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82 (de) vizualizări5 paginiThis paper describes a transformation technique aimed at solving the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) problem associated with OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing). The Constant Envelop-OFDM solves the problem of high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) in OFDM, reducing PAPR to 0 dB. The constant envelope signal can be efficiently amplified with nonlinear power amplifiers thus achieving greater power efficiency. It is shown that CE-OFDMÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s performance is better than conventional OFDM when taking into account the effects of the power amplifier. The performance of CE-OFDM is analyzed in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. CE-OFDM is shown to achieve good performance with the use of cyclic prefix transmission. By way of computer simulation, CE-OFDM is shown to compare favorably to conventional OFDM. OFDM and CE-OFDM is analyzed on grounds of BER with additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). The BER is calculated and the performance of OFDM and CE OFDM is compared.

Dec 10, 2015

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This paper describes a transformation technique aimed at solving the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) problem associated with OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing). The Constant Envelop-OFDM solves the problem of high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) in OFDM, reducing PAPR to 0 dB. The constant envelope signal can be efficiently amplified with nonlinear power amplifiers thus achieving greater power efficiency. It is shown that CE-OFDMÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s performance is better than conventional OFDM when taking into account the effects of the power amplifier. The performance of CE-OFDM is analyzed in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. CE-OFDM is shown to achieve good performance with the use of cyclic prefix transmission. By way of computer simulation, CE-OFDM is shown to compare favorably to conventional OFDM. OFDM and CE-OFDM is analyzed on grounds of BER with additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). The BER is calculated and the performance of OFDM and CE OFDM is compared.

© All Rights Reserved

82 (de) vizualizări

This paper describes a transformation technique aimed at solving the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) problem associated with OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing). The Constant Envelop-OFDM solves the problem of high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) in OFDM, reducing PAPR to 0 dB. The constant envelope signal can be efficiently amplified with nonlinear power amplifiers thus achieving greater power efficiency. It is shown that CE-OFDMÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s performance is better than conventional OFDM when taking into account the effects of the power amplifier. The performance of CE-OFDM is analyzed in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. CE-OFDM is shown to achieve good performance with the use of cyclic prefix transmission. By way of computer simulation, CE-OFDM is shown to compare favorably to conventional OFDM. OFDM and CE-OFDM is analyzed on grounds of BER with additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). The BER is calculated and the performance of OFDM and CE OFDM is compared.

© All Rights Reserved

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Bit Error Rate

Shweta Sainani1 Hitesh Manghnani2

1

Research Scholar 2Scientist C

1

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering

1

Vindhya Institute of Technology and Science, Satna India, 2Defence Research and Development

Laboratory, Hyderabad India

Abstract This paper describes a transformation technique

aimed at solving the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR)

problem associated with OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency

Division Multiplexing). The Constant Envelop-OFDM

solves the problem of high peak-to-average power ratio

(PAPR) in OFDM, reducing PAPR to 0 dB. The constant

envelope signal can be efficiently amplified with nonlinear

power amplifiers thus achieving greater power efficiency. It

is shown that CE-OFDMs performance is better than

conventional OFDM when taking into account the effects of

the power amplifier. The performance of CE-OFDM is

analyzed in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN)

channel. CE-OFDM is shown to achieve good performance

with the use of cyclic prefix transmission. By way of

computer simulation, CE-OFDM is shown to compare

favorably to conventional OFDM. OFDM and CE-OFDM is

analyzed on grounds of BER with additive white Gaussian

noise (AWGN). The BER is calculated and the performance

of OFDM and CE OFDM is compared.

Key words: OFDM, AWGN, BER

I. INTRODUCTION

Currently, OFDM is of great interest by the researchers in

the Universities and research laboratories all over the world.

The Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)

digital transmission technique has several advantages in

broadcast and mobile communications applications. It

supports high data rates, has high bandwidth efficiency, low

implementation complexity and is robust against frequency

selective fading or narrowband interference. OFDM

primarily has two drawbacks. The first drawback is that

OFDM is more sensitive to frequency offset and phase

noise. The second drawback is that the OFDM has a

relatively large peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), which

tends to reduce the power efficiency of the RF amplifier.

