Sunteți pe pagina 1din 31


Departamentul de nvmnt la
Distan i Formare Continu
Facultatea de Drept i tiine Social-Politice
Coordonator de disciplin:
Asist. univ. dr. Cerasela ENACHE




Suport de curs nvmnt la distan

Drept, Anul I, Semestrul I
Prezentul curs este protejat potrivit legii dreptului de autor i orice folosire alta dect n
scopuri personale este interzis de lege sub sanciune penal







CUPRINS - Studiu individual (S.I.)

1. Lesson one Introducing oneself




3.Lesson three - Nationalities-Countries

4.Lesson four


5. Lesson five The family


nsuirea unui limbaj de specialitate nu se poate face fr a avea o baz
solid, de aceea primul an de studiu universitar al limbii engleze conine n
principal elemente practice i applicative la ndemna acelora care doresc si nsueasc, s consolideze i s foloseasc un limbaj minim de limba
englez. Cele zece lecii care alctuiesc capitolul cuprind teme axate pe
principalele aspecte ale vieii cotidiene de munc, sociale, culturale
avnd drept scop s formeze deprinderi de limb necesare nsuirii ulterioare
a limbajului legat de problematica de specialitate. Fiecare lecie cuprinde un
text nsoit de o tem gramatical prezentat sugestiv i concis prin
structuri, scheme i tabele. Schemele gramaticale prezint probleme de
gramatic i construcii pentru a cror nelegere i mai ales folosire,
studenii ntmpin dificulti. Expunerea gramatical este urmat de diferite
tipuri de exerciii lexicale i gramaticale menite s formeze deprinderi de
limb la cei ce studiaz limba englez.

Obiective operaionale: dup parcurgerea acestui an de studiu studenii

vor putea s:

se prezinte i s fac cunotiin cu alte persoane vorbitoare de

limba englez

poarte o conversaie simpl, referitoare la locul natal, meserie,

i s cear indicaii pentru a ajunge n locul dorit;

vorbeasc despre programul su zilnic, despre vreme i mesele


poat s se descurce n diferite situaii cum ar fi la bibliotec i

la diferite ntlniri publice;

completeze un curriculum vitae;

recunoasc, s diferenieze i s foloseasc n aplicaii practice

timpuri verbale precum prezentul simplu i continuu, prezentul perfect
simplu i continuu, mai mult ca perfectul simplu i continuu;

capete deprinderi pentru traduceri din i n limba englez.



J.D.: Excuse me. Who are you?
S.R.: Im Sandra Reynolds. Im your English teacher, and who are you? J.D.: How do
you do. My names Jane David. Im a student.
K.S.: And my name is Ken Smith. Im a student, too.
S.R.: How do you do. (Im) glad to meet you. (Its) nice to meet you.
J.D.: Its nice to meet you, too. Greetings.
S.R.: Good morning. (Good afternoon; Good evening).
J.D.: Good evening. How are you?
S.R.: Im fine thank you. And how are you? J.D.:
Very well, thank you./ Rather unwell. S.R.: Good
bye. See you later.
J.D.: Good night. See you tomorrow.

Atenie! Nu se spune niciodat Good day, nici la ntlnire nici la desprire. n engleza modern este o
form de expediere a interlocutorului, ceva de felul Poi pleca.

J.D.: Good morning, Professor Reynolds. Let me introduce myself. My names
Jane David. Im your new student.

S.R.: How do you do. Welcome to our courses. My names Sandra Reynolds. J.D.: How do
you do. Im pleased to meet you, Professor Reynolds.
S.R.: Im your English Professor. What are you studying this term?
J.D.: Im studying English language this term and English literature next term.

S.R.: Till tomorrow then.

J.D.: Its been nice knowing you. Good bye for now.
J.D.: Hi, Im Jane. Im a new student. Who are you?
K.S.: Hi, Im Ken. Im a new student, too. Glad to know you. Where are you from?
J.D.: Im from Canada. Are you from Canada, too? K.S.: No,
Im not. Im from Scotland.
J.D.: Oh, how nice! K.S.: See you soon.
J.D.: Bye-bye for now.

1. Name = First name = Christian name = Given name: Jane, Jennifer, Robert, Mary, Kenneth, Sandra
Surname = Family name = Last name: Reynolds, David, Bush, Smith, MacDonald,
OCasey, Roberts etc.

2. How Do We Address People?

There are different ways of addressing people and of speaking:
Informal or friendly between friends, teenagers, young people (classmates), businessmen;
Formal between acquaintances and also for older people or people in higher jobs.
Very formal for people we want to show respect to.
How do we address unknown people?
Excuse me, sir (madam, officer/constable etc.)
Ladies and gentlemen (when addressing an audience).
How about people we know?
Hi, Ted / Hi, Betty (more used for young people). Hello, Fred /
Hello, Barney (it is slightly more formal).

We can greet acquaintances or people we know whether they are older or in higher jobs with hello, or
good morning / afternoon / evening. At a very formal level, respect may be shown by adding their
name: Hello, Mr. Smith (for gentlemen), Hello, Mrs. Reynolds (for married ladies), Hello, Miss
David (for unmarried ladies), or Hello, Mes Green (for ladies, when their marital status is not
important). If the persons have titles, they are used in calling them: Professor Hill, Dr. Brown, Dean
Roberts (only one title - the highest is used together with the surname). For very high ranks we can
use: Your Excellency, Your Highness, Your Sanctity.

