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19. Oscillations
By Liew Sau Poh
1
Outcomes
a) define simple harmonic motion by means of the
equation a =
2 x
b) Show that x = x o sin
t as a solution of a =
2 x
c) derive and use the formula v =
(A 2
x 2 )
d) describe, with graphical illustrations, the variation in
displacement, velocity and acceleration with time
e) describe, with graphical illustrations, the variation in
velocity and acceleration with displacement
f) derive and use the expressions for kinetic energy and
potential energy
g) describe, with graphical illustrations, the variation in
kinetic energy and potential energy with time and
displacement
3
19.1 Characteristics of SHM
This type of motion is the most pervasive motion
in the universe.
All atoms oscillate under harmonic motion.
We can model this motion with a linear restoring
force.
5
Position VS. Time graph
What is the simple mathematical form of SHM motion?
The displacement of the oscillating mass varies
sinusoidally as a function of time.
7
Objectives
19.1 Characteristics of simple harmonic motion
19.2 Kinematics of simple harmonic motion
19.3 Energy in simple harmonic motion
19.4 Systems in simple harmonic motion
19.5 Damped oscillations
19.6 Forced oscillations and Resonance
2
Outcomes
h) derive and use expressions for the periods of
oscillations for spring-mass and simple pendulum
systems
i) describe the changes in amplitude and energy for
a damped oscillating system
j) distinguish between under damping, critical
damping and over damping
k) distinguish between free oscillations and forced
oscillations
l) state the conditions for resonance to occur
4
Periodic Motion
Motion that repeats in a regular pattern over and
over again is called periodic motion.
Simple harmonic motion is a specific type of
periodic motion that has a simple sine or cosine
wave shape.
6
Hearbeat
Oscillating mass on a
Spring
Periodic Motion
Simple Harmonic Motion
8
The restoring force of an
ideal spring is given by:
F = -kx
where k is the spring constant
and x is the displacement of
the spring from its unstrained
length.The minus sign
indicates that the restoring
force always points in opposite
direction to the displacement
of the spring.
9
19.2 Kinematics of SHM
Simple Harmonic Motion
F s = -kx
(SHM) occurs when the force
acting on a body is
x proportional to the
F s = 0
displacement of the body
F s = +kx
from some equilibrium
position (eg. a spring or a
pendulum).
-x
x=0
11
19.2
Kinematics of SHM
a = - (k/m) x
If we try x=A cos(wt+f) as a solution to this equation, we
obtain:
dx
v
A
sin
t
dt
2
d
x
2
a
A
cos
t
2
dt
2
x
(
SHM
)
2
d
x
2
So
x
Equation for Simple
2
dt
Harmonic Motion
13
19.3 Energy in SHM
2
K t
1
x
m sin
t
2 U
t
1
k
x
m cos
t
2 m
2
2
k
m
2
2
U
t
1
x
m cos
t
2 k
2
2
1
E 1
k x
2 constant
K t
2 k x
m sin
t
2
m
15
Simple Harmonic Motion
When there is a
restoring force,
F = -kx, simple
harmonic motion
occurs.
10
19.2 Kinematics of SHM
When the block attached
F s = -kx
to the spring (left) is
displaced a small distance
x x from equilibrium, the
F s = 0
spring exerts a restoring
force which is
F s = +kx
proportional to the
displacement:
-x
x=0
12
19.3 Energy in SHM
Total Energy
= Kinetic Energy + Potential Energy
E = K + U
K
1
2 mv 2
U 1
k
x 2
2
14
19.3 Energy in SHM Motion
range
of
motion
2
U 1
k x
2
2
E
1 2 k x
constant
m
turning
turning
point
point
16
KE and PE Conversion
F s = -kx
2
2
x
A
v
0
a
x
KE
0
U
1 kA
2
x
F s = 0
x
0
v
A
a
0
KE
1 kA
2 U
0
2
= +kx
F s
1
2
2
x
A
v
0
a
A
KE
0
U
kA
2
17 -x
x=0
Period, T
For any object in
simple harmonic
motion, the time
required to complete
one cycle is the period
T.
19
Energy of the Simple Harmonic Oscillator
For a displacement x = A cos (wt+f), we can say
that kinetic energy, KE is:
1
1
2
2
2
2
KE
mv
m
A
sin
t
2
2
Potential energy (elastic) PE is:
1
1
2
2
2
PE
kx
kA
cos
t
2
2
E
KE
PE
total
1
k
2
2
2
E
m .
A
sin
t
cos
t
total
2
m
Thus, total energy is
1
2
E
kA
proportional to amplitude 2 .
total
21
2
KE, U
kA 2 /2
-A
+A
x
x = 0 corresponds to equilibrium position of
spring.
