,ryt,

tr

througlt, uibrate,
ansmit, sent;.

stirnry) ltqutd., inrter ear,


neraes, me ssage s, br ain.

B" Fiil in ihe chari below- with no-urls and" verb-s describing sight ibaseaon ii-re
text). Then use the iabeled picture i:r the reaciing text above and the nouns
anEi verbs -r'or-r have just fiiieC to exi:iain how we see.
}\I/-\T T?rIa
L_J I \!l

I 1\J

The tollowulg worci.s are retraieci to ciiseases/conditions of the snse organs:


ambiyopia. riipiopia, coniun.ctiuitis, melanornn, hyoatherm-ia. Write their definition rn
Engiish by iooking at tire word parts belornr. T.he fisst one is done for vou.

arnblv:

(}p :
- ia:

C*Li or dim
eyes
cr-.,nditian of

*ipl:

iouble
ccnjirnctir, = eveiii iining
- ids = inflarnrnation of
^! L t)
-

^-tadl

= SI(]r}
meiarr = black
- olTrf;.: hirxor
itternda : heat
Cel:-fi-la

hypo: beiov,,
\.
lf
f //f
/t.
,I
F am$y?{ila:
co.qd/t/o,4 of trui/orr/tm

gte,r'

i55

P confunetiuifi*
,* din{onia,
!t
I
F

1t:ttry

?nemnqma

Circle the

correct ansurer:

1"

The membrane that iines the eveiid"s is calied

A. retina

ts. conjunctiva

C.

2.

socket

The tongue is a skeletal muscle.


A. true
B. false

Amblyooia means a condition of dim eyes.


A. trr.e

B.
4,

faise

Otitis rneans
A. inflammation of the ear
B. infiammation of the eyelids
C. inflammation of the iongue

5. sweat giands create a

A. true
B. faise

warming effect when sweat evaporates.

6. Oii glar.ds produce seburn.


A. true
B. false

7.

l4lhich one hapr:ens first?


A. l'Jerves in contaci with the iiquid in the inner ear send messages to
*re brain.
E. Three srnail bones behind the earrirum amplifv vibrations.
C. Vibrations reach the earCrurn.

157

B. Nerve endings iocated in the skin convey


: ]:,

the sensations of temperature,

touch, pai.n, and pressure to the eyes.

',

A. t'ue

B.
.:i...

iF'i

faise

9- The eardrum is a membralte.


A. true
B. false
L0.

Light enters our eyes through a small opening called pupii.


A. true

B. false

Now check -your answers with your groap/ciassmates and correct the false
sentences:

Sentence
Sentence

no-:
no-:

i58

.JEft:
r'*i'.

UI*.IE-T

*#: YFFECYE1rE 5EI\TENCES

il-: tne prerzio'i:s unrt -we taiked about phrases anci. ciauses. Ciauses r*ake
sentences. A sentence is a complete i:i:ought, r,r,ith a sr:bject and a predicate
i.,-.terbi.9entences can be ciassified into simpie, compound, and compiex:
has one indepencient ciause:
studws rneaical Engitsh.
cslledmy doctor's o,ffice.

H.e

has trvo or rilore indepenOent clauses joine,i b"J " ar.d"

i-le sturiies vnedical English, and ltis sister stu.dies business Engiish.
i called.mu cioctor's ffice, bwi no one At'lsri)ered.

U#OJEilc:ieal#*ieE has olre i:rdependent clause and orre or rnore dependeni


clauses. The depenrient ciauses are iinkeri tc the rriairi ciause bru coniunctons
such as "after", "befote"r "wlr.erl", "becarJ.se", "i{." r "although", "sa", "unless"..
" w-rrl"Le" , " whgreas " , " which" , " that" , " wholTr", "l4rhGse " , etc.
I-Le studies medical English although he daesn't want to becorne a doctor.
I csiieamtt ioctor's o1ficz before i got reaily siclc.
Tite dcctor returned tia resuits tc ine lab after 'ne nr;ilctJt c,n ert'or.
The patteni zucs ad,mitted to tiu hospttai because ke re.ia.sea trestment at home.

iCentif,r the foiiowing as si:r'.pie (s), compound {c;, u comriex (c:ri.


Ljnrieriine riepend eni ciauses.
:,. This is an importanr responsibiijw wiren one lvork-q in a hospiiai.
2. Some cf {rre ne'.n medicai supriies are arerr/ expensive, anl othe:'s art:

ciisp'osabie.

[f r7oi.r want ta siay heaithl, vou should eat pienfr of fuuit ancl .;egeiaties.
Youi X-ravs indicaie an abnormaiiqv that neeos to be checked.
-Ivieciicaiions
in the iocred. cabinet should be distributeci sccil.
This fasrous suigeon c&ir, perforrn the tr,pe of cperatrr:n that ihe ::atient
need.s.

Medicaiion makes tiie patielll LLZZ-:',si; sire rttuseci it.


The opeiation rocm is rea,jv j'!o',v.
i won't caii mv dcctci uniess i qet an ac.verse reaciion froin tire n'reaiciire
inat he prescribed..
l-C. Tne paiient cannot ffrove his iegs, but his back is prettl'f,lexible.
"t
Li

c{iI

,*4#i

ll

-r;oi.i w'a!:T ic, lrr:iite e{fecrtiro, Eetitences..


ircu gi-loulC ?zji tz1*cia: atft*:t:t.cn
atroiaira *oo 7*'picai inisrai<es: is'Lc.srnaiete seniences and rr,;n-c{r sntences.

tr

e* inag-ulpjqte,;se*&er.ee
.i'--

"i.:-.'''

is a gra&p oi -wor<is {beginniftg lnrit}r a cafriTa] Le*zr ane


eni.lng with a penod) thai ioes not ieii a ccmpiete thought a,fi b's itseif.
i/'"hat? i/\hai
siiottid

ao?

l'---/-

lf you zuant to stay heattt.ry/'

Crsrrecaon: lf yau zuant to siarl healthy, you should. eat pieniu oi


Truit ana
vegetables.

-.-:.-,.

is a group of worrls t}aat con-iains fwc or irlore sentences that


cou.ld siand aione. It occurs -when f,tzo *-rdependent clauses are joi:red without
ffiffii+;qry'"smcte,h{.e

4.Lt\

i_-_.r._--_
-L-^L:^_
_a_&+__^^y'L{rri-LL.rGLtur.t
j-virt-i COffiiiiete
-^**tr^r^
L.'utwEErl !]^^.LiieiIi. -!-:..r.^.
JCnfenCeS

either of ihe foiiowing:

6
*

a comrna (,)
a semicoion

_L^

:^:^J
Cafr Ue ;Oinei.r

_._jr1-w-itiL

folioweil bv " afr.C" , " ar" , "brlt"


i.;1

Same of the ner* medicai suppiies ere

ur!

experLsioe, eihers ate

riisposable.{Tnis

is a run-on sentence.i

Correc'don:
Sorue o.ithe nez.t; nrcdica! sup'plies fire

uenl ewensiae, and otkers arr: disposabie.

OI:
Some of the new medicci suppiies

aery ex"oensiae: others are aisposabie.


or rnake il4/o sepaltate se:rtences:
Sanw" o.y tie ruezu m.e{iicai suppiies r}e?'1 txpensiue. Athers nre disacssbie.

ti;altarriat

A,'rasHce

Seniences
- Effecriv-e
-

?,xa;rei+;*tS Correct {C) or incci:reci


-'1.

=.

0.1'e

{l}

an*,.^,h}r?

Tnis is an lmpcrtant responsibiiit'7. When one ,arorks irr a hospital.


Sorne of the r,e'vi rfled.icai supciies are vew e>oensive. Ani oihers are
i cr,rr-c-,ii u
rlqluvvJuriL.

3:. if vauw;rnt t(; sta,,,. heaith',r.

Yo:-:

shcu

li|

eat

vr:getables

artd-

waiN

evervrJay.

+. }'o,;i .7..-ravs ir-lciicate an abn,:rmaiity that needs to be checked.


5. I.y{eiicaiioils in tlre lcc]<ed cabrn=: -wilI be diseii:uteri oooon.
|

6{j

'

:.

-i1is iamouS sl:IgerJn

:eft:ierrori]l tne Fr::e or ooerailcn. l?.at tl,=::an.:.rr:

T\FpCa.

/\
C

10.

I,fiedicaraon mal;es t?"le -aaient Tizzt', sa she reiuseci ii.


ilne cperafi.on roorn is reaciy now.
1 v'/ori'i call mv doctor. Un"iess
get ar a<iverse reaction
than he prescribed.

ilne patieni cannot elove

hi-q

tror* the medicine

legs. But his back is prett-v flexible.

tr##;..Vm'

(incomplete sentences). Iciene$ a.rrd correct incompiete sentences


beiow eifher b'r combining them wiih indepenclent ciauses, ot by rnai<ing thern
inci.ezren dent clauses.

oniv one quesiion on his rneci-icai terrninolo gy qltz. Allhough


he hari not sir-lciied the week before.
F{e rnisserl
vrrL
a

rrqu

vvvrr\Lu

**rJ

rivurJ

lr1 Lr\.

Vy'hrene-;er Doctor Green fu:ses

ucrtjrE

aiLa ,ftei

ciiLicij.

torrch.arith her patients. She biarnes

4.

herself.
l-ne iab resulis are unreiiabie. Because the sampies weren"t hanriied

5.

properilr.
iust to sia-i awake. That rs a chalLenge of working night shiits.

Waa*A*W(run-on sentenco-si. Correct the run-cn sentences belolv.

i.
2.
3"

q.
5.

The cioctor hesitateci too iong the paijent compiaineci about itShe slept deepiv at.niglnt, she had seerr niany patients all dav,
-He
never seen-rs to stop he has so rnuch_ energv.
I bought new ciorhes for the inter:','iev;,i iiir:'i grt the job.
?hie hospital has a snlendid vierv it looks out over a park.

tnr

:,:'::"1:::;:f

iiEi

U zu i T

: &3 5 C E E. E,,&Jq E*EJ \ft{EB:wg{


EHPg*^ES

i\L

gt{.Fhis

amd }{

AL TE{ -E{ E E,A?F

il,

Go over ine votabuiarv I-isi beioin, the tabie. Uncieriine the w.":rcis vc,.x. are farnil.iar
"wi*, andi or those you can guess, anci write thern i-n the firsi coitrznn in the iable.
llnen practice their pronr:nciaiion.
Go over t-he vocabular;r list again. ?his tirne circtre the unfamiiiar wryds, and
write ther:r in the second coiumn in flre tab'te. Then check ti-reir rnearlins in vour
ian gua ge. Finaiiy, pra ctice th eir pronunciafi on.

Worcis vou Know or vou can


uess
Exampie: benlVn

**rtui'onru {noun,

New worCs anct rneanrng in your


ianEuage
Exarnple: a6uze :

fr/*

rhecialV eeuiythei uekic{e used'to iran:ho-| ffre :icfrt.-,r,


j
I Ii
t
;
1ryU{eA,

aneifkuiofrgitt inouni
beniqrt

tlit',ic

ia$,i

i*ouni

hhwsician syteciatTr-inq in anetf6eiokart


'-,.'-,'- o,o" rukiea' o,eo,
t i
i
.-

no danqer to heaiih, eslteuallw reiaiina


rlJJ'

.f.,

: f

.-:t{
..t i
fecltlw { frisocjaleft wih [t no*iitn! or
'!'i
i

li

ic turnort
f. .t i

deuoted to tne ,ifaanosi:'it?lfr cnre oi outna{ieni:


cor';

ravr,i vtotie iu rril j

u!

wane iynbure or unciean nu coniac: ny,rt:it.iurt

1i,:

f.

meoiica! ici+ooli

{.91

.y'nffsu
!t^rr

Jlu1tt?i efi ?uui?j1r jja atiuc/u,


/.
'drsJLF

jVAt! ;aLl nc

J'.,/

.,

Su4

./

sil iiryjalc?q,r

irua'J,?u0t.rtaJ0,td
j

,/

,fil Afiir,t t)J i,ili,nAri A 6A

UASOUC
j

fil Lt.illr ,uan$fuq

'i,t'!!iraluJaL,,i,c)u0utjiltt"ttl lo"loua;a
rJ

{uy10u} ua{tlsi,4{j fi,tvutpcJ

/t

ftry buwa'tasc/ aa uolay


ttsuor,;aJoa/ piyrw tr$tv "ia $aL4i?uar]
'J
/;vlJtpaLu

a/-.^1

hcuatg;au,to

ifilit

pat/"!a,4 ;J 04*r ucrsaS


tJ
' t ' j

.fv11o1uuaad

fuvtou1 cyou,torrot/

01

u0uvwadc
,t0

{unouJ froolro*.

ar(1agl yJay ada ralpuar,n-ea arauw dcaJd

,tulltllt

ulu,toaa troruaruoclt
"J,'
!rn{a} a}a uog1ntfi,

r^.f'fa'ri

,rnlrturuf

Qa;n1au1

fufioul abawwstu,t
tJ

'a0vutv!, 'lt,tn!u1ut zu$jn[en 'uanthtlc/


r
I
a.a
v t4q sa '?uafiaq v Jo ruau,qua,q rueorybau so naqztqwt
.'lj:
si'at na

funouJ
i.J.t',

,racrrllr*

YyyaYbYTYacuajaq
1,t

hsaaoq aa

uanlinsut-jj'rua /o ernweq uouptnu


.rf

a{a1tiv a sa'ajl

funhu]

fut|*y

ta"tnc

01

"toocf

uonutnuau,t
futtzLtl
.1. ;
J

ii

f 'laalJr ruauitnatu
J

ttuua}veagl

1..!

0!'t/t1aa, 0] araqer

L,'

?swaflf asnar owc !v!1ru, fllolrrrjn ,*rr*6roorrrw


nn f-*r
*
""

t ro.,
- .fr, t c..,,,.,,, t,.^.-, .4 a'^ t, ^4 4 ^.1
u no/
^ "'J .r-r,eu n v 4 lt n sw *wJ Jp o r t t lft"J " ^u#t
" ry, 7

yg*

"r0

f-l

Iuiiauj

aztiii0

/"aan)
ual
rt i J

Li

$at-!jr uo4r4ns jo eu!7ctlr aoj;u?_t"qu?,ry

lafiotri oryeyaalui frt1noj*r, yilwy v io uowas

Taaueb
sa !,q u

fu pa n g, p, o / ya t) tiu

ycnt 'turfo

{unzu) suvpeyup

uiluu7 puaVooj

fun1ui ]r!P

4 ri s o y

lunqu_l ut00l l'uan{ty

?uay rv

ba aa !,/

Lu 0 out

"d

-a

sayr/ ry'j pa.rn ua+io


vua
:j
'j

Ittli,{ua aql "iapun t.i


yJ ct ytaui)sop
---' ,liu[xrum
-- j {i;tsnsn
'-: fltt,
- --.-.y-"-- Lil
i,t
:
.J f ;-'
ttu

,iii, v?tavsry uo
!

r'j

i'

,rorril

_t

i11or1tit1u
,

,u, io urr, rl,to(lqnr


.:;
.,j

rr
/ unou) woa,r lo4ahdaura

nnjusry

tolf lwlwaqc o "t0 'uoeulya"t

:.

/urihul w"taf

yooj utoaj uylryt


t!u-4r,toi]

J!

,runnlt: j [ducifiral
!.j

i.

t9l
/;
.{ix}rnr,
re+u 01 '}
wlEali oJ ;l.rc.]sal 'f;
?cci'L\ic:; urElscE v

{il

cq Suaur +5i3{

'z

a-7tj 'g
'Lilizari G] iaEuup ou lo ;ie

atr)rr] s?ibryqsa* l,

a+e{agr

''i;^rc .rnod;o sarualuas ur

'ai

:i3^.rsue ila;Jo3 ;q+


pgS!*r,*wax*eg;6a.+s4ffi ,,:z.!ffi 'ffi g[aiE

E{:Farp:

uopel{ddv

aY\4 'V
sioiirns u-3iuag

xrr

spro^^ qsrlfiug aili asr'j

tllze",$

lrtwplaatloz'azna8 'utoa; frtaoqap 'sautirlu.ior ueii.trElrroH ar.tr+ s,jsrlvl


lyiuaTnqwn 'cBtu1 1lsoia 'ajuaStn -rog qsri8u3 aW snuq-l$ll
'suxora ua.c rnod ur uialr dSoicrmrl"zaS
q:ea nreldxa ot 3ur/i4 tsll aq+ uz{Aop c3 pira suoqrlu+ap 3q} i.auo}*,yptw
I

uosaar/

.1ta1gaslt

r
saltctsaloama
- ).-.- r- --. :yi,)0! 'tp?t4{rt 00.ral uo,y?lunoLu itu{,tc

{ufi1u}J awucioaum
J]
J

radn.rln ulqdac fio

ayl Ltl
'.'/""i

hlj*fittiJ
"71

wtls

'.

yrtrr, ,{jaal so {fuv,,

all uc bumotb r)rury

ybno,,t

?roy

Iunoui

7* '/an'r iloL:Juuut tiu olid#dP i; it/,iJitUAU io )u

ri

;{aS

i,,wt t

latYl*

vaary ja $nljaw jadluca

tn iA.intiln t)l
t4a
.,-.
-/!.,in

7,"-.:,-

juttalsur i{rlct.icscia }c rvaci ru fnlr}


fJua,a

f t )M^r,, ,,^.i, ,,,*


I artuta I LLUU $nuJ

Jo poyunzut ycq afi

i,tztlsua,ri q;j pasn 'eutail a ianl no{4cjantr svnuyi .jn nnav


j j-7---7J

{utlou}

daryc}ar}s

':

yoy rff

uty]!{ny?*urpoui ryu.*os o; fu1*r;sy aof stesn iilaunndlru!

arvary

c?iralvtulrt

aLJi.Jo

{u*orrtfr

or4i

{ttfi?u}J aclaucunfi
'
J) i

lurnru$

t".rj

a.iuaflv ,ilDiitailL1c a hutl,uaac :G ,va1t;eq,rn,;

,]oyaltuui

tt)

uo,rrn,j

yclt4{tt fu.p,no au,tg

i;au'rj ftau

"tt;

io

;u fytou af;
ic

poyari

ino1J1-tctr:

tt

nu'o,tu vt g

t'Lt/)c."t
t-i

i ;;nyct

{ il?'} au

:-

-i

._..i.:r+-!i***r:::r":-.