1.PERSONAL PRONOUNS (Pronume personale)
Desemneaz persoanele ce pot aprea ntr-un dialog (vorbitorul, interlocutorul)
sau nlocuiete obiectul despre care se vorbete.



1st person
2nd person
3rd person

he, she, it

(to) me
(to) you
(to) him (to)
her (to) it

him, her, it

1st person
2nd person
3rd person


(to) us
(to) you
(to) them


2. Verb TO BE present tense link verb (verb de legtur)





I am
You are
He, she, it is
We are
You are
They are

Am I?
Are you?
Is he, she, it?
Are we?
Are you?
Are they?

I am not
You are not
He, she, it is not
We are not
You are not
They are not

Am I not?
Are you not?
Is he,she,it not?
Are we not?
Are you not?
Are they not?

n engleza vorbit este mai folosit forma contras: Im a

teacher. / Im not a teacher.
Youre a student. / Youre not a student.
Hes a policeman. / Hes not a policeman.
Shes an air hostess. / Shes not an air hostess.

Its an animal. / Its not an animal.

Were workers./ Were not workers. Youre
engineers. / Youre not engineers.
Theyre taxi drivers. / Theyre not taxi drivers.
Verbul TO BE ca verb de legtur (link verb) se folosete: cu un substantiv (la singular, ntotdeauna
precedat de articolul nedefinit a sau an) I am a mother; cu un adjectiv, He is tired sau cu
adverb de loc, He is in the room / He is there.


I. Substitute the nouns in the following sentences by the personal pronouns in the correct
Model: I like this book. I like it.
1. I am very pleased with this test paper. 2. John arrives at the faculty early. 3. I
always give George good books to read. 4. Three students are talking about the exam. 5. The
assistant-lecturer is asking Henry a question. 6. The professor is lending the student a book. 7.
Students are very attentive during seminars. 8. I see my coleague going to the library. 9. Give
mother a glass of water, please. 10.
Read the lesson, please. 11. Lets go and see grandmother. 12. I want to give my grandparents a
present. 13. Ill thank father tomorrow. 14. Look at Tom and me!
15. I cant see your friends. 16. Give the cat some milk.
II. Fill in the blanks using the personal pronouns in brackets in the correct case:
1. This is a book for ... (he). 2. John always buys text-books for ... (they). 3. I never speak to
... (she) during lectures. 4. I am putting ... (it) on the shelf. 5. Every day, I see ... (you) in the
classroom. 6. I pay attention to ... (it). 7. I tell ... (she) not to be late. 8. She requests ... (they) to take
part in the scientific session.


1. (British version)
Liz: Hi, Jenny, How are you?
Jenny: Rather unwell this morning. And you?
Liz: Oh, Im fine, thanks, but Im sorry for you. Why are you such in a hurry? Its pretty hot today,
isnt it? Can I help you?
Jenny: Im late for class, and I want to buy some stationery, you know, writing paper,
notebooks and a ball-(point) pen. Is there a stationers near here?
Liz: Yes, of course. Can you see that restaurant over there?
Jenny: The one on the corner?
Liz: Turn at the restaurant and keep straight on up to the next cross-roads; go
across the road and take the first turning to the left. The stationers on the left side of the street. You
cant miss it.
Jenny: Thanks a lot. But thats quite a distance.
Liz: Yes, thats right, but you can find there everything you need: there are writing paper, pads,
envelopes, refills for your pen, erasers and even a marvelous assortment of greeting cards and
diaries. There are also glue, ink, thumbtacks a.s.o.
2. (American version)
Jenny: Pardon (Excuse) me, officer. Wheres the City Bank? Policeman: Its
downtown, five blocks from here, straight ahead. Jenny: Is it on the left?
Policeman: No. Its on the right. Its across the coffee shop.
Jenny: Thanks very much.

Policeman: Youre welcome.

VOCABULARY stationery
papetrie notebook blocnotes,
carnet ball-(point) pen pix
cross-road intersecie
writing paper pad tampon pentru hrtia de scris
envelope plic refill
mine de pix eraser gum
de ters diary jurnal
(intim) glue lipici
ink cerneal
thumbtack pionez
Explanatory notes:
1. block (in America) = cvartal, grup de case ptrat sau dreptunghiular ntre 4 strzi.
block of flats / apartment house = bloc
downtown = n sau spre centrul comercial al unui ora
2. Expressing GRATITUDE (expresii de mulumire): Thanks Thank you Many thanks Thanks a
lot Thanks again Thank you very much Thank you very much
indeed Thank you ever much for (letting me know) - Its been really marvelous 9
3. Possible responses, depending on the occasion (posibile rspunsuri, n funcie de
Dont mention it (Im glad to help you) Its all right Its my pleasure Youre welcome Im
very much obliged to you.
Study and remember (expressions):
It takes you only ten minutes to get there v trebuie numai zece minute ca s
ajungei acolo
Turn to the left/right! Luai-o spre stnga
Go straight on/ahead! Mergei tot nainte
The red light is on Semaforul arat rou
Trolley buses run till oclock Troleibuzele circul pn la ora
Would you mind telling me the way to ? Suntei amabil s-mi spunei care este
drumul ctre ?
Could you put me right? M-ai putea ndruma?
This way, please! Pe aici, v rog!
Take the first turning to the left/right Luai-o pe prima strad la stnga/dreapta
At the next crossroads turn to the left/right La prima intersecie luai-o la stnga/dreapta
Its on the right hand side Este pe partea dreapt
Can you direct me to ? mi putei arta direcia ctre ?