23
Amplitude
x
Acos
Acos
t
Amplitude is the
magnitude of the
maximum
displacement.
18
Frequency, f
The frequency f of the simple harmonic motion is
the number of cycles of the motion per second.
1
f
T
20
Energy transfer
KE, U
kA 2 /2
0
t
t = 0 corresponds to the stretched spring.
22
Angular Frequency
2
d
x
2
Since
m
m
x
kx
(restoring force)
2
dt
k
/
m
1
k
or f
1/
T
2
m
24
19.4Systems in SHM
1. Pendulums
1.
The Simple Pendulum
2.
The Physical Pendulum
3.
2. SHM & Uniform Circular Motion
3. Damped SHM
4. Forced Oscillations & Resonance
25
Simple Pendulum
L F
sin
L F
g
g
I
mg L
2
I
mL
I
acceleration ~ - displacement
SHM
a t
2 x t
T 2
T
2 L
SHM for small
g
27
A pendulum leaving a trail of ink:
29
The Torsional Pendulum
Torsion Pendulum:
2
d
I
I
2
dt
I
T
2
Spring:
m
I
k
33
Gravitational Pendulum
Simple Pendulum: a bob of mass m hung on an
unstretchable massless string of length L.
26
The Simple Pendulum
2
d
x
mg
sin
m
2
dt
But x
L
(sin
)
2
d
g
L T
2
dt
L
m Comparing
g
2
x
a =
L
L
mg
T
2
g
28
Physical Pendulum
A rigid body pivoted about a point other than its center of mass (com).
SHM for small
hF
sin
h F
g
g
Pivot
I acceleration ~ - displacement
SHM
mgh
I
a t
2 x t
Center of Mass
T 2
I
T 2
quick method to measure g
30
mg h
Simple Harmonic Motion
I
m
T
2
T
2
k
mgh
L
I
T
2
T
2
g
Any Oscillating System:
inertia
T
2
springiness
34
SHM & Uniform Circular Motion
The projection of a point moving in uniform
circular motion on a diameter of the circle in
which the motion occurs executes SHM.
The execution of uniform circular motion
describes SHM.
35 http://positron.ps.uci.edu/~dkirkby/music/html/demos/SimpleHarmonicMotion/Circula
r.html
SHM & Uniform Circular Motion
x m .
The projection of x m on a diameter of the circle executes
SHM.
x(t)
v(t)
a(t)
v
t
x
m s in
t
2
x t
x
m cos
t
a t
x
m cos
t
v x
2
m a
x
m
Equations of Motion (SHM)
x
= A cos
t
v
= -
A sin
t
a
= -
2 A cos
t
v
=
±
(A 2 - x 2 ) 0.5
a
= -
2 x
[the definition]
39
Velocity-Time Graph
v
v =
A sin
t
A
t
0
A
41
SHM & Uniform Circular Motion
The reference point
The projection of x m
on a diameter of the
circle executes
SHM.
x
t
x
m cos
t
angle
t
UC 36 Irvine Physics of Music Simple Harmonic Motion Applet Demonstrations
SHM & Uniform Circular Motion
The projection of a point moving in uniform circular motion on a
diameter of the circle in which the motion occurs executes SHM.
Measurements of the angle between Callisto and Jupiter:
Galileo (1610)
planet
38 earth
Displacement-Time Graph
x
x = A cos
t
A
t
0
-A
40
Acceleration-Time Graph
a
a =
A cos
t
A
t
0
A
42
Velocity-Displacement Graph
v = ±
A
x
) 0.5
v
A
t
-A
0
A
A
43
Phase Relationship
x
t
0
v
a
45
19.5 Damped Oscillations
In many real systems, nonconservative forces are
present
This is no longer an ideal system (the type we have
dealt with so far)
Friction is a common nonconservative force
In this case, the mechanical energy of the system
diminishes in time, the motion is said to be damped
47
Damped SHM
SHM in which each oscillation is reduced by an external force.
F k x
Restoring Force
SHM
F
bv
D
Damping Force
In opposite direction to velocity
Does negative work
Reduces the mechanical energy
49
Acceleration-Displacement Graph
a =
x
[the definition]
a
A
0
x
-A
A
A
44
Free oscillations
When a system oscillates without external forces
acting on it, the system is in free oscillation.
The amplitude of oscillation is constant, which
will not drop.
Displacement, x
x 0
0
Time
46 -x 0
19.5 Damped Oscillations
Damped harmonic motion is harmonic motion
with a frictional or drag force. If the damping is
modifies the undamped oscillation.