;.Jii,..
-i: '

3.

knproper or negiigent treatrtent *f a aatient,

*iiniury,
',

as by a r:h-vsician,

4.

..i.

Cotton cloth used for banciages is knoram as

A mortuary is aplace wirere dea<i bociies are kept befarc burial or


cremaiion.

A- true
B. false

6.

Enforced isoiation to prevent the spreading of a disease


A. quarantine
B. ciinic
C. disirrfectant

7. To disinfed

means to make impure or unclean by contact ox mixture.

A. true
B. faise

8.

"Topical" rlreans all over the body.


A. true

B.

9.

1{l

faise

A pararnedic is a person who is trained to give emergency meCica-i


treatrnent or assi.st medicai professionais.
A. true

B.

faise

A"

is used to kansport the sick, wounded, oi'rieaC.


stethoscope

B. wheelchair
C. stretcher
Nor,t: check
sentences:

Senience
Sentence

.l

resuiting

A. waft
B. tampon
C. ga:uze

5.

damage, or ioss is knc'wn as

B. ntalpracti,ce
,--.-1
L. mltrartfage

:,

-ir1r1!:.il:e_:-:trii.,::.:?t+

your answers '*rith 1,oul group I

n0_:
no_-:
155

ciassm.aies anci correct the faise

tillJI" 9D: UNET * TRAI"" TSIATEOH FE"ACTIilE

to each senience in B below ancl repeai

it

Transl,ate the foilowing sentences into

1.
L.
a
4

6.

Yes, your medical insurance covers prenatal cate,

but there is a 10% copalrnent for each rri.sit.


ilVhy didn't you see your gynecoiogist after your first miscarriage?
Unless we cali an ambulance, we cannot transport hirn to the hospital.
Aiihough he uses crutches for waiking, ihe rr.,ur.scuiar tone of iris iegs is
pretfir gooi.
The patieni whose primarrz physici.an was sued for malpraciice is waiti:rg
in foont of the deiivery room.
If you go ta the drugstore this week. please don't iorget to buv some
ga&ze.

Translate the foliowing sentences from


Romanian into Engiish:
1

t.

/a-.

{
A

Anestezistui era epuizat, aqa ci. arefuzat sf, lucreze tura de noapte.
Din cauzd cd medicamenteie i-au irrovocat o stare de ameteaii. asistentii
de saLvare l-au cius cu targa.
Bea multa apX canci- postegti.
Clrirurgui a retszat sS fac* r:peraSa cu risc mdrtt pe care a soiicitat-o
pacierrrtrl.
N"gu Iui sunt prea mici pentru a fi extirpaii chirurgicai.
Scaunul cu rotiie trebuie reparat'rnainte de a-i putea dona.

Fr;.8,S,.all* ,au?ieiryraefiie The foilor,t,ing ten vocabulary iterns are irora this unit'-s
word bank: ciuioing, dtspcsabie . antsil, eyeiids, oii gianris, taste bucis, sTueai giutti,s,
sight, topical., itreuent.I-ise ihem in sentences of -v'olti o\^rn.

lbo
:i"'ili
.i;

-.

TYFEa r rE-=LiI ?Lqii -F- aq.'

-uoak
nni' it giues vau the +vriartunit""l ia rc.st the ktiotttieage
Tk'is t"s tiu ir,st unit in t:ltt
vou acquirsd in units i-9 in aLi iawr frrefrs: tlte nwvnan boay (A), gt'ntnmar {E), saeciaiizec
uocebularl1 {C), snC transisiiovi (D). The wnii Aoes nat tffiue {t seuarnte zuord- bsnL, so
viease reftr to rhe Engiisi't-Roniarutan/[t-oruawian-Eitglisii uocabuiary section ('pa.gesXi)i't
jar rnnela fupr,aosss. Tnis uwit includes tko ioliowing:
" 7AA: !iura** Eoriy Fost-test
* 108 : Grarnrnar Posi-iest
* i}C: Saectaltzed Vocsouiaru Test
* 1-*D: Trsnsiaiion Test

IJFJET 3ffA:

HUMA}I tsGDY FCST T,E-qY

Suggested ijilte: 31-4fr ininuies

This test iras 50 questi.ons and covers the concepis anci vocabuiary vcu iearned in
this ccurse. DO NOT'use a dicaanaw, thte word banks, or the lessons igt thi.e
tex*ob{}*k Circie the righi answers ani then use the key secti.on tc tatal YC&t
score. W. ite your score in thrs box: I---l
Coznpare your hr:man boei-v i:re-tesi anci post-test scores to assess vour pragress.

Score
1

!.

Urine is formed in ii-le ureters.


A. iyue
ts" iaise
contracfion of a rnuscle ot gtouv

A spasn', ts a sudCen
rnuscles.

voiuniar,,
*. trrvo|utraw

A..

i11sulii:,. ver\r
ti:e pancrea.s.
it

*tt

--

ii:rporran; in reg;iafing tile biccd s1rgffi ir-"el, is l;rcd ",;rt:i

r r:,

Po. ta.Lst
,\
a.

*i

You slroulC see a gasrrCIenterolopst

i67

if you

harzE

n'."

ETPT

A. k-iinet,::roaierns
B. caviiies
C. ciigestive problerns
The smaiiest bioori vessels are calie<i
A. veins
B. capiilaries
C. neither A
C

nor

Oii glands prociuce sebur-,.


A. true
B, talse

7,

Otitis mears
A. inflammation of the ear
E. iir-fiarrrma'tion r;f the eveiicts
C. inflamrnation of the tongue

8.

Meningiiis rneans inflarrsration of the


A. conjunciiva
B. brain membrane
C. blood vesseLs

rl

A neuron is an organ.
A. true
B. faise

10"

The maie sex organs are caiied


A. testes
B. urei-ers
C. testosterone

1'l
lr-

I(cineys fiiter harmful ciremicals as blood passes through thern.


A. true
B. faise

LL.

The
is the externai opening through *,hicil fecai maierial
iearres the bociy
A. colon
llu.

(/-tr.Lt3

C. pancreas
r-1.

The inflamrnation of

the

is calied choiec'rstitis.
168

r::ri.:.

F". galtr"oiacider

iiver
C. gullet
B.

i4.

Tne esophagus enters the -ctomachatthe end of the sternum.

A.'true
B. faise
15,

The excharrtge of carbon riioxide anci oxygen takes place through the waps
of airsacs anci capillaries.
A. irue
B. faise

4/

The lower chambers of the heart are called atria.

lo.

A. true
P
U. f-t'^^
LAAJC
'l f7
Lt .

Cystitis meares inflammation of the blacider.


A. true
B. false

18.

The heart is sihrated betv{,een the

and abo-ze the diaohragnn.

A. kidneys
B. liver and pancreas
C. lungs
L9,

The olfactory nerve is res;rbnsible for the sense of


A. taste
E. sight
C. hrearing

D. smell
-n
LIJ.

A pulmonologist is a <ioctor for


A. bones
ts" lungs
C. kidnevs

77.

The heart and lungs are protecteC bv the skuli"


A. &'ue
B. iaise

22.

Ttre adrenal giancls are iccaied


A. irr the brain
169

.*ir9"--

B.

in the peivis

C. <;n tap o{ each i<irinev


-Q

ireans inflarnmation of a yein.


A. meningihs
E. phiebitis
C. tonsiilitis

L-t.

24- The
A. myocardium
B. diaphragrn

is the muscie of theheart.

C. biceps

25.

The thyroici giand infiuences


meiabolisrn.

A. true
ts.

26.

faise

membrane that lines the eyetrids


A. retina
B. conjunctiva
Th.e

i.s

called

C. socket

27.
28-

Each kidney
A. one
B. two

has

urerer(s).

Tne triver stoies vitamins


A. true

A, B,and D.

E;iake
u

\.

29.

Sensory nerves
spinai cori.

carf

rnessages frorn ttre sense orgarrs to tkte brairr ar:.d ..he

A. true
B. faise

30.

Leucorytes are wirite blood celIs.


A. fi:ue
ts. faise

3-"r. TIne irregSriar

bones of the spinai coiumn are calLeei ribs.

A. true

32.

ts. false

The neph.ron is the functionai

unit of ihe
i70

A. iiver
E. pancreas

C. kidnev
o4

The word "myal#a,' urobably means


A" chest pain
B. muscie pain
C. stomach ache

34.

on the surface of the tongue there are nerye

endings that forrn


through which we feel the bitter , sotit, salEr, and sweet taste

of foods.
;t. rmrscies
B. mucus
C. taste buds
35,

A. the biood
ts. the heart
C. the kicinevs

Phaqwrgitis is commonly calieC

A. tonsillitis
B. sore throat
C. the ftru
J/.

Another name for *re voice box is trarynx.


A. tn:e
B. faise

38.

..\
the pharynx is an organ of
A. the respiratory svstem

B. the ciigesiive systenn


C. both A and B

The eardrum is
A, a small bone
B. a piece of catilage
C. a membrane
40.

TTre iemtr.r is

A. the forearn
B. th.e hip bone
C. the thigh bone
lt

+L,

An inflammatary condilioli of one or mcre ioinm is cailei arthritis.


A. true
B. faise

A')

Tnebrarn and the spinai cord forrn the peripheral nertr/ous sYstem.
A. true
ts. tasse

in
+J.

Tlre coion is the pLace rarheie food is Piepared and absorbed-

A. *ue
B. talse
44.

Skuii means Jau/.


A. trr-re
B. faise

"*/hen the kidneys do not work properly , toxic -waste accurnulates anC
poisons the booy ceLis.
/\ frr

r e:

B. fatrse
^46.

Light enters ou,r eyes ttuough a smal] opening called


A- retina
ts. e;'reball

C. pupil
fin .
'rt

When the diaphragrl. rei.axes and moves up,


A. air is sent out oi the iungs
B. ai-r is pulieC into ttre lungs

A"8.

]rus comin g ouiof a raround is called' plaslrra'


.4 r--.
.41. Li l-t';^
Tj t-i -,ii. rdt5e

AA

Tne gallblacider stores


when rve eat foods hi.gh in tai.
A" uraste
E. biie

and pumps it into the small intestine

tl" starcli

50.

Tlte nostriis are two oval openings in ihe nose'


A. true
B. faLs
1'7'l
lta

Ui-i?" te-i'W:,: {f-:LbEtvL

.F-Hi;

"9

?iT-TE 3T

3ug$esteci illrte: li-:.C rninuies

test has 25 quesiions atti co"ters the grarnrrLar srructures a-nci vocagrCar,,'
vor:. iearned in this course. DO NCT use a Cicttonary, the word banks, clr ihe
iessons in tiris textbook. Clrcie the righi answers and then use the ke-v sec$on ic
iciaivour score. Wriie )rou score in th.is box:

iiris

Ccr.npare

2.

:taw grammar pre-test anci post-test sccrelr to assess voui progress.

"Tltere must have Deen a cieiarieci rneciicai 'biiiing." rleans


A. Obvicusiv there was a ielaved rned-icai iriiling.
E.We are uncertair-l there was a oelayed medical billing.
C. Ferhaps there vias a deiaveri med"ica'r btL"LtYrg,.

+-he

Tne nurse tirought she


:l. teiis
E. has toli
C. haci told

4.

irtformation,

The raciioiogist dia noi give


L. r'r"lrrrh
B. inant,

ir i= such

docto r ev erythtng,

circumstar:c,: that 1i(] iine is smii;ng

A. riepressing
B. iepresse<i
T,ne sentence "Because of Tint iia:; ar\u.1Lcer,
.4fYe-t
n'{'*.,^
-*,. a -i L.!.=
i=. Faise

6.

Ir;either the doctors nc'i ti'le n;-lrse


P,. nat
B. have

i'r; avOiriS si:lr'i fcodS.'

ig

7.

It v.ras .A. we

who made the ernergeficy call"

B. us

8-

"Tfre inedicahcn was bei:rg brought bv the liurse.'' is the passive voice of
A. Tne nurse is bringing the meCication.
E. The nurse has brc'ught *Jre medication.
C. fhe nurse was bri:rging the meCication.

9.

Thuy were upsei


A- because the nurse's behavior
B, because of the nurse's behaviorC, because of the fact ihat the nurse's behavior.

lC.

Tne top meclical students


,.L. wiii seiect
B. wili be seieci
C. wiil be seiected
D. be seiected

to receive scholarships.

11.

"It is possibie that they refuse to adrnit this patient." can be rephrasei:
A. They should refuse to admrt this patieni.
B. They might refuse to adrnit this patient.
C. iney would refuse to adrrrit this patier-rt.
D. They will reftrse to acimit this patient.

12.

Tnis hospital has


A. more efficient
B. most efficieni
C. the iess efficient
D. the ieast efficient

X?.

"Patients wjltr not be aiioweC be,von<i iiris point." means


A. Patienis wili not aliow be,vonci this point.
B. Thei, will not ailow patients bevcnd this point

14.'

The sentence "The Meciical Engiish course was interesting bnt cost." is

patient service of all hospitals in tow"n"

COTTCCL

A. true
B. taise

t /i

-r:eEf-

T: --

r:'

15.

"ft would have been a good idea io see the podialrist, but you didn,t rio it."
could be rephrased:
A. You might have seen the podiatrist.
E. You shouid have seen the poeiiatrist.
C. You musttrave seen the podiatrist.

16;

She is

atihe thought of sr:rgery.

A. frightened
B.

frightening

deiayed shipping, the <irugs were deiivered on time.


A. in spite of flre fact that
ts.

Aliirough

C- Despite

r_(),

111r llu-tuE

'rhe exa-rrLinir-ig

room by tiie

iir-rre ti\e rjoctor zui.ives

tomorrow.
A. has prepared
B. will have prepared
C- will be preoared

7g.

"She might have ieflher name tag at tJ:re hospitai.,, means:


A. it is possible that she left her narne tag at the hospital.
B. it is certain that she left her name tag at the hospital.
C. She usually leaves her name tag at the hospitatr.

70.

The senbnce "Although she ordered her prescription two days ago, but
is not reaciy." is correct.

it

A. trre
ts. false

27.

He and
A. me

work together.

ifT

T--

The sentence "Nurses, as wetrl1ike cioctors, work direcfl'r with patieng." is


incorrect.
A. true
B. faise

i:':

ii,::

..

.E.'

23.

At this time tomorrow, the iab


A. wiil be PreParing
b.

iechniclan

the samples.

wlll prepare

C.prepates
D. wili preparing

24.

25.

Mostinterpreters'reaiiz.ethat
important.
A. they're
B. their
C. theirs

communicaton skiiis are very

"if your con<iition cioesn't improve. You shcuici call us." is correct"
A. true
B. false

:'

l/o

,.:.

:
q.lNIT' 38C: SPECEALIZF-W VOCABULAITY TESB

Suggested

time 15'20 rrinutes

This test has 25 questions ani, cavers the specialized vaca;ouiary you learned rn
oafi.D o,f units 7-9 in this textbook. DO NOT use a dictionaryn the word banks,
or the lessans in this textbook. Circle the right answers and then use the ke',r
section to toiai your score. Nrite you score in thi.s box:

tl

1.A blister is a local swelling of the skin t}.at contains water, caused by burning
or irritation.
A.true
ts.faise
2. Edema is another

word for contusion.

A. true
B. false
3- Physical or mental tiredness or weariness
A. arrhythmia
B. fatigue

is known as

C. boii

4. Itch is
A. skin discoloratron
B. irritating skin sensation causing

a desire to scratch

C. inability to feel pain

5.

Impairmeni is a contagious disease


A.lrue
B. false

6.
-

Abtace is a rigid riressing, usuallrr rnade cf gawze anci plaster, useci to


imrnobiiize a broken leg or arm.
A. true

B. false

7. A patient who is a<imitteC to a hospita.i or ciinic for treatrneni that requi.res at


ieast one cvei-night sta-y is aini

A.Eit pahent
B. out-paiient
C. in-patient

it7

,-#:.