Is this the right way to ? Acesta este drumul ctre ?

You are still some way off Suntei nc la o oarecare distan
Its just round the corner Este chiar dup col
We happen to be going in that direction ourselves ntmpltor i noi mergem n
aceast direcie
Im trying to find my way to - ncerc s gsesc drumul ctre
You are going the wrong way Mergei ntr-o direcie greit
Is it much of a walk? Este mult de mers pe jos?
Do I take this street or that? S o iau pe aceast strad, sau pe cealalt?
Its quite a distance Este destul de departe
Which is the quickest way to ? Care este calea cea mai rapid ctre
1. Verbul TO BE exprimnd existena there is / there are (este, se afl, se gsete /
sunt, se afl, se gsesc)
Cuvntul neaccentuat thereeste urmat de o form a verbului TO BE n propoziii care
exprim noiunea de existen (este o expresie care nu exist n limba romn. Limba francez are ceva
asemntor n expresia il y a). Se folosete ori de cte ori subiectul propoziiei este o persoan oarecare
nedefinit sau un obiect, iar predicatul este verbul TO BE.
Aceast expresie introduce noi informaii interlocutorului: Exemple:
There is (Theres) a pen on the desk.
There are (Therere) two books on the table. There is
a glass on the table.
There are lots of interesting buildings in Edinburgh. There are
writing paper pads ...
There is glue in the bottle.
Observai c:
a) There se folosete n loc de subiect;
b) There is se folosete naintea unui substantiv la singular;
c) There are se folosete naintea unui substantiv la plural;
Interogativul se formeaz:
Is there a stationery near here?
Are there many children in the room?
There is not (isnt). / There are not (arent).
Observai c i n acest caz exist forme contrase, neaccentuate.
Atenie! S nu confundai cuvntul THERE din expresiile THERE IS i THERE ARE cu adverbul THERE
care se traduce cu ACOLO. ntr-o propoziie ele pot aprea mpreun. Ex. There are two chairs there. (Sunt
dou scaune acolo).
2. THE PLURAL OF NOUNS (Pluralul Substantivelor)


a. Majoritatea substantivelor formeaz pluralul

adugnd -s la forma singularului:



b. Substantivele care se termin n -sh, -ch, -tch,

-ss, -s, -x primesc -es


c. Cnd substantivele se termin n -y precedat de

o consoan, -y se schimb n i i se adaug es:



d. Substantivele care se termin n -f, -fe l

schimb pe f n v i se adaug -es:



e. Substantivele care se termin n -o precedat de

o consoan primesc -es:



f. Substantive cu pluralul neregulat:



Terminaia pluralului se citete:

dup consoane
[p], [t], [f], [k], [h], []

[z] dup vocale i

[iz] dup: [s], [z], [], [t],
consoane sonore: [b], [d], [v], [d]
[g], [l], [m], [n], [], [r], []

clocks taps baths

jugs towels films

watches buses



I. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the phrase:

1. There ... a teacher in the classroom. 2. There ... two teachers in the classroom.
3. There ... many pupils in the classroom. 4. There ... a dog in the room. 5. There
... books and notebooks on the shelf. 6. There ... books on the floor. 7. There ... a
blackboard on the wall. 8. There ... many pictures on the wals. 9. There ... a map in the
classroom. 10. There ... many flowers in the garden.
II. Change these sentences according to the patterns:
a) There is a large table in the room. (small) / There isnt a small one.
b) There are two black cats in the garden. (white) / There arent two white ones.

1. There is a short pencil in the pencil-box. (long) 2. There are three glasses on the table. (clean) 3.
There are two green books in the bag. (brown) 4. There is a young man in the room. (old) 5. There
are two large armchairs in the room. (small) 6. There is an old newspaper on the table. (new) 7.
There is a white dog in the schoolyard. (black) 8. There are two red blouses on the chair (blue). 9.
There is a tall man in the garden. (short) 10. There are two fat cats under the tree. (thin)
III. Make questions and answers.
1. There is a kitchen in the flat. (Yes) 2. There are two living-rooms in the flat. (No) 3. There is
a dog in the classroom. (No) 4. There are three cats in the
schoolyard. (Yes) 5. There are two books on the desk. (No) 6. There is a book on the floor. (No)
7. There is a dining-room in the house. (Yes) 8. There are two
bedrooms in the house. (Yes) 9. There are three armchairs in the living-room. (Yes) 10. There is a
bookcase in the bedroom. (No)
IV. Rewrite the sentences, making the words in brackets plural:
1. Our students club often organizes (evening party). 2. She has just put ten (tomato) on
the plate. 3. All the (child) who have reached the age of six go to school. 4. Have you already
brushed your (tooth)? 5. She has bought two (loaf). 6. Have you turned off the hot and cold (tap)?
7. You go to the library after (class),
dont you? 8. She has put six (glass) on the table. 9. There are many fallen (leaf) on the ground.
10. I have never seen such beautiful (picture). 11. (Woman) have equal rights with (man) in our
country. 12. They have put the (watch) into (box) that do not exceed an overall length of two
V. Use the plural of the nouns in brackets making the necessary changes. In case no change
is possible, explain the reasons: 1. He was thanked for his (work) at the hospital. 2. They
were fully aware of the (spirit) of the time. 3. The poet published his new (volume) at the
start of the century. 4. The Chinese
invented the (compass). 5. The (information) didnt come in time. 6. I have a small (cactus)
at home. 7. Dont fight with him. His (force) is enormous. 8. I feel a (pain) in my leg. 9. Its a
(damage) that cant be repaired. 10. I wont take anybodys (advice). 11. I dont like his (manner)
of speech. 12. Six to eight hours
of practice a day gave him a great (ability) for playing the piano in less than a
year. 13. Lots of (people) come to the Romanian seaside every summer. 14. I like the (fabric) my
husband brought me as a birthday present. 15. She has a brooch of diamonds set in (platinum).