The occurrence of large signal peaks substantially

complicates implementation of the analog radio frequency

front end at the transmitter side since amplifiers operating

linearly over a wide dynamic range have to be employed.

The power amplifier cannot work in the saturation region,

influencing the volume and efficiency of power amplifier.

Without sufficient power back off, the system suffers from

spectral broadening, inter-modulation distortion, and,

consequently performance degradation. High levels of back

off reduce the efficiency of the PA. This is a particularly

detrimental problem for mobile battery-powered devices due

to limited power resources. A new PAPR mitigation

technique is presented. The Constant Envelop-OFDM solves

the problem of high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) in

OFDM, reducing PAPR to almost 0 dB. The constant

envelope signal can be efficiently amplified with nonlinear

power amplifiers thus achieving greater power efficiency.

OFDM when taking into account the effects of the power

amplifier. The technique is based on signal transformation,

and is a combination of conventional OFDM and constant

envelope modulation technique. Its essence is the phase

transformation prior to the amplifier at the transmitting

terminal, and the inverse transformation (phase

demodulation) before conventional OFDM demodulator.

The goal of the current paper is to extend the basic concept

of transmitting OFDM by way of phase modulation. The

CEOFDM system described shares many of the same

functional blocks as conventional OFDM. Therefore an

existing OFDM system can provide an additional CEOFDM mode with relative ease, particularly for the case of

software defined platforms. This point is further illustrated

in Section II where the system model is explained. In

Section III performance analysis of CE-OFDM corrupted by

Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) is conducted. The

results lead to the study of spectral efficiency versus bit

error rate performance tradeoff. In Section IV, simulation

results are shown. Spectral efficiency versus bit error rate

performance is shown in section V. A comparison between

conventional and constant envelope OFDM is conducted. It

is shown, by way of computer simulation that CE-OFDM

compares favorably to conventional OFDM in the presence

of PA nonlinearities. Concluding remarks are made in

Section VI.

II. CE-OFDMS CARDINAL PRINCIPLES

Constant envelope (CE) waveforms are appealing since the

optimum operating point for power amplifiers is attainable.

The baseband CE signal representation is

s(t) = A e j (t) (1.1)

Where A is the signal amplitude and (t) is the

information bearing phase signal. The advantage of the CE

waveform is that the instantaneous power is constant:

Consequently, the PAPR is 0 dB and the required back off is

0 dB. Fig.1 is the signal processing system model of CEOFDM. As is seen in Fig.1, the difference in CE-OFDM is

the adding of modem unit to it, compared with OFDM. At

the transmitting terminal, a binary code element of T B length

is firstly symbol mapped with modulation order M (like

pulse amplitude modulation PAM mapping), turning into

data symbol vector {X[K]}. And after the discrete Fourier

transform (DFT) at the N dft point, a discrete-time sampling

sequence {x[n]} is transformed. Consequently, sampling

rate is reduced to F0=NLog2M/TB. The followed step is the

processing of adding a Tglength discrete cyclic prefix CP

(it means copying the tail of signal and inserting it at the

head of signal). Moreover, the discrete-time sequence with

high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) is converted into a

sequence {s[n]}, which is of 0 dB PAPR after phase

41

Design of Simulink Model for Constant Envelop OFDM and Analysis of Bit Error Rate

(IJSRD/Vol. 3/Issue 10/2015/008)

channel. At the receiving terminal, the received signal is r(t)

added with the Gaussian noise (t). Next, the CE-ODFM

signal is recovered after operating phase inverse

transformation. Finally, by removing cyclic prefix and

inverse mapping, the symbol sequence once been

transformed by DFT would revert to binary target bit.