8. *rttaching a piece of wooi or metai to sorneone's arm or ieg to prevent a


broken arm/leg from moving is calleci
A.firsi aid
B. bandagng
C.

rpiinting

9. The rubbing or kneading of parts of the boci;r for therapeutic purposes is


known as
A. massage
E. acupuncture
C. ciriropractic
10. Medication capable of reducing or eiiminating pain
A. analgesic
B. anesthetic
U. antipruritic
1l-. Ove:'-the-counter cirugs can be bought

without a doctor's presciction.

A. true
B. faise
preparation usuaily containing medicinai substances anci intended
for external appiication

12. Semisoiid

A.

catdiot-on-ic

E. ointrnent
C. ibuprofenL3.

Anticoagulant refers to medication capable of preventing or relieving clotting,


A. true

B. iaise
i4, Contraceptives prevent conception.

A. true
E. faise
15. Gauze is used

for banciages.

A. b.ue
E. faise
76.

iumors are of no cianger to heaith.


A. malign

B.

benign
L7. Improper or negiigent keafinent of a patient is calied miscarriage.
11Q
l/(.,

:i4B.
:-5:_
;i

A. true
B. false
18. A stretcher is used to transport the sick, wounded, or ciead.

A- true
B. false
19. To fast rneans to heai quickly.

A. true
B. false
2A.

A pararnedic is a person who is h-ained to


a. perform neurosllrgery
B. give emergencv medical treatment
C. assist medical professionals
D. boiir ts an<i C

21. Nearsighteriness is a visual defect

in which ciose obiects apper unclear.

A. true
B. faise

2. Tonsiilitis

is the inflammation of the ear.

A. true
B" false
23" Ascab is a crust fornned from and covering a heaiing wounci.

A. true
B. faise
24.

Aviral

disease causing the eruption of small blisbers on the skin or rnucor.ls


n:,embranes
A. scald
B. scabies
C. herpes

25. Mumps is art acute, inflamamtory,contagious disease characterized

sweiiing of the
A. joints
?-,. tonsils

C.

sajj,;ay1, glancis

179

b_v

:.

ii::.

{"iHE? l-fi ila: E tt"&hi SLAYION T'EST

-t

rnoiipsi rle o boaid


&eag
ciiqe
a se

saia cle nagteri

11, organ cavitar


12. rotuld
13. mAncXrirnelpmrit
L4. membru (rn6.ni sau

picior)

i5.

de unicd foiosinri
greutate

6. banda)/vansament
7. orruie
8. pieoape
9. a leqina
10. a

16. oreion

i7.

rimdne insdrcinatd

i.(to)aimit a patient

^^^L
LADL

17. {to) un<i ergo surgery


18. ',nhooprng cough
l-9. wearine.ss

pus
8. sarnpie
9. {to) scrub
'i*. seizure

1.
7.
4

J,

.,.Wg

i8. giancie sebacee


i9. a exirpa
20. icatrice

14. swollen
15. -raste bucis
i5. the -woun<ied

7"

*.,E

ar:r.rorfeald.

i1. sprain
i?. starches
13. sfirrup

2. ankie
3. arr:rit
4. boii
5. bn-lise
L
U.

a s16.bi, a pierde Cin

20 womb

axe:

The padent haC be-rr v',aitrng tor half an hou:: when he was tcric tnat he
diCn'racfi-laiiy have ar, a-?pctnltrtent that da-i'.
If vou start iakins ii-rese piiis tcctaY, i'ou -will feei the effeci tcrncrro-u/

illornmg.
incleei, \ra1:;r r:recircai ins'urance c{ivers this type of proced:u.t*,

ani

is no CC-- ?--;'iY1c1il.
Wh.v Ciin'iyou see a pcdiah'tst a{ier the firsi signs of tce {r*stbite?
1()n
i ()'J

ri"rere

E:
5- Llniess u'e {inci a stretcher, n re caruact eaa-lsport her to iire seconc $ioor.
6" The wife of the doctar w,hc was sued ior n-raipractice is waiting in fz.ont of
the recor.zery roofii.

7. if vou go io the cirugstore this'week,


oinirreni

piease don'i iorget:co r)uv sofile

8-

The nurse was exhausted, so she refused. to go and gei some ga:uz" rror*
iite cabinet at the eni of the haLiwar,.
9. Acupuncture is not oniv painless but aisa efficient. Wty cion't',rou t::5, ii?
ia. Tne next patient to be seen b',, iire docior needs to sign this forrn.

'1.

1.

T'Ju s-a

masin}

stabilit nici c tregif'rrX inixe pierderea a:uztti:ui gi acciclentui ie


cie anul irecui.

Irie."oia cie a goii l'ezica urt-lard srir",'ine de obicei cind sc ac'dmuleaz* o


jurndtate de iifru de urin-d in ,,rezici"
3. fiu-r::'.i gEsesc reteta. Trebuie ca rni-a"rn iiisat-o ia farmacie.
4. Ar h puiu.t incerca sE meargd ia un medic nairrrist pentru cicakicea lEsatX
d-e ruruncul.
5. Ar fi trebuit sE-gi fi scos poiiuui cervical lnainte cie a rXn-rane lnsrirci.naG.
5. Fie asistentele, fie cioctorui ii cer pacientului sd-gi descrie sintptonr.ele.
7. Ea este cea care a chemai saivarea canci rnafiia ei a fdcut antarci.
8- "Te-am pianifica: penau o proceciurE r-ie zece minute rrentru a deierrfii{a
cavza amorteiji ta'te, " spuse asistenta.
9. Calitatea mAncdrii in acest spital nr.r mai este atdt cie bund ruu', era rnai
clemult,
Lil. Starea surorii ei a fost chiar mai rea trainte iie c}-rimioierapie.

'!o!
l{rl

l6riir, i'
'ffit*
\ i:t:i'

KEY

1A.: OTTCANS, SYSTEMS,

UNIT

fru**ffi
i.
2-

AND MEDICAI, SPECIALTIES

units

5. rrachea

ceils
tissue
orgruts

7. stomach

3.
4.
5. arteries

Fffi
1.8

2.4

4,8
5.8
6.4
7.4
8.4
9.4

B. colon
9. neuroiogy
l0.endocrine

1q
-t6.

A,

Y,

77. A
18. C
19. B
24. A
./-L.

10. B

ZJ. i\
24. C

7i. A
12. A

25. A
26. B

L3. B

Ll.

14.8

28. B

la

29.
3A.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.

43. B

M.C

45. A
46. A
47- A
18. A
49. B
50. A

A
B

A
B

A
,4

40. B
41.. A
42. A

E,:
-"f'l

UNIT 1"8: OVERVIEW OF GRAMMAR TOPICS AND


GRAMMAR PRE-TEST

GirE iffit
1. A
2. B

3.8
4. h
5.8
6.8
7. D
B. B
9. B
?.0. A

11.4
17-C
13.,4
74.8

15.8
16.4

21.
22.

.L*.

rt

x.A
"5.

i7.

C
1iJ. C

L9"C
20.

182

EJIJIT 3C: SYMPYS&S A-N

s@$'*,r itriiFy,mpr ;a;ffi'

i,c

,,-

o.A
/, D

2.C

nn
J.D

U.A

1.8

9.4

s.B

UtrJI? 3D: UNIT

10.8

J.

TE{ANSLATTON PRACTICE

E;.

Siarea ei este rezultar.;.i unei hemoragii severe.


Doctorul a pianificat un test pentru a cietermina cauzeie crampeior taie,
Esie foarte ingrijorat pentru cd sofia Iui este in travaliu de gase ore.
Sora/asistenta meciicalS ar dori s5. gtie curn te-ai aies cu aceste cantuzii.
Facientul acuzd durere acutE.

i.

Eciema ma,V have man), causes, inciud,ing tnfiammation or alLerg;c


conditions.
2. fur;r aumbness or unusuai sensaiions need prompt mecii.cal advice.
3. Cvanosis i.s rnost easlly observe.i cn the lips, tcngue, anii fingernails.
4. Angina mav hapoen during exercise, strong emotions, or extreme
temperairrres.
5.If ttau suffer fual;t indigesiion, )/(Ir should avotd certaor., iooas.

r-iNIT 2A; TFIE IkfLISCUE OSKELETil'uSYSTEVA


T}{E SKELETON
[teadirg;'a*i.,V.r,rrjbzalw,v,

i-. ];ones

?. skeieiorl
:,. *r'gal:s
4. caiciurn

5, ear
6. k*ee

i.

jcints

8. bend

l6r?
;Li-"

;,|iti"

'#ffiffi+
The Skel.etcrr
i-irnctions

ZAa

bones

size an<i sh

of bones

ubrteranA

stfrfror*$a.6a@/qraaltf

'arw?t

ita#
//

{s

$orf i?tldefdeJ

/a//6iu_rr.v/oueme?/t

//afiana*

frrai'etfi tn/cma/'araant

ij

-//

/ff'caulaf bonei..

-r/aretmtneral

6onet.

wn:./ *na'ani6

t{"//ana'sit
:Vtnafiafrmn

"r{trJ5C1-ES

3,. ternperair:.re

2.

sketreiqrn

'3. smooth
4. involuniary
&1,rx*ot*eit

locatron
chest
obiiclue

flrrlcilo11

flexes the upper arm


flexes the spinai column,
compresses abdominai

rios

CA]1\tr'i

*,xt*l&;]Jwi2:L,The
,ll
.L1

eEetai:Svstem

.r.L

it^
L.U
n?t
1ft

QI,

u-

r,i

/t
iL

F<

1fiC

184

U&{i? 38:

I{*qlf\i$ AHg} PRCTHfiEI&J$

-f

b.c

.[.u

c. hIC

s.

a. i\it_

It. \-

F.Tf

tr\-

a.

After the negotiations,thev made rnany changes in th,eir proposai.


"b. ?he nurnber of peopie srud;rurgrneriical Engiish is increasing
c. Alarge riumber of paiienb complai.ned about the quaiif of healthcare.
d,. The raclioiogist <iii not give mucit information.
e. Shre rnust take severai piiis e"nery {.aV
':,. M*y interpreters coilahrate witti this hospitai.
g. niarge nurnber oiine iacis in the meciicai reportis incorrect.
h. The doctor geve the patient many assu.lrances that he .arould get better

i.
i.
;

i--,-

' .i."
2.
3.
4.
5.

n-

-..:,ri'

soon.
tsoth nurses irave various duties to complete tonigl'rt.
There are fewer man than warnen wori<ing rn the ER.
,^

ZUi f*"*rwlsecontain rnanl/ nutients.


Physicai abnorrnalities ai bir:lh are rare.
These are cervicalaertebrae.
She complains about her ganglia.
Th*y are scheCulei to have their eppendices removed tocia;i.
r:}i

rraG.EIel:f:F

i.i

6. our

7. she
3. we
4. the*:r

8. his

5.

7{i.us

he::

]-or.

0 ihr:i r

Prattie+,P
1. has
tj
a

nooA
I (LLU

:i.

his

+. i3
q h.=-.to

185

T
i.B-j

EJNtrT 2C: SYIyIPTCtuIS P-Z


1

r-,

). c
-l
.j.D

4.8
5.C
UNTT 2D: UNTT 2 TRANSTATIONS PI{.ACTICE

i.

2.
3.

Pacientr:l s-a pi6ns cle durere in regiunea vertebrelor cervicafe.


A expectorat mulii flegm5. ieri.
Or'i asisienteie, ori cioctorui raspunci ia teiefon c6.nci dispecerul nu este ia

biroui iui.
4, "Asistenta mea gi cu mine iti vom verifica -/e(ierea", spuse oftaimologui.
5- Eu am fost cei care a sunat ia urgenti cind sora mea qi-a pierdut

5.
7.
8.

cunogtinla.
Trebuie sd luaf aceste piiule pentru a vd coniroia paloitaFile,
Asistenta medicai5 i-a iost de mare ajutor c6nd avea ciureri mari.
Aceste fige meciicaie nu- sunt a1e tale; sunt aie lui.

Let's noi jrrmp to prematulre conclusions.


The cioctcr and she agree that your aopendix needs to be removed..
Fewer men than women saw the endocrinologist today.
trieither the nurse nor tire cioctors have noticed the patient's pallor.
The results that the iab sent shovu the cause of -your cramPs.
'Ihe ri'r cage protects
lrour heart and lungs.
The probiesr is arthriiis, an inflamrrtator\z condition of the loints.
il/hen \4/e remov e your ga:",tglia, this area will noi be swr.rilen any longer.

UNIT

3A": TE{E

CARDICVASCULAR SYSTEM

f*ea&'sgia*d:V,arahry*a&;
'i
heart
circuiation
biooci
+. arteries
:

atrium

b. .rentricle
7. capiiiaries
B. tissues
9. hormones
10.infecfions
185

t,1
LU

han
:1.
:A

U.H
,). b

1)

1tl

A.

UNI? 38: AD}ECTTETES AND ADVERtsS


a. a five-fioor clinic

a. aiotf 't-ioiiar rneCicai bill


c. a nine hrrndred dollar check
d. a two-exit rnedicai office
e. a ihree-week training course

a. ciose
b, honest
c.late
d. main
e.inciecipherabie

a.

'lr.

ea.siili, caimly, simply, $/e11;


gladl.7, quickiy, angrily, carefuily;

wiseiy, suddenly, wiilingly, peacefulIy;


cl. fasf chea ply, txtxteciiately, si.:ncerel,,c
e. beautifuily, slo-wi!, iogi caily. mon*[v,
c.

Y=

i.

r /orse

Z.

the most uncierstan,tiog


moxe redcent
rnore difficuit
ihe fastest =wav

3.
4.
5.

6. the rnost competent


7- more reiiable

f.
?.

iarger

'r'-icier
1O.the mcsi efficient

;;
rra*Ele.tr

i. satisfiei
7. interested
3. borec
4. frightened
! o",
LOt

F
J,

Gepressmg

6.

further

t'7

/. fartLrer

i*. .

' .'

-,;.:; .:-

r.s:aEr{Ee?E
-1

Your nurses are not as energetic as ours.


The quaiiry of paiient care is not as high here as it is in my countrv.
This procedu.re is noi as safe as the one you cieclineci.
Ycur test results are not as goo<i as iast time.
The ER staff is not as poiite as the maternity stafi.

L.

/-\

;L.
a
J.

.=
J-

The doctor aiways comes to work at 9:00am.


Parients often compiain about insurance.
Nurses usuall'r work long hours.
crl-^:---- r
' '' -'1-. 1- r aJ.u.tr t; rdl.etv
tafe r()r wuIK.
The patieoi.un sr:rely cor:ni on the i:rterprrter to express his
concerns.

LINIT' 3C: CLINICAL I'ROCEDURES A-N


A.*lkll
fi?.tgE

#*+e4#l+l#
7.

6.4

7.

8.8
9,8

ll

4.

'

n
u

rc.4"

LrNi? 3D: UNIT

?RANSLATION PITACTICE

B', Eri#i*I#&oruarrialr Translatisrr


:

'L. Trebuie si mergi in clSciirea

r.r cinci etaje centru c bicpsie.


7. Rez'.rltateie autopsiei sunt intr-un raport special in ultimui seriar de sus,
A
3. "!t4 i e-am r:rograJrlat penh'u amniocentezd., c proceciuri de treizeci rie
minute" souse grnecologul.
8,. i"Ju',zei simf, nici o durere cdci vei fi sub anestezie generaiE.
5. Boaia iui e gravE, rieci are nevoie cie supraveghere medicald pf,irrarlntE
aceea

ierapie intensirr5.
Doct.arutr vrea sE insoui, sA-P lii respiraiia cinci secunde gi apoi sd expid
incei.
?n seciia. de

6.

188

7.

Ca;itatea icgrilirii pacienflS-or in aceastd.ciiicd nu esie at6t cie


bun* ca ix
trecui.
8. starea pacientei a fr:st chiar rnai rea inarnte cie masiectomie.
9' oxigenul gi nuirienlii aec din sAnge rn ceiuleie si tesui-r-iriie lnconiuritoare
prin oerelii subdri ai capiiarelor10' Cand sangele circul5 in vaseie sangvine, preseazdasupra peretilor
ior
creanci o presiune cunoscariE sub mrrneLe Ce tensiun e arteriald.

i.

llne hospitai has


old one.

new recovery roorn, rnuch rrrore com,foriable than the

rar^n'ioct:"=nh ro^n-jal
i'- The
rr;'u U'i.iuiu$.rauii
icuurueG aiifry
^*^-.rL--^i^
LiLr:rrc./ )t-l wu riecd io cafi the cardioiosj.st

irnmeriiateiy.
3. Aiong -with meciicacon, the docior prescribed beci re-"i after the
duodenectom',,.
4. Tire patient neecis further infornarion on the possibie risks of
hysterectom,v.
5' FIis recovery afLer tl-re appeniectorrr;iz was tress

difficult tiran after fuis


previous sffigery.
6. We recommend a mamrrrcgyaorLy for the eaylv cietecticrn of breast carce:..
7. Everyone in th-e ciuric knou,s that she is noi the rnos; kindesi of nurses.
B, Are the iab resuits inore reliable than the auscurtation?
{.JNIT',4,&: TF{E H.ESE}IRAT{}E{Y SY gTE}yg

i.

iarynx

2. Trachea
3, oxygerl
4. diaphragnt
5. iungs

'*ZXXY,{;#ry;W*rgftE
!. fr
._. *
lin

e*Fry

o.f]'
ti.

:.

!'.

189

rc---

- F'*RtotS axi. TEHSES

EJHIT.gB: VERBS

.-.'