48
Damped SHM
F
ma
net
k x
bv
ma
2
dx
d
x
k x
b
m
2
dt
dt
differential equation
50
19.5 Damped Oscillations
A graph for a damped
oscillation
The amplitude
decreases with time
The blue dashed lines
represent the
envelope of the
motion
51
19.5 Damped Oscillation
However, if the damping is
large, it no longer
resembles SHM at all.
A: underdamping: there are
a few small oscillations
before the oscillator
comes to rest.
53
19.5 Damped Oscillation
There are systems where damping
is unwanted, such as clocks and
watches.
Then there are systems in which it
is wanted, and often needs to be as
close to critical damping as
possible, such as automobile shock
absorbers and earthquake
protection for buildings.
55
Damped Oscillations
b
t
2
2 m
b
x t
( )
x
e
cos
t
1
m
2 m
k
m
the natural
b
1 small damping
frequency
2 m
b
1 critically damped
0
"
"
2 m
b
2
1 0
"
overdamped
"
2 m
Exponential solution to the DE
57
19.5 Damped Oscillation
One example of damped motion
occurs when an object is attached
to a spring and submerged in a
viscous liquid
The retarding force can be
expressed as R = - b v where b is a
constant and is called the damping
coefficient
52
19.5 Damped Oscillation
B: critical damping: this is
the fastest way to get to
equilibrium.
C: overdamping: the
system is slowed so
much that it takes a long
time to get to
equilibrium.
54
19.5 Damped Oscillation
2 nd Order Homogeneous Linear Differential Equation:
2
x
b dx
0 Solution of Differential Equation:
m d
2 k x
dt
dt
b
t
2 m
x t
( )
x
e
cos
t
m
2
k
b
where:
2
m 4 m
b = 0
SHM
56
Auto Shock Absorbers
Typical automobile shock
absorbers are designed to produce
58 slightly under-damped motion
19.6 Forced Oscillations &
Resonance
Forced oscillations occur when there is a
periodic driving force. This force may or
may not have the same period as the
natural frequency of the system.
If the frequency is the same as the natural
frequency, the amplitude becomes quite
large. This is called resonance.
59
19.6 Forced Oscillations & Resonance
After a driving force on an initially stationary
object begins to act, the amplitude of the
oscillation will increase
After a sufficiently long period of time,
E driving = E lost to internal
Then a steady-state condition is reached
The oscillations will proceed with constant
amplitude
61
19.6 Forced Oscillations & Resonance
When the frequency of the driving force is near to
the natural frequency (
amplitude occurs
»
) an increase in
This dramatic increase in the amplitude is called
resonance
The natural frequency
is also called the
resonance frequency of the system
63
19.6 Forced Oscillations & Resonance
Each oscillation is driven by an external force to
maintain motion in the presence of damping.
2 nd Order Inhomogeneous Linear Differential Equation:
2 x
dx
2
m d
2 k x
m
F
0 cos
d t
dt
dt
k
m
65
19.6 Forced Oscillations & Resonance
It is possible to compensate for the loss of energy
in a damped system by applying an external force
The amplitude of the motion remains constant if
the energy input per cycle exactly equals the
decrease in mechanical energy in each cycle that
results from resistive forces
60
19.6 Forced Oscillations & Resonance
The sharpness of the
resonant peak depends
on the damping. If the
damping is small (A), it
can be quite sharp; if
the damping is larger
(B), it is less sharp.
External frequency f
Like damping, resonance can be wanted or
19.6
Forced Oscillations & Resonance
Each oscillation is driven by an external force to
maintain motion in the presence of damping:
F
cos
t
0
d
w d = driving frequency
64
19.6 Forced Oscillations & Resonance
2 nd Order Homogeneous Linear Differential Equation:
2 x
2 dx
m d
2 k x
m
F
0 cos
d t
dt
dt
x t
( )
x
cos
t
m
where:
k
F
x
0
m
2
2
2
2
2
2
m
m
b
d
d
b
w
= natural frequency
tan
d
2
2
d w d = driving frequency
66 m
19.6 Forced Oscillations & Resonance
The natural frequency, w, is the frequency of
oscillation when there is no external driving force
or damping.
F
x
0
less damping
m
2
2
2
2
2
2
m
b
d
d
k
m
more damping
w = natural frequency
w d = driving frequency
When w = w d resonance occurs!
67
69
Summary
OSCILLATION
Free
Damped
Forced Oscillations
and Resonance
Displacement, x
less damping
x
0 0
Time
-
more
x
damping
0
72
68
Stop the SHM caused by winds on a high-
rise building
400 ton weight mounted on a spring on a high floor
of the Citicorp building in New York.
The weight is forced to oscillate at the same
frequency as the building but 1190 degrees out of
70 phase.