= 3h


Jenny: Meet my friend, Ingrid.

Pedro: Hello.
Ingrid: Hello. Pleased to meet you. What nationality are you?
Pedro: Im from Peru./ Im Peruvian. Where are you from?
Ingrid: Im from Sweden./ Im Swedish.
Pedro: Is your family in London, too?
Ingrid: No, my family is in Sweden and in Australia.
Pedro: Oh!
Ingrid: Are you in London on holiday or on business?
Pedro: Im on business. Im a physicist. Im working in a Research Centre for three months.
Its not far from London. What about you? Are you a student, or a post graduate student? If not,
whats your job?
Ingrid: No, Im not a student. Im visiting an English family for a year to brush up my English. Are
you staying in a private house, too?
Pedro: At the moment Im staying at a hotel.
Ingrid: Isnt it too expensive?
Pedro: It sure is, but tomorrow morning Im registering for a special Nuclear Physics Course,
and then Im moving to a bed-sitter. Look! Here is my registration card. Be so kind and
help me to fill it in.

Because the hotel is too expensive, Pedro wants to rent a nice, small apartment /
flat. So, he has two ways to find it:

1. Direct conversation
Pedro: Excuse me, are you Mrs. Scott?
Mrs. Scott: Yes, I am.
Pedro: How do you do, Mrs. Scott. Im Pedro Gonzales your new tenant. Youre the landlady,
arent you?
Mrs. Scott: Yes, I am. How do you do, Mr. Gonzales. Nice to meet you. This is
Maggie Baxter. Shes your neighbour.
Maggie: Hello, Pedro, nice to meet you.
Pedro: Hello, Maggie, glad to see you, too. Can I see the bed-sitter Mrs. Scott? Is it upstairs?
Mrs. Scott: Of course you can. Come in, please. Its upstairs. My flat is downstairs.
Pedro: Oh, its very nice.
2. On the phone
Five three oh, four nine seven eight. Mrs. Scott: Hello?
Pedro: Its about the flat / apartment to let in the morning paper ads. Is it still to let?
Mrs. Scott: Oh yes, of course it is.
Pedro: Can you tell me about it?
Mrs. Scott: There are two rooms: a living-room and a bedroom, and also a kitchen
and a bathroom, of course. You can come and see it.
Pedro: Where is it?
Mrs. Scott: Its in the neighbourhood of the University College, near Regents
Pedro: Whats your address?
Mrs. Scott: 54 Drummond Street, near Euston Station.
Pedro: Oh, and how much is the rent?
Mrs. Scott: Two hundred pounds / 200 a month.
Pedro: I can come in twenty or thirty minutes. Is that all right?
Mrs. Scott: Yes, of course. Oh, wait. Whats your name?
Pedro: Pedro Gonzales.
Mrs. Scott: Can you spell it?
Pedro: P-E-D-R-O G-O-N-Z-A-L-E-S
Mrs. Scott: Thank you. See you in half an hour.
Pedro: Good bye. See you soon.
bed-sitter = bed-sitting-room garsonier, camer combinat
ads. (prescurtare de la advertisements) reclam, publicitate

1. THE PRESENT TENSE (Common Aspect) Timpul

Prezent (Aspectul Comun)
Affirmative Form

Negative Form

Interrogative Form

I work
You work
He, she, it works

I do not (dont)
You do not work
He,she,it does not

Do I work?
Do you work?
Does he, she, it

We work
You work
They work

(doesnt) work We do
not work You do not
work They do not

Do we work? Do
you work? Do
they work?

1. Timpul prezent, aspectul comun, se
folosete pentru a arta o aciune
obinuit sau repetat n prezent. 2. Adeseori este
folosit cu adverbe de tipul: often, usually, never,
always, every year.
3. Poate arta o aciune viitoare, dac este
nsoit de un adverb de timp exprimnd viitorul.
In acest caz, aciunea viitoare face parte dintr-un
program stabilit. 4. Este folosit n loc de
prezentul continuu cu acele verbe care nu sunt
ntrebuinate la forma continu (to like, to
dislike, to love, to hate, to want, to own, to
consist of/in, to belong)

NegativeInterogative Form
Do I not work?
(Dont I work?) Do you
not work? Does he,
she, it not
work?(Doesnt he..)
Do we not work? Do
you not work? Do they

Students study for their exams. Every
the Academy
postgraduate courses. We sit for an exam
tomorrow. I like this book.

THE PRESENT TENSE (Continuous Aspect) Timpul

Prezent (Aspectul Continuu)
Se formeaz cu verbul TO BE la prezent i participiul prezent (forma n ing) a verbului de
conjugat. Mai simplu, se poate exprima: TO BE + Ving ( V este verbul de conjugat).
Affirmative Form

Negative Form

Interrogative Form

NegativeInterogative Form

You are working

We are working You

are working They are

I am not working
He, she, it is not

Am I working?
Are you working?