L
Ii
;

trlr.,qani

l]

J.

UJL:

L!

i,
i

tdki'calks
-

-----

writei writes

iwtar?
'----

ji

wiil talk

witrl

write

are

i a*.1rsf

Ii ll-^-^-'-;-'^
l)*nmoccirza
iL;,C,rElilv=
; l. ..,-.

Ii
'

ihave/iras

ihavelhas

balked

been

arnf tsf are

havethas

havef has

wdtin
was i were
talkins

trrri*an

viasf wete
rrvriting
i '-----'-

wili

be

talking

had talked

been writi.n
had been

taiking
haci written

Ii

wiitr have
talkeci

u,ill be

wiii have

writilg

ramtten

Frogressive

Perfect

hari been
iiv.rridng
"
rlr
:
wiLl have been
tatrking

wiil have
writing

been

4E
j

i Simple

E"r.a;,t.If.t

it}

Sirnpie lrreseni: The tioctot'zorites a re?ort euery weekPreseni Frogressive'.1"ne aoctor is r.oriing a rqpart wow
FreserlL Ferfeci: The aactor iffiiciresdy zziiten a rs,Port this useek.
Preseni Perfect Progressive; The doctor n*s beerc uiting c re.aort.foi'jS rt',ivn#es.
Simpie Fast Tly doctcr wrote a report the day bqfore yes-terdrY-l!rc cicctor rucs uryiting q re?ort uther. a yatievt cs!!ed..
Pasr Frcgiessivr:
Fasi Ferf ect:'T?E tloctcr i",sri iuritten.n rgport be,{a-rc he le,it howle"
lrasr Peri e.:",Prcgess:ive : Ti"-e doctc'r h*ci"bre 'n ittiting ri rgpart ,iar-75 fntnllLes r.Lli?"er!
tl+e {ira alarm utent *ff"
S*npie Future: Tnr- doc'rortoiil zt:rttc n report tomrsn'oan"
're?ort er tiiis tt'orle towQl'!cz:.:.
FuiLir{.i i"rCgressi v*.'.7k_tit:yiit:i-isr ",t.tl'itirt? s
-

t9C

talking

ialking

I
I

Future Perfecl

Tlyw i"oclor

-siii iror, ,"tdftrn , _ir.pon ,ry' ,hu u*d

*!

fuiu

tirift

tomortous.

Tuttre Ferfect Progressivc:: TLte ciocior zuiii haae been utritin&a reltort.for ten ffiint$es
by thLtiffie the staff ffieeting begins ftomaffa?n)"

8-a

1_5.b

via
'-t

10. c

!-r

LK
I^

,f-

ta

11,.b

18.b

72.b
13.b
14.a

1{)
\ ./ -4.
'ti)'n

UNET 4C: CLXNECAT I'ROCEDUEES F-Z

Mw#1
i:rt:',

!.tt,,1.,t;,r r,ii-4

i.b
a/-/-.

\--

,{
J.

A
I I

/i

l)

tJ -

UNIT 4D: {,INTT

i.

T'TTANSLATTDN FRACTICE

Paieniirl dormea de trei ore ir, saiontri Ce recrepeiare, canC l-a trez;t
asistenta.

2.

Dociontl va iace (va fi facand) o amigaaiectomie (operafle de arnigciaiel

3.
4.
5.
6.

mdine pe vreftlea asta.


Far:nilia lui a fost deia vaccinati
Traheea se ramificX in bronirii care ini:X in plirndni.
Aerui pdirunde prin niriie noaslre qi merge in ios prin faringe.
Arn fost prograrrLat pentru un test aiergenic gi ag vrea sX-i anuiez.

C So-raanian;Effi sh Erae$.Eatisn
'L Tne stopped breathrng f'.t'enf seconds ago, If'ts Ciaphragn:. irasrr't been
moving at aii.
191

2.My ciaugnter-in-iaw has been t'n oed.,rviih pneumoniaior aweek".


3. dasectomv and hrbal itgatxs* are methcds of male, resr:ecti.rely temaie
steriiizati.on.
1. Tne exchange of ca.rbon ctic>ricie anci oxi,gen takes piace itrough the watrls
of aiveoii anci capiiLaries.

EjNIT 54: TF{E I}IGESTfiTE SYSTEM

1. saliva
2. chewing
3. sou?
4. esophagus
5. ia..ters
n-

.;',:':it

i.;a..:.-.:.'
iJlilt lrl*i1!!$azr

6. pnix
7. nuil:ients
8. large intestine
9. protein
i0.bile

1L. giucose
l '. rat
13. coion
14. lubricant
i.5. opening

;A
IA

hfi

/. \-

i. r-

.A

8.

I.{

Y,

9.4

A(-

5,8

1fi, A

EJNIT 58: VERBS

- TF{E FASSIVE

ei;rrl

ee*U
Trc salid iood that we eat is broken doutn into nutdents that are wsed by body ceiis. Tnis
process of chattgtng soii.d fooris into soiubie forms thai are sbsorbed by body celis is called
digestion and is fer.iormed h11 the digestiae sustem.

food enters r-he tiigesti,as tube through the mouth,


'mixed rliilt sillkta.

ztt'here

tt is ground up

bU teeth

and (is';

The stomach is a pouci'>iike. organ iust beiozu tiu diaahragwt. Its skape is {actuaily)
rietenningli by the amount qf .foad nnd the posiiion ai one's bory.

qnti it is tlr itifice ruiure foari. iiyrepare(i anii


Tne stnail ir,tesiins ii.ning is coaered ruith tin',1 bioaci uessels ruiich absoiA

7'l* snratl irtiettirw is iik* a coiiei


abscrbed..
vnein.en.ts.

tr.rbe,

r ri,''!

..-trs
"a

7. a
8.c
9"b

,1
f.4

lC. a

!^r

--a

tA
!-u

;-.
2.J.L

6.c

4-1

tl.

12_

The doctor controls the patient's pain

with analgesics

Present Progressiae:
Active: The aoctor is cantrolling the patient's pain witLt anoJgeszcs.
Fassive: The patient's pain is berng conirolled,"uith analgesics.

Simple Past:
Active: Thz dactor controlled. tlrc patient's pain with analgesics,
Passive: The patiewt's pain utas controlled with anal.gesics,
P'resent Perfect
|
t
i
,
tr1
, tt
t,
corLtrolled the patiemt's vain zuith analgesics.
Active: 'lfr7he doctor'has
Passive: The yattent's yain has been controlleri uitlt analgesics,

Sinryle Futura:
Acdve: The doctor ruill controi the yattent's parn ruith analg.esics.
Passive: The p aiient' s p airc u{li be controlle d ruith arwi gesics.

ftacti e;$
1. Th"y

asked the i.nterpreter to corne eariy.


AII patients in the siudy have kept a speciatr diet.

2.
3. Th*y will not aliow patients beyond this poini.
4. The new doctor wroie the report.
5. The surgicai team should rnai<e a decision soon.

4.,:

-...=

--;

H@e-iH
- f . interprei-ulu.i i s-a cerut s5. vind devrev.ne.
2. C dietd speciald a fast urmatii de cXtre tofi pacienfii din sfuciiu. {Un regiia
alimentar special a fost finut de cdtre tcfi pactentii riin studiu,;
3. Pacienlilor le este interzis accesuL dincoLo CE acesl loc.
4" Raportui a{ast scris de c*tte nou} i*ctor.
5. C cieizie va fi luata curiurC de c;itre ecit:ipa cle ci-rirurgi.

iY -t

,.,.:.;

.x

is crp*i.t':!L, :o *tir t.re;izcai staS', s/he is ioen" a. thoroug.i-,


ti;s Lwsaitai on iiu irst ;zts* aoyu. peovie are chosen-Gs a reswft al a
arientstian tc "'n,[i1t'{t
sear':i'Ling interztiezu.'ilteri i'ne trczl et'nticyee is trsined. artC:ai,tg'itt nozu to comynrili.csie

ffi.*

so?riecfi

i.rtitit nsttents,

{ilqflr

E}

tr

ASHSfiL [,ruE E s E sg

e{

yuE

aE s/F}-r

C*hTBgEr*NS A-li
l-

-4!

:"D
+i]
i"

y syC,hL

Y)

',)

t_) r,
a- f-

ID

"JNET Str:

UNIT

5 TF{ANSE

ATICid FRACTICE

W:ifu#

i.

Pacientui care urlrieazd, sd fie consul tat cie doctor suferh rie armezre.
2" Se sufoc#. A fosi chematX saivarea?
3- Facieniii cu eiernenld nu au voie dincoio ie acest loc (Tiecerca/-htrarea
jryfier ztsa rlenh:u ;:acientri cu d.ementii.
4' F"ceastd asisteixtd a fost tm.'tdlat#..urrr sd coraunice cu pactew1;rt cu SIDA.
5. c rvlul,firne cle bani s-au ir"llrest'ii in cercetarea menopauzei.
c
]ri=- ^ - -!^L:I:L-i-i
I^---!L:
i.
-y:,-,-,,
u,
i\i.i s-a smDiiii l-Lrci o^ iegatura
tn&e !hrpergiicesria
gi hiperiensiunea ia.
7. Ccniunciiviia se caracterizeazi prin roqeata ochiujul.
8. A fdcui insoiatre chnd era in vizrti ia. prieteni in h,fexic.

E*ma:rian-Engii.sir T'xaes3 atisri


i A';;t;;se that can -r,e Jassed fr<;m ?erscn to person by [r:uch or ihrcueir
ii-le arr is a contagious dtsease,.
?.. The frostbire of vilur toes i.s s,,rite se::ious. liaw 1ong were vou ex}ased rrt
ir a s=i n re rgin13graturgs
,,.-".'.t}

-1. Tire reopie whc Brere huriin thls accidelit are bieeiing severeilr.
1. Leuker-nia is a forrn oi carrcer Cr:.e ro abnorrnal muli:piicafion oi biaac
ieiis.
5. is he ccnsclc,us? i,.ruas toici he rr,ras in r-on:ra.
r- 3he iias c'/sbds ar-ri. l-le: pain is conriclleri ivith ar"raig*sics"
7 . Fir probaoi,, tauoLrr lnflt:enza iast,ryeek., -,.rri1ile iivLngto Asia.

t \+1],

U" Nhen scm.eone is appclntea ic o$r m,edicai sta.i!, sfhe ts sjven


thorou gh orien'taiion.

UNET 6A: THE EXCRETCRY SYST'Eh4


5. nephrons
6. tubes
7. biadder
8. urine

bowel movernents

liqirid
kidnevs
saits

b.A

I.

i,

!-\

5.fr

Y, P10.4

LINIT 68: irEEdBS - MODALS


v-i**f{
a. trt is possible he wili go.
b. We are unable to.
c. Yoi.r. rnalt be right.
ci. it is acivisabie for hirn to see +ire pociiatrist.
e. F{e refuses to eat hospital foocl.

-".. -

#d

Hlfi.f,tta;tr

a.

"Where is Doctor "frafr?"


"I'm not sutre. He might be in his afhce."

b.

Fiave you noticed- that aigm, sir? You

:er.u-st no*t

smoke in the irospitai.

c."i cara'tfird- this padeni.'s recoris."

" F'-La'vr:;trou ic.iokei i:l the ner^r fi.le cabinet? -V'\ie irro'rec aii reccrCs ir, rher?
iast -r,'eek, so vol-it' patteni's fiie qn.cuid b'e. ij:rere too.

d^. She r:outrci speak three ianguages

wheil she

r95

rn'as

iusi14.

,-*iti+-;ri

was in rneciicai schooi,


b,advery good stuirz habits.

e.trVhen

v,rouiC stud.., iong hours

for each test. i

j,;r ...- )ritjtlir iin


-.
i'Ii26f,'trfE;'L

a" Th"y rrLight refuse io aCmit this paiient.


b. We have to create a gcad image in order io increase meciicai insurance
saies.

c.They should price this cirug at an acceptable ievel.


d. The drug is in great deneand, so it must/shouid yiei<i a profit.
e.We could read the medical repori last week.

ffid"Hj.e'E
She should har.e had her ciinical skilis tested.
-'v'grt-17
L,--,^
7.,(+L +hn
-^^*^^ t -..itJ:i
SiSier" nr-rrSt
(jiL mal.n*'i+-,
i !'ui
VvJiJ!!^
rrrsul
iira
V i; ili
iraI;lartul/
DELLLI-'.!
hef ngWbOf::r,

The pharmacist could not have losi your prescripiion.


You shouldn't have apriied this ointurrent.
irluts might have S.ren vou an allergic reaction.
He couidn't have visited ihe patient so iate in the evening.
You m';st have known something aboutmy disabili{,'.
The riiet instructions shouid have been on paper.

a.
b.
c.
d.
e,

There rnust have been a delayed med.ical bilIing.


Thuy couldn't have called the slrecialist so iate.
The drugs xwy f mtght have been already cielivered.
The rneciicador,s rnust have been covered bv insurance.
You should have done your bioori tests.

UNIT 6C: D t S EAS E Sfl t I.NE S S E STXNIURIE S/PHY S ICA.L


CCINDTTIONS N-Z

tl,

esl-P.E-vsis

1,8
L,

\-

/fr

c.D
,D
;'ft

1l
AA

1fr
h
Lu. fL

1,96

UrugT

i'

/i

O.

5&

IJI{ET # TH"A}JSE ATt,Sr%r PHAilT'iCE

Nevoia cie a

goXi vezi.ca urinari sr:r.ririe rie obicei cfurc se acllrfiu.teazh r:


iumhtate de iitru rfe urind in vezic5.
S-ar puiea sd fri-z acceptat'rn proeramul de tralning pentru interpreiare.

Ar trebui s#-i ceri doctoruiui sd-fi sci.liz,nbe refeta pentru streptococ.


hlu-rni gdsesc ecusonui. Trebuie c& l-am l5sat la spitai.
Ar fi putui lncerca nigte remeciii rratrrrisie pentral cicatricea ei.
Ar fi trebuit sd-qi trateze vagrnita *:rainte de a rdmane ins6rcinat6.

!- ii

2.

-{l

f
-r-iJ,-----'
-]---,r
i{rGrleYs
clott't
iunciion
proper"ty, toxic ri/aste rdgnt accurnuiaie and
poison the boc13z cetris.
whooping cough carr. be characterrzed ay spasffils cf couqhirrg a_nd no1ST

i*.-i*^r
il r>yl'i
ti

L
U.

6l.

^LruI

L.

If distant object-s appeay blurred to yoil, vou might have myopia.


Yor;r pnearmonia ireatment must have been covered bv tTout medicai
lnsllrance.
Would vou ask the patient to describe hi-e seizures?
The removal af soljC anci iiquicl vvaste is performed b-l ttrre organs ot tire
excretory systern.

UIcigT 7.&: TI{E NEtrt.VO{-IS SYS?'EIvE

i. interprets
?. relI

5.

iearning

7. baLanre
8, areas
9. opilc

.r1. rllessages

4. neuron
5. meinbranes

l0.izeliebrae

:v!

/.

;f,

L-t

1{\
i u .,-.:
^

t97

*E?"
iT-iT'T
7Lj:al;
: u.
;

tt"
b"
a.

q
d-4-:l\Tls.Tild-*{}Ef
r -QArr
L.J:
?aY!u

The b,|edicai Englisii co-urse \Nas v ei.'i mteresfin gb&t experLsil.,'e"


l";urses, as'weli as cioctors, ,tv*tk drrext-l=l'with r:atieats,
The ie'iter we tecei-ted frosl oui interpreter con-.ains mistakes 7r\ grz.rytrfi&y,
srei-ii:'r g, and st lle.

?*aaGeeffi
a- The new meiical supplies are not oniv rrrore economica"l but aiso more
arttacCi,e.
b, Iie has -bot* the time and the rnoney tc siart iris own meiical practtce.
c. Th"y bcught tj"re irug for its quaiiry as well as foy t*s af{orda"nle -pnce.
i. Tire cardioiogist was -botft. h*gry and iired after ihe surgerv-.
!1

:-rr;.,

-:

'i:;^

i r.4!L{.fL.C' 1*

i. Ty.e cperaf,ion \^/as cancelieC.

Ei

2. lvlore iests were needeC. (C)


T'lE operation was cancelied ciue

tc

the ,fact

thnt more tests ".oere

nee/"aect.

3. She dtcrrr'tfeeiwell. (C)


t. S"ne caileci the ioctor's afivce to rnake am appointrneni. (E)
She called the d"octor's o.fficc ta mske an ttppointmeni becsuse slw didn't

,feel

weii.

5. Tire medicaiion makes the patient dtzz:t. {Ci


o. The paiient rehned flte meciication" {tri
Tiw vatient reluseci tirc rnerlicstioru because it rnakes him frizz":t.
7. The treataneni was sltccesstiii. {E)
E. The conclition was ciiagnosed pro:rtuti-tz. (C;
The treatment zuas success.fiil du,.e io yrcmVt Ciagnosis.
9, t*te called 9X1. {;E)
i0, C>,,tr neighbo:' ccmplainec CIt acuie abciominai uain. {Ci
lNe cailed I ji bgcs]lse our fleigilbor cojnplain.ed of acute a.bdominal ltain.
1i. Mrs. fones avoicls spiqi foo*.s.
12. hrtrs. Tones has an uicer.
Mvs. iones aaoid"s sftcy.ioods because o.i her tiice:',
.-i

ii!eet:x:ce,-rj

1.
?,

oecause

af

Decause

?:. becaust

4.

because

lq,3

i+;..

