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Sistemul de guvernare

07 Feb 2011

SISTEMUL DE GUVERNARE
Destinatie:
1. realizeaz meninerea direciei de navigaie n
timpul marului i manevra navei cnd se impun
schimbri de direcie.
2. asigur fora lateral necesar giraiei navei si
men ine valoarea acestei for e p n
urmtoarea comand.

la

SISTEMUL DE GUVERNARE
Cerine:
1. Valoarea forei laterale trebuie s fie obinut
ntr-un timp impus.
2. S asigure controlul elementului de execu ie
(este neap rat necesar asigurarea limit rii
forei laterale n transmisia de for si asigurarea
existenei unei acionri de avarie).
3. Sa asigure fora lateral necesar guvernrii
navei pe traiectoria dorit.

SISTEMUL DE GUVERNARE

SISTEMUL DE GUVERNARE
Transmisia
de for
Cuzinet
Bordul
de atac
Zona
compensat

Bordul
de ieire

SISTEMUL DE GUVERNARE
Clasificare:
-organe de guvernare pasiv,
-organe de guvernare activ,
respectiv

- cu comand n circuit nchis;


- cu comand n circuit deschis.

SISTEMUL DE GUVERNARE
Clasificare:
Instalaia de guvernare pasiv funcioneaz n dou
regimuri:
-naviga ia pe drum drept: instala ia are rolul
de a corecta drumul navei perturbat de factori
externi, prin bandri ale crmei la unghiuri mici,
-manevre n zone nguste, intr ri n porturi,
evit ri, schimb ri ale drumului cu unghiuri mari:
situaii n care instalaia este solicitat la maximum.

ai
e
av
it
F
r
c

Aici ncepe cavitaia

PORTANA

CURBA PORTANEI

Cu cavitaie

VITEZA NAVEI (nd)


0

SISTEMUL DE GUVERNARE
Schema bloc a instalaiei cu comanda in circuit deschis:

1 timona; 2 transmisia de comand; 3 maina crmei; 4 transmisia


de for; 5 crma; 6 transmisia de control; 7 axiometrul

TERMINOLOGY
A rudder is a device used to steer a ship that moves through
water.
A rudder operates by redirecting the fluid past the hull, thus
imparting a turning motion to the shift.
In basic form, a rudder is a flat plane or sheet of material
attached with hinges, being shaped so as to minimize
hydrodynamic drag.
In larger vessels, cables hydraulics may be used to link
rudders to steering wheels.

TERMINOLOGY
The wheel of a ship is the modern method of adjusting the
angle of a boat or ship's rudder in order to cause the vessel to
change its course. Together with the rest of the steering
mechanism it forms part of the helm. It is typically connected to
a mechanical, electric servo, or hydraulic system. In some
modern ships the wheel is replaced with a simple toggle that
remotely controls an electro-mechanical or electro-hydraulic
drive for the rudder, with a rudder position indicator presenting
feedback to the helmsman.

SHIPS (STEERING) WHEEL

SE SETEAZA UN UNGHI
DE CARMA LA TIMONA
(SAU PILOT),
AMPLIFICATORUL
COMPARA
ACEST
UNGHI CU UNGHIUL DE
CARMA REAL (DE LA
UNIT DE FEEDBACK)
AMPLIFICATORUL
COMANDA
POMPA
MASINII CARMEI CARE
VA
ACTIONA
PANA
CAND CARMA VINE PE
UNGHIUL SETAT

AVANTAJ: SE COMANDA SEPARAT FIECARE POMPA A MASINII CARMEI

DUAL NON FOLLOW-UP SYSTEM

SISTEM MULT MAI


SIMPLU, MAI SIGUR
TILLER

NU UTILIZEAZA
AMPLIFICATOARE SI
INFORMATII FEEDBACK
UNGHIUL LA CARMA SE
OBTINE ROTIND TIMONA
IN BORDUL DORIT PANA
SE OBTINE UNGHIUL DE
CARMA DORIT