Are we working? Are

you working? Are they




1. Prezentul continuu arat o aciune n
curs de desfurare n momentul vorbirii. Uneori,
momentul aciunii este fixat prin adverbe de timp
ca: now, at the present moment.
2. Prezentul continuu exprim uneori o aciune ce
caracterizeaz subiectul ntr-o anumit perioad
de timp. Aceasta rezult din context.
3. Ca i aspectul comun, poate arta o aciune
viitoare care a fost planificat ntr-un moment
prezent, dac este nsoit de un adverb de timp
exprimnd viitorul.

Am I not working?
Is he, she, it not


are studying
for tomorrows
We are not planning our holidays at the present
What are you doing here in Bucharest? I
am studying economics.

They are coming to see us next week.


I. Put the following sentences in the third person singular:

1. We listen to courses. 2. They take down notes. 3. You study for your exam. 4. I
like learning when I enjoy the subject. 5. You always lend me your text-books. 6.
I go home at 2 oclock. 7. I usually come to the faculty at 8 oclock. 8. I pay attention to
what the lecturer says. 9. You like being in time for the courses.
II. Make the following sentences a) interrogative b) negative

1. I leave home at 7 a.m. every day. 2. This student speasks English very well. 3. He reads very
fast. 4. Students read sports magazines every day. 5. He writes his
homework in the afternoon. 6. I always go to the cinema with pleasure. 7. He
likes to watch television on Saturday evening. 8. He likes Latin grammar. 9. He reads a few
pages of Spanish literature every week. 10. You write many letters.
III. Use the verbs in brackets in the present tense (common or continuous aspect):
1. Students from other countries (come) to get trained as economists at the
Academyof Economic Studies. 2. We (attend) classes regularly. 3. He (like) English. 4. Today, we
(study) commercial correspondence in our English seminar.
5. We (rehearse) for a show this evening. 6. They (meet) at 8 oclock tonight. 7. She just (leave)
for the mountains. 8. He (not like) to borrow the books, he (prefer) to buy them. 9. Where
you (hurry)? 10. We (hurry) to the lecture-hall as we (not want) to be late.
IV. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs in parantheses using
Present Tense Simple or Continuous:
1. I ... the water for coffee in a special pot (to boil). 2. Come and make the coffee! The water ... (to
boil). 3. This shop ... at 8 a.m. and ... at 8 p.m. (to open; to close).
4. I ... the book to read the new lesson (to open). 5. Dont shout that loud! I ... you very well(to
hear). 6. Dont interrupt them! They ... to a scientific broadcast (to listen). 7. I ... what you ... (to
see; to mean). 8. Wait aminute, will you? I ... them
off (to see). 9. A man ... with his nose (to smell). 10. Usually she ... a very quiet child, but now
she ... naughty (to be; to be)
V. Put the verbs in parantheses in the Present Tense Simple. Notice the adverbs they are
associated with:
1. Mother never ... (to go out) without a shopping bag. 2. We often ... (to play)
chess in the evenings.3. They usually ... (to do) their shopping at this supermarket.
4. She always ... (to listen to) the concerts broadcast on the radio on Sunday
mornings. 5. I occasionally ... (to read) a thriller before going to sleep. 6. Our kids frequently ... (to
break) something while playing hide-and-seek in their room. 7. Grandmother hardly ever ... (to
take) a sleeping pill. 8. They always ... (to come) in time. 9. My husband never ... (to catch)
anything when he ... (to go) fishing. 10. Do your friends sometimes ... (to ask) you to babysit?
VI. Fill in the blanks with prepositions:
1. Except ... Romanian students, there is also a considerable number ... students
coming ... other countries. 2. There are canteens providing meals ... the students.
4. This term, we insist ... commercial correspondence. 5. Students attend
conferences ... various subjects. 6. This professor gives lectures ... political economy. 7. All higher
education institutes are endowed ... libraries. 8. The students spend their holidays ... the mountains.


The clock has just struck six. Mary is in her bedroom. She has got up, opened the window and
turned on the radio. She is doing her morning exercises to the music.
It is half past six. Mary has got into the bathroom. She is standing at the wash- basin. What has
she just done? She has just turned on the hot and cold taps. What is she going to do next? She is
going to pour some water into the glass and brush
her teeth. Then she is going to have a shower. She doesnt have a bath in the morning. She
takes a bath before she goes to bed.
Mary has already brushed her teeth with her tooth-brush and tooth-paste. She has had a warm
shower. She has dried herself on the towel and has got dressed. What is she doing now? She is
doing her hair in front of the looking-glass.
It is seven oclock. Mary is in the dining-room. Has she already had her breakfast? No,
not yet. She is laying the table for breakfast. She has just put some coffee-cups, a sugar-bowl, a
milk-jug and some plates on the table. Is she going to have breakfast by herself? No, she is not.
She is waiting for her brother who
hasnt shaved yet.
It is half past seven. Mary and her brother have just finished their breakfast. They are in a hurry.
They are leaving for the Academy of Economic Studies.
It takes them twenty minutes to get to the Academy by bus. They arrive there ten minutes before
the bell rings. So they have a chat with their fellow-students. Only six students of their group are
from Bucharest, the others either come from different parts of the country, or from other
countries. They usually have a lot of things to talk about.
The classes begin at eight oclock and are over at ten minutes to two three times a week. Twice a
week they have classes in the afternoon. They regularly attend lectures and seminars.