.:r:..,.--r.i-

:i.Ea$tet:g,

L" in spite of

?. despite
3. ,-iespire
4. alt*iough or in spite of the fact that i'tiwv're bcth car.rect)
Yaadth.r*E

1-.

).
3.

4.

Although his Engiish

-.vas

paor, he manageci to cos-rrngnicaie

his

probier* v ery cieari-y.


Although there was a deiay, the cirugs were deiivered on time.
trarking fees were increaseci in spite of the fact that many hosoitai
emrloyees obiecteri.
in spite of the taci ilrat ihe insurance rei.rseci tc cover tiris procedure, I
was able to have it.

E:*+{,*i*,;*l;..r-.'
&.4'4H&Eftg

1. She stu-dieci harci so that she ccuid pass the board exarn.
2. Th*y trained ever-rrriav so f;rat tlr*y cright win the race.
3. FIe tooi< vita.rnin C daili, during the flu seasori so thai he wouidn't catclr
a cold.

4. i wanied io search the internet so that I couid find out more aboui bone
5.

rnarrow transpiant.
She shoulcl have called her doctor today so that she wouldn't have to
wait unti] after the holidays.

UF{IT 7C: TREATMEI$T e-Z

4D
,1. U

/c.

AC

op
J- U

5.4

ia.?,

=,

r)
1Tl
/" iL
OA

i9*

Eii',igT 7L?: utriEY 7 TWf"I"dSg,eT'E*i{ PF"ACT{CE

w,|lffiai:.TkarreEati5nt:
":.
Creter",ti 9i

mEiuva spti,,hrti :*noleazd toate actiul'riie corpului.

2. $i-a silrsc,eitbanCalul ca sd--gi poat6 '#\ttta ciitr,a;a naud.


ijpqr r.t-,ri.e aparat a',..1iifiv, a trebuit sh ne tearh sb_

repetiar fuecaye

in're-bare.
4.}'irasatui nu este ?:urrfiaii benefic. ci gi reiaxani.
5. Me<iici:ra lrahrri.std este un sistern *Ce rernedi-i nahrraie
folosesc nii agenp chin:-rgica1i, nici aiopafi..
:*.: . l:'

: r'

A' i;4;;r\,4*.f, ailr'

in

care

nu

se

1:a1aAFf1\.

'i

She was a-bie to move her legs <iue

.}

Despite initiai obieciions, the paient aEreed to begin chernotheru?"v.


T-r't"y viiere upset becarrse c;f the i.n-patient's behavior.
Although acupunciure cari prcm*te therar,\,, 'we dor{t reCorFrrrlnC it tor
ti:re time oerng.
All his reia-tives saved rnoney so thar' tl-rey could pay for his ircr'le
marrow fi-anspiani.
llnere is no cure for tt.is disease but we cafl keep it under controi.

L'

l.

5.
6.

io the brace

S& TF{E ENE}*CE{II{E and E{.EPI{ODUCTIVE SYST'Ee/gg

UF{ET

T}{E ENDCCH.IhJE -CYSTEh4


E{eading"axrd:lY,'t}c.a'*}Egar,,Tl

i.

2.
3.

tissues
rnessngers
mf,ue-nct

4.

th-vroir:

$aficTea5

6.

cvaries

HE REPRCDUCTItr/E 5Y5TEh4
F{eariire g. an

i.

-u*

ir

d:+ o cahe i ary

2.

sex
o-rraries

4" t:aqwra
5. skin

1,

rfPg

.t:_

8 -4"

r'*5-

?11.,'..'

Q::k: The

t,I

\-t

'1
L.

f
'e

F:t <isrri-Ei e a n d E

+-,i-.^
L\]ut:

pr* ce r*q * Svsteme

Fi.

2**

3i\
Ah-t
. r-l

uu

(rf

UNIE

1fi
!u.11,\

8ts: FF{RASES ,&I*JE} CLAE"ISES

7.C
2,P
3.C
+.P

5.?
#'r':'L;i'ili:r;;i i' :1tr';:

H.F+.-qffi_$

":;iff

1. Children who eat a baianceci diet are heaiihier.


2. Drr.lgs that reciuce pain are calied analgesics.
3. My sister iraci her arrn in a cast aiter the car accident.
4. The doctor visited. the patieni who had had a heart attack.
5. The patient asked when the orreration would begin.

'$'d

These are given exarnpies; check ycu.rs with the teacher or in a Eroup.
1.. lNnen the rioctor chenged the presciption, ihe paiient feit better.
2. TXrat was the hospitai ztrhere m!/ sister hnd surgery.
3. i i<now what the d"ocior requesied..
4. If you order your prescriction toda;v, it zuillbe rea4tomorrout.
5. Demands for healthcare are increasing and inore doctors and" nurses are
rceeded.

UF{IT 8C: I}RESCRIPTION h-7.

wffisg#ity
7.C

5.4

3.

,1

Fii

.+"
^Tt

o^.,,--

?FT

5.A

7.A
i0.E

2Ai

gJ}VTT S EH*&NSLATE*hJ PRAC?3CE


UFTET &#;
r+i
W;:

W*W
i.

Giandei"e s,":n'L gi".rrtr":

i:i1cr:trate ae 'restrtu:i

di:r singe pentru a produce hormoni.

7. Dac'a ?f coman zi r*eitcana

al:,Lnc,elrtesi',rh azi,

car e

faittsesc ::nateriaie

coi

s5-

tid.ici rnSine

c-u:rA+nasd,.

3" $tiu cE meciicamenteie care nu

necesit6

reteti pct f; curnpErate

Ce ia

crice farmacie iocaiS.


Cirristine a inirebat cirna sd ihceapd sd ia exlrectorantui.
Jack a',rea rirAna in girios.

The femaie reproducti-r'e s.rrsiern ccnsists of iwo ovaries, two


(fatriopian) tubes, ihe utems, and the vagina'
Analgeslcs are capaaie of reduc:ng or eiirrdnating parn.

-t
t-,

Tl-ia'i was the drugstore where X bought the ointrnentIt',,ou can't toierate t*lis antibiotic, the ioctor .,triil. write a new

prescripticn.
The rioctor taikeri tc the paiient who needei cardiotorr-ics.
We har.e time to bandage the wo".rncl'

J.
I

UHET 9A: TE{E SEF{SES - SEGE{T, F{E,{RtrNC, SI\'TELE,, TASTE,


ANE} TCUCFE

senses

skuil
eyelirls

f.

iignt

i-0.sv,,eat

vibrations
eardrurn

l-1.skirr

E5&.e'kifuiz:-f&e.,,Sertses
4?,

-.

l,

fL

.T
.i.

:',,

IA
L!"

fL

3.r
-h

7. tongue
8. sweer.
infectron

LZ.patr,,

U&IHT 9ts: EFFECTI"{E SEtr{T'ENCES


Wn#&w,P*
i. compiex (cx)
f"nis is an important responsibility vrhen one r,vorks in a hospitaf.

Z- compounri

(c;

Some of the new medical suppiies are very expensive , Nd others are
ciisposable.

3.
Ii

complex (cx)
Jrou want to s-iay heaithr', eat vegetabies and waik every day.

4.

cornplex (cx)
Your X-rays indicate an abnorrnalirv that needs to be checkeri.

5.

simple

(s)

Meclications in the iocked closet shoulci be riistu"ibuied.

6.

complex (rx)
This famous snrgeon can perforrn the type of operation thai the patiEnt
needs.

7.

cornplex(cx)
Medication makes the patient dizzy, so she refused i!.

8.

simple (s)
The operaticn roorr is ready nov'/.

g.

cornplex (cxi
i won't call mv doctcr untress i get an aciverse reaciic'n irom the rae,iicine
that he prescribed.
L0. cornpound (c)
The patient cannot move his legs, b"at iris bacic is pretty tlexibie.

?-affikeW

i-. incorrect
2- incc;:rect

6. incorrect
7. correci

3" incorrect

correct
9. incorrect
10. incorreci

4.
5.

correct
correct

.\ l'\ ''>
LWJ

i,
1

L,

.)"

aitirougi"l he t.ad noi stuciieci the .week befare, he missec- oniy one
quesiion on his swd'rcaL terrr'"inoloW qLlizShehad -w-r-:rked r&ariv hours in ER beiorethe vear enried.
whenever Dcctar creen loses touch with her patients, she b].ames
herself.
The iab resu.lts aae'tmreiiabie because the sampies weren't hanCieri

prooeriy.

- ]usr to stay awake is a chalienge ol 'ivorking night shifts.

These are sorne possibie correciions. Yours might be different

i"

Tne doctor hesitateei too lon?; ih-e pa-ti.ent complai:re,j about it.
2. Sbre siept cieepiy at nighi as sh.e had seen many patients all day.
3. i{e never seems to stop and he has so rnuch e-nergy.
4" I bought nevv clothes for the inter,riew, but I dicin'i get i}re job.
5" The hospitai has a gorgeous view that iooks out over a park.

Uf.inY 9C: &6trS CELI-A}{EO U SA,[E PICA]TAEE,ATED EXPR.ES SIONS

AHt]

HE

ALTH-

6.A
-n

L. ta
Jr-

fj

i.i-

Y.A

,t

iJF,itrT 9D: i.${IE

10.c

YEIANSE ATEON PE{.ACTXCE

E. Errgiisir-- R orrtanram' T:,r'azesieti.$*


i. Tla, asigurarea ta piEteqte ing:'ijire prenatali;, Gw trebuie sE contricutlfiiL
cjin cosh.li fiecirer vizite.
?. De ce nu te-ai cius ia ginecoi".:g Cr-:pX primui al,ort spontan?
3. Dacd nu chentd;n salvarea, nu-l puterr rransporta ia spttai.

244

:Ei:

DeEi folcsegte
br;n.

4"

cirle ia mers, tonusutr rnuscular

aL

picioarelor este destul ae

Pacienh:l al c&rui medic de familie a fost ciat in judecata pentru maipraxi.s


agteaptd in fafa s6lii de nagteri.
Daci mergi Ia farrnacie sdptim6na asta, ie rog si nu uili s6 fltmpen nigte
tifon-

6.

1. f'ne anesthesiologist was exhaustecl, so he refused to work the night shift2. Because the medication macie hirn dtzzy, tfie paramedics carried him on a
stretcher.

3. Drink plentv of water whjie you are fasting.


4. The surgeorr reiused to r:erforrn the irigh-risk operation that the patienr
5.
6.

required.
His r+,arts are too srnali to be remciveci surgicaliy.
lhe -wheelchair needs to be -,epaireci before we can donate it.

UNIT 10A: I{UMAN BODY PCST'-TEST


l-.

"t5. A
16. B

iatr

2:9. A

2-1 .U

5U. A

5.8

18. C
79, D

6.,4

F}r]

.t-w, Eu

AA

8.8

iL. b
22. C

.r3. A

44. B
45. A
46. C
47. A
48. ts
19. B

36.

JU.

v.D

2_7. B

3i.

F.

24. h
25. A
/4. D

38.

/\

J. -l
ta-

A
i1. A

L0.

12.8
13. A
L4.

!,

14

L,/

aO

r\

^-

3i.

32. C
33. B

Afr. C
4L. h
AL.

UhlnT l"0E: GI{APIMAR PCSY-?EST


14.
l.
i\
1f,
J.

\-

11. ts
12. D
13. B

./ :.

i)ea
205

L)

.r1

4,A
J.

IJ

i1

f;,r

9.8
i'.J. r-

-i4. fi
4-

-.'

-4

L*."

lJ

i3- I)
-[o. --^

1n
/l_/ . r-

i8.

79. A
/tj. b

UF{IT 10C: SPECIALIZ,EW VOCABEILAR.Y TES?


,!A
L. n

"R
iH

44

6.8

'7r

oa\\o,
qL

5.ts

lr{ =
17.R

13. A

18. A
19.P;

11
l)k

t-.u
1A
r+.
A
i-<. A
A

24. D

21. B
L;. r)
23. A
'\t

la

.LJ.

UF,itT tr.0D: TRANSLATICN TEST


A-i

i.

(to) catch a disease

2. ciati cloffing
3. crutches
4. deiivery room
5. ciisposabie
5. bandageT'clressirg
7. egg cells
B. eyeiicis

(io) faint
1C. (io) get prernarrt

(a) interna un pacieni

2. glezna
3'. s-.lbsuoari, axtid
-!.

furuncul

5. cani:.rzi e, v iabtair."
6. ghi::s
7.

purai

B.

specimen, probd.

11. hollow muscuiar organ


i2. kneecap
13. itch/itching
14. Iimb
15. (to) iose weight
16. murnps
i7. nurnbness
18. oii gian<is
19. (to) remove surgicaitry
)4. scar

l-1. luxatie, entorsS, scrdTLfue


1?. fdinaase, produse cu mult arniclon
13" scfriia (urectrrii)
'j-4.
ttw-f.at
75. papl-te gusiatiize
i-5- r5niHi
i7. a se opera
i f . iuse convuisivd/ md"gdteascii
lftA

*ri*

9" ..a.i
irecaye
=-ardTals*5la
ifi. criz"a, accest atat. de

i.
2.

9. o-boseali,

2{J"

*r:u=arr,

s{Arpeaia

ptntec

Facientui agtepta rie o jumatate d.e or5 cand i s-a sl:us cd de fac't nu ayeet
planifi car e in ziua aceea.
Dacd vel incene sH iei pilulele asrea azi, vei simfi efeciul an6.ine
ri.imineaid.

3.

4.
5.
6.
7.

Intr-adevdr, asig-urarea ta pl5tegte pentru acesi tip cie procedurd qi tu nu


frebuie sE contribui.
De ce nu te-ai Cus ia medicui speci.alist (de picioare) la i:rin'r-eie semne de
ciegerEiurd a d-egereior cie ia picioare?
DacX nu gdsirn c targd, nu putern sd o f,ransoortiirn ia etajul Coi.
Sofia meciicuiui care a fosi ciar in juciecatd pentru rnaipraxis agteacti. in
fata saionuiui iie recrrrrerarE.
Dacd mergi Ia farrnacie s#pi-drndr,a asta, te rog nu uita sE cumperi niste
unguent.

8.

Asistenta era epluizaHi, asa cd a reiuzat sd meargd si aducd nirste dfcn


din catinetui de ia capdtttj. coridoru-lui.
9. Acupr.inct,rra nu este numai necir-rrercasS. cl si eficient5.. De ce nu incercJi
10. Facientui care urr-neazE si fie consuLtat rie rneCic trebuie sd sernneze
acest formular.

No cormection has been estai:lished" betv,reen your ioss of ?rcesing ard


iast year's ca-r accicient.
2. The n.eed to emprrr il:re bladder usuailv occurs wilen nalf liter of uine
accumulates in the blacicier.
3,. i ca:r't fi.nd my prescriptior"i. I m*si have left it at ihe ph-arrnac=;.
4u. ]j.le couid ieaire tried seeing a naturopa* tor the scar leii by .r-''e i;oii.
5. She shouici have had the cervicai poivp removed be{are getfi::rg

pregnant.

,. Either the nurses or the doctcr

ask:+

the uaient to ciescribe lii.s

syrnutoms.
7 " it was she .rsho caTied,91i when i-rer inother had a heari atracli,
8. "I scireduled vou for a ten-minute procedure to rieterr'ine the cause cf
',y,cu.r nurnbngss", the nilrse said.
9. T}re quaittyr si fr''ori in irhis hosaitai is nci a-; high as ii u*<erj- io b..
18. iier sistei''s ccnCition rrlas even -woise cef<:r* rher:*'otheia?'y'.

