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Professional Engineering Review Examination Session 4: Concrete Analysis and Design By: Joseph M. Bracci, Ph.D., P.E. Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering Texas A&M University Concrete Mixing (a) Types of Concrete (Portland Cement, PC): - Type |: - Type ll: - Type Ill: - Type IV: - Type V: Normal PC - General Purpose Modified PC - Moderate sulfate resistance, used in hot weather for large structures High Early Strength Low Heat - for large structures Sulfate Resistant (b) Proportioning Concrete - Designated as a ratio of cement : fine aggr. : coarse aggr. (ie, 1:2:3) - Ratios can be in terms of weight or volume - Amount of water is usually quantified in terms of gallons of water per 94 Ib. sack of concrete (or water-cement ratio) In-Place Volume (Absolute Volume Method) Amount of Concrete = Sum of the solid volumes of cement, sand, coarse aggregates, and water. Typical Specific Weights: cement - 195 pcf; fine aggregates - 165 pcf; coarse aggregates - 165 pcf; water - 62.4 pcf 1 cement sack weighs 94 pounds. 7.48 gallons = 1 cf valume (or 239.7 gal = 1 ton of water) Air Entrainment: The yield is increased by additional air. Therefore divide the solid yield by (1 - air %). Water content in aggregate above saturated surface dry (SSD) water content must be subtracted from the water required. Water content below the SSD water content must be acded to the water required. Densities should be the SSD densities. Example 14.1 A mix is designed as 1:1.9:2.8 by weight. The water- cement ratio is 7 gallons of water per sack of cement. (a) What is the concrete yield in cubic feet per sack of cement? (b) How much of each constituent is needed to make 45 cubic yards of concrete? (a) The solution can be tabulated as follows: weight absolute per sack solid volume material ratio cement density (ft?/sack) cement 10 1x94= 94 195 94/195 = 0.48 sand 19 19x94=179 165 179/165 = 1.08 coarse 2.8 2.8x94=263 165 263/165 = 1.60 water 7/7.48 = 0.94 4.10 The yield is 4.1 cubic feet of concrete per sack cement. (b) The number of one-sack batches is (45) ye9(27) f° /yd® = 296.3 sack: 297)4 (4.1) ft? /sack sacks (say 297) Order 297 sacks of cement. (297)(1.9)(94) 2000 (297) (2.8) (94) 2000 (297)(7) = 2079 gallons of water = 26.5 tons of sand = 39.1 tons of coarse aggregate Example 14.2 50 cubic feet of 1:23:4 (by weight) concrete are to be produced. The constituents have the following proper- ties: moisture SSD density (dry basis constituent (pcf) from SSD) cement 197 - sand 164 5% excess coarse aggregate 168 2% deficit What are the required order quantities if the design calls for 5.5 gallons of water per sack and 6% entrained air? weight per sack SSD absolute constituent ratio cement density volume cement 1.0 94 197 0.477 sand 2.5 235 164 1.433 coarse 4.0 376 168 2.238 water 5.5/7.48 = 0.735 4.883 ft?/sack The yield with 6% air is 4.883 By =e 5.19 fl" /sack The number of one sack batches is 50 5.19 = 9.63 (In practice, this would be rounded up.) The required sand weight (ordered as is, not SSD) is (9.63)(1.05)(94)(2.5) = 1.19 tons 2000 The required coarse aggregate weight (ordered as is, not SSD) is (9.63)(0.98)(94)(4) 2000 = 1.77tons The excess water contained in the sand is 0.05 (1.19) Tos (239.7) gal/ton = 13.58 gallons The water needed to bring the coarse aggregate to SSD conditions is (1.77) (S35 =) (239.7) gal/ton = 8.66 gallons 8 The total water needed is (5.5)(9.63) + 8.66 — 13.58 = 48.0 gallons a Properties Of Concrete (a) Slump: Measure of concrete plasticity Typically 1” - 4” (b) Compressive Strength (f,’): | Cylinder tests {,.. = 2000 psi - 8000 psi (normal concrete) {,, = 8000 psi - 25000 psi (high strength concrete) (c) Tensile Strength: Typically (7% - 10%) f,” Normally found from split or rupture tests Rupture modulus = 7.5 ee (f.’ in psi) (ACI for cracking strength) (da) Shear Strength: Typically (16% - 25%) f,’ Ve = 2 Jf? bd (ACI 11.3.1.1) (f, in psi) (e) Density (specific weight): Normal reinforced concrete ~ 150 pcf Lightweight concrete ~ 120 pcf (f) Modulus of Elasticity (secant stiffness): Ec = w'® (33) Jf, = 57,000 Jf (f,’ in psi) Al (g) Concrete Compressive Stress vs. Strain Behavior: Initial Stiffness fec’ yi fc’ | / Uncontined 0.002 0.003 Strain Stress , €/ Properties Of Steel (Rebar) (a) Yield Strength ---> Grade of Steel (40 ksi or 60 ksi) Initial Stiffness = 29000 ksi Stress fy = 60 ksi / fy = 40 ksi / Strain Pl (b) ASTM Standard Rebar Properties ASTM Standard Reinforcing Bars weight diameter area perimeter size (Ib/ft) (in) (in?) (in) #2 0.167 0.250 0.05 0.786 #3 0.376 0.11 1.178 #4 0.668 0.20 1.571 #5 1.043 0.31 1.963 #6 1.502 0.44 2.356 7 2.044 0.60 2.749 #8 2.670 0.79 3.142 #9 3.400 1.cO 3.544 #10 4.303 3.990 #11 5.313 4.430 #14 7.65 5 5.32 #18 13.60 4.00 7.09 S/ Ultimate Strength Design -Actual loads are multiplied by load factors, « , and compared with loads that would cause failure! -The ultimate strength is also multiplied by a capacity reduction factor, , to account for workmanship and material understrength. -dMn=0,;Mp + a;M, +... I Strength Reduction Factors (ACI 9.3) Type of Stress o _ ___Flexure __ 0.90 7 Axial Tension | 0.90 Shear/Torsion 0.85 ___Axial Compress w/ spirals Eee O75) Axial Compress w/ ties 0.70 Bearing 0.70 Unreinforced 0.65 Required Strengths (ACI 9.2) 14D447L 0.75 (1.4D4+1.7L+1.7W) 0.9D+1.3W 1.05 D+ 1.28L+140E 0.9D+1.43E cccce Houow tou LI Beams in Bending Assumptions: (i) Plane sections remain plane (linear ¢ diagram) (ii) Perfect bond between rebar and concrete (iii) o=Ee when the stresses are below cracking (iV) Neglect concrete in tension beyond cracking Loading Stages: (i) Uncracked section up to cracking (Merack) (ii) Cracked section beyond cracking (Myjeia) (iii) Ultimate strength (Mur) g/ Stage 1: Uncracked Section 5 fey / kc, / Es = Ecs f : eA Ts ° foo Te /¢—_—_—- Strain Stress — €s = E¢s fg Es = fos / Eo ==> pen te foo =M Yo / Ig Se veer lo! Ye b/ where f, = 7.5\/ f , | Rupture Modulus (f, in psi) Ig Yb gross moment of inertia, neglecting rebar distance from NA to extreme tension fiber (h / 2) Stage 2: Cracked Section £ fo , / / x/3 t C d / ] e / id / \es=t fe T ZI : ; a Strain Stress Force 1. Equilibrium: C,=T f;bx/2 = Ajf, ==> f, = f,bx/(2 As) 2. Compatibility: €, / (d-x) = € /x of 1% 3. Constitutive Law (Hooke’s): f= Es €s & fp = Ey, & 4. Substitute 2 into 3 into 1: x + 2nA,x/b- 2nA,d/b = 0 5. Let p = A, / (bd) k,=x/d 6. Therefore depth to neutral axis, ' ke =) (on)* + @pn) = (on) Ze 7. Cracked moment of Inertia: x = kad lo = bx°/3 = nA, (d-x)? 8. Yield Moment: My =Asfyid =Asfy dE 1-(ke/3)] ec Stage 3: Ultimate Strength 0.003 0.85f, al2 <= 7; C, id a a Strain Stress Force * Use Whitney Stress Block Assumptions and Assume Steel Yields 1. Equilibrium: Co=T=Asg fy as a =A, fy/ (0.85 f, b) Pe 3. or k =A, f,/ (0.85 f, bd) 4. Ultimate Moment: Mur =Ag fyjd =As fy d[1-(k /2)] Typical Moment -vs- Curvature Response Moment Ely a Ultimate | Yielding / Cracking Curvature ay Se Analysis of Singly Reinforced Rectangular Beams Given: b, d, As, f,’, fy Take: Es = 29000 ksi Assume Rebar Yields ==> fs = fy Calculate k = As fy/ (0.85 f,’ b d) Check k min = 200/( 0.85 f,’ ) { QZ No Yes Is k > kmin secennteguie) Increase p | {4000 < f,’ < 8000 | Calculate kya = By Section Inadequate, Enlarge Section B, = 0.85 - 0.05 ( fy’ - 4000) / 1000 {0.65 < 8, < 0.85} (87000) / (87000 + fy) | Mn = Astyd(1- k/2) | Lt (ii) (iii). (iv). (v). Design of Singly Reinforced Rectangular Beams OMn = Mdemand (ie, 1-4 Mp. +1.7 Mit), © bending = 0.90 k <0.75k 4 , This ensures a ductile failure. Select h based on deflection requirement from Table 9.5a (ACI) Choose fc’, fy, b, and As Choose b:h ~ (1:1.5 to1:2) 8T Minimum Beam Width and Number of Bars per Layer add for size number of bars in single layer each of of reinforcement added bars 3 4 5 6 7 8 bar #4 61 76 9.1 10.6 12.1 136 15.1 1.50 #5 63 79 96 11.2 128 M4 16.1 1.63 #6 65 83 100 11.8 13.5 153 17.0 1.75 #7 6.7 86 10.5 124 14.2 16.1 18.0 1.88 #8 69 89 109 12.9 14.9 169 189 2.00 #9 #73 9<5 118 14.0 16.3 18.6 20.8 2.26 #10 «7.7 10.2 12.8 15.3 17.8 20.4 22.9 2.54 #11 8.0 10.8 13.7 16.5 19.3 22.1 24.9 2.82 #14 8.9 123 15.6 19.0 22.4 25.8 29.2 3.39 #18 10.5 15.0 19.5 24.0 28.6 33.1 37.6 4.51 bv