After classes in the morning they have their lunch at the students canteen. Then they go home on
foot. On their way home they do some shopping. After a short rest they do their homework and
read up for seminars.
Then Mary prepares something for dinner and her brother helps her. They have their dinner at
seven oclock in the evening. After dinner they usually look
through some newspapers or magazines, or read some novels or listen to music, or
watch a film on TV.
On Sundays they often go to the students club that regularly organizes various cultural
activities such as evening parties, cinema shows, lectures on music and literature with recitals
by famous musicians and actors.


- What do you usually do at your office?
- In the morning I receive letters and cables which I have to answer that very day. My secretary
usually helps me to type the answers. Twice a week I have a meeting where we discuss
different business questions with our chief manager. Almost every day I have business
interviews, talks or conferences with the representatives of the foreign firms we have done
business with lately. In the afternoon I usually make appointments on the phone with engineers of
the producing enterprises or foreign businessmen for the next day. Sometimes I make business trips
with a view to concluding sales contracts.
- What do you usually do in the evening?
- We generally stay at home and watch TV. Once a week we go to the pictures.
Occasionally we go to a dance.
- Have you been to the theatre this month?
- Yes, we have been to the theatre twice this month.
bedroom - dormitor
to strike (struck, struck) a bate, a suna to get
up (got, got) a se scula
to get into a intra to get to a ajunge la to get
dressed a se mbrca
bathroom camera de baie
to stand (stood, stood) a sta n picioare
sugar-bowl zaharni milkjug can de lapte to shave
a se brbieri plate farfurie
to leave for (left, left) - a pleca lately
n ultimul timp
to do ones hair a-i aranja prul, a se coafa

to turn on (the radio, the tap) a deschide (radioul, robinetul)

to pour some water a turna (ceva) ap
to dry oneself on the towel a se terge cu prosopul to lay
(laid, laid) the table a pune masa
to have breakfast / lunch / dinner a lua micul dejun / prnzul / cina to be in a
hurry a se grbi
to have a chat a sta de vorb
to read up for seminars a se pregti pentru seminarii
to do ones homework a-i face temele to have /
to take a shower a face un du
to conclude a sales contract a ncheia un contract de vnzare-cumprare to make an
appointment a fixa o ntlnire
with a view to (+gerunziu) n vederea, pentru a
(Perfectul Compus)
Perfectul compus se formeaz cu ajutorul verbului to have la prezent i cu participiul
trecut al verbului de conjugat: TO HAVE + V3.

Affirmative Form
I have finished
You have finished
He, she, it has finished

Common Aspect
Negative Form
You have not finished.
He, she, it has not (hasnt)

We have finished You

have finished They
have finished

We have not finished You

have not finished They have
not finished

Have I (not) finished?
(Havent I finished?)
Have you (not) finished?
Has he, she, it (not)
(Hasnt he,she,it
Have we (not) finished?
Have you (not) finished?
Have they (not) finished?

Participiul trecut al verbelor regulate se formeaz din forma scurt a infinitivului, prin adugarea
desinenei ed, dup urmtoarele reguli ortografice:
Spelling Rules
1) Verbele terminate la infinitiv n e
desinenei ed

to live lived
to arrive arrived
to celebrate celebrated

2) Verbele terminate la infinitive n y

precedat de o consoan, schimb y n i

to study studied
to dry dried
to hurry hurried

3) Verbele monosilabice terminate ntr-o

consoan precedat de o vocal scurt
dubleaz consoana final

to stop - stopped

4) Verbele plurisilabice, terminate ntr-o

to pre`fer - preferred
consoan precedat de o vocal i avnd accentual to com`pel - compelled
pe ultima silab, precum i verbele terminate n to `travel - travelled
l, indiferent de accent, dubleaz consoana final

The use of the Present Perfect Tense Common Aspect

1. Present Perfect exprim o aciune
trecut care are legtur cu prezentul.
a) Legtura poate fi temporal: aciunea ncepe
n trecut i continu n present. Momentul
nceperii aciunii se indic prin cuvntul since
(prepoziie, conjuncie, adverb) din, de
cnd. Durata aciunii se red printr-o locuiune
adverbial introdus prin prepoziia for de:
b) Legtura poate fi cauzal: aciunea s-a terminat,
dar urmrile ei continu s existe n present:

I have seen this film.
I have known him for many years.
We have not seen him since Monday.
He has not slept well since that night.

Mary has opened the window. She

has turned on the tap.

2. Present Perfect se refer la o perioad

Have you been to the theatre this month?
de timp nc n curs, ceea ce este indicat
prin adverbele sau locuiunile adverbiale: today,
this week, this summer, this month, lately, of late, She has worked much this week.
this morning, this year, in the last few years.

3. Present Perfect exprim o aciune care

The clock has just struck six.
a avut loc ntr-un trecut foarte apropiat. El este She has already brushed her teeth. He
nsoit atunci de adverbe de timp nedefinit ca: hasnt shaved yet.
often, seldom, ever, never,

just, yet, always, already.