Compared with conventional OFDM which concentrates on

amplitude modulation on carrier, signal processing of CEOFDM is to operate angle modulation on the carrier using

OFDM signal. In this way, conducting phase modulation on

carrier by an amplitude modulated signal would produce a

constant envelope signal with constant amplitude.

III. CE-OFDM MODELLING IN MATLAB (SIMULINK)

The constant envelope OFDM modulator and demodulator

systems are simulated in Matlab and the performance of

system is analyzed at various levels of Eb/N0 (signal-tonoise ratio per bit) in AWGN channel. The block diagram of

the simulated system is shown in Fig.3. A random input

sequence is generated at a sampling rate of 10 KHz and

symbol mapping is done using 4-PAM modulation. The high

rate PAM symbol stream is converted to 64 low rate

substreams by serial to parallel converter. Since CE-OFDM

requires a real valued OFDM message signal. Therefore, the

128 point IFFT is performed after adding 64 additional zero

valued substreams to obtain the real valued IFFT output.

The adding of zero valued substreams is equivalent to zero

padding of symbols. The output of IFFT block is OFDM

symbols at 10 KHz data rate. 25% cyclic prefix i.e 32

symbols are added as cyclic prefix after IFFT block which

yields an OFDM symbol stream at 12.5 KHz data rate. This

final OFDM symbol stream is phase modulated using a

phase modulator at a carrier frequency of 40 KHz with

different values of modulation index, h = {0.75, 1.0, 1.25,

1.5}. The generated constant envelope OFDM signal is

passed though the AWGN channel. At the receiving

terminal the noise distorted signal is first passed through a

front-end FIR band pass filter, centered at the carrier

frequency fc, which limits the bandwidth of the additive

noise. The signal is then converted to baseband using a

phase demodulator and low pass filter as shown in fig.2.The

baseband signal thus recovered is the original transmitted

OFDM symbol stream at a data rate of 12.5 KHz. This

stream still contains the 32 symbol cyclic prefix added in the

modulation path. Hence cyclic prefix is removed before

performing the 128 point FFT which yields a block of 128

4-PAM symbols. Out of these 128 PAM symbols, the first

64 symbols are actual information symbols where as last 64

symbols are due to zero padding at the modulator. Removal

of these 64 symbols is termed as zero removal. The resultant

symbols are converted into binary information using the

inverse mapping. The symbol mapping used in this

simulation is 4-PAM. Simulation parameters are listed in

Table 1.

IV. SIMULATION RESULT

The simulation result of the produced binary signal

after symbol mapping is shown as,

The simulation result of the cyclic prefix (means

copying the tail of the signal and inserting it at the head of

the signal) is shown below:

42

Design of Simulink Model for Constant Envelop OFDM and Analysis of Bit Error Rate

(IJSRD/Vol. 3/Issue 10/2015/008)

OFDM and CE-OFDM Modulated is shown below:

OFDM Symbol and Constant Envelop OFDM (PM)

With 0 dB PAPR

The simulation result of conventional OFDM spectrum is

Shown below:

Finite impulse response (FIR) filter functions to

constrain the out-of-band (OOB) noise in the conversion

process of constant envelope signal, and improve the

receivers performance. And the simulation result of the

signal been through FFT and then filtered is shown below:

Fig. 7: Standard OFDM Spectrum

The simulation result of CE-OFDM spectrum is shown

below

The signal at the receiving terminal is added into

the Gaussian noise. The received signal in the receiving

terminal which has passed through the channel is shown

below. It can be seen that the received CE-OFDM signal has

changed enormously.

43

Design of Simulink Model for Constant Envelop OFDM and Analysis of Bit Error Rate

(IJSRD/Vol. 3/Issue 10/2015/008)

A. Spectral Efficiency versus Bit Error Rate Performance:

The performance of CE-OFDM is determined by the

modulation index (h), which also controls the signal

bandwidth. It is first demonstrated in Fig.13, that CE-OFDM

with modulation index h >1, can outperform the underlying

M-PAM subcarrier modulation. Fig.14 shows simulation

results for M = 2 and 4. The bit error rate is plotted against

the Eb/No (bit energy to noise density ratio). It has been

observed that, for M = 4 and h > 1, CE-OFDM outperforms

M-PAM Conventional OFDM. This is predicted by Fig.13.