L'ti

{;
E ru

GL

EE.ft.# Iq4AF{ EAT"*

\i *

C ,qB

AJ

L Afr.Y

crtion : av ot t pt o',' ocat, intrerup ere cie sarcind


(to} a-ccorrnt for: ia) reprezenia, a justifica
accurateiy : exact, corespun zdtor, precis
acidictior:.: .iepencienyii ae o substanfd chimic5
{tc) a<irnit a uatient ia) interna un pacient
airenai glands: giancie suprarenaie
affordabLe: posibil, permisibii financiar (I can'i afforri this car: ]tJu-mi
permit rnagina asta)
AIDS: SIIJA
aiiment lro a15, afecliune, tnCrrsp ozille
amniocentesis : amnioc entezd
ancirenai giancis: glandele suprarenale

ab

anvii:

niccrr,"'ai6

apnea: apnee (oprirea respiratiei)


acplianc e: di s p o ziiiv, in s trum errt, ap a r aL instal alie
appoi.ntmeni: progr amare f oLanificare (la medic); ?ntAlnir e La ord, hxd',
armpit subsuoar d., axiLd
ar-teries: artere
assurances: garanp.i, asigurdri (verbale sau scrise)
athleie's foot ('Iinea peCi.s): mlcyz| ia picior (ciuperci intre degetele cie ia
prctoare)
auscultatioil : auscu.ltaF.e, auscuitare ( ascultar e a z Sotl:rateio r pr o dus e d e
organele inierne)
avoid: a evita
backache: d.u.rere cle spate
backbone: coioand vertebraiE, gira srinirii
balanceC ci.iet alirn-entati e echriliblati
bail-and'socket joints: articrilafii s ferice (tribere)

(to) bandage a wound: (a) bandaia o rand


aa i^age I <iressi.n g: aandaj I oansarneni
(to) be a<lrnitteri into the hospital ia) li internat in spital, (a) fi scitaiizat
(tc) be appomted to a meiicai staff: (a) fi nurnit pe post de personal meiicai
ito) be drai*,n out ia) fi exiras
iio) i;e passei frorn 1:erscn to person: {a'! ?'tranmis(di <le ia persoand ia
persoaria
(to) b,e scheci.uleci: (ai fr. programailpiantttcar
(tc) be Yvorn; {a) fi pr:rtat (is v'zorrr: este purtaii
bean-shapei: in farmd cle b'oabi rie fasole
/rJ&

itc-) bend: ia) lncioi


bevond: mai presus, riincoio ie
bilX: facturX, bon, notd de plat5

billing: faci.rrare
birth canatr: canal de naqtere
bkth controi: pianificare famiiial5, conirac eple qi piarrning famrl:ai
birtl:l: nagtere
-bitter:

arnar
biadder (urlnary bladcier): v encd,urinarE
(to) biame oneseif; (a) se invinovdti, a seautoblama
(to) blame: (a) invinovdti,blarna, da vin-a pe
bleed: a sAngera, a piercle s6nge
bieeiiin g: sar-rgerare, he::rLora gie
blister: bdqicd
bloo<l pressure: iensiune arreriald
'-.I^--.3
I Safi"ge
-^-.^*l^, )vc(-iiiit,iil
^-+rll_/lJrJLr )rrllLUr="
^^ /*^^kx
iiiUSIIa (.ie

blood test analize de sdnge


biood vessels: vase sanguirre
biooci: singe
hlnrred.: incetoga! neciar, confuz
boi-y weighf greutate corporai5
boii: fur"rncui
bone rna-rrow tra:lspiant kan.spiant de mdduvd
bones: oase
ei rnov ernents : p ertstaltis::l inte stin
brace: protezd
born,

brain: creier
brai.nstern: trunchi cerebrai
breastbone: stern, osui pieptuiui
breasts: s6rri
{io} breat}re: a respka
breathing, brea&: r'espiratie

bronchi: bronhii
brcnchioies : bron-hioie
brurse : catt*szie, v trdta-ie
bundle: rndnunchi, legdturE, fasciculd irnuscie buniie: fascicui rie fibre
rnuscuiare)
buria-l: tnrn ormA rtt-at e
bllrr,: argurd.
-bearning
pain: serrzatre de arsur*

btrrning: ar zbtr.;r, us:urdicr


i:,12 tcucl:: prin ating+re
bvpass: operatie <ie by-rass
,i

nrl

1+,o1

cati in sick: a absenta pe rnoti".r c,e *tsal&., a a-r,.url:a absenta pe motiv

ie

baald

(toi cancel: iai anuia,


cartvas tI"nzi,
cantllarves: capilare

caxx.r.ela

car dia-.r ascuiar system : ap ar

atul c ard iov ascular

itol care for: {a) ingnii


{ta) carry: (a) iransporta
cartilage: cafiila1
castf plasier: ghios
(to; catch a disease: (a) se rnolipsi de (o boai6)
cavides: carii
ceXi: celiil5
central nervolts systesr: sisternu-l nervos central
cerebellurn: cerebei, creierui mic
cerebrum.: creierul nnare
chalien ge: difi cuitate, Drovocatre
(to) check vital signs: a vertf:rca semneie vitaie (reqoiraiie, puis, temperaturd)
chesi piert
che',rzing: rnestecat

cidcken pox: variceiH


cnildhood: copilSrie
cirill: frison, ffigur,, rdceal5
chi;'opractic : chiropractic#
(to) choke'. {a. a se) sufoca
clot/ciotting: cheag
colC s-weai: sucioare (transpirape) rece
(to)complain: (a) se plAnge
c onjunctiva : conjunciivE
ccnneccive Lissue: tesi.:.t conjuncti-"'
bruise: contuzi.e
ito) ccnvey: (a) ti'ansrniie
ccciing effeci: efect de rdcorire
co- payn"rent ccntri bu F a p aci enfului la cheltui eiile rnedicale
{to) cough up: {a) i-r:gi, expectota (coughed up: expectorat)
ccvereei bv- ir,swance: achitat/ onorat de asigurare
cnniai ner-r/es: nervi cranieni
Ciau?: C{'Lx?, anghinE
crr-:.iches: ciiry.:

i:ci cure: {ai vind.eca


cyanosis: ciancszi,
c.,rsi: chist
cr.,gfiils: cistit#

ftoi deciine: (a) reiuza


ri ehvdration: d eshidrata_re
cieiayeci biliing: facturare intdr ziatit
deiayeC: intArziat
(to1 deiiver: (a)mogi, asista ia nagtere; (aSiivra
<ieiivery room: sal5 oe nagteri
demand: cerere
rieoxygenated blood.: sAnge neoxigenat
deriveci si/ntheticaliy: derivat sintetic
(to) destroy: (a) distruge
d evic e : in strurnEnt, m ec anis m, ap ar at, dip o nttv
riiaphrag:n: diafragm(e)
ciigestion: digestie
digestive svstem: aparatul ciigesti',2
discharge (of urine): ciebit (de urini)
rl-i.o-oo- 1-^-'!X
rrrJE(.DC.
L) \) a,.ro, I aJ
^C^^rj---^
cL Lr rrr i g/ ui gLgai.fllla
-^r--L-x

disord er : bo ald., indisrr ozifie, tulbur ar e, der e glar e


ciisposable: cie unici foiosint[
(to) divert (a) deriva, (se) abate de ia

diz4t: ametit
closage: dozai, dozare, administrare a rrnui medicament
double pump: pompd ciubl5
drawer': sertar
ciressing: pansarnent
driver's iicense: permis de conciucere

irug: medicament
rirugstore: farmacie
duli pain: ciurere surdi, Clfuzii
riuties: responsabiiiteF de serviciu,lndatoriri, sarcini de iucrr-r, tr1a poshrlui
ear canai: canal/conduci auditiv
earclrum: timpan
edema: edem
egg cells: ovule
(to) ernbed: (a) iixain, incastra
embrvo: embrion
emergencv ireatment: tratament d.e urgentd
(to) ernptr,: ia) goii
en<iocrine s)/stern: sistemui endocrin
endolracheai inrubation: intubare eni otrahc ;rid
sprain: entorsE
ER doctors: rnedici din sec$a de urgent5
FR: (seqtia cie) urgenti
esorhagus: esofag
')11

ffi;
W)
l

>:++-;'':-- .'-""

"ii;i

.+
.:ri
:!:,:

...:'

excretolv Svsiern: aparahll excretor

i;;;;;;";'';i;p,.

exhausted'. ePT 'zat


experirnentai ci.rugs: nteriicarnente experintentaie
*;*buliu, globi ocrilari
eyeiashes: gene
eyeiid linin g: interiorul pieoap ei. c oniun ctivE
eyeiids: pieoape
(to) faint (a) lqina; (faint leEini
farsi ghtedness/ hypermetrop ia: pr ezbifie, pr ezbitism
(to) fasi: (a) posti, se abpne de la m6ncare
fat grdsime (substantiv); gras (adjectiv)
tatigue: oboseaid., istovire
fats: grdsimi, mAnciruri grase
feces : {ecaie, excremen te
ierr'itzea egg: ovui fecunciat
ferzer: iebr &, temperatur5
fine: subFre, iin
fingernails: unghii (la maini)
first aid: prlrn aiutor
{tow of biood: cwgeref fluxi debtt <ie sSnge
forearm: antebrat
foreskin: prepu!
frame: ramE, cadru
frarnework: structur;{, cadTu, cat casd., arhitecturH
Freezing iemperatures: temperat-ui de inghel

rubbing: frictionare
(to) frighten: (a) speria, ingTozi, infricoga
fo i ghtenin g: ?nfri co sitor
frostbiie: <ie gerituri
gallbiad der: r,ezica biiiard
gauze: tifon
generai anestirefieation: anestezie generai6

genns: microbi, agenii patogeni, bacterii


(to) get pregnanl {a) ramane insErcinati
ito) get vr'orse: {a sei inr&utdF.
giands: glande
iioj ga o#: h se) deciaaga (alarrna)
p'av matter: materielsuirstanid cenugie (a creieruiuii
growtir of tissue: excrescente
growth: cre$tere

guliet

esofag, ga"Jej
hammer: ciocan

212

{rc} l"iancle: (a} }ua ?:.r ffirrix#, sranipui.a r ir,.bc:t\ai/ lrarra


i"rarmfui: rrociv, cj#undtor
ha3, ;gr*r: febra fAnuiui
itoi heal: a (se) vinrieca
rzealing wounrl: ralrtd care se :,indec5 (?n c,ars rie vj::ldecarei
healing: vindecare
heaith histor',r: antecedende ineCic ale, fisa pacientuiui
healthcare professionals: personai ureriical, iucritori i::i ciomeniul sandtdtii
heari:rg aid aparat auditiv, pratezi. aztdttrvb,
heari:rg: auz, simtul auzuiui
heart charnbers: carrLereie inim-ii

heart inimH
sh'oke: insoiaiie
heipfui: de ajutor, serviabii, sttircr
lien-raf,rria: hesraturte, sdnge rn ulirrX
t-reat

L;*
^* c\^
-^, 1--I
Ltt L.6C..
Ja*Lo,LLt

).

hinge lcrints: arhc",alahi in balarna


hin. vulu
cnlr{
auv,

{to) iioii one's breaih: (a-qi) tine respiraila


holtrow muscular organ; argart carritar
hori-nones: hormoni
ibuprofen : rn edicarnent a-niin-fiamato r
diness: boaiii
impairei hearing: defeci ee auz, auz s}5"bit., surzi.me
irnp airmeni: d eteri an er e, defeci
in great cierr,anC: foarte cerut,/soiicitat
increase: cregtere
i::icl eciph e y abl.e : lbzl'b*.
injury: ranX, r6nire, Teziune, cietrinteni
in-patient pacierrt internat in spitai
:.irsuranc e : asi glji av e
intensive cale unit (iCUi: secfie eie ierapie i.ntelrsiv#
itchlitching: mAnchrinte a pieiii, prurit
j aw: rrrax liar, rnamdJbul5, taici
j oi:rrts : incheieturi, articuiatii
(ro) jr.rntr ts conciusicrts: (a) tr"age comc'lr;zii pripite
kicl.nei,:s:
knea din

rinichi

g:

fr iirnhntar ?, {?t&s a,}

knee: genu:rchj
k:ree i-l-llurr,,: tdntte
kneeca-l: t..rf;)i,

a-

geni-lnchiuiui, i,-ra-bj.eme iaiecltuni ia ger-runchl

frarraiiu, ei r:reriie iacerii


iarge intestine: intesm gros
iaL.,or"

4'|\
., ! r

larrrnx: Laru*ge
ieft bronchus: irronhia st&ng#
iens: iendia

fainl Leqin
(,t*i fair:i ia) iesina
.,::'-

l1

:
:,

injury: leziune
iigarnenis : ii garnente
iimb; rnembm (urand sau picior)
I s:'buze
iiquid rrraste: rezi<iur: lichid
ii.,zer:

ficai

{to) iose touch.: (ai pierde iegf,tura


(loi iose weight (ai sidbi, pierde <iin gleutaie
loss oi consciousness: pierderea cunogllntei
ioss: pierdere

'1,----.

rr.ir r.H,D. -tx*.--i


v La,Lita,LLL

itoi maintain pregnancy: (a) rnenfine/ aiata sarcina


malpractice: malpraxis
ii1?Eltri"rarv gianris: gia-rrde marfiare
rnea.sles: poiar
meciical records: fige medicale
medicai suppiies: produse gi instrumente Ce *z rned-ical
(toi mele 1'a se) topi
mess en gers : iTansmi!5ton, otesa gen
rniscarria g e : avort sp ontan, p ierderea s arcirrii
(to) miss a qu.estiora on a qriz: (ai gresi un rdspuns i.a- un test
mixture: amestec
mori-uarv: inorgd (substanijv), morttaar {aciiecfiv i
motor neives: ner,,ri rnotori
rnouthwash: apH ae g:urd
mulnps: oreion
m,rroc ard iurn : r.iocar C
name tag: ecuscn
naryotlr: ing*si
naf,r-:.rop ath.,r : medicind natr:ristE
nausea: greaia
nearbv abjects: obiecie a?ropta+,e
nearsi ghte <ln ess y' mv opia: w,iopit
neeciie: ac
nepi-u-iiis: nefrit#r"lephrons: neironi
nertze endings: terzninatlt nenroase
neri,res: nervi
''\-l fi

nexr./cus s=,:steffi: slstem r.ler,/$S


neu.rcn: neiIrCIrr

ntghr shif* scirimbui i'azra ie noapte


noisv: z$la-,rtst-as, g5ldpcs
no'strils: ndri
nurnbness: amorteaid
nutrients: nutrienti
occr;rring: care aeare, su:wine, se;lroduce
oii giands: glanie sebacee
aisrforrent u.n gueni, aiifie
olfactcrv nerve: nerv oifachv
oli guria : oli guri e (rnicg ora r ea -,, oi urn ui.r.al ilrin
ori er-irj- of.f pain:,iurere intermitentE
opening: cieschiriere" orificiu
optic ner./e: nerv optic
/ ^^*-:Ltc
cyi-i4'.,r
r^-6.^-! -^--:i:^-^-L.:!^
r-lrLctl D{^-rL-r\trLD/
\_rr
La.vrLlE}, uj.utLa/
LaViIaI]

el

or)

^-- -i^--OCLriaj.g

otrt-patienL pacient care nu necesiti;:'lrernare ?n soitaL, pacient cu regir.


arnkrlli:l-nrirr

ovaries: ovare

overnighil peste noapte


over-the-counter drugs: n:redicarnente care se cusnpdrit- fdrd retetA
orygenateci Lrlood.: sAnge oxigema| incErcat cu oxigen
pallor: paioare
r:aramedic: asisteni n'lecilcal de pe arnbr:lanid
partial ioss of sensation: pierderea varfr.alk a srmt"riuii'capacitdfii cie a simij
p aiient car e: ingrijirea p acientiioi, asistenta meiicail
peivis: pelvis, bazin
(to) perceive: ia) frerc"pe
itr:i perfor:n: (a) indepiini, face
peripherai nervous svstem: sisien-t rr,enros periferic
persp iratiorr: transpira fi e
pfiarvnx: fari:rge
nh ieo-r-n' {ioo-rnA

{.tai pic,u.'&D: i,a} ricica,lua


(icr) ui.erce: ia) strdnunge, ghur!

- piils: piiuie
prneai gland: giandd prneaLd., *vifizd
rj itt-,tay"'t 91 an,J : anc i p it:ti tar d, hi. ortz|
91
:;'i.vct ioi.l-ir: arf;ctdaF.e uivotanta ic;t si ar:ucuiad a c.e ia isaza r:iaaiiliuii
'i-riasric snrgei'')/ : :nitur qit pj asiicd
?rjileumoc+nicisis : pn eur.cc cni cza
:t{}diafrisi nteiiic siseciai',zai ?n afectiuni aie picioareior
{tcj poiscr,: iai *thvl
/i'.

-i:

t:*ivsria: pait*y;.e icregterea caglt;hf* a*. urir'.h peste 3 ti#1!Z+ *xe';


lLr:ii rposrpone: (a] arril,na
posiur. fnutX, Das?';td, P<>ztie

,..=iii,,
:.;..i.
:*i'.
',
,,1
.
,-:

]r'legfian]icYt i;atcl'r.a

presbyapra: prezbttte, ptezbiasrrr


ito) prescn-oe: {.ai prescrie (un tretarrent)
rrescription: retet6
{ta) ;rre'.lenil (a) pre.,zeni, ?rnpieiica (in sens pra{:iac"J,c;
prlrrlary physician: rneciic de famiiie, generaiist
(tc) promote ti'reraplr'. \a) acceleraf grihT/irtlesnitetapia
prostate: prostatii
puise: ruls

':
..:

"i;

.
,

:,rr,

pupii: pupiiH

,
..ait

DUTDOSE: SCOD

pus: iluror
pt:l:zlec: perpLex
auar anttne: carantiriX
raoies'. turbaie
race: cursii, intrecere
(toi recerrr e: {,a; pirni

1)
I
',

,,,'

Tecepfi.onisf ciispecer, receptia{Let, sori. C"e cabinet


(to) recognrze {a} recunoagte, identifica
recoverv roorn: salon <ie recuperare (in speciai dup5 inter*veniii chirurgicaie)
Teca'ver\i: recuperare, ie-rsdnxtosiie, revenire

..,

reci rnarrov'r: urdduv d t asie


redness: rogeaiS

,,
,,;..,'
l;

,,
:.