I. Speak about Marys working day according to the plan:

a) What she usually does in the morning (before breakfast).
b) What she generally does at the Academy of Economic Studies. c) What she
usually does after classes and in the evenings.
d) How she spends her time on Sundays.
II. Complete the dialogues using the words in brackets:
When do your classes begin? (8 oclock; generally; in the morning)
How many classes do you have every day? (not more than six; sometimes four)
Do you go straight home after classes? ( not always; the library or the reading- room;
What do you usually do there? ( to read books and magazines; to make notes on; to look
through newspapers)
And when do you usually do your English lessons? (to have got the necessary
books; if; to do ones homework at home)
Do you work in the library till late in the evening? (not to stay; late)
And how do you spend your time in the evening when you are free? (to watch
television; to go to the pictures or to the theatre; to go to see ones friends) Do you go to
bed late? (not very; at about 11; as a rule).
III. Use since or for and translate the sentences into Romanian:
1. I havent seen her Sunday. 2. I havent seen them 1980. 3. We havent seen them
ten years. 4. She has been here morning. 5. We have been here
an hour and a half. 6. He hasnt shaved two days. 7. I have known him
five years.
IV. Insert:
a) the past participle of the regular verbs: to open, to turn, to pour, to brush, to
dry, to shave, to finish, to stay, to watch, to live:
1. He has just the window. 2. She has just on the radio. 3. She has already
her teeth. 4. She has already some water into the glass. 5. We have already
our breakfast. 6. Has she herself on the towel? 7. Has he already ? 8.
Have you at home and a film on TV? 9. They havent in Constantza.

b) the past participle of the irregular verbs: to see, to strike, to get up, to put, to do, to go, to
come, to have, to be, to lay, to stand, to leave: 1. I have this film
on TV. 2. The clock has just seven. 3. George hasnt yet. 4. Have you a sugar-bowl on
the table? 5. Why havent you your hair? 6. Jane has to the students club. 7. Has your
brother home? 8. She has just a cold shower. 9.
Have you to the pictures this week? 10. Who has the table for breakfast? 11.
Who has just at the wash-basin? 12. They have just for their office.
V. Translate into English:
1. Nu v-am vzut de doi ani. Unde ai fost? 2. Cine a deschis robinetul de ap
cald? 3. N-am luat nc micul dejun. 4. Ai terminat micul dejun? Da, mi-a plcut foarte
mult. 5. Ct este ora le dvs.? Ceasul meu a stat. 6. De cnd suntei la Bucureti? Sunt aici
de duminic. 7. De cnd locuiete fratele tu n Bucureti? Din 1974. 8. De cnd avei
televizorul? Numai de dou luni.



Mary is twenty years old. She is a student of the Faculty of the Agrarian Economy and Accounting.
She lives with her parents in Bucharest. Her father is a worker. He works as a welder at a
large plant. Her mother is a weaver at a textile mill. Mary has a
brother. Marys brother, John is a doctor at the Brncovenesc Hospital. He has been working
there since 1979. He has a family of his own: a wife and three
children: two sons and one daughter. Helen, Johns wife, is an assistant-lecturer at the Academy of
Economic Studies.
Marys grand mother and grand father are pensioners. They live in Braov. Their grand sons and
grand daughter often spend their holidays at their grand parents. Marys uncle lives in a
provincial town. He is a miner. His wife is a very kind woman and a good housewife. Jane,
their daughter, is Marys cousin. Marys
great grand mother lives with them.
John: Where do you live?
Peter: I live with my parents and grand parents in Bucharest.
John: Have you got any sisters and brothers?
Peter: Yes, our family is quite a big one: I have three brothers and two sisters who
are twins.
John: Are they older than you?
Peter: I have only one brother who is older than me. The others are all younger.
John: What is your elder brother?
Peter: He is a civil engineer. He lives in Constantza. He is married and has two
children. My sister-in-law is an economist. I can tell you Im very proud of being an uncle. I love
my niece and my nephew very much.
John: Oh, Im sure you do. Do they often come to Bucharest?
Peter: No, they dont. You see, most of our relatives live there my uncles, aunts, and all my

parent printe; tat sau mam
father tat mother
mam welder
sudor weaver
estor son fiu
daughter fiic
great grandparent strbunic sau strbunic
grand mother bunic
grand father bunic
grand daughter nepoat de bunic (bunic)
grand son nepot de bunic (bunic)
housewife gospodin
sister sor
brother frate
cousin vr sau verioar
twins gemeni
civil engineer inginer constructor to
marry a cstori; a se cstori sister-inlaw cumnat
brother-in-law cumnat
uncle unchi
aunt mtu
niece nepoat (de unchi sau mtu)
nephew nepot (de unchi sau mtu)
relative rud
in-laws rude prin alian
bachelor celibatar
spinster celibatar
an only child copil unic
mill uzin, fabric, filatur, moar
Adjectivele i pronumele posesive)
Possessive Adjectives
my meu, mea, mei, mele your
our - nostru, noastr, notri, noastre your
tu, ta, ti, tale
vostru, voastr, votri, voastre
their lor
his lui
her ei
its lui, ei
Possesive Pronouns


mine al meu, a mea, ai mei, ale mele yours

al tu, a ta, ai ti, ale tale
his al lui, a lui, ai lui, ale lui hers
al ei, a ei, ai ei, ale ei
its su, a sa, ai si, ale sale

ours al nostru, a noastr, ai notri, ale noastre

yours al vostru, a voastr, ai votri, ale voastre
theirs al lor, a lor, ai lor, ale lor

Pronumele posesiv nlocuiete att numele obiectului posedat ct i al posesorului.