For h= 1.0, the performance is almost equal to the

performance of M-PAM, and for h > 1, it is better than MPAM. Since the subcarriers are centered at the frequencies

i/T Hz, i = 1, 2, . . ., N/2, so an effective double-sided

bandwidth of the message signal is defined as W = N/T Hz.

A useful bandwidth expression for the CE-OFDM signal is

the RMS bandwidth,

B = max (2h, 1) W Hz ....................(1.2)

The bit rate is,

R = (N log2 M)/T b/s, .......................(1.3)

And the spectral efficiency is,

S = R = log2M bps/Hz .. (1.4)

B max (2h, 1)

where, N is the number of subcarriers, h is the modulation

index, and M is the modulation order.

OFDM

Parameters

Nomenclature

Values

Rip

10 KHz

Symbol Mapping

4 PAM

Distance Between

Symbol

Constellation Ordering

Gray

Block Size

NB

64 Symbols

Zero Padding

NZP

64 Symbols

FFT Length

NFFT = NB + NZP

128 points

NCP = NFFT/4

32 Symbols

OFDM Symbol Rate

NTot = NFFT +

NCP

ROFDM =

( NTot/NFFT ) *

Rip

160

12.5 KHz

Oversampling Factor

16

Carrier Frequency

fc

40 KHz

Modulation Index

{0.75 1.0

1.25 1.5}

Power Amplifier

Modeling

Rapp Model

Simulation Time

Ts

10 sec

Ts * Rip

100000

V. CONCLUSION

PAPR problem is presented and analyzed. The OFDM

signal with high PAPR is transformed to a 0 dB PAPR

constant envelope waveform. At the receiver, the inverse

transform is performed prior to the OFDM demodulator. For

44

(IJSRD/Vol. 3/Issue 10/2015/008)

used. The effect of the phase modulator on the transmitted

signals spectrum is studied. CE-OFDM technique can

notably reduce the high PAPR of OFDM. From theoretical

analysis and simulated result, PAPR of CE-OFDM could

reach 0dB. It is shown that the modulation index controls

the spectral containment. The modulation index also

controls the system performance. The performance of CEOFDM can improve with increased M so long as the

modulation index increases as well. However, the signal

bandwidth grows with h, which in turn reduces spectral

efficiency. Thus, the trade-off between spectral efficiency

and performance is made with the two parameters M and h.

Modulation Modulation

Spectral Efficiency

Order

Index

2

1.25

0.8 b/s/Hz

4

0.75

2 b/s/Hz

4

1

2 b/s/Hz

4

1.25

1.6 b/s/Hz

4

1.5

1.33 b/s/Hz

Table 2: Results of Spectral Efficiency

REFERENCES

[1] ZHAO Zhongyi and TANG Zhaosheng, Modulation

and Demodulation of Constant Envelop OFDM in

Fourth International Conference, IEEE, 2014.

[2] Steve C. Thompson, Ahsen U. Ahmed, John G.

Proakis, James R. Zeidler, Fellow and Michael J.

Geile, Constant Envelop OFDM. The work was

presented at the 2006 IEEE Military Communications

Conference.

[3] Anusha Chacko, J. Jeevitha, PAPR Reduction

Techniques for Performance Improvement in OFDM

Systems, in International Conference on Electronics

and Communication Systems ICECS -2014.

[4] Deepak Sharma and Praveen Srivastava, OFDM

Simulator Using MATLAB on IJETAE; in Sep

2013.

[5] P. Banelli and S. Cacopardi, Theoretical Analysis

and Performance of OFDM Signals in AWGN

Channels, IEEE Trans. Communication, Mar. 2000

[6] C.-D. Chung and S.-M. Cho, Constant-Envelope

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

Modulation, Beijing,Oct.1999.

45

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