.. .':

',

reii-ria. retrna

rhiniiis: r'init5
ri*ca ge: cui;a toracici
ri-i:E: ccasir
trlslri bronchr:s: bronhia cireaptd
rui:bii-lg: frecare, fuecfie, frtcponare

'

:ta

'

reiatir.,es: rude
reLiabie: rie tr:lcreciere, sigur
iic) reiieve: {a) r.rsura, aitrta
re rnov ai : sc oaier e / r:xtiyp at e (p rilt ars er e"lie )
{io) remorre {sur#caiirr): ia} scoaie f exrrrpa iprin ouerariei
reproduciir.ze svsierrir Bp&rdtu-i genital, sister';rili reprcciucatci'
{to} reguire: a cere, a rtecn:sita, a solicita, a prei:irrrie
research: cerceiare
reseaichers: ce::ceidron

116

saiis: sd:afi
sa}j"'i:. sdrat
sarnple: m.r:sird., :rirob5, egantion, speclmen
sampies wetren't ha:raied properiv: specirren ele / probele nu au fost trataie
(nranipuJaie) corespunzator
"{to) save rr.lorrev: (a) economisi bani
scab: crustd, scoartE
scald: arsurd, oparealH
ito) scald: (a) arde, opdi
scar: cicatrice
sche<iuie: pian, program., orar
ito) scheduie: (a) progralna, p'txihca, fixa
scrctu:n: scrot
(to) scrub: (a\ curd,taispFila pin frecare, (a) freca cu peria
sebum: sebum
seizure: crirAf aocesf atac (de); atac de apoplexie
sense organs: organe de simt
senses: siu,.furi
sensory ne ves: nen,i senzitivi
fto) set a trac?are: (a) pune fu ghips o tracturX
sharp pain: durere acuti
shin: fiuierul piciorului, tibie
shiooing: expediere, transport
shirrering: frem.urare (shiver: a tremura)
side effects: efecte secundare
sighe vedere, simful vizuiui
skeletai muscies: rrupchi scheletici
skeleton: scheiet
skin tesil test de sensibiiitate la alergene
skin: pieie
si<u1i: crani.u

(to) sieep cieepl'y: (a) dormi adinc


sraall intestine: intesti.n subtire
smeii: miros, simlui mkosuiui
smooth: neted
smcoth muscies: mugchi visceraii iforrnaV d.in iesut muscuiar netedi
sneezing: strdnut, s trdn uiare
sof.i tissue: iesut moaie
sciii $raste: reziduurt soiiie
s<rre throat ciurere t* gal; {to itave a Sore throai: a-l ciurea in gdil
scr e : in-4ama F e, rc,n6. s ubstantiv) ; i::rflamat, d ur er os ( adi e ctive)
sound r,'ibrations: unde sonore
sour: acru
{

!1

!ilfii.

i"'

spe$n cells: sPerntatazatzt


spicrT: picant, iute
spinai corci: miduva sPin6rii
spinal newes: nervi sPinaii
spiinting: ateiS
sprain(ed ) : htxat, scrAntit
spraint entorsd, scr6ntire, iuxatie
sputurt: sputd, flegmit
starch: amidon
siarches: fflinoase, produse/alimente c1 continut ridicat de amicion
propriu
(to) start one's own medicai prachce: (a-qi) deschide cabinet medicai
steam: vapori de aPi
stirup: sciritd.
stomach: siomac
sneezing: stranutare
sf,cp thioat; strepiococ ti g6t, rosu 'r' gdt'
stretched: intins
stretcher: tmgi,
strip: fa$ie
sudden: brusc, subit
surgery: chirurgie, operape chirurgicalE
(to) swallow: a inghiii
swallowin g: inghiiit, in ghrflre
sweat gtranis: gianoe sudoriPare
sweet dulce
swelling: umfiitur5'
swoilen: umflat
taste: gust, simFsl gustuiui
taste buCs: paPile gustative
testes: testicule
the ciead,: moriii, eiecedatii
the sick bolnavii, suferinzii
the wounde<i: rhnifii
thicker: mai gros (tirick: $os)
thigh: coapsA
thin: subiire, suPiu
throat: git (intericr)
thrcbbing pain: durere pursaiild/ir"l puseuri; puseuri rie clurere
through the air: prin aer, pe caie aerianE

thymus: timus
flryroiC: iiroidd
tied: legate
tissue: lesut
218

toes: Cegeteie cle ia picioare


iongue; iirn-ba

ionsiiiecto*ly: tonsiiectomie, operafie


ionsilhtis: araigdalit#

c*.

scoatere a arvrigdaieior
!;

tonsils: arrtigdaie
iopical: Iocal
touch: atingere, simfut tacdl
(to) touch: (ai atiage
trachea: trahee
(to) train: (a, a se) insh-ui, forrna, pregdtt
freatrrent iratamerrt
tubal ligaf,on: legarea/heaiura trornpelor uterine (sterilizare ci-rilrrgical6)
iubes: irornpe uterine
ito) unciergo surgery: (a se) supune unei operatii chirurgicale
undesirabie: nedorit, inciezirabii
urreiiable; ne d er-r-rn ci e incred ere, iresig ui.
ureters: uretere
urethra: uretrd
urine: urind
uterus: uter
.,zagina: vagin
rraive: vaivd
veins: vene
vertebrae: vertebre
vertigo: am.eteali, vertij
viiai signs: sernne vitaie (resrirafie, puls, ternperaturd)
wart neg
waste pro<iucts: proriuse rezidsale
watery eyes: ochi apogi,Idcrirnogi
(to) wear: (a) purta
-'.veariness: oboseald, eputzar e, sf6rgealE
{to) weigh: a c&ntXn
",r'reighf greutate
rn irite blood ceils: ceiluie aibe, ieucocrte
whcoping cough: fl-lse convuLsive, tuse mXgiireascd
{ta) win: tq cilAu:ga
wrng: aripdf corr de cldclire
..viih ci.ra w ai. t eff a ger e
-rvocrb: oAntec, uter
v,zrisi: ?ncheietr:.ra m6inii
itc) -wrice prescriptions: (a) scne reiere rneciicale

X-ray: radiografie

2i

E<C

MAf,4

SATV

.ENG tT S*1. V {3CAE ULARY

(a, a se) atrate de la: (to) divert


(ai absenta pe motiv a.eboalil: ito) cali in sick
ac: neerile
achitat (onorat) de asigurare: covered by insurance
acru: sou.r
afecfune (boaid, indispozitie): aiimeni

agenp,patogeni: germs
oli*o.
qiltL.

n'ialma*;v4rLllfEatL

(a) alina: (to) relieve

alirneniatie echiiibratd: balanced diet


/a\ eiina. /+n\ -olio=ro
v.,
aL^rL
\LVr,

(a) amdna: (to) postnone


amar: bitter
amestec: mixirrre
ameteald: dizziness

amefit dizryr
arnicion: starch
amigdale: tonsiis
arni gd

aiitd: tonsiliiiis

amniocen te zd: amni oc ente sis


amorleaid.: numbness
ana.lize de s6nge: biood test
anestezie gener ald generai anesthetization
anghind: croup
ante'Drat forearr-L
anteced- enci e meriicaie : ireaiih history
(a) anuia: (tc) cancel
apd de gurh: mouthwasir
aparat auditiv: hearing aid
aparat: apniiance
aparatui cardiov ascul"ar: card iovascuiar sYstem
aparahri digestiv: digestive svstem
aparaflrl excretcli': excretoryz si'steffi
ap at afril r es piratci : :'esc, iraior-1r g1z' rgs1
apnee (oprirea respirafiei'1: apr.ea
arsurE: btirn
artere: arteries
articuiatii 1n lraiama: hinge ioints
224

articulaLii pivotante : piv oticints


articulaFi sferice (libere,p: baii-and_socket
ioints
aracuia$: joints
asigurare: insurance
ia) asista ia naqtei: (to) deiiver
asistent meciicai de pe ambuianii: parar-.nedic
a1ac (criz5 de): seizwe
ateld: splinting
atinge:touch
atingere: touch
ausc'ultaFe: auscultation
auz siXbit: impaired hearing
qqL.
=trc-

l-nn--^
rrralrIr5

avort (provoca! intrerupere de sarcin6): abortion


avort (spontan, pierderea sarcinii) ; miscarriage
ayiT\-

armni*
w
r^LvLL

band.ai: iranaage
(a)band,aju o rlne' (to) bandage a
ba+icH: biister

wound

bazin:pel.,ris
boal5: iilness, disease, disorder, aiiment
bohravii: the sick
bon : bill
bronhia dreaptd: right bronchus
bronhia stingfi: left bronchus
bronhii: bronchi
bronhiole: bronchioles
brrlsc: sudden

buze:ltps
bypass: operaiie de bypass
cadr u: {t ame, frarrrework
camereie inimii: heart charnbers
canai (conduct) auditiv: ear canatr
canaj. de nagtere: birth canal
(a) c6ntiri: (to) weigh
capilare: capiilaries
carantinf,: quaraniine
care surr/ine (se produce): occuring
carii: caviiies
cArle: crutcnes
cardiaj: cartiiage
(ai cAqtiga: (toiwin
celuia: ceil
221

wirite biocd cells


celuie roqii: red blood cells
ceiuLe a].be:

ce]rceiate: reseaich

cerceteiori: researchers
(a) cere (sohcita/predndei: (to) requue
cerebeL: cerebelium
cerere: demand

cerut (solicitat); jn demand


cheag: clot
chir opracticd : chiropractic
chirurgie plastic5 : plastic su-r gery
chirurgie: surgery
c?risi- rysi
cianoz5.: cyanosis
cicatrice: scar

ciocan: hauuner

cistitd: rystitis
coapsd: thigh
coaste: ribs
coloanA v ertebralX: backbone
conjunctiv d: conjunctiva
contracepFe gi pianificare familiaiE:

birth control

corrtribupa pacientului la cheltuielile nnedicale: co-payment


contuzie: bruise
copiiirie: ciriidhood
corp (aripi) <ie ci6dire: wing
creier: brain
creierul rfi.are: cerebrum
creqtere (mhrire): growth; increase
crzzd (atac de): seizure
crup: croup

::14

crustE.: scab

Ii

,1.,:

':

!:ar:

cursh (tntrecerei: race


cutia toracicd: ribca ge
ddundtor: harmfui
de ajutor: heipful
de incredere (sigur): reiiable
de unic* foiosinfh: disPcsable
debit (de urine): <lischarge {of urinei

..

defect (deteriorare) : irnr airrnent


defect de auz; imPaired hearing
de gerdturd,: frostbite
2?2

ciegeteie de ia picioare: toes


crepencienld {de o substanfi cirimicE}: aridiction

iereglare: disorder
ieri.vai sintetic: cierived wntheticaliy
ia-qi) ciescl-ride cabinet rnedicai propriu: (to) start one's own medical prach.-.e
deschiciere: ooening
deshiciratare: d ehydration
cieteriorare (defect) : rmpairment
detriment: injury
aiatr agm( 5) : diaphra gm
dificuitate: chalienge
digestie digestion
dispozittv: device
dispecer: recepfi.onist
,disp ozitiv (insfrume rrt, ap ar at) : appii an ce
\-

/^\
J - -,
-J"l-c-^ -- /t \a/, LtrDLr LrEe:
\r0l ueSEroJv
(a) dormi a<iAnc: (to) sleep
d,oza1: dosage

deepiv

dozare; dosage
duice: sweet
ia-l) durea in g6.t (to) have a sore throat
durere acutd: sharp pain
ir-rrere Ce spate: backache
durere uiuzb,: duli pain
durere in g6t sore throat
durere inbrmitentS.: on and off pain
durere puisatild I i:r puseuri: th.r obbin g p ain
dureros: sore
(a) econornisi bani: (to) save money
ecuson: name tag
edem: erierna
efect cie r6corire: cooli:rg effect
efecte secundare: side effects
embrion: embryo
entorsd.: sprain
ept{tzd. (giandd pinealX): pineal glancl
ep"a)zare: weariness
epuizat: e:<hausted
escfag: esophagt"rs
(a) e.,,ita: (to) arzolci
exctremente: feces
excre$cenfa: growth of tissue
(a) exoeciora: (toi cc,ugh up
223

i:il

,a.

..

ii

expectorat coughei up
expediere (transpor,.) : siripuin g
(a) exoira (a da afara aerui): (to) exhaie
(a) extirpa: (to) remove
extirpare: removai
facturd: bill
facturare intdrziati : delay ed billing
iacturare: billing
fiinoase (produse/aiinnente cu continut ridicat de amidon): sh.rches
faringe: pharlmx
farmacie: drugstore
fascicul: bundle
fascicui <ie fibre muscuiare: muscie bunciie
f&gie: strip
f'ebra finului: hay fever
ieor'a: fever
fecaie: feces
(a) fi extras: (to) be drawn out
(u) fi internai in spital (spitalizat): (to) be admitted into the hospital
(u) fi numit pe post de personal medicat: (to) be appointed to a medical staff
(u) fi programat (pianificat): (to) be scheduled
(u) fi purtat (to) be worl
(a) f, transmis ld de ia persoaad la persoand: (to) be passed frorn person to
Person

ficat liver
il r:
lidj

fin: frne
figa nacientuiui: irealth history, medical records
fige medicaie: medical records
(a) fuxa in/incastra): (to) embed
fiegmX: phiegm

fuierul picioruiui

.l

(tibie): shin
fiux de s6lge: flow of blood
frdmintare (masaj): kneaciing
(a) freca cu peria: (to) scrub
frecare: rubbing
fueciie: rubbing

fricflonare: rubbing
f::ison: chiil
furuncui: boii
gal5gios: noisy
garanEi {asigurdri verbaie sau scrisei: assurances
g&t {.exteriori: neck
gat iinterior): throat
LZ+

gAtiej (esofagi: Eullei


{a1 ghuti: (to; nierce
gene: eyelashes
genunchi: knee
Bl"rips: cast,plaster
giandd pineaiE @vrttzd1:pineat giand
glandE pituitar6 {hipohzl): pituitary giand
glande rnamare: mamxlary giancis
gLande sebacee: oil giands
gtrande sudoripare: sweat giands
giande suprarenaie: ariren ai gianas
giancie: glands
g'ieznd: ankie
giobi oculari: eyebaiis
gras: fat
--y^:*:,
6j.drlJ,Lilr.

c^L^

14_i.D

greaid: nausea
(a) gregi un riispuns la un test (to) rniss a question on a quiz
greutate corporald : body weight
greufate: weight
gros: thick
gust taste
hemafurie (s&nge ln urini): hematuria

gold: hip
lrip ohzd (gland5 pituitarX) : pii,.ri tan, glamd
hormoni: hormones
ibupr of en (medicarnent antiinfiamator) : ibup rof en
inciezirabil: und esrable
ilizibti in ci e cip h erubie
infiarnaFie {rani, ulcerafiei: sore

inirn6: heart
insoiatie: heaistroke
{,a, a se) instrui: (to) train
interiorui pleoapei (coniunctivd) : eyeiid iining
(a) irtterna un pacienc (to) adrnit a patieni
iritestin fpos: iarge rntestine
intestin subtire: small. tntestine
int-irbar e en clotrah e ai 6 : en d- otrache a i. in t;baticl-:
?n forrnd. eebaaaaie iasoie: bean-shaped
in cet*g at (neci.ar, conluz 1: biurrr cl
incheiefura n:l6inii:',nrrisi
lncheiefuri: jomts
(a) incieplini: (io) perform
.'/-3

I,a) iarioi: {toj bend


(a1 ?r,iricoga-: (to) *,ighten

ghtenin g
{a) inghiii: (to) swaliow
in ghiiire (inghigit) : swailowing
(a) ingriji.: (to) care for
in grijirea pacienfilor: patient care
?nft ic oqh io r : {zi

tngust narrow
inmormdntare: burial
(a se)

iruiutdfi: (to) get worse

?ntdrziat deiaireci
?ntins: st'etched
{a se) ?nvinovdfi (autoblama): ito) biame oneseif
(a) ?nvinovdti: (to) blarne
iaringe: iarynx
le gar e a / liga ti;ia tr oi:'.p elor utenne : fri bai Li ga ii or r
iegate: tied
ientiiS: lens
iegin: faint
(a) iegina: (to) faint
leziune: injury
ligamente: iigaments
limbX; tongue
(a) livra: (to) deiiver
iocai: topical
lucrS.tori ln domeniul sdndt5fi.i: healthcare professionals
rn5.duvf, roqie: red marrow
mlduva spindrii: spinal cord
mai presus de (ciincoio de): beyond
rnaipraxis : maiprac tice
mAncdrime: itch
(a) manui (manipulai: (to) handie
maxilar: jaw
inedicamenf Crug
medicamente care se curnpdrb fbrd refetd: over-the-couater drugs
meCicamente experimentaie: exirerimentai drugs
rnedici din sectia de urgentd: ER doctors
meciicind na t-urisii : na irrropa tirv
mernbru (mAnE sau picior): iimb
{a } rnenfine (ajuta) sarcina: (tc) ntaintai::i. pre grtanc'!7
ia) rnesteca: {to) cher,,,
rnestecat: chevzing
s:,jcazd ia picior: athiete's foot (tinea pedis)
,/,/n

i: .

r;il1Ei ,i:| I :: :