Pronumele posesive nu determin substantive ca adjectivele posesive, ci le nlocuiesc.
Observai mai jos diferena dintre adjectivul i pronumele posesiv i pronumele personal n cazul
Possessive adjective: Its my car. Possessive
pronoun: Its mine. Personal pronoun: It
belongs to me.
pronumele demonstrative)
de apropiere
de deprtare

Se traduc:
this acest, aceast; acesta, aceasta
that acel, acea; acela, aceea
these aceti, aceste; acetia, acestea
those acei, acele; aceia, acelea
Possessive Adjectives
Where is my book?
She gave me his address.
Our classroom is very nice .
His coat is new.
Her dress is nice.
Our house stands in a quiet street
The room is large. Its walls are white.

Possessive Pronouns
This book is mine.
I have lost my pencil Please, give me
This is not their house, theirs is bigger
than his.
The new coat is his.
This nice dress is hers. This house is
The fault is mine. These
seats are theirs.

Demonstrative Adjectives
This young man is my best friend.
That house is very small.
These pencils are good. Those
flowers are roses.

Demonstrative Pronouns
This is my dictionary and that is hers.
These are his magazines, and those are mine.


perfect continuu)
Se formeaz cu ajutorul verbului TO BE la prezentul perfect i participiul prezent (-ing)
al verbului de conjugat: HAVE (HAS) BEEN + Ving
I have been working / Ive been working
You have been working
He, she, it has been working/Hes been

We have been working

You have been working
They have been working

Have I been working?
Have you been working?
Has he, she, it been working?
Have we been working? Have
you been working? Have they
been working?


Interrogative - Negative

I have not been working / I havent been

You have not been working
He, she, it has not been working
We have not been working You
have not been working They have
not been working

Have I not been working?/ Havent I

Have you not been working?
Has he, she, it not been working?
Have we not been working? Have
you not been working? Have they
not been working?

Prezentul perfect la aspectul continuu se folosete:

1. pentru o aciune care a nceput n trecut i care continu i n present:
Ive been waiting for him for half an hour. (Im still waiting for him)
2. pentru o aciune care a nceput n trecut i care tocmai s-a ncheiat: Im so sorry
Im late. Have you been waiting for me for a long time?


I. Enlarge upon:
a) Your own family.
b) Three relatives. Describe each one to a friend:
- What each relative looks like.
- Where he / she lives and works.
- What his / her interests are.

II. Ask questions to the following sentences, according to the model:

Model: Ive been waiting for you for half an hour. How long have you been waiting for me?
1. He has been teaching French for two years. 2. Ive been writing the letter for an hour. 3.
The children have been playing in the park since they came from
school. 4. She has been working in the garden since 8 oclock. 5. The boys have been fishing
since early in the morning. 6. He has been staying with us for a week. 7. He has been
reading since I have been here. 8. I have been peeling potatoes for twenty minutes now. 9. She
has been teaching at this school for five
III. Write the following sentences in the plural:
1. This is an interesting book. 2. That clock is slow. 3. This little boy is Marys brother. 4. That
young man is a student at the Faculty of Trade. 5. This family is a very big one. 6. That play was
very good, the acting was wonderful indeed! 7.
That is a naughty boy, isnt he? 8. This is the most beautiful crystal glass Ive ever seen. 9. That
dictionary was printed in 1903. 10. This is the ring she lost yesterday.
IV. Replace the underlined words by possessive adjectives:
1.Johns book is on the desk. 2. The childrens toys are neatly arranged on the shelves. 3. My
sisters room is very large and clean. 4. Where are mothers shoes?
5. Our brothers new books are extremely valuable 6. Marys old flat looks quite shabby. 7. The
students copybooks are all on the desks. 8. Your sisters watch is
very nice and keeps good time.
V. Translate into English:
a) 1. Familia lor este foarte numeroas. 2. Casa noastr este situat pe o strad
extrem de linitit. 3. Familia ei locuiete n Bucureti; unde locuiete a ta? 4. Fratele ei mai
mare lucreaz de doi ani la o uzin de tractoare. 5. Inelul lui de logodn este aici; unde este al
tu? 6. Aceast tnr este fata cumnatului vostru, nu-i aa? 7. Acestea sunt darurile de nunt pe
care le-au primit tinerii cstorii de la bunica lor. 8. Aceste verighete sunt pentru nunta lor de
argint. 9. Florile acelea le-am cumprat pentru stbunica mea. 10. Apartamentul acela este nc

Bibiografie selectiv
Banta, Andrei (1991) Essential English, Ed. Teora
De Blij, H.J.; Mueller, Peter O (2002) Geography-realms, regions, and
John Wiley&Sons, Inc.
Clawson, David L; Fisher, James S (1998) World Regional
development approach, Prentice Hall, New Jersey,
Gali, Livia & colaboratorii (1982) Limba Englez pentru nvmntul
superior economic, Ed.Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti - GleanuFrnoag, Georgiana (1993)
Gramatica Limbii Engleze, Ed. Omegapress, Bucureti - Hulban,
Horia &
Exerciii i teste de limba englez, Ed. tiinific i Enciclopedic,
Bucureti - Levichi, Leon (1971)
Gramatica Limbii Engleze, Ed. Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti Nicolescu, Adrian & colaboratorii (1980)
Culegere de texte pentru cursul practic de limba englez pentru secia
geografie- geologie, Tipografia Universitii din Bucureti - Quirk,
Randolph; Greenbaum; S; Leech, G; Svartvik, J (1972)
A Grammar of Contemporary English, Longman,
(1970) - Dicionar polyglot economic i de comer exterior, Ed. tiinific,
- Institutul de Lingvistic
Dicionar Englez-Romn, Ed. Academiei Republicii Socialiste Romnia,
Speak English Nr. 1- 7/1990; 1-7/1991