AUTOPILOT
STEERING
MODE
SWITCH

MIDSHIP
INDICATOR
CONTROL 1

CONTROL 2

RUDDER POSN
INDICATOR

FEEDBACK UNIT

PUMP
STARTER

STEERING GEAR

PUMP
STARTER

DF

DF

COMMONLY USED COMMANDS


When a command is given to the helmsman, the first part of the
order indicates the direction (right or left) for the helmsman to turn
the wheel. The second part of the command states the amount of
angle. The following are some commonly used steering commands.
Right (or left) full rudder. Full rudder designates a 30 rudder.
When the rudder is turned past 30 (usually designated hard right or
left), care must be exercised to avoid jamming it against the stops.
Right (or left) 5 , 10, 15 and so on. This indicates the angle, in
degrees, that the rudder is to be offset.
Right (or left) easy. Usually indicates 2 or 3 degrees of rudder
angle in the direction indicated. Some Masters may prefer 5 degrees
of rudder angle for this command. This should be understood in the
vessels SOP.

Give her more rudder. To increase the rudder angle already on


when it is desired to turn the ship more rapidly in the direction in
which she is already turning.
Ease the rudder. To decrease the rudder angle which is on. The
order may also be: Ease to (state number) degrees.
Rudder amidships. To place the rudder on the centerline.
Steady or steady as you go. To steer the present course
while the ship is swinging. The course should be noted at the time
the order is given and the ship steadied on that course.
Shift the rudder. To change from right to left (or left to right)
rudder. Usually given when a ship loses her headway and begins to
gather sternway and it is desired to keep her turning in the same
direction.
Mind your rudder. To steer more carefully or stand by for an
order.
Keep her so. To steer the course just reported, following a
request for that course.

PROPELLER ACTION
A propeller draws its supply of water from every direction
forward and around the blades, forcing it in a powerful
stream toward the stern. This moving current which
provides the power for propulsion is called screw
current. The water flowing into the propeller is called
suction screw current, that being ejected is called
discharge current.

Figure shows the waterpressure effect of the suction current


vaporizing off the tips of the blades and spiraling back in a
helical pattern.

The factors that affect propeller action:

Pitch
The pitch of a propeller is the distance the propeller would
advance in one revolution if the water was a solid medium.
Slip
The difference between the speed of the ship and the speed
of the propeller is known as the slip. Slip is caused by the
yield of the water against the propeller thrust. In other words,
it is the percentage of distance lost because water is a
yielding substance.

Cavitation
When the blade-tip speed is excessive for the size and
shape of the propeller, there is an unequal pressure on the
lower and upper blade surfaces. This condition produces
cavities or bubbles around the propeller known as
cavitation. The result is an increase in revolutions per
minute without an equivalent increase in thrust. This results
in loss of efficiency. When cavitation is fully developed, it
limits a vessel s speed regardless of the available engine
power.

Rudder Action
The rudder acts the same on a large vessel as on a small craft. The
rudder is placed directly behind the propeller to use the powerful
discharge current to turn the boat. Moving the rudder to the right deflects
the discharge current to the right, which forces the stern to the left. This
action is reversed when the left rudder is applied. At very slow propeller
speed and with very little way on, there may not be enough control over
a ship to maneuver it, especially if other forces are acting upon it at the
same time. When this condition prevails, the propeller may be speeded
up enough to give it a more powerful thrust against the rudder. Using
sudden thrusts of power to kick (move) the stern in this manner is one of
the fundamental principles of vessel handling. A vessel can often be
turned in twice its length by kicking the stern.

OTHER FACTORS AFFECTING SHIPS CONTROL


Wind, tidal, ocean currents (waves or sea), and depth of
water must be considered when handling a vessel.
Shallow water particularly affects deep draft vessels
because

of

the

cushion

effect

similar

to

encountered when navigating in narrow channels.

that

REPEATING COMMANDS
To assure the watch officer that his orders have been
correctly received, the helmsman must always repeat,
word for word, any command received. As soon as the
command has been executed, the helmsman must also
report it to the watch officer. The watch officer confirms
that the order is understood by replying, Very well.

Thank you !