.'.-1.r.rri!;;

rnicrobi: gerrns
raLacar*: yocardium
rniopie: nearsightedness- myapia
(a sei moiipsi de o boalt: catch a ciisease
rncrgd: firor&tary
morfii (decedafii): the deadmortuar: mortuary
(aimogi: (to) deliver
nrostrd {probl,, specimen): sample
rnostrd de s6nge: blood sampie
mostrele nu au fost rnd.nrrite/tratate corespunzatar: the samples weren't
hanciied properiy
neugchi: rnuscles
mugchi scheietici: skeletai rnuscles
ntugchi tiscerali (formafi di:r pesut muscul.ar neted): smooth rnuscles
nagtere:

blrtir

ndri: nostrils
nedemn cie increriere: unreliable
nedorit undesirable
nefriti: nephrids
nefroni: nephrons

wart
nen/ olfaciiv: oiiactory nerve
neg:

ne{v optic: optic nerve


nervi cranieni: craniai nerves
nervi motori: motor nerves
nervi senziiivi: sensory nerves
nervi. spinali: spinai nerves
nesigur: r.rrrreiia ble
neteci: snrooih
neuron: neuron

nicovali: anvii
nocirr: harrriful
numire (pe post/ runcfiei: appointrneni
-nutrienti: nutrients
oase: bones
obi.ecte apropiafe : near'ov obiec*
oboseaid: iatrg:ue, w eariness
cchr aoogi il5crirnogil: watery el/s
oiigurie (rnicaorarea voiurrruiui r:.ri:reior ) : oiig;r:ria
ol:.dreald: scald
1a; opdri: {toi scald
(a sel opera: {to} undergo surgery
1^'7

1,;i.{iia::ili49,-g?,i"?w!
,_ . :J:::
.
ia.!,.I-ii

glcaLd: suY getY


op eratie d e scoate r e a aw*gciaieior (tons ilect*mie ) : ionsiiiectom-!.
atar'. scheciule
orl;iie : arbitaT sockets,/ cavities
creion: Eaurftps
ot gxr cavitar'. holiow rr'.uscula-r organ
crp

et

aie

organe

cL\JT1;:r

d,e

sinti -<ense orgarrs

orificiu: opening
osul piepfuiui (stern): breastbone
(a) otrd.,zL: (to) poison
cYare: ovaries

ovui fecundat fertiiizeC egg


ovuie: egg cells
pacient arnbulatoriu (care nu necesiti internare ln spiial): out-patient
pacient internat tn spitai: in-patieni
*^1^^*^- c. *^11^-.
iJal.t(rl
l/.atl.Jd.)

pdfls?rr"reflt riressing
pAntec: worrrb
plmzh: canvas
p aplle gusiaiive: taste bucis
pe cale aerian6: through the air
peivis: peivis
(a) rercepe: (to; perceive

peristalhsm intestinal: bowei movements


permis cie conducere: cirirrer's iicence
perpiex: pttzzled
personai. med icaL : he al'Jrc are prof essionais
peste noapie: overnight

picant spicy
piele: skin
piepr chest
(ai pierde d"in greutate: ito) icse weight
(a) pierCe iegdtura: (to) iose touch
piercierea c,,mo$tintei: icss of consciousness
pierCerea parpald. a simfCui /capacitirdi ae a sinrp: parttaL loss of sensation

pilule: piil=
pidrnani: iungs
ta se'1u16nge: (to'1 cow-p\ain
pieoape: eyeiicts
pneumoconioz* : pn eilmoccnicsi.s
pojar: rreasles
poiiurie (cregterea cantit5,tj.i de urin5 peste 3littr/24 are'". prsi3runa
pon-rad:

purlp (doubie plxnp:

pompi:, dub15)
228

pcsibii (rlisponibil financiar sau ca tinr"p): alioraabie


(a) posti (a se abfine de Ia nrAncare): (toi fast
posirrr5- (fi.nuti, pozipei : posture
preci.s: accuratelv
(a) pregiti: (to) train
prepu!: foreskin
(a) prescrie (un tratarneni etc): (to) prescibe
(a) preveni (in sens profiiactic): (to) prevent
prezbifie (prezbitism) : presbyopia, farsightedness, hypermetropia
prim ajutor: first aid
(a)

primi: (to) receive

prin atingere: bv touch


probd (ri'rostr6, specimen) : sampie
probeie nu au tostmdnuite/ttatate corespunzdtor: the sampies weren't
handied properly
prcduse rezidualc: lvaste prod.ucts
prociuse gi instrumente de uz medicai: rnedical supplies
program (orar): schedule
t.a) programa (pianifica): (to) schedule
programare (planificare la medic) : (medicai) appointrnent
prostatE: prostate
protezfi auditivi: hearing aid
pratezir brace
puls: puis
(a) pune in ghips o fracturE: (to) set a fracture
pupild; pupil
pu:oi: pus
(a) purta: (toi wear
radiografie: X-ray
(ai rdmAne ?nsircinat5: (to) get pregnant
rand care se vindecii (in cr:rs cie vindecare): healing wou.nd
rdnire a genunchiuluj.: knee injur.v

iniury
rdnifii: the wounciei
rEnire:

(a) recunoagte: (to) recognize


recuperare (insinitorsire, rev enirei : recoverY

(a\ reiuza: (to) ciecline


ia\ reprezenia (iustifica): (toi account
ia) respira: ito) breathe
respirafie: breath, breaihing
iesponsabiliHfi de serviciu: duties

for

prescription
retin6: retina
retet6.:

n1{}

refragere: withdrawai
reziduu: wasie
reziduu lichid : iiquid w-aste
r eziduu solid : solid waste
iQ ridtca (a iua): (to) pick up
rinichi: kicineys

gi

riniti:rhinitis
rogeafi: redness
rofuIX: kneecap
rude: relatives
sa15 de nagteri: deiivery room
salon de recuperare {in special dupd intervenfii chirurgicaie): recovery room
s&ruri: saiis
sAnge: biood
sSnge neoxigenat deorygenated blood
___!
_r_.,t_f
^^__^^-.:____
s.i-It8e
u^rBellilr.: uxvBerlaLeu
or(ruu
(a) sdngera: (to)bieed
sAngerare: bleeding
s6ni: breasts
sdrat saltv
sarcinS.: pregnancy
sdruri: salts
scirili (a urechii): stirrup
schelef skeleton
schimb (tura de) noapte: night shift
scoart5: scab
(a) scoate (prirr operafie): (to) remove (serrgicaliy)
scoatere (p.i., operafi.e): removai

'r,:*,

:i

i,r

i:

scoP: PurPose

scrAntire (eniors6): sprain


scr&ntit spraineci
(a) scrie refete medicaie: (to) write prescriptions
scrot scrotum
sebum: sebum
secfie de ierapie intensivi: intensive care unit (ICUI
sernne vitale {respira$e, puls, temperaturd etc,): .,rital signs
senzatie de arsur5: burning pain
sertar: cirawer
ser',riabii: heipfui
SIDA: AIDS
simful auzului: hearing
simiui gusfuiui; iaste
simtul rnirosului: sn'lell
23G

sirngut tactil: iouch


simlul vizuiui: sight
simfuri: senses

sistem endocri.n: endocrfuie system


sistem neryos: nervous svstem
sistem nervos central: central nervous system
sistem nervos periferic: perioheral nervous system
sistem reproducXtor: reprod ucti'.re system
(a) si5bi: (to) lose weight
(a) soiicita: (to) require, demanci
sord de cabinef receptionist
(a) spela prin frecare: (to) scrrb
specimen (mostr6, probE): sarnple
specirnen de sAnge: blooC sarnple
(a) speria: (to) frighten
^*^*^4-^-^:
-: - DyEr.
^-^-JHEr
J.ircrLU z-V LLL.

r.l

-^11^
r Ll:r-ID

sputE: sputum
stern: breastbone
stomac: stomach
strS.nuf sneeze
strS.nutare: sneezing
(a) stripunge: (to) pierce
sireptococ in gdt (roqu in gAt): strep throat

strucfurd: framework
subit sudden
substanfX cenu.$ie (a creieruiui): grav matter
subsuoar}.: armpit
subtire: fine, thin
sucioare rece: cold sweat
sudoare: sweat
suierinzii: the sick

(a/

a se) sufoca: (to) choke

supiu: thin
(a se) supune unei operapi chirurgicaie: {io) undergo surgerv
gira spinXrii: backbone
.

9o1d.:

hii:

targ6: strecher
ternperaturi cie in ghet freezin g ternp eraiures
tensiune arterialE : biooci pressure
ierminatii nenroase: nerve endings
test cle sensibiiitate la alergene: skin test
tesiicu-le: iestes
tifon: gaaze
441

'
.,,
i.,'

tlmpan: eardnun
fimirs: thYmus
droidh: thYroid
tonsiiectomie (operaFe de scoatere a arnig<ialeiori: tonsiilectorny
(a/ a se) topi: (to) meit
(a) trage conciuzii viptte: (to) jump tc conclusions
irahee: trachea

7:i

i,''
''
,
,,
,
',t'
.
i:ii:
.
'
i"
i
I
i
i;
;,
I
J
i
j
.

transmifdtori: mes sen gers


(a) transmite: (to) convey
transpirafle rece: colci sweat
transpirafle: perspiration, sweat
transplant de rnaduv6: bone rnarrow iranspiant
(a) transporta: (to) carry
(a) trata (lua ln mAni): (to) handie
tratament de urgenfH: emergengv ireairnent
trahrnent treatment
travaliu (dureriie facerii): Labor
ia) kemura: (to) shiver
tremurare: shivering
trompe uterine: tubes
iruncfu cerebral: brainstem
tulhlrare: disorder
trrbare: rabies
tuse convulsivd": whooping cougn
fuse migdreasc5.: whooping cough
(a1 fugi: (to) cough
lesuil Cssue
iesut coniunctiv: connecdve tissue
iesui moale: soft tissue
(a-qii f,i-re respirapa: (to) holi one's breath
irnutl (posturl,, pazid,;e): posture

umflai swolLen
umflitura: swelling

uncle mnore: sound vibraiions


- unghii: nails
unghii ia mAini: fingernails

unguent ointrnent
urefcre: ureters
uretrE: urethra
urgenld (seciia de urgeniei:
11rgen!H.:

EF.

emergencY

r:.rinH: urine
(a) uqura (a alina): (to) relieve
'J:

uter: uierus, womb


vagin: vagina
vaivd: valve
vapori de ap6: steam
varicel5: chicken pox
vase sanguJne: blood vessels
vdz: aght
vedere: sight
vene: veins
(a)verifica semnele vitale: (to) check vital signs
vertebre: vertebrae

vertij (amefeald) : vertigo


vezicd biiiard: gailbiadder
vezicd urinari: bladder, r:rinary biadder
(a) vindeca: (to) cure, heal
1- --1-:-- -.
---:--I-----vlnceca-re: j-reaflng

zgomotos: noisy

w.

8,358 OF ER.REGUTAR VERBS

Infinifive

Fast tense

to be
to bear
to becor-re
to begin
to blor.,
to break

wasf vrere
bore

io
*---{,
'- hrino
to buiid
to bursi

became
began
I-tl

o*. t

Pastparticiple

Meaning

been

born

purta, a suporia
a deveni

become
begrrn
^*yv^.-I T
L,'IL'

1-

to give
to gc
tc grow
to hang

a incepe
^ DLllld^--Et^
cl

broke

broken

a sparge,
a intrerupe

Lt.nr,
vr v ub^.t
-lt+

l-r-^,r
yr vuL<ir
-1' IL

buiit

built
bursi

^ ^s-.-^
a ccrnstrui
a izbucni.,
a exploda

burst

rt:r:

to buy
to catch
to choose
to conae
to ccst
to cut
to do
to draw
to cirink
to drive
to eat
ra fall
to feel
to fight
to find
to fly
to forget
to f-reeze
to get

1-[

bought
caught

bought
caught

chose
came
cost

chosen
come
cost

cut
did
drew
drank
drove

cut

ate

eaten

teil

falien

fol+

felt

fought
found
tlew
forgot
{roze
snl
t)-'

fcught
found
flown

6qvr

went
gYew

hung

done
<iraurr,.

d"runk

A dlt.r L:L

a curnpira
a prinde
a alege
a veni
a costa

at1tia
a face
aEage, a d.esena

\v(]}?

a bea
a conduce
a rn6.nca
a cddea
a sirnfi
a lupta
a gdsi
a zlaura
a uita
a inghela
a cdpdta, a develli,

given

a ajunge
aCa

driven

fcrgotten
irazem

gone
srr)t "'"tf\
6^"

l'l.*g
'i+

a T{Lerge
a cregte
a at6.rna

'^.*iff,.a.tffi

{o haY/e
to hear

had
heard
helci

io hoid
io hurt

hurt

keep

kept

r'o

to know
to iay
to iead
to ieave
to iend
to let
to lie
tc iose
to make
to mean
to meet
io pay
to put
to read.
to ri<ie
to ring
to rise
to run
to say
to see
to sell
to senri
to set
to shake
to shi:re
tc show
to shrri
to sing
tc sit
tc sieep

it-ad

heari
itelci

hurt
kepi

laid

known
iaid

led

ieci

left
lent
let

Ieft
Ient
iet
iain

icnevv

iuy
Iost
rnade
meant
met
paid

a avea
a ailZi
a g.ne
a rdni
a tine, a pastra
a $ti, a cunoagte
a pune/ a agezaa conduce
a

pleca, a piirisi

impmmuta

a ldsa
e zdcea,
a sta e,rlcat

lost

made
meant

a lace
a i:rsemna
a int6"ini

rret
paid

put

Put
read

read

rocie

ridden

a
a
a

pierde

pliti

pune

citi
a cildri, a merge
cu un rrehicol
a suna
a se rid.ica, a rds5.ri
a aierga
a zice
a vedea

roSe

i'ung
risen

ran

run

saici

said

SAIAT

seen

soid
sent
sei
shook
shone
showed

soid
sent
set
shaken
shone
shortm

shui

shut

sang

sai
siept

sung
sat

a inchicie
a cinta
a gedea

siepi

tc speak
tc spend
to stand
to steai

spOke

spoken

a vor'bi

spent

speni

stooci
stole

stooci-

a cheiiui, apetrece
a sta (ia picioarei

tcl swear

swore
sweiled

stoien
sworn
swolienT'swelied

a fixa
a (in)jura
a se un:.fia

ti; swel]

rang

vinde
a irimite
a

a aSeza
a scuf,-rra
a str5luci
a ardta

adormi

to swr:m
io take
to teach
to tear
to teil
to think
to understand
to wake
to wear

5--i/affi

took
taught
tore
tolcl
thought
rrnderstood
woke
wore

swurrt
taken
taught

a lnota
a trrra
a invip (a preda)

torn
told
thought

rlrpe

understosd
woken

a sPune
a g6mdi, a creCe
a lnlelege
a (se) trezt

woill

aptlrta,

ali

imbr5catcu
to write
to wifhdraw

wrote
withdrew

written
withd,rawn

)?A

a scrie
a

retrage

NEJ&/5BERS
THE CARDINAL NUMERAI.
i

one

two

_1

three

four
five

six
severt

a
a

.}

10
4''
11

12
74

i5
tb

eight
nine
ten
eieven

tweive
thirteen
fourteen
fifteerr

1C

sixteen
seventeen
eighteen
nineteen

2*

twenty

L/

1B

27 twenty-one
22 twenty-two
30 thlrt,
40 forty
50 fifry
6A sinly
70 seven$
B0 eighqy
80 ninety
100 onehundred
103 one huncirei and three
175 one hundred ani seventy-five
20A two hundred
300 tlrree huncired
1,000
i.,018
7,560
2,000

one thousancl
one thcusand anci eighteen
one thousand five hundred and" sixfy
two thousanC
1,000,000 one million
1,000,000,000 one thousand million
UT
^noIL

ilIi^*
UIUIUI

1.

nurnber of hundreds or thousands is nerrer spoken into the plural:


Eight hundred students attend the medical school,

but
There are hundreds of

siurients in fi'ont oi the meaical schooi.

T}IE .CRDINAL hIUi,{E RA L


Lst

2nd

4e
trrh

6rh

8ih

dre firsi
the second
tire thiid
the fourth
the fif&
tire sixth
&e seventh
the eighth

ilth ,rre eieven.iir


7?* tire fiareif*,h
i3,h the i*rirteentlt
Z0th the twentieth
21st the i-wen{z-first

77nd ttie twenty-second

23,d
24th

the twenry-thfud
the fivent,v-iourth

--,)i

9th
10th

the

100th t}'e hundreditt


1"01st the hunclred and first

nintir

ihe tenth

DECIMALS
:

r,

Decimals are indicated by a point (not


are sPoken seParateiY:

by a cornrra)

*d

number after decineals

::i:

FRACTiONS

L ahaTf;
oQ

aquarter;

35

r,

;nn

two

5+/

fifths;

L afi{th;
?_ three

L aninth;

1 a ieventh;
7

1, tenth;

or

L athird;

irA asixth;

quar,ters;

238

five sevenths;

1-0

BIBLIOGRAPIIY

Borrnie
Frucht, Suzanne
Fremgen,

Joan

Gotlieb,

Mdica{fennno{og
Prentice Hall, New Jercerry,2OA2

fhe ?hman tsrq|


Steck-Vauglu:r, Aus br:.,'LX., 7996

Hof{:nan,

Hans

Ery{ua tslrratfd

Fiofnman,

Marion

Editura Niculescu, Bucuresti,2008

Leyilchi,
Bantag,

Leon,

A.

fr;$funarryfb-Wn
Teora, Bucuregti,lg9Z

239